Isaac Newton’s Works
Sorted by date
Pierpont Morgan Notebook
'Quæstiones quædam Philosophiæ' ('Certain Philosophical Questions')
Trinity College Notebook
Newton's Waste Book
Notebook containing notes and experimental reports
Method of Curves and Infinite Series, and application to the Geometry of Curves
The Lawes of Motion
De Solutione Problematum per Motum
The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions
Transcript of 'Sr George Ripley His Epistle to K Edward unfolded'
Letter from Newton to a friend, together with Collins's description of a telescope mentioned in the Newton letter
Letter from Newton to Francis Aston, dated 18 May 1669
De Analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas
Two incomplete treatises on the vegetative growth of metals and minerals
Exposition of 2 Kings 17:15-16
Part of an exposition of 2 Kings, 17:15-16
Notes from Petavius on the Nicene Council
'Verses at the end of B[asil] Valentine's mystery of the Microcosm'
Exposition of 2 Kings 17:15-16
Untitled treatise on Revelation
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 19 January 1669/70
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 6 February 1669/70
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 18 February 1669/70
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 11 July 1670
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 16 July 1670
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 27 September 1670
Unpublished Appendix to 'methodus': Problem IX
Letter to Henry Oldenburg, 16 March 1671
Letter to Henry Oldenburg, 19 March 1671
Draft response from Newton to John Collins's letter of 5 July 1671
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 20 July 1671
Newton's figure of his reflecting telescope with explanations
Note about his reflecting telescope
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 6 January 1671/2
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 18 January 1671/2
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 29 January 1671/2
Draft of 'A Theory Concerning Light and Colors'
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 10 February 1671/2
A Letter of Mr. Isaac Newton … containing his New Theory about Light and Colors
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 20 February 1671/2
An Extract of a Letter, received very lately, (March 19th) from the Inventor of this new Telescope, from Cambridge
An Accompt of a New Catadioptrical Telescope invented by Mr. Newton
Copy of a letter to John Collins, dated 9 April 1672
Letter to Henry Oldenburg, dated 13 April 1672
An Extract of another Letter … by way of an answer to some Objections, made by an Ingenious French Philosopher [Adrien Auzout] to the New Reflecting Telescope
Mr. Newton's Letter … containing some more suggestions about his New Telescope
The Observations, made upon these proposals [of Robert Moray]
Mr. Isaac Newton's Considerations upon part of a Letter of Monsieur De Bercé
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 25 May 1672
Letter to to Henry Oldenburg for Ignatius-Gaston Pardies, dated 10 June 1672
Letter to Henry Oldenburg, dated 11 June 1672
Mr Newtons Letter of April 13. 1672 … being an Answer to the fore-going Letter of P. Pardies
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 19 June 1672
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, 6 July 1672
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 8 July 1672
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 13 July 1672
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 13 July 1672
A Serie's of Quere's propounded by Mr. Isaac Newton … positively concluding his new Theory of Light and Colours
Mr. Newton's Answer to the foregoing Letter [of Ignace Pardies]
Letter to to Henry Oldenburg, dated 30 July 1672
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 30 July 1672
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 20 August 1672
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 21 September 1672
Mr Isaac Newtons Answer to some Considerations [of Robert Hooke] upon his doctrine of Light and Colors
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 10 December 1672
Copy of an extract from Newton to John Collins, dated 10 December 1672
Copy of an extract of a letter to John Collins, dated 10 December 1672
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 8 March 1672/3
Letter from Newton (probably to Henry Oldenburg), dated 3 April 1673
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 9 April 1673
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 20 May 1673
Answer to Huygens' critique of Newton's new theory of light and colours, dated 10 June 1673
Mr. Newtons Answer to the foregoing Letter [of Christiaan Huygens]
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 17 September 1673
An Extract of Mr Isaac Newton's Letter … concerning the Number of Colors
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 20 June 1674
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 17 November 1674
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 5 December 1674
An Answer to this Letter [of Francis Linus], written 5 December 1674
Hypothesis explaining the properties of light
Draft of the 'Hypothesis Concerning Light and Colors'
Draft of the 'Discourse concerning Light and Colors'
Fragment on Church history, mainly concerning Athanasius
Draft of the 'Discourse Concerning Light and Colors'
Draft of the 'Discourse Concerning Light and Colors'
Fragments on the kingdoms of the European tribes, the Temple and the history of Jewish and Christian Churches
'Tuba Quarta' ('The Fourth Trumpet')
Copy letter from Newton to John Smith, dated 24 July 1675
Letter from Newton [to John Smith?], dated 27 August 1675
Response to Linus's second letter concerning Newton's new theory of light and colours, dated 13 November 1675
Letter to Oldenburg concerning Thomas Mace's Otocousticon, dated 30 November 1675
Draft Versions of 'The Queries'
Covering letter to the Hypothesis, Dec. 7 1675
Fragments on Optics
On the Refraction Observed in Iceland Spar
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 14 December 1675
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 21 December 1675
Various texts on Revelation, Solomon's Temple and Church history.
Draft letter from Newton to John Wallis containing typographical corrections
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 10 January 1675/6
Copy of a letter from Newton to Michael Dary, dated 22 January 1675/6
Mr. Isaac Newton's Considerations on the former Reply [of Francis Linus]
An extract of another Letter of Mr. Newton
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 25 January 1675/6
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 15 February 1675/6
Letter to Oldenburg answering Linus's second letter on Newton's new doctrine of light and colour
A particular Answer of Mr. Isaak Newton to Mr. Linus his Letter
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 26 April 1676
Letter to Oldenburg on his experiments to show colour and light
Copy of a letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 13 June 1676
Copy of letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 13 June 1676
Copy of a letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 13 June 1676
Copy of a letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 13 June 1676
Letter to Oldenburg on the lengths and angles of prism images, dated 18 August 1676
Letter to Oldenburg on delays conducting experiments
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 5 September 1676
Mr Newton's Answer to the precedent Letter
Copies of Letters from Isaac Newton to Henry Oldenburg
Copy of a Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 24 October 1676
Letter from Isaac Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 24 October 1676
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 24 October 1676
Letter from Isaac Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 26 October 1676
Letter from Newton to John Collins, dated 8 November 1676
Letter from Newton to Henry Oldenburg, dated 18 November 1676
Treatise on Church history
Notes evidently on Newton's own laboratory experiments
Letter from Newton to Robert Boyle, dated 28 February 1678/9
Twelve small bundles of alchemical notes and extracts from a very wide range of sources.
Three bundles of notes for a work on the ancients' physico-theology, related to 'Theologiæ Gentilis Origines Philosophicæ'
Prophesies concerning Christs 2d coming
'Proœmium' and first chapter of a treatise on Church history
Notes on Greek, Roman and Egyptian deities
Notes and extracts on interpreting the prophets (c. 1670s-90s).
Correspondence with Thomas Burnet
Copy letter from Isaac Newton to Thomas Burnet
Treatise on Revelation
Three lists of alchemical writers and works, partly on the reverse of Mint-related material
Notes on ancient history and mythology
Rough draft portions of and notes for 'Theologiæ Gentilis Origines Philosophicæ' and 'The Original of Monarchies'
Two incomplete treatises on prophecy
Newton's Demonstration that planets move in ellipses
'De motu corporum in gyrum'
'De motu sphæricorum corporum in fluidis'
'De motu corporum in mediis regulariter cedentibus'
De Gravitatione et æquipondio fluidorum
Copies of second and third 'professions of faith' by early Church Councils
Letter to Edmund Halley on the doctrine of projectiles and motions of the heavens
Letter to Edmund Halley on work on ellipses and the descent of falling bodies
Letter to Edmund Halley about Newton's correspondence with Huygens on vis centrifuga
Letter to Edmund Halley on changes to the Principia
An Account of the Systeme of the World described in Mr Newton's Mathematicall Principles of Philosophy
De motu Corporum Liber Secundus
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. (London: 1687)
Letter to Edmund Halley on corrections to the Principia
Letter to Edmund Halley on the sun's parallax to the moon and other matters
Notes upon ye dispensing power
Documents relating to Newton's preparation for appearance before Judge Jeffreys
Five drafts of a defence of the Senate's position in the Alban Francis affair
'Paradoxical Questions concerning the morals & actions of Athanasius & his followers'
Various drafts and copies of the Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture and related material.
'Paradoxical Questions concerning the morals & actions of Athanasius & his followers'
Notes from Ralph Cudworth on Plutarch and the 'Persian or Zoroastrian trinity'
Draft chapters of a treatise on the origin of religion and its corruption
'The Case of Kings College'
Notes on the Temple of Solomon and a tabular comparison of measurement systems
Prolegomena ad lexici prophetici partem secundam in quibus agitur De forma sanctuarij Iudaici
Draft notes on Athanasian doctrines
Original letter from Isaac Newton to Richard Bentley, dated 10 December 1692
'Variantes Lectiones Apocalypticæ'
Fragment on the history of apostasy
Original letter from Isaac Newton to Richard Bentley, dated 17 January 1692/3
Original letter from Isaac Newton to Richard Bentley, dated 11 February 1692/3
Original letter from Isaac Newton to Richard Bentley
Papers relating to chronology and 'Theologiæ Gentilis Origines Philosophicæ'
'Of ye first Gate'
Draft letter from Newton to John Wallis concerning the publication of his 'Epistola posterior'
Draft Letter from Newton to John Wallis, c. July 1695
Holograph accounts of three successful trials of counterfeiters, adduced as precedents to show that such crimes could be prosecuted long after they were committed, and could be accounted high treason.
Certificate exempting Christopher Priddeth, by virtue of his position as Mint clerk, from civic duties and taxation.
Miscellaneous notes on history, chronology and theology, preceded by a draft letter to 'Io. Lacy'
An account of the vicissitudes of pursuing coinage offenders.
'The State of the Mint'.
Holograph draft warrants to the keepers of the relevant prisons.
De Trigonometriâ Sphæricâ Rectangulâ
'An Account of the Mint in the Tower of London'.
'Observations concerning the Mint'.
Letter to Charles Montagu describing the solution to the mathematical problems proposed by John Bernoulli
Letter from Newton to Edmund Halley, dated 11 February 1696/7
Order of the Commons Committee on the Miscarriages of the Mint (forwarded to Newton by the Committee's chairman, Arnold) for [William] Chaloner [Challoner]to demonstrate before them his method of making guineas.
Letter from Newton to Edmund Halley, dated 14 March 1696/7
Petition of Francis Moore to the Treasury for a share of the estate of the convicted counterfeiter William Hawkins (executed on 26 July), as a reward for ascertaining the extent of this estate.
Detailed list of grievances against Lord Lucas (Lieutenant of the Tower) and his staff.
Documents relating to the Chaloner case.
Slightly shorter holograph draft of MINT00847 (I.503).
Holograph summary of the submissions put to a committee examining Chaloner's case.
Rougher holograph draft of MINT00845(b) (I.497v-498).
Covering letter for a formulaic statement of accounts for each mint to complete prior to its being closed down [April - September 1698].
Proposals concerning calendar reform
'Chaloner's Case'. A history of Chaloner's crimes since 1690, largely summarising the confessions of other coiners.
Holograph draft lists of editorial amendments to be made to a report on Chaloner.
Response to the above petitions.
Laudatory account of the services of the late comptroller James Hoare during the recoinage.
Assessment of moneyers' bills for equipping country mints and other expenses, recommending several reductions in the total submitted.
Detailed holograph note of money received by Newton from the Treasury towards the prosecution of coinage offenders 5 September 1696 - 12 June 1699, and of related expenses from 3 August 1696.
On a request from the East India Company to be supplied with two mills and two presses for Fort St. George [in Madras].
Holograph notes on the denominations, fineness and weight of various foreign coins, with a letter to Catherine Barton dated 5 August 1700 on the reverse.
Twenty-three queries about the word ὁμοούσιος
Fragmentary holograph notes on whether the coins should be received in London or Port Mahon [in Minorca].
Holograph memorandum on engraver [Henry] Harris's complete incompetence: 'Mr Harris cannot emboss nor punch, nor draw'. He has employed John Croker to do all this for him, and moreover has failed to remunerate Croker as promised.
Untitled holograph draft memorandum on John Pollexfen's A Discourse of Trade, Coyn and Paper Credit [1697, reprinted 1700].
£2,000 had been the customary security for the mastership until the previous incumbent, Thomas Neale, gave £15,000 to allay doubts raised by his somewhat dubious financial history.
Concerning experiments to show heat
Drafts of the 'Short Chronicle' and 'Original of Monarchies'
'The synchronisms of the three parts of the prophetick Interpretation'
Miscellaneous drafts and fragments on prophecy
Notes on prophecies
'The Original of Monarchies'
Recommendations regarding currency control.
Discussion of standards by which to gauge the value of gold coin (specifically pistoles).
Observations of the sun and moon at the spring equinox
Response to a further proposal by the Irish Chancellor for a Dublin Mint.
Covering letter for MINT00159 (I.228-9).
'Directions about the Triall of the monies of Gold & Silver in the Pix'.
Recommends Hopton Haynes for the post of weigher and teller, giving an account of his previous employment at the Mint (as a clerk) and elsewhere.
Further to a petition from probationer engraver [Samuel] Bull, recommend raising his salary from £50 to £60 p.a. plus piece work.
The £60 p.a. allowed for a master's assay master (as distinct from the royal assay master) has for a long time been paid to the deputy master, who has authority to examine the work of the royal assay master.
Royal warrant authorising Newton to continue to act under the indenture of 23 December 1700 after William III's death, pending formulation of a new indenture.
Requests orders to coin Coronation medals and offers suggestions about the quality of metals to be used.
Expenses on Queen Anne Coronation medals [the last batch of which was ordered on 2 June 1702] amount to £2,485.18s.3 1/2 d.
Response to a petition from Anthony Redhead [former master of the Norwich Mint] against unjust and over-long imprisonment.
Response to Leonard Blofield's petition for £2,497.16s.3d. allegedly owed him by Anthony Redhead on behalf of the Norwich Mint.
Draft of royal warrant to coin Vigo booty, with the inscription 'VIGO' on all coins.
Response to a petition from Abel Slaney and partners to coin a further 700 tons of halfpence and farthings.
The Mint has room to store over 2,000 tons of tin without interfering with coinage work
Holograph draft report on the staff and equipment necessary for the Mint to take charge of storing and selling tin on behalf of the Crown.
Draft Versions of 'The Queries'
Incomplete copy of de Quadratura Curvarum
Opticks: Or, A treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. Also Two treatises of the Species and Magnitude of Curvilinear Figures (London: 1704)
Proposes himself as the receiver to administer the Queen's tin.
Tractatui de Quadratura Curvarum praemittatur haec admonitio
Report on a proposal by one White for gluing duty marks onto paper rather than impressing it [to certify that the recently-imposed tax on paper for parchments and deeds had been paid].
Brief letter concerning the 'perusal' and possible purchase, apparently on Newton's behalf, of some Italian coins from an unspecified 'gentleman'.
Response to the applications at MINT00062 (I.140-45) and others.
'A Proposal for regulating the Gravers Office'.
Oppose [Gabriel] le Clerk's petition to succeed Harris as engraver: would like to take him on as third engraver under Croker and Bull, but not until summer 1705, due to the cost of repairs occasioned by last year's storms [see MINT00063 (I.170-71)].
Reply to a query about the engravers' patent.
Submits his design for a medal [to commemorate the proclamation of Queen Anne's Bounty, a series of measures to relieve impoverished clergy]. Suggests that in future he be given authority to approve medal designs himself, to save the Treasury time.
'The Question stated about abstaining from blood'
Holograph draft memorandum on the Queen's trade in tin, predicting a loss to the Crown of over quarter of a million pounds by the end of a seven-year contract with the Cornish tin mines.
On arrangements for transporting tin to Portsmouth prior to export.
Optice: Sive De Reflexionibus, Refractionibus, Inflexionibus & Coloribus Lucis. Libri Tres (London: 1706)
Holograph memorandum on Newton's design for a Union medal, with a detailed explanation of its symbolism.
The articles ordered for the Edinburgh Mint have been embarked, all except the weights and seals, as authorisation to mark the weights has not yet been given: request for such authorisation.
If pyx trials are to continue to be conducted in Scotland as the Lord Chancellor of Scotland wishes, new gold and silver trial pieces should be made and allotted to the English and Scottish Mints and Treasuries and to the Goldsmith's Company.
Requests a warrant for check weights to be made in London and sent to Edinburgh.
Order to convene a jury for the forthcoming pyx trial [28 July 1707].
The house of the surveyor of meltings is beyond repair.
On equipment still needed by the Edinburgh Mint, especially crown and half-crown puncheons, which are to be sent overland as this is the quickest way.
As the English recoinage was 'troublesome expensive and liable to abuse & gross abuses were actually committed in it', recommends various procedures to avoid a recurrence in Scotland. Possibly in reply to MINT00374 (III.110).
Encloses a list [MINT00375 (III.111)] of items needed to begin work at the Edinburgh Mint, especially puncheons for crowns and half-crowns, which are to be coined first.
Petition for recovery of income lost and expenses incurred through the reorganisation of the Edinburgh Mint.
An increase in fineness of silver in the course of melting has been detected: sends samples to demonstrate and requests advice on what to do about it. Some puncheons and other equipment ordered from London have still not arrived.
Model letter for Allardes to send to Treasurer Godolphin.
In response to Allardes' proposal, recommends that for the duration of the recoinage the Scots be allowed to revert to their old practice [adding copper during melting] as this seems to be the only practicable method of producing standard coin there.
Detailed instructions on melting and description of London practice.
Request for advice on various aspects of Mint practice.
In response to queries from Allardes [MINT00391 (III.119), in fact drafted by Newton himself], the Mint approve the proposed allowances.
Report on the Edinburgh Mint's financial difficulties.
Report on a new design of furnace in Cornwall for melting tin.
Proposed measures to be taken in the wake of Daniel Stewart's recent death. Presumably a variant of MINT00402 (III.131).
The Earl of Derby [Governor of the Isle of Man] has asked for Manx currency to be coined in the Mint: Mint disapprove of coining foreign money, but see no objection to allowing the moneyers and engravers to make medals for him.
Proposals for sorting out the Edinburgh Mint's finances.
The continued refusal of Stewart's executors to hand over money owed to the Edinburgh Mint has left them unable to carry on their business. Begs Newton to sort the mess out: 'All the officers of the Mint depend very much upon you in this matter'.
Clarification of Millar's duties as assistant to the commissioners: encloses a copy of his petition [MINT00411 (III.194)]. Recoinage is proceeding satisfactorily.
Recommend the commissioners for coinage in Scotland be paid a total of £700 between them.
Expanded Latin translation of the first part of 'Two Notable Corruptions'
Correspondence relating to Edinburgh Mint funding.
Covering letter for a 'Memoriall' relating to various difficulties [MINT00419 (III.177)].
'Memoriall from George Allardes Master of Her Majties Mint att Edinburgh to the honorable Sir Isaac Newton'.
Asks permission for the London moneyers to go home as the recoinage is finished.
Recommendations for sorting out the Edinburgh Mint's expenses.
Letter concerning the Edinburgh Mint
Deplores the Edinburgh Mint's non-payment of fees and salaries and asks Newton's advice as to how this can be remedied.
Correspondence relating to the tin trade
Drafts on the history of the Church
Draft notes on early Church rites and the Creed
Fragments on miscellaneous theological subjects
De natura acidorum
Reports the East India Company's offer to take a hundred tons of tin in lieu of money owed it by the Treasury for saltpetre.
Fragmentary draft on the chief rulers of ancient synagogues
Edinburgh Mint officers summoned by Council order to the pyx trial in London cannot be excused except by the Council itself, which Newton thinks unlikely.
Personal recommendation of deputy Edinburgh master Patrick Scott.
Memorandum by Newton: 'Of the assaying of Gold and Silver, the making of indented Triall-pieces and trying the moneys in the Pix'.
Complaint about trial plates.
Report on two coinage offenders.
Response to a proposal by one Mr Palmer to coin 700 tons of copper.
Three paragraphs on religion, with drafts
'A short Schem of the true Religion'
Draft passages on chronology and biblical history
'Irenicum, or Ecclesiastical Polyty tending to Peace'
Twelve articles on religion
Seven Statements on Religion
Copy of royal warrant to the Mint to receive plate at premium rates as specified in the Parliamentary ruling of 1 May 1711, issue receipts for it, and melt it at once into shillings and sixpences to be paid into the Exchequer.
'About' £39,281 worth of plate was received on 11, 12 and 14 May combined, besides some £6,000 worth yet to be assessed.
On the value of Mexican, Peruvian and Seville coins.
More detailed account of the value of Mexican and Seville coins taking wear into account.
In view of the non-acceptability of Mint receipts post-14 May for the public loan [see MINT00548 (II.543)], what provision is to be made for the vendors?
Holograph draft memorandum on disputes between Newton and the warden [Craven Peyton], particularly the warden's opposition to Newton's proposal to pay vendors of plate 5s. per ounce on account [see MINT00558 (II.539-40)].
Holograph draft of a royal warrant authorising payment of the balance.
Correspondence relating to Spanish coinage.
Application to appoint a new smith.
Covering letter for a Mint report on a further petition from Cornwall for a renewal of the tin contract, and for 'a further Report upon the present state of the Tin', probably meaning the following entry.
Valuation of another three two-real pieces and new estimate of the total amount to be produced by the reminting as 4,189,000 two-real pieces.
Holograph draft memorandum giving a detailed list of measures to be taken to supervise the reminting in Spain, assess the quality of the resulting coin and organise finances.
Report on foreign coin in Ireland, with Newton's comments on it.
Two reports on foreign coin in Ireland.
Refers MINT00501 (II.232-3) to the Mint and orders a report on it.
Identical proposal to take on Beresford as apprentice.
Copy of a letter to John Flamsteed from a committee of the Royal Society
Corrected account of the total bullion brought into the Scottish Mint during the recoinage, with a covering letter containing apologies for errors in the previous account and a repeated enquiry about the allowance for waste.
Variant holograph draft of MINT00314 (II.172).
Draft A of the 'Scholium Generale'
Note on the Leibniz Controversy
Notes on the Newton/Cotes correspondence of 1710
Draft D of the 'Scholium Generale'
'Considerations about the Coynage of Copper Moneys'.
Notes on the Leibniz Controversy
Further Notes on the Leibniz Controversy
Draft E of the 'Scholium Generale'
Draft C of the 'Scholium Generale'
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. (Cambridge: 1713)
Draft B of the 'Scholium Generale'
Newton's draft response to the 'charta volans' of 29 July 1713
Additional notes on the Leibniz Controversy
Reply to his query about the permissible level of wastage in melting.
Response to John Pery's [Perry's] application to coin copper.
Reply to MINT00452 (I.181-2).
Report on Robert Weddell's expense claim of £467.15s.2d. for prosecuting coinage offenders from May 1711 to Christmas 1712, which the Mint consider reasonable given his success rate.
Promises his vote for the presidency at next week's Royal Society election to Newton, whom he would make 'Perpetual Dictator' of the Society, and asking Newton how he should vote for the councillors and officers.
Three partial holograph drafts similar to MINT00457 (III.56) but suggesting a compromise Newton has proposed to the Treasury, raising the Edinburgh Mint's allowance to £1,450 p.a.
Response to MINT00454 (III.23-8).
Submits designs for reverses of half-guineas and sixpences.
Further to an oral enquiry, explains the hammer test of copper and gives a detailed account of the costs involved in coining.
Report on copper coinage.
Estimates the lowest possible cost of coining farthings as 1s.9 1/2 d. per pound weight. He and another mill owner, Essington, are considering putting in a joint tender.
An account of experimental coinage of halfpence from bars: the coins have proved substandard. Suspects tin has been added by the melter contrary to instructions. Repeats request for money to repair and equip the Irish Mint [see MINT00611 (II.305)].
Newton's transcription of a letter from Leibniz, c. May 1714
Letter from Newton to Edmund Halley, dated 27 May 1714
Letter to Louis d'Aumont, dated 3 June 1714
Referral of the above.
Requests orders to draft new designs for coins as soon as the King's coat of arms has been decided on.
As requested, presents his six proposed mottoes, and descriptions of six proposed emblems, for the reverse of the Coronation Medal.
Report on copper coinage techniques.
Reply to a Treasury enquiry about copper coinage techniques.
Response to the petition of the former Edinburgh bullion clerk William Hamilton, referred by the Treasury to the London Mint.
Complaint about encroachments on Mint jurisdiction.
'An Account of the Tin remaining unsold in the Tower, in Holland, & at Hamburgh, Octob. 25. 1715', with an appended note, presumably to the Treasury, dated 26 October.
Variant draft of MINT00140 (I.325), with a table of income and expenditure over five years (1711-15).
Request for an increase in Mint funding.
Report on samples of ore sent to the Mint by Townshend for testing: it is rich in silver, but Newton does not know where it comes from.
Detailed technical instructions to be given to Brandshagen and Hamilton for inspecting the mine at Alva: they should be assisted by an Edinburgh Mint officer.
Passes on a report he has received about the vein of silver ore in Alva and gives advice on conducting the inspection.
Suggests various means by which Brandshagen and his party could save time and money in their investigation.
Complaint about encroachments on Mint property.
Table of gold and silver coined 1696-1717.
In response to a verbal order, a detailed account of Newton's proposed method of coining copper from rolled bars, the requisite staff and their respective duties.
Two holograph drafts of a report on Brandshagen's and the Hamiltons' expense claims, specifying which of the expenses Newton considers justified.
Partial holograph draft of MINT00643 (II.319).
Recommend accepting Henry Hines' tender to supply copper.
Protest against preferential treatment for the Edinburgh Mint.
Warrant to lend Hines a cutter for use on copper bars.
Royal warrant to Newton to buy and coin copper in quantities fixed by the Treasury.
Table of coinage 1702-17, obviously connected and probably sent with MINT00575 (II.245).
Reply to an order for an account of gold and silver coined since Christmas 1702.
Conveys an order from the King to calculate the value of other English gold coins in proportion to the 21s. guinea, preparatory to the devaluation of the guinea from 21s.6d.
High praise of MINT00322 (II.111-16) following its publication in the previous day's Daily Courant, though with certain reservations about the risk of a drain on gold reserves following the devaluation.
Draft Letter from Newton Concerning Treasury Business
Opticks: Or, A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light. The Second Edition, with Additions (London: 1718)
Having heard that his sample has been approved, he submits his proposals for consideration by the Treasury and hopes in a few months to supply two tons of copper per week or something approaching it.
Response to the criticisms made by Jones and Essington of the new copper issue.
Defence of the present coinage and of the tender accepted against the printed complaint of the disappointed tenderers and three letters of Richard Jones. Newton has accepted not the cheapest tender but the most reliable one.
Response to Lauderdale's request for an advance of £2,400 to the Edinburgh Mint.
Letter from Newton to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, including "Observations upon the state of the coins of gold and silver"
'Observations upon the state of the Coins of Gold and Silver'.
Response to a petition from copper suppliers Hines and Appleby [see MINT00643 (II.319)] referred to Newton by the Treasury.
Covering letter from Treasury referring MINT00665 (II.367) to Newton.
History of the smith's house since 1577 and of disputes between the Mint and the Ordnance Office as to which of them owns it.
Reply to MINT00874 (I.462-3).
Response to MINT00872 (I.495): Rotherham appears to be 'a trifler more fit to embroyle the coinage then to mend it'.
Referral of MINT00871 (I.486-7), with another copy of it.
Approves James Girard's bill for engraving seals.
Recommends the appointment of Robert Lowe as porter at £20 p.a. by a constitution instead of by a patent, which would cost the appointee too much.
'To Sr. Isaac Newton Master and Worker of his Maj. Mint in ye Tower/ The Humble Memorial of Sam: Bull 2d. Engraver &c'.
In support of a protest by the Corporation of Moneyers against Wood's licence to coin [MINT00508 (II.460-61)].
Excuses delays in presenting his accounts by his agent's failure to send him relevant documentation.
Following a protest by the Irish Parliament against Wood's licence to coin, asks Newton to send an expert to Bristol to examine his coins.
Detailed report on the trial at London of Wood's copper coinage for Ireland, which was found satisfactory, with an account of the amount of Wood's coinage up to 28 March 1724.
Report on a comparison of Mint avoirdupois with Mint and Exchequer troy weights.
Detailed account of how all Brandshagen's legitimate claims were settled and refutation of the others. If he left any debts, his executors must pay them.
Letter from Newton to Edmund Halley, dated 3 December 1724
Report on the assay and weighing of five new denominations of Portuguese gold coin and recommendation of the values they should pass at in Ireland.
Seven drafts of Newton's defence of the Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. (London: 1726)
Report on gold from the West Indies brought to the Mint by the South Sea Company.
Proposes John Rollos, recently appointed royal engraver, to replace the late Samuel Bull as second engraver in the Mint.
The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (London: 1728)
'General Scholium' from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1729)
Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John (London: 1733)
A Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit of the Jews and the Cubits of the several Nations
An Instrument for observing the Moon's Distance from the Fixt Stars at Sea
Notes on Sendivogius (c. 1685-90).
Notebook containing abstracts and notes drawn from various alchemical works.
'Observations of ye matter in ye Glass. Authore Anonymo' (mid-1670s).
Excerpts from Jodocus a Rhe [Johannes Rhenanus], with transcripts of letters to Dr. John Twysden [Twisden] from 'A.C. [leg. A.O.?] Faber' and notes on a work by Faber. In Latin.
Three alchemical excerpts (1668/9).
'Introductio. Continens Apocalypseos rationem generalem.'
Notebook containing little but headings ('De Sale'; 'Solutio'; 'Conjunctio et Liquefactio'; 'Imbibitio & Calcinatio', etc.), with gaps for entries left blank apart from a few perfunctory notes in Latin.
'The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562'.
Two unrelated tracts in the same hand (not Newton's)
Chemical notes, partly in another hand.
Two alchemical treatises (one incomplete; after 1686) and a collection of short extracts from various alchemical sources.
'Basil Valentine Currus Triumphalis Antimonij': notes and abstracts (c. 1667-8).
'Out of La Lumiere sortant des Tenebres' and 'Out of the Commentator on La Lumiere sortant de Tenebris [sic]' (c. 1687-92), incomplete.
Three alchemical verse extracts, in English.
Treatise on Church history with particular reference to the Arian controversy
Fragmentary notes on Church history
Short extracts from an assortment of alchemical writers (early to mid-1670s).
Notes on the preparation of 'philosophical mercury' by fermentation and 'ye mediation of Diana's Doves', on the preparation of 'menstrua', etc.
Miscellaneous alchemical notes and recipes
Miscellaneous notes and extracts on the Temple, the Fathers, prophecy, Church history, doctrinal issues, etc.
'The Seven Chapters' (late 1680s-1690s) plus notes and an unrelated draft letter.
'Practica Mariæ Prophetissæ in Artem Alchemicam' (early 1690s).
Incomplete abstract of Yworth's 'Processus Mysterii Magni Philosophicus' condensed into five chapters (c. early 1690s).
Transcripts from two published alchemical tracts.
Three apparently unrelated fragments (early-mid 1670s).
'The method of ye work': a commentary on [A.T. Limojon, Sieur de] Didier's 'Six Keys' (early 1690s?).
Three related sets of notes (late 1680s-90s).
Notes on various alchemical texts (early 1680s?).
Incomplete draft treatise on the sequence of operations to be effected in transmutation.
Fair copies of the 'Short Chronicle' and 'Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended'
Draft alchemical treatise or compilation.
'Manna': transcript (1675?) of an anonymous alchemical treatise, in another hand with additions and notes by Newton.
Miscellaneous theological extracts and notes
'Pearce the black Monck upon ye Elixir': an alchemical verse allegory, 226 lines.
'Notanda Chymica' (late 1660s).
'Several Questions concerning the Ph[ilosoph]ers St[one]'.
'Artephius his secret Book', followed by 'The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus, wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius', c. 1,500 words, 3 pp. (c. 1670s).
A similar composition to Keynes Ms. 40, covering the first six 'operations' (but the fourth is missing). In Latin apart from some citations from George Ripley in English verse in the last two sections.
'Causæ et initia naturalium' (notes on Jan Baptista van Helmont's Ortus medicinae (1667)).
'Experimenta Raymundi', 6 pp.
'Ex Marci Maximi Cæsaraugustani in Hispanijs Episcopi Chronico'
'The Regimen' (early 1680s).
'Thesaurus Thesaurorum sive Medicina Aurea'.
Notes on the works of George Ripley [from a manuscript version of 'Eirenæus Philalethes'' Ripley Reviv'd (1678)] (late 1660s/ early 1670s).
'Epistola ad veros Hermetis discipulos continens claves sex principales Philosophiæ secretæ' (early 1690s).
Holograph notes on the output and costs of various individual operations (e.g. pressing, stamping, milling) at the Mint.
Fragment on Church history, drawn mainly from the Annales of Baronius
Notebook (early 1690s), containing alchemical notes from a wide range of sources.
'Collectiones ex Novo Lumine Chymico quæ ad Praxin spectant', 6 pp., and 'Arcanum Hermeticæ Philosophiæ Opus', 3 pp. (early 1669?).
'De secreto solu[tionum? (MS torn)]'.
Notes on early Church history and the moral superiority of the 'barbarians' to the Romans
Alchemical notes (probably before 18 May 1669), drawn largely if not entirely from Michael Maier's Symbola Aureæ Mensæ duodecim nationum (Frankfurt, 1617: H1048).
Notes and abstracts 'Ex Fabri Hydrographo Spagyrico' (f. 1r) and 'Ex Palladio Spagyrico' (f. 2r), with page references (1690s?).
Four alchemical verse allegories, in English.
'The Three Fires'.
Translation and transcription of the Tabula Smaragdina of 'Hermes Trismegistus', with notes (early 1680s-1690s).
'De Igne sophorum et materia quam calefacit'.
'The Work of an old Priest, viz: B.' and other alchemical recipes (late 1660s).
Notes on and excerpts from George Ripley's 'Clavis Aureæ Portæ', 'Medulla Alchimiæ', and 'Pupilla Alchemiæ'.
'Liber Mercurioum [sic: leg. 'Mercuriorum'] Corporum' (1668-75).
Two sets of notes.
Memorandum by Newton (1696).
'Sententiæ luciferæ et Conclusiones notabiles' (1696-8?).
Draft chapters of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (post-1710).
'Out of Cudworth' (early 1680s).
'Anno 1656. Serenissimi Principis Frederici Ducis Holsatiæ et Sleswici &c. communicatione sequens epistola me sibi vendicat, inaudita memorans. Veni et vide'.
Abstracts of five works by Michael Maier (early 1690s).
Miscellaneous extracts from and notes on various alchemical authors, in English.
Notes on various (al)chemical processes (separations, processions, sublimations, distillations, etc.).
'Ripley expounded', 12 pp.; and 'Notes upon Ripley,' in English, c. 1,500 words, 7 pp.
'Clavis': detailed directions for a lengthy alchemical operation beginning with the digestion of antimony, iron and sulphur.
Two accounts of alchemical operations (1690s?).
Notes on Biblical chronology
'Tabula Smaragdina' and 'Hieroglyphica Planetarum'.