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Chap. VII
Of the Empire of the Greeks.

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Chap. V.
Of the Empire of the Greeks.

Alexander the great having conquered all the Persian Empire & some part of India died at Babylon a month before the summer solstice in the year of Nabonassar 425 An. 1. Olymp. 114 & his captains gave the Monarchy to his bastard brother Philip Aridæus, a man disturbed in his understanding, & made Perdiccas administrator of the kingdom, & Perdiccas with their consent made Meleager commander of the army, Seleucus master of the horse, Craterus treasurer of the kingdom, Antipater governour of Macedon & Greece, Ptolomy governour of Egypt, Antigonus governour of Pamphilia Lycia Lycaonia & Phrygia major, & other Captains governours of other Provinces, as many of them had been before in the reign of Alexander the great. And the Babylonians began now to count by a new Æra which they called the Æra of Philip, using the years of Nabonassar & recconing the 425th year of Nabonasser to be the first year of Philip. And Rhoxane the wife of Alexander being left big with child & about three of four months after his death brought to bed of a son, they called him Alexander & saluted him king, joyning him with Philip in the throne of the kingdom.

Philip reigned three years under the administratorship of Perdiccas, two years more under the administratorship of Antipater & above a year more under the administratorship of Polysperchon, in all six years & four months & then was slain with his Queen Eurydice in September by the command of Olympias the mother of Alexander the great. And the Greeks being disgusted at the cruelties of Olympias revolted to Cassander the son & successor of Antipater.

Cassander affecting the dominion of Greece slew Olympias & soon after shut up the young king Alexander with his mother Rhoxane in the castle of Amphipolis under the charge of Glaucias, An. Nabonass. 432

The next year Ptolomy Cassander & Lysimachus by the means of Seleucus made a league against Antigonus & after certain wars they made peace with him An. Nabonass. 438 upon these conditions that Cassander should command the forces of Europe till Alexander the son of Rhoxane came to age & that Lysimachus should govern Thrace, Ptolomy Egypt, & Libya, & Antigonus all Asia. Seleucus had possest himself of Mesopotamia Babylonia Susiana & Media the year before. About three years after Alexanders death he was made Governor of Babylon by Antipater, then was expelled by Antigonus, & now he recovered & enlarged his government over a great <3r> part of the east: which gave occasion to a new Æra called Æra Seleucidarum. This Æra was of Luni-solar years & according to the Iewish account it began in spring An. Philip. 12. An. 4. Olymp. 116, but according to the Chaldæan account it began the spring following & according to the Antiochian & Alexandrian account it began in the autumn between the two springs each nation adapting it to the beginning of their own Luni-solar years.

Not long after the peace made with Antigonus (Diodorus saith the same Olympic year) Cassander seing that Alexander the son of Roxane grew up, & that it was discoursed throughout Macedonia that it was fit he should be set at liberty & take upon him the government of his fathers kingdom, commanded Glaucias the governour of the Castle to kill Rhoxane & the young king Alexander her son & conceale their deaths. Then Polysperchon set up Hercules the son of Alexander the great by Barsine to be king, & soon after at the sollicitation of Cassander caused him to be slain. And soon after that, upon a great victory at sea got by Demetrius the son of Antigonus over Ptolomy, Antigonus took upon himself the title of king & gave the same title to his son, An. 2 Olymp. 118. This was Ann. Nabonass. 441 And after his example Seleucus Cassander Lysimachus & Ptolomy took upon themselves the title & dignity of kings, having absteined from this honour while there remained any of Alexanders race to inherit the crown. And thus the Monarchy of the Greeks for want of an heir was broken into several kingdoms, four of which seated to the four winds of heaven were very eminent. For Ptolomy reigned over Egypt Libya & Ethiopia, Antigonus over Syria & the lesser Asia, Lysimachus in Thrace & Cassander over Macedon Greece & Epire. And all this Daniel, after he had mentioned the kings of the Medes & Persians & their invasion of Greece, describes in this manner. And a mighty King [Alexander] shall stand up & shall rule with great dominion & do according to his will. And when he shall stand up his kingdom shall be broken & shall be divided towards the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity [& therefore not before their death] nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled: for his kingdom shall be pluckt up even for others besides those, [such as were Seleucus in Babylonia & all Persia beyond Euphrates & Sandrocottus in India.]

Cassander being afraid of the power of Antigonus combined with Lysimachus Ptolomy & Seleucus against him; & while Lysimachus invaded the parts of Asia next the Hellspont & Ptolomy subdued Phœnicia & Cælosyria & the seacoasts of Asia, Seleucus having newly made peace with Sandrocottus came down with a powerful army into Cappadocia, & joyning the confederate forces fought Antigonus in Phrygia & slew him & seized his kingdom an. 4 Olymp. 119. Ann. Nabonass. 447. After which Seleucus built <4r> Antioch Seleucia Laodicea Apamea Berrhæa Edessa & other cities in Syria & Asia & in them granted the Iews equal privileges with the Greeks.

Yet Demetrius the son of Antigonus retained a small part of his fathers dominions & at length lost Cyprus to Ptolomy: but killing Alexander the son & successor of Cassander king of Macedon seized his kingdom An. 3 Olymp. 121 An. Nabonass. 454, & sometime after preparing a very great army to recover his fathers dominions in Asia, Seleucus Ptolomy & Lysimachus & Pyrrhus king of Epire combined against him & Pyrrhus invading Macedonia corrupted the army of Demetrius, put him to flight, seized his kingdom & shared it with Lysimachus. And after seven months Lysimachus beating Pyrrhus took Macedonia from him & held it five years & an half, uniting the kingdoms of Macedon & Thrace.

Lysimachus in his wars with Antigonus & Demetrius, had taken from them Caria Lydia & Phrygia & had a treasury in Pergamus a castle on the top of a conical hill in Phrygia by the river Caicus, & had committed the custody thereof to one Philetærus who was at first faithful to Lysimachus but in the last year of his reign revolted. For Lysimachus by the instigation of his wife Arsinoe slew first his own son Agathocles & then those who lamented him. Upon which the wife of Agathocles fled with her children & brothers & some others of their friends, & sollicited Seleucus to make war upon Lysimachus. And Philetærus also grieving at the death of Agathocles & being accused thereof by Arsinoe revolted & sided with Seleucus. On this occasion Seleucus & Lysimachus met & fought in Phrygia, & Lysimachus being slain in the battel lost his kingdom to Seleucus, An. 4 Olymp. 124 An. Nabonass. 465. Thus the Empire of the Greeks which at first brake into four great kingdoms became now reduced into two notable ones henceforward called by Daniel the kings of the south and north. For Ptolomy now reigned over Egypt Libya Ethiopia Arabia Phœnicia Cælosyria & Cyprus & Seleucus having united three of the four kingdoms had a dominion scarce inferior to that of the Persian Empire conquered by Alexander. All which is thus represented by Daniel. And the king of the south [Ptolomy] shall become strong, & one of his Princes [Seleucus one of Alexander's Princes] shall become strong above him & have dominion: his dominion shall be a great dominion.

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After Seleucus had reigned seven months over Macedon Greece Thrace Asia Syria Babylonia Media & all the east as far as India, Ptolomæus Ceraunus the younger brother of Ptolomæus Philadelphus king of Egypt slew him treacherously & seized his dominions in Europe & Antiochus Soter the son of Seleucus succeeded his father in Asia Syria & most of the east, & after 19 or 20 years was succeeded by his son Antiochus Theos; who having a lasting war with Ptolomæus Philadelphus composed the same by marrying Berenice the daughter of Philadelphus; & after a reign of fifteen years, his first wife Laodice poisoned him & set her son Seleucus Callinicus upon the throne. And Callinicus in the beginning of his reign by the impulse of his mother Laodice beseiged Berenice in Daphne neare Antioch & slew her with her young son & many of her weomen. Whereupon Ptolomæus Euergetes the son & successor of Philadelphus made war upon Callinicus, took from him Phenicia, Syria, Cilicia, Mesopotamia Babylonia Susiana & some other regions & carried back into Egypt 40000 tallents of silver, & 2500 Images of the Gods, amongst which were the Gods of Egypt carried away by Cambyses. ✝ < insertion from f 4v > ✝ Callinicus also in the fift year of his reign lost almost all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus to the Governour of Pergamus now saluted king & after an inglorious reign of 20 years was succeeded by his son Seleucus Ceraunus; & Euergetes five years after was succeeded by his son Ptolomæus Philopator. All which < text from f 5r resumes > All which is thus signified by Daniel. And after certain years they [the kings of the south & north] shall make friendship: for the kings daughter of the south [Berenice] shall come to the king of the north to establish an agreement, but she shall not retain the power of the arm & she shall not stand nor her seed, but she shall be delivered up, & he [Callinicus] that brought her, & he whom she brought forth, & they that strengthned her in [those] times, [or defended her in the seige of Daphne.] But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his seat [her brother Euergetes] who shall come with an army & shall enter into the fortress [or fenced cities] of the king of the north & shall act against them & prevail. And shall carry captives into Egypt, their Gods with their Princes & pretious vessels of silver & gold, & he shall continue some years after the king of the north

< insertion from f 4v >

Seleucus Ceraunus inheriting the remains of his fathers kingdom & thinking to recover the rest raised a great army against the king of Pergamus but died in the third year of his reign & his brother & successor Antiochus magnus carrying on the war took from the king of Pergamus almost all the lesser Asia, & recovered also the Provinces of Media Persia & Babylonia from the governors who had revolted, & in the fift year of his reign invaded Cælosyria – – – – < text from f 5r resumes > invaded Cælosyria & with little opposition possest himself of a good part thereof, & the next year returned to invade the rest of Cælosyria & Phœnicia, beat the army of Philopator neare Berytus, invaded Palæstine & the neighbouring parts of Arabia, & the third year returned with an army of 78000 & Ptolomy coming out of Egypt with an army of 75000 fought & routed him at Raphia neare Gaza between Palæstine & Egypt & recovered all Phœnicia & Cælosyria an 3 Olymp. 140, anno Philippi 107. And being puffed up with this victory & living in all manner of luxury the Egyptians revolted & had wars with him but were <6r> overcome & in the broiles sixty thousand Egyptian Iews were slain All which is thus described by Daniel. But his sons [Selucus Ceraunus & Antiochus magnus the sons of Callinicus] shall be stirred up & shall gather a great army & he [Antiochus magnus] shall come effectually & overflow & pass through & return, & [again the next year] be stirred up [marching even] to his fortress [the frontier towns of Ægypt] & the king of the south shall be moved with choler & come forth [the third year] & fight with him even with the king of the north & he [the king of the north] shall lead forth a great multitude, but the multitude shall be given int his hand. And the multitude being taken away his heart shall be lifted up & he shall cast down many ten thousands but shall not be strengthned [by it.] For the king of the north shall return, &c.

About twelve years after the battel between Philopator & Antiochus, Philopator died & left his kingdom to his young son Ptolomæus Epiphanes a child five years old, & thereupon Antiochus magnus confederated with Philip king of Macedon that they should invade the dominions of Epiphanes which lay next to each of them. And thence arose a various war between Antiochus & Epiphanes, they seizing Phœnicia & Cælosyria by turns whereby those countries were much afflicted by both parties. First Antiochus seized those countries, then one Scopas being sent with the army of Egypt recovered them from Antiochus, & the next year (anno Philippi 126) Antiochus fought & routed Scopas neare the fountains of Iordan, besieged him in Sidon, took the city & recovered Syria & Phœnicia from Egypt the Iews coming over to him voluntarily. But about three years after upon preparing for a war against the Romans he came to Raphia in the borders of Egypt & made peace with Epiphanes & gave him his daughter Cleopatra, & the next autumn passed the Hellespont to invade the cities of Greece under the Roman protection & took some of them but was beaten by the Romans the summer following & forced to return back with his army into Asia. And before the end of the year the fleet of Antiochus was beaten by the fleet of the Romans neare Phocæa. And at the same time Epiphanes & Cleopatra sent an embassy to Rome to congratulate the Romans for their success against their father Antiochus & to exhort them to prosecute the war against him into Asia. And the next year the Romans beat Antiochus again at sea neare Ephesus & past their <7r> army over the Hellespont & got a great victory over him by land & took from him all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus & gave it to the king of Pergamus who assisted them in the war, & imposed a large tribute upon Antiochus. Thus the king of Pergamus recovered what Antiochus had taken from him, & Antiochus retiring into the remainder of his kingdom was slain two years after by the Persians as he was robbing the Temple of Iupiter Belus in Elymais to raise money for the Romans. All which is thus described by Daniel. For the king of the north [Antiochus] shall return & shall set forth a multitude greater then the former & shall certainly come after certain years with a great army & with much riches. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south [particularly the Macedonians,] also the robbers of thy people [the Samaritans &c.] shall exalt themselves to establish the vision, but they shall fall. So the king of the north shall come & cast up a mount & take the most fenced cities & the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will & none shall stand before him. And he shall stand in the glorious land which shall fail in his hand. He shall also set his face to go with the strength [or army] of all his kingdom & make an agreement with him [at Raphia] & he shall give him the daughter of weomen corrupting her, but she shall not stand on his side neither be for him. And he shall turn his face unto the Isles & shall take many: but a Prince for his own behalf [the Romans] shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach shall he cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his face towards the fort of his own land, but he shall stumble & fall & not be found.

Seleucus Philopator succeeded his father Antiochus anno Philippi 137, & resigned twelve years but did nothing memorable being sluggish & intent upon raising of money for the Romans to whom he was tributary. He was slain by Heliodorus whom he had sent to rob the Temple of Ierusalem. Daniel thus describes his reign. Then shall stand up in his seat a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom, but within few days he shall be destroyed neither in anger nor in battel.

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A little before the death of Philopator his son Demetrius was sent hostage to Rome in the place of Antiochus Epiphanes the brother of Philopator, & Antiochus was at Athens in his way home from Rome when Philopator died. Whereupon Heliodorus the Treasurer of the kingdom stept into the throne. But Antiochus so managed his affairs that the Romans kept Demetrius at Rome & their ally the king of Pergamus expelled Heliodorus & placed Antiochus in the throne. And while Demetrius the right heir remained an hostage at Rome Antiochus by the friendship of the king of Pergamus reigned powerfully over Syria & the neighbouring nations. Now Antiochus being made king carried himself much below his dignity, stealing privately out of his palace & rambling up & down the city in disguise with one or two of his companions, conversing & drinking with common people of the lowest rank & with forreigners & strangers, frequenting the meetings of rakes to feast & revel, cloathing himself like the Roman candidates & officers & acting their parts like a mimick, & in publick festivals jesting & dancing & hearding himself with servants & mimicks & light people, & behaving himself with all manner of ridiculous gestures: which made some take him for a mad man & call him Antiochus Ἐπιμένης. In the first year of his reign he deposed Onias the High Priest & sold the High-Priesthood to Iason the younger brother of Onias. For Iason had promised the king to give him 440 talents of silver for the High-Priesthood & 150 more for a licence to erect a place of exercise for the training up of the youth in the fashions of the heathen: which license was granted by the king & put in execution by Iason. The the king sending one Apollonius into Egypt to the coronation of Ptolomeus Philometor the young son of Philometor & Cleopatra, & knowing Philometor not to be well affected to his affairs in Phenicia provided for his own safety in those parts, & for that end came to Ioppa & Ierusalem where he was honourably received, & from thence he went in like manner with his little army to the cities of Phenicia to establish himself against Egypt by courting the people & distributing extraordinary favours amongst them. All which is thus represented by Daniel. And in his [Philometer's] seat shall stand up a vile person to whom they [the Syrians who set up Heliodorus] shall not give the honour of the kingdom. Yet he shall come in peaceably & obtein the kingdom by flatteries [made principally to the king of Pergamus,] & the arms [which in favour of Heliodorus oppose him] shall be overflowed with a flood from before him & be broken: yea also [Onias the High Priest] the Prince of the covenant. And after friendship made with him [the king of Egypt by sending <9r> Apollonius to his coronation] he shall work deceiptfully [against the king of Egypt,] for he shall come up & become strong [in Phœnicia] with a small people. And he shall enter into the quiet & plentifull [cities] of the Province [of Phenicia] and [to ingratiate himself with the Iews of Phœnicia & Egypt & with their friends] he shall do that which his fathers have not done nor his fathers fathers: he shall scatter among them the prey & the spoile & the riches [exacted from other places,] and shall forecast his devices against the strong holds [of Egypt] even for a time.

These things were done in the first year of his reign, anno Philippi 149 & thence forward he forecast his devices against the strong holds of Egypt untill the sixt year. For three years after, that is, in the 4th year of his reign, Menelaus bought the High-Priesthood from Iason, but not paying the price was sent for by the king, & the king before he could hear the cause went into Cilicia to appease a sedition there & left Andronicus his deputy at Antioch, and then the brother of Menelaus to make up the money conveyed severall vessels out of the Temple selling some of then at Tyre & sending other to Andronicus, and when Menelaus was reproved for this by Onias, he caused Onias to be slain by Andronicus: for which fact the king at his return from Cilicia caused Andronicus to be put to death. And then he prepared his second expedition against Egypt, which he performed in the sixt year of his reign An. Philip. 154. For upon the death of Cleopatra, the governours of her son the young king of Egypt claimed Phœnicia & Cælosyria from Antiochus as her dowry & to recover those countries raised a great army. Antiochus considering that his father had not quitted the possession of those countries[1] denyed that they were her dowry & with another great army met & fought the Egyptians in the border of Egypt between Pelusium & the mountain Casius. And when he might have destroyed the army of the Egyptians, rode up & down commanding his soldiers not to kill them but to take them alive. By which humanity he gained Pelusium & soon after all Egypt, entring it with a great multitude of foot & chariots & Elephants & horsmen & a great navy. And seizing the cities of Egypt as a friend he marched to Memphys, laid the whole blame of the war upon Eulæus the kings governour, entered into outward friendship with the <10r> young king & took upon him to order the affairs of the kingdom. In the mean time a report being spread in Phœnicia that Antiochus was dead, Iason to recover the High-Priesthood assaulted Ierusalem with above a thousand men & took the city. Whereupon Antiochus thinking that Iudea had revolted came out of Egypt in a furious manner, took the city, slew forty thousand of the people, took as many prisoners & sold them to raise money, went into the Temple, spoiled it of its treasures ornaments utensils & vessels of gold & silver amounting to 1800 talents & carried all away to Antioch. This was done in the year of Philip 154, , & is thus described by Daniel. And he shall stir up his power & his courage against the king of the south with a great army & the king of the south shall be stirred up to battel with a very great & mighty army, but he shall not stand: for they [Antiochus & his friends] shall forecast devices against him [as is represented above.] Yea they that feed of the portion of his own meat shall [betray &] destroy him, & his army shall be overthrown & many shall fall down slain. And [upon the news of the commotion at Ierusalem] both these kings hearts shall be to do mischief & they [being now made friends] shall speak lyes at one table [against the Iews & the holy covenant] but it shall not prosper: for yet the end [in which the setting up of the abomination of desolation is to prosper] shall be at the time appointed. Then shall he return into his land with great riches & his heart shall be against the holy covenant & he shall act [against it by spoiling the Temple] & return into his own land.

The Egyptians of Alexandria seing Philometor educated in luxury by the Eunuch Eulæus & now in the hands of Antiochus gave the kingdom to Euergetes the younger brother of Philometor. Whereupon Antiochus pretending to restore Philometor, made war upon Euergetes, beat him at sea, and besieged him & his sister Cleopatra in Alexandria, and the besieged Princes sent to Rome to implore the assistance of the Senate. Antiochus finding himself unable to take the city that year, returned into Syria leaving Philometor at Memphys to govern Egypt in his absence. But Philometor made friendship with his brother that winter & Antiochus as he was returning the next spring, Anno. Philip. 156 to besiege both the brothers in Alexandria, was met in the way by the Roman Ambassadors Popillius Lænas, C. Decimius & C. Hostilius, & offered them his hand to kiss: But Popillius delivering to him the Tables wherein the message of the Senate was written, bad him read those first. When he had read them he replied that he would consider with his friends what was fit to be done: but Popillius drawing a circle about the king bad him answer before he went out of the circle. At which blunt & unusual imperiousness the king being astonished <11r> made answer that he would do what the Romans commanded. And then Popillius gave the king his hand to kiss & the king returned with his army out of Egypt & the same year (an. Philip. 156) his Captains by his order spoiled & slaughtered the Iews, prophaned the Temple, set up the worship of the heathen Gods in all Iudea & began to persecute & make war upon those who would not worship them. Which actions are thus described by Daniel. At the time appointed he shall come [again] towards the south but the latter shall not be as the former. For the ships of Chittim shall come [with an Embassy from Rome] against him. Therefore he shall be grieved & return & have indignation against the holy covenant. So shall he do, he shall even return & have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.

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In the same year that Antiochus by the command of the Romans retired out of Egypt & set up the worship of the Greeks, in Iudea, the Romans conquered Illyricum & Epire & the kingdom of Macedon the fundamental kingdom of the Empire of the Greeks, & reduced it into a Roman Province & thereby began to put an end to the reign of Daniels third Beast. And this is thus exprest by Daniel. And after him Arms [the Romans] shall stand up. As ממלד signifies after the king Dan. XI. 8, so ממנו may here signify, after him. Arms are every where in this prophesy of Daniel put for the military power of a kingdom, & they stand up when they conquer & grow powerful. Hitherto Daniel described the actions of the kings of the north & south, but upon the conquest of Macedon by the Romans, left off describing the actions of the Greeks & began to describe those of the Romans in Greece. They conquered Macedon in the year of Philip 156, & 35 years after, by the last will & testament of Attalus the last king of Pergamus they inherited that rich & flourishing kingdom, that is, all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus, & 69 years after they conquered the kingdom of Syria & reduced it into a Province, & 34 years after they did the like to Egypt. And by all these steps the Roman Arms stood up over the Greeks; & after 95 years more by making war upon the Iews they polluted the Sanctuary of strength & took away the dayly sacrifice & began to place the abomination of desolation. For this abomination was placed after the days of Christ. Matth. XXIV.15.

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✝ In the Vision < insertion from f 12v > ✝ In the Vision of Daniels four Beasts, the first Beast had Eagles wings to denote the Provinces of Chaldea & Assyria subject to Nebuchadnezzar. The second Beast called a Bear answers to the Medo-Persian Empire. It raised it self up on one side to signify by its two sides the Medes & Persians, & that it rose up first on the side of the Medes, & then on the side of the Persians, & by rising up on both sides grew up to its full height. It had three ribs in its mouth to distinguish its conquests the kingdoms of Sardes Babylon & Egypt from its proper body. The third Beast or Leopard answers to the Greek Empire. It was founded in the dominion of the Macedonians & reigned till the Romans conquered Macedon. The fourth Beast answers to the conquering Romans. The three first Beasts had their dominions taken away, yet their lives were prolonged for a season & a time (Dan. 7.12) that is, untill the stone cut out of the mountain without hands falls upon the feet of the image of four metalls, & breaks in pieces the iron & the brass & the silver & the gold & they become like chaff & are carried away together by the wind, & the stone becomes a great mountain & fills the earth (Dan. 2.35,) that is untill the saints take the kingdom (Dan. 2.44 & 7.18.)

< text from f 13r resumes >

In Daniels Vision of the Ram & He Goat, these Beasts denote the same thing with the Bear & Leopard in the former vision. As the Bear raised it self up on one side, so the higher horn of the Ram rose up last. And the four horns of the Goat signify the same thing with the four wings & four heads of the Leopard. The great horn between the eyes of the Goat answers to the monarchy of the Greeks during the reign of Alexander the great & his sons Alexander & Hercules, & the four notable horns which came up in the room of it towards the four winds of heaven, answer to the kingdoms of Macedon, Thrace, Syria & Egypt which arose upon the death of Hercules by the breaking of that Monarchy into smaller kingdoms. And the little horn which in the latter time of their kingdom came forth out of one of them, & became mighty but not by his own power & waxed exceeding great towards the south & towards the east & towards the pleasant land & therefore arose in the northwest: answers to the kingdom of Pergamus which came out of the kingdom of Thrace in the northwest, & was very little at its first rising up, & being inherited by the Romans grew mighty by their power towards the south & towards the east & towards the south east. All Daniel's Beasts are still alive & the Goat still reigns in his last horn but not by his own power. And by him the dayly sacrifice was taken away & the place of the Sanctuary was cast down, not in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes but in the reign of Nero & Vespatian by the wars of the Romans against the Iews. Antiochus was not mighty either by his own power of by that of another: but the little horn waxed exceeding great even greater then any of the former horns. Antiochus did not cast down the Sanctuary, nor prosper in taking away the daily sacrifice: the little horn did not only take away the daily sacrifice but also cast down the sanctuary & in doing these things practised & prospered to the time of the end, even to the last end of the indignation against the Iews, (Dan 8.12, 19) & the vision concerning the daily sacrifice & the transgression of desolation to give both the Sanctuary & the host to be troden under foot was to continue two thousand & three hundred prophetic days before the Sanctuary should be cleansed, where as the profanation of the Sanctuary in the days of Antiochus did not last so many natural days.

After the destruction of Ierusalem & the Temple, the Christian religion which had been preached by the Apostles of Christ as far as Rome, spread into all the Roman Empire & suffered many persecutions till the days of Constantine the great. And this is thus expressed by Daniel. And such as do wickedly against the Covenant shall he cause to dissemble [& worship the heathen Gods,] but the people among them that do know their God shall be strong & act. And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword & by flame & by captivity & by spoile many days. Now when they shall fall they shall be holpen by a little help, [vizt in the reign of Constantine the great:] and at that time many shall [come over to them from among the heathen &] cleave to them with flatteries. But of those of understanding there shall fall to try [the people] by them & to purge [them from the flatterers] & to make them white to the time of the end, because it is yet for a time appointed.

By the building of Constantinople & endowing it with a Senate & Consuls like Rome, Constantine the great laid the foundation of <13v> dividing the Roman Empire into the Greek & Latine Empires headed by those two cities. And after this division, the King which doth according to his will is the Greek Empire represented still by the He Goat in the days of his last horn, & by the Leopard or third Beast remaining now alone distinct from the other three Beasts. And the king of the south who pushes at him answers to the Empire of the Saracens which pushed at the Greek Empire & took from them Syria Egypt & Libya. And the King of the north who overflows his countries & conquers also Palestine Egypt Libya & Ethiopia answers to the kingdom of the Turks. And the fourth Beast with ten horns from the time of the aforesaid division, remains alone in the Empire of the Latines, divided into ten kingdoms. For all the four Beasts are still alive as was shewed above.

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In the vision of Daniels four Beasts, the first Beast had Eagles wings to denote the Provinces of Chaldea & Assyria. The second Beast or Bear answers to the Medo-Persian Empire, < insertion from lower down f 14r > It raised it self up on one side to signify by its two sides the Medes & Persians & that it began to rise up first on the side of the Medes & then rose up on the side of the Persians & by rising up on both sides grew up to its full height. It had three ribs in its mouth to distinguish its proper body from its conquests, the kingdoms of Sardes Babylon & Egypt. The third Beast or Leopard answers to the Greek Empire. It was founded < text from f 14r resumes > had three ribs in its mouth to distinguish its proper body from its conquests Babylonia Egypt & Sardes, the third Beast or Leopard answers to the Greek Empire. It was founded in the

After the destruction of Ierusalem & the Temple the Christian religion which had been preached by the Apostles of Christ as far as Rome spread into all the Roman Empire & suffered many persecutions till the days of Constantine the great. And this is thus expressed by Daniel. And such as do wickedly against the Covenant shall he cause to dissemble [& worship the heathen Gods] but the people among them that do know their God shall be strong & act. And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword & by flame & by captivity & by spoile many days. Now when they shall fall they shall be holpen with a little help [vizt in the reign of Constantine the great:] and [at that time by reason of their prosperity ] many shall [come over to them from among the heathen and] cleave to them with dissimmulation. But of those of understanding there shall [still] fall to try [Gods people] by them & to purge [ them from the dissemblers] & to make them white to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed. For a king [under whom they shall fall till the time of the end, shall arise &] shall do according to his will & he shall exalt himself & magnify himself above every God & shall speak marvellous things against the God of Gods vizt the Beast who in the Apocalyps rises out of the sea, makes war upon the saints blasphemes the name of God & is worshipped by all that dwell upon the earth whose names are not written in the book of life.

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The Roman Empire continued entire till the death of Constantine the great. He built Constantinople & gave it a Senate & like privileges with Rome & thereby laid the foundation to the division of the Empire into the Greek & Latin Empires headed by those two cities.

After the division of the Roman Empire into the Greek & Latin Empires, the He Goat in the reign of his last horn denotes the Greek Empire alone, & the

The Leopard is still alive & after his dominion is taken away denotes the nations of the Greek Empire grown powerfull but not in their own power. And the He Goat who in the reign of his last horn is mighty but not in his own power signifies the very same thing, & so does the great red Dragon in the Apocalyps who hath his Throne in Pergamus. And the fourth Beast denotes the nations of the Latine Empire first reigning over the Greeks & then reigning alone after the division of the Roman Empire into the Empires of the Greeks & Latines. And the King which doth according to his will signifies the same thing, & so doth the ten horned Beast in the Apocalyps. After the division of the Roman Empire into the Empires of the Greeks & Latines the Greeks are represented by the Leopard & by the He Goat & by the great red Dragon & the Latines are represented by the fourth Beast with ten horns & by the King which doth according to his will & by the Beast with ten horns in the Apocalyps. For the King who doth according to his will oppresses the saints & exalts himself & magnifies himself above every God & speaks marvelous things against the God of Gods & the Beast with ten horns makes war upon the saints & blasphemes the name of God & is worshipped by all that dwell upon the earth whose names are not written in the book of life.

By the building of Constantinople & endowing it with a Senate & Consuls like Rome, Constantine the great laid the foundation of the division {of} the Roman Empire into the Greek & Latine Empires headed by those two cities. And after this division the Leopard continued in the Greek Empire alive & alone & is the king which doth according to his will & this king is represented also by the HeGoat

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And after this division, the king which doth according to his will is the Greek Empire represented by the He Goat in the days of his last horn & by the Leopard or third Beast remaining now alone distinct from the other three Beasts & the king of the south who pushes at him is the kingdom of the Saracens. And the fourth Beast with ten horns remains alone in the Empire of the Latines For these Beasts are still alive as was shewed above.

& the king of the north who overflows him & conquers also Palestine & Egypt & Libya & Ethiopia is the Kingdom of the Turks. And the fourth Beast with ten horns remains alone in the Empire of the Latines. For all the four Beasts are still alive as was shewed above.

For all this Prophesy relates to the nations which composed the body of the He Goat & are still represented by the nations which composed the four horns of this Beast & to the things done amongst them And the king of the south who pushes at him is the kingdom of the Saracens: & the king of the north who overflows him & conquers also Palestine, Egypt, Libya & Ethiopia is the kingdom of the Turks. And the fourth Beast with ten horns remains alone in the Empire of the Latines. For all the four Beasts are still alive

The third Beast reigned first in the great horn & then in the four horns till the dominion of the Greeks was taken away. This dominion was gradually taken away by the Romans. They began to take it away by conquering Macedon. At that time the transgressions were come to the full, For the High Priesthood was bought for money by one who got a licence for educating the children of the Iews in the customs & religions of the heathens & then by another who slew the first High Priest. The vessels of the Temple were sold for raising the money. An high Priest slain for reproving those that did it. The city was sackt & taken first by the last High Priest who caused him to be slain, & then by Antiochus Epiphanes who spoiled the Temple abolished the worship of the Iews & set up the heathen religion in all Iudea.

[Editorial Note 1]

In the beginning of the Iewish war, the Apostles fled out of Iudea with their flocks some beyond Iordan to Pella & other places, some into Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, Asia minor, & other places. Peter & Iohn came into Asia minor, & thence Peter went by Corinth to Rome, but Iohn staying in Asia was banished into Patmos as the head of a party of Iews with whose nation the Romans were in war. By this dispersion of the Christian Iews, the Christian religion which was already propagated westward as far as Rome spread into all the Roman Empire, & suffered many persecutions till the days of Constantine the great.

<15v> [Editorial Note 2]

Scholium

Ostendimus in Prop. IX Lib. I, quod corpus vi centripeta quæ cubó distantiarum reciproce proportionalis est, moveri potest in Spirali quæ radios omnes in angulo dato secat. Corpus autem pro vanæ ejus velocitate movebitur in varijs Curves Si velocitas ea est quam corpus cadendo ab infinita distantia acquirere potest, movebitur idem in hac spirali quæ radios omnes in angula dato secat. Si velocitas minor est movebitur corpus in Spirali quæ ad centrum spiris infinitis descendet sed in infinitum ascendere non potest. Si velocitas major est movebitur corpus in Curva quæ Asymptoton habet et juxta eandem in infinitum abit. Trajectoriam D. Cotes et pro varia ejus velocitate vel spiris infinitis descendet ad centrum vel non descendet. / Initio Libri primi quantitatem materiæ definivi ut mathematice tractaretur: hic corpus ex tali materia constans definio ut tractætur physica.

Vacuum est quod rebus tangibilibus & contactu {su} motum corporum impedientibus vacat

[1] 2 Maccab. III.5, 8 & IV.4.

[Editorial Note 1] The remainder of the text on this page is written upside down.

[Editorial Note 2] All the text on this page is written upside down.

© 2017 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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