<1r>

Chap. VI.
Of the Empire of the Latines. [1]

The Romans were at first a small kingdom of Italy & began to make a figure in the world about the time that in conjunction with the king of Pergamus they took from Antiochus magnus all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus, & to grow great from the time that they conquered Macedon. For after the conquest of Greece they conquered Carthage & gradually extended their dominion over Asia, Spain, Syria, Gallia, Egypt & Dacia & reigned over all these countries untill the revolt of Dacia & the separation of the Empire of the Greeks from that of the Latines: the particular history of all which is every where to be met with.

Dacia revolted in or a little before the reign of Decius & created great vexations to the Roman Empire. But the Church of Dacia still continued united to the Church of the Roman Empire: For Theophilus Bishop or Patriarch of Dacia was at the Council of Nice A.C. 325 & his successor Vlphilas was at the Council of Constantinople A.C. 360.

Constantine the great built Constantinople A.C. 330 & made it the metropolis of the eastern provinces of the Empire & Rome of the western, both cities being governed after the same manner by a Senate & Consuls. He left the Empire between his sons A.C. 337, & his son Constantius reunited it A.C. 353, & Valentinian divided it between himself & his brother Valens A.C. 364. And after the death of Valens it was reunited under Gratian the son of Valentinian A.C. 378, but after five months Gratian made Theodosius emperor of the east in the room of Valens 16 Ian. A.C. 379, & Theodosius left the Empire divided between his sons Arcadius & Honorius A.C. 395, after which it was no more united.

The two Empires into which the Roman Empire became now divided were distinguished by the names of the eastern & western or Greek & Latine Empires. And the Greek Empire continued intire about 240 years & then lost Syria & Egypt to the Saracens, but yet stood above 800 years longer before the Turks overthrew it. The Latin Empire stood intire about 12 or 13 years, & then being invaded by the nations of Dacia, broke at once into ten kingdoms, the rise of which not being distinctly described by any historian, I shall here set down. But first it will be convenient to give you some account of the nations of Dacia by whom this Empire became divided.

Dacia was a large country bounded on the south by the Danube on the east by the Euxine sea, on the north by the river Neister & the mountain Crapac & on the west by the river Tibesis or Teys which runs southward into the Danube a little above Belgrade. It comprehended the countries now called Transylvania Moldavia & Wallachia & the eastern part of uper Hungary. Its ancient inhabitants were called Getæ by the <2r> Greeks & Daci by the Latines & Goths by themselves. Alexander the great attact them, & Trajan conquered them & reduced their country into a province of the Roman Empire: & thereby the propagation of the Christian religion amongst them was much promoted. And when they revolted, their kings by successive conquests grew into a large & potent Empire composed of many northern nations. Ostrogotha reigned in the days of Philip & Decius & conquered the Gepides, Geberic the Vandals, & Hermaneric the Heruli, placed by Iornandes upon the Palus Mæotis & the Veneti, Antes & Sclavi & many other warlike nations of Scythia & Germany, as Iornandes informs us, & particularly the nations which Iornandes calls the Thuidi, Vasinambrócæ, Mæreus, Mordensimnis, Caris, Rocæ, Tadzans, Athual, Navigo, Bubegentæ & Coldæ & the Æstti or Estij seated upon a long tract of the German Ocean or Baltick sea in Livonia. So that the kingdom seems at this time to have comprehended Volkinia, Red Russia, Poland, Lithuania Lifland Coerland Russia & other Scythian nations between the Vistula or Weysel & the Boristhenes or Niper as far northwards as Revel & Narva & the Sinus Finicus, besides some nations of Germany & Russia, suppose in Hungary on the north of the Danube in the Russian Verain & in Novogorod. And from these conquests, saith Iornandes, some have compared this King to Alexander the great.

Among the conquered nations I reccon the Burgiones & Phregundiones whom Ptolomy places between the Vistula & Boristhenes & whom (or some part of them) I take to be the Burgundians who had war with Fastida king of the Gepides a little before the reign of the Emperor Decius & who in the reign of Valentinian fled from their seats to the side of the Rhene. For these Burgundians are usually recconed a Gothic nation.

[2]Hermaneric reigned long & died in the fift year of the Emperors Valentinian & Valens A.C. 368 or soon after being 110 years old, & at his death or soon after, his kingdom became divided amongst many successors, Hunnimund, Vithimar, Athanaric, Fridigern, Box, & perhaps some others. Hunnimund was his son & reigned over the eastern part of the Goths called Ostrogoths. Vithimar or Winitharius was the son of Valeravan & grandson of Athaulphus or Vuldulph the brother of Hermaneric & reigned over a part of the Goths called Gruthungi by A. Marcelline Gothunni by Claudian, & Sarmatæ & Scythians by others. They were seated [3] between Dacia & the Alans.. Athanarick reigned over another called Visigoths from their scituation, & Box over the Antes, & the Gepides had also their King. These kings seem to have been rectors of Provinces in the life time of Hermaneric & to have kept their governments after his death < insertion from f 1v > Procopius tells us in his first book of the Vandalick war that amongst the Gothic nations, which were many, the greatest & most noble were the Goths [or Ostrogoths] the Vandals, the Visigoths & the Gepides, & that they differed only in name being white tall & handsome which yellow hair, using the same language & the same laws & being of the same religion, the religion called Arian by the Romans. They all lived in Dæcia beyond the Danube untill they invaded the Empire & no doubt they had their common language laws & religion from being subjects of one & the same kingdom till the death of Hermaneric.

The Goths & other Scythian nations beyond the Danube had ... < text from f 2r resumes > The Goths & other scythian nations beyond the Danube had hitherto lived without letters, & the Christian religion had been hitherto propagated among them only by oral tradition. But now Vlphilas the Patriarch of Dacia invented the Gothic letters & translated the scriptures into the language of Dacia & propagated the Christian religion very much among the Goths & Gepides so that Fridigern king of the Visigoths became a Christian & Athanaric fearing that the Christian religion should also prevail in his kingdom (for Vlphilas instructed the people of both kingdoms) raised a vehement persecution against the Christians & put many of them to death.

In those days the Hunns, a fierce & brutish nation seated <3r> upon the eastern side of the lake Mæotis & river Tanais, rose from their seats & under the conduct of their king Balamber or Balamir invaded the nations which lay between them & Dacia & chiefly the Alans a Gothic nation & soon after the death of Hermaneric entred Dacia & made the people either submit or fly. The Ostrogoths submitted but the Gruthungi made some resistance their King Winitharius having strengthned himself by conquering the Antes the year before the Hunns invaded him. He beat the Hunns in one or two battels but was slain by Balamir in the third battel & his kingdom was given to Hunnimund. For Sigismund the son of Hunnimund had assisted the Hunns in this war with an army of Ostrogoths. After this the Hunns pursued Athanaric, & the greatest part of his people deserting him fled with some other Goths to the side of the Danube under the conduct of Alavivus. Fridigern also fled thither with his people the Visigoths. And these nations sent an embassy to the Emperor Valens & obteined leave to pass the Danube & seat themselves in Mœsia & Thrace. Their patriarch Vlphilas was at the head of this embassy. And presently after, a great part of the Gruthungi under the conduct of Alatheus & Saphrase the guardians of Videric the young son of Winitharius (now their king) flying from the Huns & Ostrogoths came to the side of the Danube & made the same petition but were rejected. Yet they passed the Danube soon after without leave, while the Roman army was detained in Rhætia in a war against the Alemans & Sueves. This rout was in the year 377.

The Goths being seated in the Empire were soon prest with famin & grosly abused by the Roman Governours who sold them dogs flesh & other carrion at high rates & otherwise provoked them. Whereupon they took up arms invaded Thrace, called to their assistance some Goths Hunns & Alans from beyond the Danube routed the Roman Army, slew the Emperor Valens & spread themselves into Greece & Pannonia as far as the Alps, Alatheus & Saphrax going westward. This was in the year 378. But in the years 379 & 380 they were chect by the arms of the Emperors Gratian & Theodosius & made a submissive peace & the Visigoths & Thervingi returned to their seats in Mœsia & Thrace, the Hunns retired over the Danube & the Alans & Gruthungi obteined seats in Pannonia.[4] During this war Athanaric king of the Thervingi came over the Danube & now made the Emperor Theodosius a visit at Constantinople, was honourably received, died in a few days in Ianuary 1681 after a reign of 13 years, & was splendidly interred, & his people seing this treatment, subjected themselves immediately to the Emperor without chusing another king. But Fridigern King of the Visigoths was succeeded by Alaric & Videric king of the Gruthungi by Radagaisus.

The Vandals are recconed a branch of the Gepides, but when they separated from them is <4r> uncertain. Iornandes tells us that the royal family of the Vandals was of the stock of the Asdingi & Dio that the Astingi under the conduct of Rhaus & Rhaptus entred Dacia in the reign of the Emperor Marcus & had seats granted them there by that Emperor. From that time therefore the Astingi, Asdingi or Vandals were members of the Roman Empire. They were seated on the eastern side of the river Teys where the rivers Maresh & Keresh run westward into it. In the reign of Constantine the great they were conquered by the Gepides & left these their seats to the conquerors & had seats granted them in Pannonia by that Emperor. Iornandes tells us that they lived quietly in Pannonia 40 years & long after that invaded Gallia. And a little after he says that when Alatheus & Safrach invaded Pannonia, Gratian was gone from Rome into Gallia by reason of an incursion of the Vandals. He reccons therefore that the Vandals lived quietly in Pannonia 40 years untill this incursion & long after this incursion invaded Gallia a second time. But he seems to be mistaken in ascribing this incursion to the Vandals. It was against the Alemans a German nation seated upon the upper Rhene that Gratian went at this time into Gallia. And the Vandals staid in Pannonia 30 years longer, in all 70 years or above before they invaded Gallia. And by their long stay in the Roman Empire, first in Dacia & then in Pannonia, the Christian religion prevailed amongst them. They lived in Pannonia without a king & at length upon new commotions of the Gothic nations & Hunns coming over the Danube they rose from those seats & made Godegisilus a Christian their Capitain & taking along with them the Alans & some other nations in their way to the Rhene they invaded Gallia while Rhadagaisus & Alaric invaded Italy & the Hunns & Ostrogoths Pannonia & by these invasions & the revolt of the Salian Franks & British soldiers, the western empire at once brake into ten kingdoms, the history of which is as follows.

< insertion from f 4v > After the death of the Emperor Theodosius the Visigoths under the conduct of Alaric now their king rose up from their seats in Thrace & wasted Macedon Thessaly Achaia Peloponnesus & Epire which fire & sword five years together, & then turning westward invaded Dalmatia Illyricum & Pannonia & from thence went into Italy A.C. 402 & the next year were so beaten at Pollenti{a} & Verona by Stilico the commander of the forces of the western Empire that Claudian calls the remainder of the forces of Alaric tanta ex gente reliquias breves & Prudentius gentem deletam. Thereupon Alaric made peace with the Emperor being so far humbled that Orosius tells us he did pro pace optima & quibuscunque sedibus supplicitur & simpliciter orare. This peace a[5] was ratified by mutual hostages & Ætius was sent hostage to Alaric.

When Alaric took up arms, the nations beyond the Danube began to be in motion & the next winter (the winter between A.C. 395 & A.C. 396) a great body of Hunns, Alans, Ostrogoths & other northern nations came over the frozen Danube, being invited by Ruffin; & their brethren also who had obteined seats within the Empire took up arms. Ierome calls all this great multitude Hunns, Alans, Vandals Goths, Sarmatans, Quades & Marcomanns, & saith that they invaded all places between Constantinople & the Iulian alps, wasting Scythia Thrace Macedon Dardania Dacia Thessaly Achaia Epire Dalmatia & all Pannonia. And the Suevians also invaded Rhætia. For when Alaric ravaged Pannonia the Romans were defending Rhætia which gave Alaric an opportunity of invading Italy, as Claudian thus mentions.

[6]Non nisi perfidia nacti penetrabile tempus

Irrupere Getæ, nostras dum Rhætia vires

Occupat, atque alio desudant Marte cohortes.

And when Alaric went from those parts into Italy, some other barbarous nations invaded Noricum & Vindelicia as the same Claudian thus mentions.

Iam fœdera gentes

Exuerant, Latijque audita clade feroces

Vendelicos saltus & Norica rura tenebant.

Among these nations I reccon the Suevians Quades & Marcomans. For they were all in arms at this time, & the Quades & Marcomans were Suevian nations, & now united with the Suevians under one common king called Ermeric who soon after led them into Gallia. The Vandals & Alans might also about this time extend themselves into Noricum. Also Vldin with a new great body of Hunns passed the Danube about the time of Chrysostoms banishment, that is, A.C. 404 & wasted Thrace & Mœsia. And Radagaisus king of the Gruthungi inviting over more barbarians from beyond the Danube, invaded Italy with an army of above 200000 Goths & the next year A.C. 405 or 406 was overcome by Stilico & perished with his army. In this war Stilico was assisted by a great body of Hunns & Ostrogoths under the conduct of Vldin & Sarus. They were hired by the Emperor Honorius.

And now Stilico purposing to make himself Emperor, procured a military Præfecture for Alarick, & sent him into the east in the service of Honorius the western Emperor, committing some Roman troops to his conduct to strengthen his army of Goths. & promising to follow soon after with his own army. His pretence was to recover some regions of Illyricum which the eastern Emperor was accused to detein injuriously from the western: but his secret designe was to make himself Emperor by the assistance of the Vandals & their allies; for he himself was a Vandal. For faciliating this designe he invited a great body of the barbarous nations to invade the western Empire while he & Alaric invaded the eastern. And these nations under their several kings, the Vandals under Godegisilus, the Alans in two bodies the one under Goar the other under Resplendial & the Suevians Quades & Marcomans under Ermeric < text from f 4r resumes > <5r> marched through Rhetia to the side of the Rhene leaving their seats in Pannonia to the Hunns & Goths & joyned the Burgundians under Gundicar & ruffled the Francks in their further march & on the last day of December A.C. 406 passed the Rhene at Ments, & diffused themselves into Germania prima & the adjacent regions, & amongst other actions the Vandals tooke Trevirs. Then they advanced into Belgium & began to ruffle that country. Whereupon the Salian Franks (a German nation whom the Emperors had sometime before received into the Empire, & placed as subjects in that part of Belgium which lies between Brabant & the Rhene,) took up arms & made so stout a resistance that they slew almost twenty thousand of the Vandals which their king Godegisilus in battel, the rest escaping only by a party of Resplendials Alans which came timely to their assistance.

Resplendial seing this disaster & that Goar was gone over to the Romans led his army from the Rhene & together with the Suevians & residue of the Vandals went towards Spain, the Franks in the meane time prosecuting their victory so far as to retake Trevirs, which after they had plundred they left to the Romans. The barbarians were at first stopt by the Pyrenean mountains, which made them diffuse themselves into Aquitane, but the next year they had the passage betrayed to them, & entring Spain 4 Kal. Octob. A.C. 409, every one conquered there what he could, & at length A.C. 411 they divided their conquests by lot, & the Vandals obteined Bœtica & part of Gallæcia, the Suevians the rest of Gallæcia, & the Alans Lusitania & the Carthaginensian Province, the Emperor for peace sake confirming them in those seats by grant. A.C. 413.

In the mean time the British soldiers allarm'd by the rumour of these things, revolt & set up Tyrants there, first Marcus whom they slew presently, then Gratian whom they slew within four months, & lastly Constantine under whom they invaded Gallia A.C. 408. And Constantine having possest a good part of Gallia created his <6r> son Constans Cæsar & sent him into Spain to order his affairs there: about which time it was that the barbarous nations were let into Spain by some of the soldiers of Constans betraying the Pyrenean passage to them.

Also the Roman Franks above mentioned having made Theudemir the Prince of their old royall family king over them, began streight after their conquest of the Vandals to invade their neighbours. The first they set upon were the Galls of Brabant[7], but meeting with notable resistance they desired their alliance. And so those Galls fell off from the Romans & the two nations made an intimate league to be as one people, marrying with one another & conforming to one another's manners till they became one without distinction. Thus by the access of these Galls & of the foreign Franks also who afterwards came over the Rhene, the Salian kingdom soon grew very great & powerfull.

About the same time Stilico's expedition against the Greek Emperor being stopt by the order of Honorius, Alaric came out of Epire into Noricum & requested a summ of money for his service. The senate were inclined to deny him but by Stilico's mediation granted it. But after a while Stilico being accused of a traiterous conspiracy which Alaric & slain 10 Kal. Sept. A.C. 408 & so Alaric disappointed of his money & reputed an enemy to the Empire, he broke streight into Italy which his army which he brought out of Epire, & sent to his brother Adaulphus to follow him with what other forces he had in Pannonia which were not great but yet not to be despised. Thereupon Honorius fearing to be shut up in Rome retired to Ravenna in October A.C. 408, and from that time Ravenna continued to be the seat of the western Emperors. In those days the Hunns also invaded Pannonia & seizing the deserted seats of the Vandals Alans & Goths founded a new kingdom there. And Alaric advancing to Rome beseiged it & 9 Kal. Sept. A.C. 410 took it & afterwards attempting to pass into Afric was shipwrackt. After which Honorius made peace with him & got up an army to send against the Tyrant Constantine.

At the same time Gerontius one of Constantine's Captains revolted from him & set up one Maximus Emperor in Spain <7r> whereupon Constantine sent Edobec another of his Captains to draw to his assistance, besides the barbarians under Goar & Gundicar in Gallia, supplies of Franks & Alemans from beyond the Rhene, & committed the custody of Vienna in Narbonne to his son Constans. Gerontius advancing, first slew Constans at Vienna, & then began to beseige Constantine at Arles: but Honorius at the same time sending Constantius which an army on the same errand, Gerontius fled & Constantius continued the siege being strengthned by the access of the greatest part of Gerontius's soldiers. After four months siege, Edobec having procured succours, the barbarian kings at Ments Goar & Gundicar constitute Iovinus Emperor & together which him set forward to releive Arles. At their approach Constantius retired, they pursued & he beat them by surprize, but not prosecuting his victory, the Barbarians soon recovered themselves, yet not so as to hinder the fall of the Tyrants Constantine, Iovinus & Maximus. But Brittain could not be recovered to the Empire, but remained ever after a distinct kingdom.

The next year A.C. 412 the Goths being beaten in Italy had Aquitain granted to retire thence into & they invaded it which much violence, causing the Alans & Burgundians to retreat which were then depopulating it. At the same time the Burgundians were brought to terms of peace & the Emperor granted them for inheritance a region upon the Rhene which they had invaded. And the same I presume he did which the Alans. But the Franks not long after retaking & burning Trevirs, Castinus A.C. 415 was sent against them with an army & routed them & slew Theudemir their king. This was the second taking of Trevirs by the Franks. And Meroveus about the year 448 took it again & destroyed it. so that it was taken four times once by the Vandals & thrice by the Franks. Pharamund the son of Marcomir or, as others say, the son of Suno reigned after Theudemir, & had seats granted to his nation neare the Rhene.

And now the Barbarians were all quieted & setled in several kingdoms within the empire not only by conquest but also by the grants of the Emperor Honorius. For Rutilius in his Itinerary written in autumn anno Vrbis 1169, that is, according to Varro's computation then in use, A.C. 416, thus laments the wasted fields of France.

Illa quidem longis nimium deformia bellis, & then adds

Iam tempus laceris post longa incendia fundis

Vel pastorales ædificare casas. And a little after

Æternum tibi Rhenus aret.

<8r>

And Orosius in the end of his History which was finished A.C. 417 represents now a general pacification of the barbarous nations by the words comprimere, coangustare, addicere gentes immanissimas, terming them imperio addictos because they had obteined seats in the Empire by league & compact, & coangustatas because they did no longer invade all regions at pleasure but by the same compact remained quiet within the seats granted them

Now by the wars above described the western Empire was broken into the ten kingdoms following,

[8]1 The kingdom of the Vandals

2 The kingdom of the Suevians

3 The kingdom of the Alans in Spain

4 the kingdom of the Visigoths

5 The kingdom of the Alans in France

6 The kingdom of the Burgundians

7 The kingdom of the Franks

8 The kingdom of the Brittains

9 The kingdom of the Hunns & Ostrogoths

10 The kingdom of Ravenna.

Eight of these kingdoms are thus mentioned by Sigonius 1Honorio regnante in Pannoniam 2Hunni, in Hispaniam 3Vandali 4Alani 5Suevi et 8Gothi, in Galliam 6Alani 7Burgundiones & 8Gothi certis sedibus permissis accepti. Add the Franks & Brittains & you have the ten. But let us view them severally. < insertion from f 7v > Add The Franks & Lombards who were received before the reign of Honorius, & the Britains who were conquered long before, & you have them all But let us view them severally.

< text from f 8r resumes >

1. The kings of the Vandals were A.C. 407 Gunderic the successor of Godegisilus, 426 Geiseric, 477 Huneric, 484 Gundemund, 496 Thrasamund, 523 Hilderic, 531 Gelimer. Gunderic led them into spain A.C. 409, Geiseric into Afric A.C. 427 & Gelimer was taken by Belisarius A.C. 533. Their kingdom stood in Spain & Afric together 123 years & 7 months & in Afric they were very potent.

2 The kings of the Suevians were A.C. 407 Ermeric, 438 Rechila, 448 Rechiarius, 458 Maldra, 460 Frumarius, 463 Remismundus. And at length after divers Arian Kings reigned A.C. 563 Theodemir, 568 Miro, 582 Euboricus & 583 Andeca. This kingdom remained always in Gallæcia & Lusitania. Ermeric after the fall of the Alan kingdom enlarged it into all Gallicia forcing the Vandals to retire into Bœtica & Rechila added Bœtica & the Carthaginensian Province. <9r> This kingdom lasted 177 years or as Vasæus writes till the year 584 & then was subdued by Leovigildus king of the Visigoths & made a Province of his kingdom.

3 The kings of the Alans in France & Spain were A.C. 409 Resplendial 416 Ataces Vtacus or Othacar. Resplendial began his reign in France A.C. 407 & Ataces was slain with almost all his army by Vallia king of the Visigoths A.C. 419. Whereupon these Alans subjected themselves to Gunderic king of the Vandals in Bœtica but the next year being impatient of subjection fell off from him & returned to the Carthaginensian province where they lived alone tributary to the Romans in a kind of common wealth without a king & about the year 448 made war upon the Romans in Carpentania & the Carthaginensian province & wasted their cities but were checkt by Rechila king of the Suevians. Their kingdom while it stood was the most potent in Spain & dominered over the rest, & after it fell their people remained where it had stood & being mixed which the Chatthi gave the name of Cathalaunia (or Cath-Alania) to the Province which is still so called.

4. The kings of the Visigoths were A.C. , 408 Alaric, 410 Athaulphus, 415 Sergeric & Vallia 419 Theoderic 451 Thorismund, 452 Theoderic 465 Euric 482 Alaric, 505 Gesalaric, 526 Amalane, Theudius 539, Theudiselus 548 &c. Alaric was a subject of the Empire till he came out of Epire. I date his reign from the time of his rebellion & invasion of Italy A.C. 408. but it may be dated from the time of his rising up in arms A.C. 395. In the end of Athaulphus's reign the Goths were humbled by the Romans & attepmted to pass out of France into Spain. Sergeric reigned but a few days. In the beginning of Vallia's reign they assaulted the Romans afresh but were again repulsed & then made peace on this condition that they should on behalf of the Empire invade the barbarian kingdoms in Spain which they did together which the Romans in the years 417, & 418 overthrowing the Alans & part of the Vandals & then received Aquitain of the Emperor by a full donation, leaving their conquests in Spain to the Emperor, tho Sigonius thinks they had some seats granted them there also. A.C. 455 Theoderic (assisted by the Burgundians) invaded Spain which was then about all subject to the Suevians & took a part of it from them. A.C. 506 the Goths were driven out of Gallia by the Franks. A.C. 585 they conquered the Suevian kingdom & became lords of all Spain. A.C. 713 the Saracens invaded them, but in time they recovered their dominions & <10r> have reigned in Spain ever since.

5 The Kings of the Alans in Gallia were Goar, Sambida, Eocharic Sangibanus Beurgus &c. Vnder Goar they invaded Gallia A.C. 407 & had seats given them neare the Rhene A.C. 412. Vnder Sambida (whom Bucher puts the successor if not the son of Goar) they had the territories of Valence given them by Ætius the Emperor's General A.C. 440. Vnder Eocharic they conquered a region of the rebelling Armorici given them by Ætius. This region was from them named Alenconium quasi Alanorum conventus. Vnder Sangibanus they were invaded & their regal City Orleance beseiged by Attila king of the Hunns which a vast army of 500000. Where Ætius & the barbarian kings of Gallia came to raise the siege & beat the Hunns in a very memorable battel A.C. 451 in campis Catalaunicis so called from these Alans mixt which the Chatthi. The region is now contractly called Campain. In that battel were slain on both sides 162000. A year or two after, Attila returned again with an immense army to conquer this kingdom but was again beaten by them & the Visigoths together, in a battel of three days continuance, which a slaughter almost as great as the former. Vnder Beurgus or Biorgor they infested Gallia round about till the reign of Maximus the Emperor & then they past the Alps in winter & came into Liguria but were there beaten & Beurgus slain by Ricimer commander of the Emperors forces A.C. 464. Afterwards they were again beaten by the joynt force of Odoacer king of Italy & Childeric king of the Franks about the year 480 & again by Theudebert king of the Austrian Franks about the year 511.

6 The kings of the Burgundians were A.C. 407 Gundicar 436 Gundioc 467 Bilimer 473 Gundobaldus which his brother 510 Sigismund 517 Godomarus. Vnder Gundicar they invaded Gallia A.C. 407 & had seats given them by the Emperor neare the Rhene in Gallia Belgica A.C. 412. They had Saxons among them & were now so potent that Orosius A.C. 417 wrote of them Burgundionum esse prævalidam & perniciosam manum Galliæ hodieque testes sunt in quibus præsumpta possessione consistunt. About the year 435 they received great overthrows by Ætius & soon after by the Hunns but five years after had Savoy granted them to be shared which the inhabitants, & from that time became again a potent kingdom being bounded by the river Rhodanus but afterwards extending much further into the heart of Gallia. Gundobald conquered the regions about the rivers Araris & Rhodanus which the territories of Marseille & invaded Italy in the time of Glycerius & conquered all his brethren. Godomarus made Orleans his royal seat. Whence the kingdom was called regnum Aurelianorum. He was conquered by Clotharius & Childebert kings of the Franks A.C. 526. And from thence forward this kingdom was sometimes united to <11r> the kingdom of the Franks somtimes divided from it till the reign of Charles the great who made his son Carolotus king of Burgundy, from which time for above 300 years together it enjoyed its proper kings & was then broken into the Dukedom of Burgundy & County of Burgundy & County of Savoy, and afterwards those were broken into other less Counties.

7 The kings of the Franks were A.C. 407 Theudemir, 416 Pharamund, 428 Clodio, 448 Meroveus 456 Childeric 482 Clodoveus &c. Windeline & Bucher, two of the most diligent searchers into the originals of this kingdom make it begin the same year which the barbarian invasions of Gallia, that is A.C. 407. Of the first kings there is in Labbee's Bibliotheca M.S. this record

Historica quædam excerpta ex veteri stemmate genealogico Regum Franciæ.

Genobaldus, Marcomerus, Suno, Theodemeris. Isti duces vel Reguli extiterunt a principio gentis Francorum diversis temporibus: sed incertum relinquunt historici quali sibi procreationis linea successerunt.

Pharamundus: sub hoc Rege suo primo Franci legibus se subdunt, quas Primores eorum tulerunt, Wisogastus, Atrogastus, Salegastus.

Chlochilo. Iste transito Rheno Romanos in Carbonaria Sylva devicit, Camaracum cœpit & obtinuit. Annis 20 regnavit. Sub hoc rege Franci usque Sumam progressi sunt.

Merovechus: sub hoc rege Franci Trevirim destruunt, Metim succendunt, usque Aurelianum perveniunt.

Now for Genobaldus Marcomer & Suno, they were capitains of the transrhenane Franks in the reign of Theodosius & so concern us not. We are to begin with Theudemir the first king of the rebelling Salij, called Didio by Ivo Carnotensis & Thiedo & Thiedemerus by Rhenanus. His face is extant in a coyn of gold found with this incription THEVDEMER REX published by Petavius & still or lately extant as Windeline testifies: which shews that he was a king & that in Gallia seing rude Germany understood not then the coyning of money nor used either Latin words or letters. He was the son of Richemer or Richomer the favorite of the Emperor Theodosius, & So being of the Salian Royal blood, they therefore upon the rebellion made him their king. The whole time of his reign you have stated in Excerptis Gregorij Turonensis e Fredigario cap 5, 6, 7, 8 where the making him king the tyranny of Iovinus the slaughter of Iovinus's associates, the second taking of Trevirs by the Franks & their war with Castinus in which this king was slain are as a series of successive things thus set down in order. Extinctis ducibus in Francis denuò Reges creantur ex eadem stirpe qua prius fuerant. Eodem tempore Iovinus ornatus regios assumpsit. Constantinus fugam versus Italian <12r> dirigit: missis a Iovino Principe percussoribus super Mentio flumine capite truncatur. Multi nobilium jussu Iovini apud Avernis capti & a ducibus Honorij crudeliter interempti sunt. Trevirorum civitas factione unius ex Senatoribus nomine Lucij a Francis capta et incensa est. – Castinus Domesticorum Comes expeditionem accipit contra Francos &c. Then returning to speak of Theudemer he adds: Franci electum a se regem, sicut prius fuerat crinitum inquirentes diligenter ex genere Priami Frigi et Francionis super se creant, nomine Theudemerem filium Richimeris, qui in hoc prælio quod supra memini a Romanis interfectus est, that is in the battel which Castin's army. Of his death Gregory Turonensis makes this further mention. In consularibus legimus Theodemerem Regem Francorum filium Ricimeris quondam & Ascilam matrem ejus, gladio interfectos.

Vpon this victory of the Romans, the Franks & rebelling Galls who in the time of Theudemer were in war with one another united to strengthen themselves, as Ordericus Vitalis[9] thus mentions Cum Galli priùs contra Romanos rebellassent Franci ijs sociati sunt, & pariter juncti Ferramundum Sunnonis ducis filium sibi regem prǽfecerunt. Prosper sets the time. Anno 25 Honorij Pharamundus regnat in Francia. This Bucher well refers to the end of the year 416 or the beginning of the next year, dating the years of Honorius from the death of Valentinian, & argues well that at this time Paramund was not only made king by constitution of the Franks but crowned also by the consent of Honorius & had a part of Gallia assigned to him by covenant. And this I suppose was the cause that Roman writers recconed him the first king: Which some not understanding have feigned him the founder of the Kingdom by an army of the transrhenane Franks: whereas he was of the Salique race & legitimate successor of Theudemer. For the above cited passage of Fredegarius Extinctis Ducibus, in Francis denuò Reges creantur ex eadem stirpe qua prius implies that the kingdome continued to the new elected family during the reign of more kings then one. If you date the years of Honorius from the death of his father, the reign of Pharamund might begin two years later then is assigned by Bucher. The Salique laws made in his reign which are yet extant shew by their name that it was the kingdom of the Salij that he reigned over & by the pecuniary mulcts in them that the place where he reigned abounded very much with money & consequently was within the Empire rude Germany not knowing the use of money till they mixed which the Romans. Also in the Preface to the Salique Laws (written soon after the conversion of the Franks to the Christian religion, that is in the end of the reign of Meroveus or soon after) the original of this kingdom is thus described. Hæc <13r> enim Gens quæ fortis dum esset & robore valida Romanorum jugum durissimum de suis cervicibus excussit pugnando &c This kingdom therefore was erected not by invasion but by rebellion as was described above. Prosper in registring their kings in order tells us Pharamundus regnat in Francia Clodio regnat in Francia. Merovæus regnat in Francia & who can imagin but that in all these places he meant one & the same Francia & yet its certain that the Francia of Merovæus was in Gallia.

✝Yet < insertion from f 13v > ✝ Yet the father of Pharamund being king of a body of Franks in Germany in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius, as above, Pharamund might reign over the same Franks in Germany before he succeeded Theudemir in the kingdom of the Salians within the Empire & even before Theudemir began his reign, suppose in the first year of Honorius when those Franks being repulsed by Stilico lost their kings Marcomir & Suno. one of which was the father of Pharamund And the Roman Franks after the death of Theudemir might invite Pharamund with his people from beyond the Rhene. But we are not here to regard the reign of Pharamund in Germany. We are to date this kingdom from its rise within the Empire & to look upon it as only strengthned by the access of other Franks coming from beyond the Rhene whether in the reign of this king or in that of his successor Clodio. For in the last year of Pharamunds reign Ætius took from him – – < text from f 13r resumes > In the last year of Pharamunds reign Ætius took from him a part of his possession in Gallia but his successor Clodio (whom Fredegarius puts the son of Theudemir & some call Clogio, Cloio, & Claudius) inviting from beyond the Rhene a great body of Franks recovered all & carried on their conquests as far as the river Soame & then dividing conquests with the forreign Franks which he had brought from beyond the Rhene, those Franks erected certain new kingdoms at Colen & Cambray & some other cities all which were afterwards conquered by Clodoveus who also drave the Goths out of Gallia & placed his seat at Paris where it has continued ever since. And this was the original of the present kingdom of France.

8 The kings of Brittain were A.C 408 Marcus, Gratian, & Constantine successively. A.C. 425 Vortigern. 466 Aurelius Ambrosius. 498 Vther Pendraco 508 Arthur. 542 Contantinus, 545 Aurelius Cunanus, 578 Vortiporeus, 581 Malgo, 586 Careticus, 613 Cadwan, 635 Cadwalin, 676 Cadwelader. The three first were Tyrants who revolted from the Empire. Orosius Prosper & Zosimus connect their revolt which the irruption of the Barbarians into Gallia as consequent thereto & Prosper (which whome Zosimus agrees) puts it in the year which began the day after the irruption. The just time I thus collect Marcus reigned not many days Gratian four months & Constantine three years. He was slain the year after the sacking of Rome that is A.C. 411, 14 Kal Octob. Whence the revolt was in spring A.C. 408. Sozomen joyns Constantines expedition into Gallia which Arcadius's death or the times a little after & Arcadius died A.C. 408, May the 1st. Now the reign of these Tyrants was but short yet they gave a beginning to the kingdom of Brittain & so may be recconed the three first kings, especially since the posterity of Constantine (vizt his sons Aurelius Ambrosius & Vther Pendraco & grandson Arthur) reigned afterwards. For from the time of the revolt of these Tyrants Brittain continued a distinct kingdom absolved from subjection to the Empire, the Emperor not being able to spare soldiers to be sent <14r> thither to recover & keep the Island & so neglecting it: as we learn by unquestionable records. For Prosper tells us A.C. 410 Variane Cos. Hac tempestate præ valetudine Romanorum, vires funditus attenuatæ Britanniæ. And Sigebert conjoyning this with the siege of Rome saith Britannorum vires attenuatæ & substrahunt se a Romanorum dominatione. And Zosimus lib. 6 The transrhenane Barbarians invading all places reduc't the inhabitants of the Island of Brittain & also certain Celtic nations to that pass that they fell off from the Roman Empire & being no longer obedient to the Roman laws κατ᾽ ἐαυτὸν βιατεύειν they lived in separate bodies after their own pleasure. Therefore the Brittains taking up arms & hazzarding themselves for their own safety, they freed their cities from the imminent barbarians. In like manner all[10] Brabant & other Provinces of the Galls imitating the Brittains freed themselves after the same manner, ejecting the Roman Presidents & forming a certain Commonwealth according to their own pleasure. This rebellion of Brittain & the Celtic nations happened when Constantine usurpt the kingdom. So also Procopius (l. 1 Vand.) speaking of the same Constantine saith Constantine being overcome in battel was slain with his children: Βρετταννίαν μέν τοι Ρωμαῖοι ανασώσασθαι οὐκέτι ἔχον. ἀλλ᾽ οὖσα ὑπὸ τυράννοις ἀπ᾽ ἀυτοῦ ἔμενε: yet the Romans could not recover Brittain any more, but from that time it remained under Tyrants. And Beda (l. 1. c. 11) Fracta est Roma a Gothis anno 1164 suæ conditionis ex quo tempore Romani in Britannia regnare cessaverunt. And Ethelwerdus: A tempore Romæ a Gothis expugnatæ cessavit imperium Romanorum a Britannia insula, & ab alijs quas sub jugo servitutis tenebant multis terris. And Theodorit (serm 9 de Curand. Græc. affect.) about the year 424 reccons the Brittains among the nations which were not then in subjection to the Roman Empire. And so Sigonius (ad annum 411) Imperium Romanorum post excessum Constantini in Britannia nullum fuit.

Between the death of Constantine & reign of Vortigern was an interregnum of about 14 years in which the Britains had wars which the Picts & Scots & twice obteined the assistance of a Roman legion, which drave out the enemy, but told them positively at their departure they would come no more. Of Vortigerns beginning there is this record in an old Chronicle in Nennius quoted by Cambden & others. Guortigernus tenuit imperium in Britannia Theodosio & Valentiniano Coss [that is A.C. 425] & in quarto anno regni sui Saxones ad Britanniam venerunt Fælice et Tauro Coss. [that is A.C 428] This coming of the Saxons Sigebert refers to the 4th year of Valentinian which falls in which the year 428 assigned by this Chronicle: & two years after the <15r> saxons together with the Picts were beaten by the Britains. Afterwards in the reign of Martian the Emperor that is between the years 450 & 456 the Saxons under Hengist were called in by the Britains but six years after revolted from them, & made war upon them with various success & by degrees succeeded them. Yet the Britains continued a flourishing kingdom till the reign of Careticus. & the war between the two nationsa[11] continued till the reign of Pope Sergius A.C. 688.

9 The Kings of the Hunns were A.C. 406 Octar & Rugila, 433 Bleda & Attila. Octar & Rugila were the brothers of Munzuc king of the Hunns in Gothia beyond the Danube & Bleda & Attila his sons & Munzuc was the son of Balamir. The two first Iornandes tells us were kings of the Hunns, but not of them all & had the two last for their successors. I date the reign of the Hunns in Pannonia from the time that the Vandals & Alans relinquished Pannonia to them A.C. 406, Sigonius from the time that the Visigoths relinquished Pannonia A.C. 408. Constat, saith he [12] quod Gothis ex Illyrico profectis Hunni successerunt atque imprimis Pannoniam tenuerunt. Neque enim Honorius viribus ad resistendum in tantis difficultatibus destitutus prorsus ers prohibere potuit, sed meliore consilio, animo ad pacem converso fœdus cum eis, datis acceptisque obsidibus fecit, ex quibus qui dati sunt, Ætius, qui etiam Alarico tributus fuerat præcipue memoratur. How Ætius was hostage to the Goths & Hunns is related by Frigeridus who when he had mentioned that Theodosius Emperor of the east had sent grievous commands to Iohn who after the death of Honorius had usurped the crown of the western Empire, he subjoyns. Iis permotus Ioannes Ætium id temporis Curam Palatij gerentem cum ingenti auri pondere ad Chunnos transmisit notos sibi obsidiatûs sui tempore & familiari amicitia devinctos – And a little after: Ætius tribus annis Alarici obses, dehuic Chunnorum, posthæc Carpilionis gener ex Comite domesticorum & Ioannis Cura palatij. Now Bucher shews that Ætius was hostage to Alaric till the year 410 when Alaric died & to the Huns between the years 411 & 415 & son in law to Carpilio about the year 417 or 418 & Curapalates to Iohn about the end of the year 423. Whence its probable that he became hostage to the Hunns about the year 412 or 413 when Honorius made leagues with almost all the barbarous nations & granted them seats. But I had rather say with Sigonius that Ætius became hostage to Alaric A.C. 403. Its further manifest out of Prosper that the Hunns were in quiet possession of Pannonia in the year 432. For in the 1st book of Eusebius's chronicle Prosper writes Anno 10mo post obitum Honorij cum ad Chunnorum gentem cui tunc Rugúla præerat, post prælium cum Bonifacio se Ætius contulisset, impetrato auxilio ad Romanorum solum regreditur. And in the 2d book: Ætio et Valerio Coss: Ætius <16r> deposita potestate profugus ad Hunnos in Pannonia pervenit quorum amicitia auxilioque usus pacem principum interpellatæ potestatis obtinuit. Hereby it appears that at this time Rugila (or as Maximus calls him Rechilla) reigned over the Hunns in Pannonia & that Pannonia was not now so much as accounted within the soile of the Empire, being formerly granted away to the Hunns, & that these were the very same Hunns which which Ætius had in the time of his being an hostage contracted friendship, by virtue of which as he sollicited them before to the aid of Iohn the Tyrant A.C. 424 so now he procured their intercession for himself which the Emperor. Octar died A.C. 430, for Socrates tells us that about that time the Burgundians having been newly vext by the Hunns upon intelligence of Octars death seing them without a leader set upon them suddenly with so great success that 3000 Burgundians slew 10000 Hunns. Of Rugila's being now king in Pannonia you have heard already. He died A.C. 433 & was succeeded by Bleda as Prosper & Maximus inform us. This Bleda with his brother Attila were before this time kings of the Hunns beyond the Danube, their father Munzuc's kingdom being divided between them & now they united the kingdom of Pannonia to their own. Whence Paulus Diaconus saith they did Regnum intra Pannoniam Daciamque gerere. In the year 441 they began to invade the Empire afresh adding to the Pannonian forces new & great armies from Scythia: but this war was presently composed & then Attila seing Bleda inclined to peace slew him A.C. 444 inherited his dominions & invaded the Empire afresh. But At length after various great wars with the Romans Attila perished A.C. 454, & his sons quarrelling about his dominions gave occasion to the Gepides Ostrogoths & other nations who were their subjects, to rebell & make war upon them. And the same year the Ostrogoths had seats granted them in Pannonia by the Emperors Marcian & Valentinian & with the Romans ejected the Hunns out of Pannonia soon after the death of Attila as all historians agree <17r> This ejection was in the reign of Avitus as is mentioned in the Chronicum Boiorum & in Sidonius Carm. 7 in Avitum which speaks of that Emperor

– Cujus solum amissas post sæcula multa

Pannonias revocavit iter, jam credere promptum est

Quid faciet bellis.

The Poet means that by the coming of Avitus the Hunns yeilded more easily to the Goths. This was written by Sidonius in the beginning of the reign of Avitus. And his reign began in the end of the year 455, & lasted not one full year.

Iornandes tells us; Duodecimo anno regni Waliæ post pene quinquaginta annos invasa Pannonia, Hunni a Romanis et Gothis pulsi sunt. And Marcelline: Hierio et Ardaburio Coss. Pannoniæ quæ per quinquaginta annos ab Hunnis retinebantur, a Romanis receptæ sunt. Whence it should seem that the Hunns invaded & held Pannonia from the year 378 or 379 to the year 427 & then were driver out of it. But this {is} a plane mistake. For its certain that the Emperor Theodosius left the Empire entire. And we have shewed out of Prosper that the Hunns were in quiet possession of Pannonia in the year 432. The Visigoths in those days had nothing to do with Pannonia, & the Ostrogoths continued subject to the Hunns till the death of Attalus A.C. 454, & Vallia king of the Visigoths did not reign twelve years. He began his reign in the end of the year 415, reigned three years & was slain A.C. 419 as Idasius, Isidorus, & the Spanish manuscript Chronicles seem by Grotius, testify. Yea Olympiodorus, who produces his history only to the year 425 sets down therein the death of Valia king of the Visigoths & conjoyns it with that of Constantius which happened A.C. 420. Wherefore the Valia of Iornandes who reigned at least 12 years, is some other king And I suspect that this name has been put by mistake for Valamir king of the Ostrogoths. For the action recorded was of the Romans & Ostrogoths driving the Hunns out of Pannonia after the death of Attila. And it is not likely that the historian would refer the history of the Ostrogoths to the years of the Visigothic kings. This action happened in the end of the year 455, which I take to be the twelft year of Valamir in Pannonia & which was almost fifty years after the year 406 in which the Hunns succeeded the Vandals & Alans in Pannonia. Vpon the ceasing of the line of Hunnimund the son of Hermaneric, the Ostrogoths lived without kings of their own nation about 40 years together, being subject to the Hunns. And when Attila began to make war upon the Romans. which was in the year 444, he made Valamir with his brothers Theodemir & Vidimer the grandsons of Vinithar Captains or kings of these Ostrogoths under him. And in the tweft year of Valamir's reign dated from thence the Hunns were driven out of Pannonia.

Yet the Hunns were not so ejected but that they had further contests with the Romans till the head of Denfix the son of Attila A.C. 469 (in the Consulship of Zeno & Marcian as Marcelline relates) was carried to Constantinople. Nor were <18r> they yet totally ejected the Empire. For besides their reliques in Pannonia, Sigonius tells us that when the Emperors Marcian & Valentinan granted Pannonia to the Goths (which was in the year 454) they granted some part of Illyricum to some of the Hunns & Sarmatans: And in the year 526 when the Lombards removing into Pannonia made war there upon the Gepides, the Avares (a part of the Hunns who had now taken the name of Avares from one of their kings) assisted the Lombards in that war, & the Lombards afterwards when they went into Italy, left their seats in Pannonia to the Avares in recompence of their friendship And from that time the Hunns grew again very powerfull their kings (whom they called Chagan) troubling the Empire very much in the reigns of the Emperors Mauricius Phocas & Heraclius. And this is the original of the present kingdom of Hungary, which from these Avares & other Hunns mixed together, took the name of Hun-Avaria, & by contraction Hungary.

10. The Lombards came over the Danube into the Empire, beat the Vandals, & seated themselves in Pannonia A.C. 379 379 as above. After the death of their Captains Ibor & Ayon, they had kings, Agilmundus, Lamisso, Lechu, Hildehoc, Gudehoc, Claffo, Tato, Wacho, Walter, Audoin, Alboin, Cleophis &c. Agilmundus was the son of Ayon & became their king (according to Prosper) in the Consulship of Honorius & Theodosius, A.C. 389, & reigned 33 years according to Paulus Warnefridus. But considering that the Lombards were at this time a small kingdom, its probable that they continued in Pannonia by the permission of the Romans & like the other barbarous nations lived quietly under them till after the death of Theodosius the great. And that in the reign of his sons when Pannonia was invaded by the Goths & other barbarians (suppose about the year 400 or 402) they stood upon their own defence the Romans being no longer able to protect them & keep them in obedience. Agilmundus was slain by the Bulgars a people so called from the river Volga from whence they came. Prosper places his death in the Consulship of Marinianus & Asclepiodorus A.C. 423. Lamisso routed the Bulgars & reigned three years & Lechu almost forty. Gudehoc was contemporary to Odoacer king of the Heruli in Italy, & about the year 478 led his people from Pannonia into Rugia a country on the north side of Noricum next beyond the – Danube, from whence Odoacer then carried the Rugians into Italy. Tato overthrew the kingdom of the Heruli beyond the Danube & Wacho conquered the Suevians a kingdom then bounded on the east by Bavaria, on the west by France & on the south by the Burgundians. Audoin returned into Pannonia A.C. 526 & there overcame the Gepides. Alboin A.C. 551 overthrew the kingdom of the Gepides & slew their king Cunnimundus, & A.C. 563 assisted the Greek Emperor against Totila king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, & A.C. 568 led his people out <19r> of Pannonia into Lombardy where they reigned till the year 774.

11. These ten kingdoms being rent away we are next to consider the residue of the western Empire. While this Empire continued entire it was the Beast himself: but the residue thereof is but a part of him. And if this part be considered as a horn, the reign of this horn may be dated from the translation of the Imperial seat from Rome to Ravenna, which was in October A.C. 408. For then the Emperor Honorius fearing that Alaric would besiege him in Rome if he stayed there, retired to Millain, & thence to Ravenna; & the ensuing siege & sacking of Rome confirmed his residence there, so that he & his successors ever after made it their home. And accordingly Machiavel in his Florentine History writes that Valentinian having left Rome translated the seat of the Empire to Ravenna.

Rhætia belonged to the western Emperors so long as that Empire stood, & then it descended with Italy & the Roman Senate to Odoacer king of the Heruli in Italy & after him to Theoderic king of the Ostrogoths & his successors by the grant of the Greek Emperors. Vpon the death of Valentinian the second the Alemans & Suevians invaded Rhætia A.C. 455. But I do not find that they erected any standing kingdome there. For in the year 457 while they were yet depopulating Rhætia they were attaqued & beaten by Burto the Master of the horse to the Emperor Majoranus: & I hear nothing more of their invading Rhætia. Clodovæus king of France in or about the year 496 conquered a kingdom of the Alemans & Suevians & slew their last king Ermeric. But this kingdom was seated in Germany & only bordered upon Rhætia. For its people fled from Clodovæus into the neighbouring kingdom of the Ostrogoths under Theoderic. And Theoderic received them as friends & wrote a friendly letter to Clodovæus in their behalf. And by this means they became inhabitants of Rhætia as subjects under the dominion of the Ostrogoths.

When the Greek Emperor conquered the Ostrogoths he succeeded them in the kingdom of Ravenna not only by right of conquest but also by right of inheritance the Roman Senate still going along with this kingdom. And therefore we may reccon that this kingdom continued in the Exarchate of Ravenna & Senate of Rome. For the Remainder of the Western Empire went along with the Senate of Rome by reason of the right which this Senate still retained & at length exerted, of chusing a western Emperor.

I have now enumerated all the kingdoms into which the Western Empire became divided at its first breaking. And if the kingdom of the Alans in Spain, by reason of its short continuance & its uniting with the kingdom of the Vandals so as to be comprehended therein, be omitted; you will have the just number of ten kingdoms. Some of these at length fell & new ones arose: but what ever was their number afterwards; they are still called the ten kings from their first number. –[14]

Now Daniel considered the horns & behold there came up among them another little horn before whom there were three of the first horns pluckt up by the roots, & behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of <20r> a man, & a mouth speaking great things, & its look was more stout then its fellows, & it made war with the Saints & prevailed against them. And one that stood by & made Daniel know the interpretation of these things told him that the ten horns were ten kings that should arise & another [king] should arise after them & be divers from the first [kings] & subdue three kings & speak great words against the most high & weare out the saints & think to change times & laws & that [after he had subdued the three kings] they should be given into his hands for a time times & half a time. This little horn in being numbred amongst the other horns & called a king, must be a little kingdom: For by horns & kings Daniel understands kingdoms. But it was of a different kind from the other ten kingdoms having a life or soul peculiar to it self with eyes & a mouth. By it eyes it was a Seer & by its mouth speaking great things & changing times & laws it was a Prophet as well as a king. And such a Seer a Prophet & a King was the Church of Rome. This was a dominion very divers from all other dominions, & the only dominion among the ten kingdoms to which the prophesy of this horn can be applied.

A Seer, Ἐπίσκοπος is a Bishop in the litteral sense of the word; & this Church claims the universal Bishopric.

With his mouth he gives laws to kings & nations as an Oracle & pretends to infallibility & that his dictates are binding to the whole world, which is to be a Prophet in the highest degree.

He claims a power of dispensing with Gods laws, of forgiving or retaining sins, of remitting or relaxing the pains of Purgatory & Hell, of granting Indulgences, of canonizing dead men to be worshipped with praise & invocation, of changing a piece of bread into a God to be adored, of disposing of kingdoms by divine right, of absolving subjects from their oaths of allegiance, & of depriving all his opposers of heaven by excommunications: all which is to be not only a Prophet & a king but even a God upon earth. This is his mouth. This is his look more stout then his fellows. And he is the only dominion in the world who pretends to such an universal dictatorship, & who speaks such great words against the most high. But let us see how he rose up after the ten kings & subdued three of them.

The Franks were heathens till the reign of Clodovæus their king. He being converted to the Roman religion A.C. 496 subjected his kingdom to the Pope, & Sigonius tells us that the Pope made Remigius Archbishop of Rhemes his deputy Bishop over France. This was the first considerable step gained by the Pope towards the universal bishopric over the barbarous nations who had invaded the Empire. Then Clodovæus who having gained a great victory over the Goths, received from the Greek Emperor Anastasius a splendid crown adorned with gemms, besides other presents: & having worn it one day for that victory A.C. 507, sent it seven years after, a present to the Pope, as more fit to adorn that august head then his own. This Crown, as Sigebert tells us, was afterwards called Regnum, the kingdom. And this was the first instance of the Popes wearing a temporal crown as Bishop of Rome For he had not yet a kingdom for which he should wear it, & his Metropolis Rome with all Italy was under the dominion of the Ostrogoths.

<21r>

In the year 536 Belisarius was sent by the Greek Emperor to make war upon the OstroGoths & in three years conquered them, but being recalled the Goths took up arms again & revived the war for a time, & in this contention Rome was almost dispeopled & laid in ruins. And the Lombards A.C. 568 invading Italy took from the Greek Emperors a considerable part thereof including the Alpes Cottiæ. &c. In the year 569 the Greek Emperor sent an Exarch to reside at Ravenna & govern his dominions in Italy & oppose the Lombards. And henceforward Rome with its territories was governed by a Duke under the Exarch till the year 711, & the Senate of Rome continued under the Duke as it had done formerly under its Emperors, & the Pope had nothing to do with the City or Dukedome in temporal affairs.

< insertion from f 21v > [15] Some write that Aribert king of the Lombards gave the Alpes Cottiæ to the Pope for a Patrimony to St Peter. < insertion from lower down f 21v > Some write that Aribert king of the Lombards gave the Alpes Cottiæ to the Pope for a Patrimony to St Peter. And its possible that the Pope before he ventured to excommunicate the Greek Emperor, might send to this king of the Lombards to know his sense of the matter, & be encouraged by a promise of these Alps, to proceed to a rupture. For these Alps at that time belonged to the Greek Emperor. Its possible also that Aribert might upon the excommunication, seize some lands of the Greek Emperor & share them with the Pope giving him the Alpes Cottiæ &c for his encouragement. But Luitprand the successor of Aribert took them back A.C. 713, & at the same time he took also the Patrimonium Sabinense from the Pope < text from f 21v resumes > at the same time he took away also the Patrimonium Sabinense from the Pope, & A.C. 739 he took four or five towns from the Dukedome of Rome. But A.C. 742 at the intercession of the Pope he restored what he had taken away & made a league with the Dukedome of Rome for twenty years & gave also the valley of Sutrium & some other lands to St Peter for a Patrimony. And among these lands I reccon the Alpes Cottiæ.

< text from f 21r resumes >

[16]In the year 711 or 712 the Greek Emperor Philippicus, for declaring against the worship of Images which had been long overspreading the Greek Empire was excommunicate by Pope Constantine & the people of Rome being stirred up, or the Pope by their consent & command or both together decreed that neither the Emperors letters nor his money should be received nor his statue as was the custome should be brought into the Church, nor his name be proclaimed in sacred solemnities because he was a heretick. Whereupon the city Ravenna also revolted & slew Iohn the Exarch, & all Italy was in expectation of a revolution. And the next year one Peter came from the Emperor Philippicus to be Duke of Rome & advanced with an armed force to subdue the City, but was met by a body of the Romans & beaten back. But the year following, Philippicus being then dead, Peter was received into Rome upon an oath that he would consult their welfare.

Some write

[17]After this, in the year 726 the Emperor Leo Isaurus to put a stop to the worship of Images called a meeting of Councellours & Bishops in his palace & by their advice put out an edict against that worship & wrote to Pope Gregory the second that a general Council might be called. But the Pope thereupon calling a Council at Rome confirmed the worship of Images, excommunicated the Greek Emperor absolved the people from their allegiance & forbad them to pay tribute or otherwise to be obedient to him. And the people of Rome & Campania & Ravenna & Pentapolis which the cities under them revolted & laid violent hands upon their Magistrates killing the Exarch Paul at Ravenna & laying aside Peter who was become blind. And when Exhileratus Duke of Campania incited the people against the Pope, the Romans invaded Campania & slew him with his son Hadrian. Then a new Exarch Eutychius coming to Naples sent some secretly to take away the lives of the Pope & the Nobles of Rome, but the plot being discovered, the Romans revolted absolutely from the Greek Empire & took an oath to preserve the life of the Pope & to defend their state & be obedient to their authority in all things. Thus Rome with its Dutchy including part of Tuscia & part of Campania revolted in the year 726 & became a free state under the government of the Senate of the City & the authority of the Senate in civil affairs was henceforward absolute, the authority of the Pope extending hitherto no farther then to the affairs of the Church. At that time the Lombards also being zealous for the worship of Images, & pretending to favour the cause <22r> of the Pope invaded the cities of the Exarchate.

✝ In the year of Christ 739 Luitprand < insertion from f 21v > ✝ In the year of Christ 739 Luitprand king of the Lombards took four or five towns from the Dukedome of Rome. But A.C. 742 he restored to the Pope & the Dukedom what he had taken away & made a league with the Dukedome of Rome for twenty years, & gave also the valley of Sutrium & some other lands to St Peter for a Patrimony.

< text from f 22r resumes >

[18]At length Pope Zechary A.C. 752 fearing the power of the Lombards deposed Childeric a sloathful & useless king of France & the last of the race of Merovæus & absolving his subjects from their oath of Allegiance gave the kingdom to Pipin the Major of the Palace, hoping thereby to strengthen himself by making a new & potent friend. [19]And the same year in March this Pope died, & Stephen succeeded, & before the end of the year the Lombards took Ravenna & put an end to the Exarchate. And this was the first of the three kingdoms which fell before the little horn.

Then Pope Stephen knowing better how to deale which the Greek Emperor then with the Lombards, went the next year to their king to perswade him to return the Exarchate to the Emperor, but this not succeeding he went into France & persuaded Pipin to take the Exarchate & Pentapolis from the Lombards & give it to St Peter. And accordingly Pipin A.C. 754 came with an army into Italy & made Aistulphus king of the Lombards promise the surrender. But the next year Aistulphus on the contrary, to revenge himself on the Pope besieged the city of Rome. Whereupon Pope Stephen sent letters to Pipin wherein he told him that if he came not speedily against the Lombards, pro datâ sibi potentia alienandum fore a regno Dei et vita æterna, he should be excommunicated. Pipin therefore fearing a revolt of his new subjects & being indebted to the Church of Rome came speedily with an army into Italy, raised the siege, besieged the Lombards in Papia, & forced them to surrender the Exarchate & region of Pentapolis to the Pope for a perpetual possession. And now Ravenna & the rest of the Exarchate were surrendred, some few cities excepted, & the keys sent to Rome, & laid upon the Confession of St Peter, that is, upon his Tomb at the high Altar, in signum veri perpetuique dominij sed pietate Regis gratuita, as the inscription of a coin of Pipin has it. This was in the year of Christ 755. And henceforward the Popes left off in their Epistles & Bulls to note the years of the Greek Emperors as they had hitherto done.

[20]Afterwards the Lombards invading the Popes countries, Pope Adrian sent to Charles the great the son of Pipin to come to his assistance. And accordingly Charles entred Italy with an army, invaded the Lombards, overthrew their kingdoms, became master of their countries, & restored to the Pope not only what they had taken from him but also the rest of the Exarchate which they had promised Pipin to restore to the Pope but had hitherto deteined, & also gave him some cities of the Lombards, & was mutually made Patricius by the Romans, & had the authority of confirming the elections of the Popes conferred upon him. These things were done in the years 773 & 774. And <22v>

<23r>

this was the second kingdom which fell before the little horn.

After these things Charles had great wars first with the Saxons of Westphalia Franconia Thuringia & all Saxony for ten years together, & then with the nations of Suavia & Bavaria & the Slavonians of Silesia & Pomerania & lastly with the Hunns & Avares of Hungary Austria & Pannonia. The wars with the Hunns & Avares lasted eight years & ended A.C. 796. And by all these & some other wars Charles extended his dominion over all Germany from the Rhene & Danube nothward to the Baltic sea & eastward to the river Teys, & into Spain as far as the river Eber, & laid the foundation of a new Empire. And at the same time he propagated the Roman Catholic religion into all his conquests, obliging the Saxons & Hunns to receive the Christian faith, & granting tyths to the Clergy.

< insertion from f 23v > Saxony had hitherto been heathen, but at the end of the ten years war, submitted to the Christian religion under a government by Bishops then set up over them; as Wernerus Rolevinkius in his Antiqua Saxonica (l. 1. c. 7) thus mentions. Anno Domini DCCLXXXV ablatum est jugum Paganorum a Saxonia, et cœpit populus vivere juxta ritum Christianorum. – Carolus autem hoc anno venit ad Padebornam ubi Syodo celebrata – totam Saxoniam legibus, structuris, privilegijs, ecclesijs, reliquijs, ac alijs clenodijs decoravit, de quibus solennis relatio est usque hodie. – Et anno Domini DCCLXXXVI totam Saxoniam subjecit clero; et per Diœceses distinxit, et viros sanctos in Pontifices sublimavit. – Sunt autem decem Episcopatus instituti, vizt Osnaburgensis, Halbenstadiensis, Myndensis, Bremensis, Paderbornensis, Werdensis, Magdeburgensis, Monasteriensis, Hildensemensis, Hamborgensis. Thus far Wernerus. And hence forward Germany became subject to the Roman Church. For Saxony in those days comprehended almost all Germany.

When this form of Government was set up in Germany I think it is not to be doubted but that a revennue in Church-Lands & Tyths, was appointed for maintaining it. For Charles the great in the Synodus Duriensis A.C. 779, & in his Capitulare composed A.C. 789, ordeined that all his subjects should pay tyths to the Churches out of all their possessions & out of all the fruits of their labours. The first Act led the way to such a settlement in Germany & the next included the Germans. And in the year 803, after some new commotions of the Saxons were fully composed, Charles the great in the Council of Hall in Saxony freed the Saxons from all taxes except Tyths, & therefore had imposed tyths upon them before. And A.C. 813 he established tyths in the Councils of Mentz, Rhemes, Chalon & Arles. And he assisted the Pope also in procuring the same grant from the Saxon kingdoms in great Britain. For in the year 786, the yeare in which he setled tyths in Germany, Pope Adrian sent two Legates into Britain with 20 Canons – – – < text from f 23r resumes > For in the year 786 the year in which he setled tyths in Germany Pope Adrian sent two Legates into Britain with twenty Canons to be received by the Churches of the Saxons which had been planted by Austin the Monk, & Charles the great for promoting their affair sent an Abbot with them. Some of those Canons were, to receive the first six general Councils & the Decrees of the Pope, to keep the ancient Privileges granted to the Churches by the Church of Rome, to give the tenth of all the fruits of the earth & of all their possessions to the Church & not to pray for those who dye without confession. And these twenty Canons were received & established in Council by Aelfwald king of Northumberland, & by Offa king of the Mercians, & by their bishops & great men, amongst whom were the Archbishops of York & Canterbury. Chuniulf king of the West Saxons promised also to receive them. Also Charles the great ordeined that every house throughout all France should pay a penny yearly to St Peter, And Offa above mentioned about the year 790 going to Rome made the same grant to the Pope of a penny yearly from every house in his kingdom. And Ethelwolf the son & successor of Egbert in the kingdom of England, confirmed these donations of Tyths & Peterpence & extended them to all his kingom of England A.C. 848. Tyths were therefore given to the Church, & Peter's Patrimony & Peter pence to the Pope, a little before the year 800, & therefore this may be the time in which they began to feed the Woman in the Wilderness.

[21]In the year 796 Leo III being made Pope, notified his election to Charles the great by his Legates, sending him for a present the golden keys of the confession of St Peter & the banner of the city of Rome; the first as acknowledgment of the Popes holding the cities of the Exarchate & Lombardy by the grant of Charles, the other as a signification that Charles should come & subdue the Senate & people of <24r> Rome as he had done the Exarchate & the kingdom of the Lombards. For the Pope at the same time desired Charles to send some of his Princes to Rome who might subject the Roman people to him & bind them by oath in fide & sujectione in fealty & subjection, as his words are recited by Sigonius. An anonymous poet published by Boeclerus at Strasburg expresses it thus

Admonuitque pijs precibus, qui mittere vellet

Ex proprijs aliquos primoribus ac sibi plebem

Subdere Romanam, servandaque fœdera cogens

Hanc fidei sacramentis promittere magnis.

Hence arose a misunderstanding between the Pope & the city. And about two or three years after, the Romans by the assistance of some of the Clergy, raised so great tumults against him as gave occasion to a new state of things in all the west. For two of the Clergy accused him of certain crimes & by an armed force of the Romans seized him, stript him of his sacerdotal habit, & imprisoned him in a Monastery. But by assistance of his friends he made his escape & fled into Germany to Charles the great & complained of the Romans for acting against him out of a designe of throwing off all authority of the Church & recovering their ancient freedom. And in his absence, his accusers with an armed force ravaged the possessions of the Church, & sent the accusations to Charles. And before the end of the year Charles sent the Pope back to Rome with a large retinue. And the Nobles & Bishops of France who accompanied him examined the chief of the Accusers at Rome, & sent them into France in custody. This was in the year 799, & the next year Charles himself went to Rome & upon a day appointed presided in a Council of Italian & French Bishops to hear both parties. But when the Popes adversaries expected to be heard, the Council declared [22]that he who was the supreme judge of all men was above being judged by any other then himself. And thereupon the Pope made a solemn declaration of his innocence before all the people, & by doing so was looked upon as acquitted.

A few days after when Christmas day was arrived, the people of Rome who had hitherto elected their Bishop & recconed that they & their Senate inherited the rights of the ancient Senate & people of Rome, voted Charles their Emperor & subjected themselves to him in such manner as the old Roman Empire & their Senate were subject to the old Roman Emperors. And the Pope crowned him & annointed him with holy oyle & worshipped him on his knees after the manner of adoring the old Roman Emperors, as the aforesaid Poet thus mentions

Post laudes igitur dictus & summus eundem

Presul adoravit, sicut mos debitus olim

Principibus fuit antiquis.

And the Emperor mutually took the following oath to the Pope. In nomine Christi spondeo atque polliceor Ego Carolus Imperator coram Deo & beato Petro Apostolo me protectorem ac defensorem fore hujus sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ in omnibus utilitatibus quatenus divino fultus fuero adjutorio prout sciero poteroque. The Emperor was also made Consul of Rome & his son Pipin was crowned king of Italy. And henceforwad the <25r> Emperor stiled himself Carolus serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus magnus, pacificus, Romæ gubernans Imperium, or Imperator Romanorum, & was prayed for in the Churches of Rome. And his Image was henceforward put upon the coyns of Rome. And the enemies of the Pope to the number of 300 Romans & two or three of the Clergy were sentenced to death; & the 300 Romans were beheaded in one day in the Lateran fields, but the Clergymen at the intercession of the Pope were pardoned & banished into France. And thus the right of the Roman Emperors which had hitherto been in the Greek Emperors was by this Act translated in the west to the kings of France.

[23]After these things Charles gave the City & Dutchy of Rome to the Pope subordinately to himself as Emperor of the Romans spent the winter in ordering the affairs of Rome & of the Apostolic Sea & of all Italy, both civil & ecclesiastical, & in making new laws for them, & returned the next summer into France, leaving the city under its Senate & both under the Pope & himself. And hearing that his new laws were not observed by the Iudges in dictating the law nor by the people in hearing it, & that the great men took servants from the free men & from the Churches & Monasteries to labour in their vineyards fields pastures & houses, & continued to exact cattel & wine of them, & to oppress those that served the Churches: he wrote to his son Pipin to remedy these abuses, take care of the Church & see that his laws be executed. It is observable also that the custome of kissing the Popes feet began about this time. There are some instances of it in the ninth Century. Platina tells us that the feet of Pope Leo IV were kissed according to ancient custome by all that came to him, & some say that Leo III began this custome, pretending that his hand was infected with the kiss of a woman. The Popes began also about this time to canonize Saints & grant Indulgences & pardons; & some represent that Leo III was the first author of all these things.

Now the Senate & People of Rome I take to be the third king whom the little horn overcame. For the old Roman Empire was a king in the sense of Daniels prophesies, as well when it was in the form of a common wealth under its Senate as when it was reduced to a monarchical form of government under its Emperors. This people elected the Pope & the Emperor, & by electing the Emperor was acknowledged to be the remainder of the old Roman Empire & by consequence a little Empire, the Empire of the Romans in whose name the fourth Beast of Daniel still continued, & of which Charles the great was made Emperor. Rome was to be the Metropolis of the little horn, & therefore its Dutchy was to be conquered by him. And the victory of the little horn over this king was attended with greater consequences then those over the other two kings, & finished the work which those victories began. For it set up the Western Empire which continues to this day. It completed & secured Peters patrimony to the Pope; which Patrimony was the kingdom of the little horn. It put him in possession of the city Rome the Metropolis of his kingdom & thereby began his reign in this city as a temporal Prince. It set him up above the judicature of the Roman Senate & even above all humane judicature & gave him the supremacy over the western Churches & their Councils in a high degree. It gave him a look more stout then his fellows so that at length when this new religion was sufficiently established in the minds of men he began to grapple with kings & even with the Emperor himself. Yet the Senate of Rome while it lasted gave him frequent trouble for recovering her liberty.

The northern nations who had invaded the western Empire differed from the Pope in religion a long time, & were converted to his reli <26r> ligion by degrees. All Germany differed from him in religion till they were conquered by Charles the great. By those conquests, & the making of Charles Emperor they became a part of the body of the Beast. The Woman might fly from the Temple of God into the Wilderness of Arabia before those days & continue her flight through the Wilderness towards the great city Babylon. But before the conquest of Germany, & the conversion of those northern nations to her religion she did not begin to sit upon all the many waters or nations which were to compose the body of her Beast. Before the subjection of Rome she could not be said to arrive at her place in the wilderness upon the many waters & become the great city Babylon. It was by the conquests of Charles the great & the conversion of the western nations to the Church of Rome & donation of tyths & Peter-pence, & the coronation of Charles Emperor of the Romans & his coronation oath to maintain the Church of Rome in her grandeur & the victory of the Pope over the Greeks the Lombards & the city & Duchy of Rome: it was, I say, by these things that the Woman arrived at her place in the Wilderness upon the many waters & began to sit upon her Beast & upon the seven hills & reign at Babylon over the kings of the earth, & to be cloathed in fine linnen & purple & scarlet & decked with gold & pretious stones & pearles, to be fed & nourished in her place & fare deliciously with the kings of the earth. & that she & her Beast began to act in conjunction with one another. And now the Woman having subdued the city where she was to reign & being arrived at her place of dominion over this city & over the kings of the earth: this little female horn has reigned ever since with a peculiar soul & a look more stout then her fellows; & by establishing the worship of Images, canonizing Saints to be invoked, granting Indulgencies & Pardons, absolving men from vows & oaths, ascribing vertues & powers to things consecrated, introducing & establishing the doctrine of transubstantiation & the adoration of consecrated wafers, & by decreeing what laws & doctrines she thinks fit & imposing her Decrees as Apostolic infallible & of divine authority she has been changing times & laws & they have ever since her rising up & conquering the three kings been given into her hands, & by her great power she has been able ever since to make war with the saints & weare them out & to become drunken with their blood.

When the Pope in favour of the worship of images revolted from the Greek Emperor, & began to set up for himself, in rising up he overcame the three kings who stood in his way & opposed him & by overcoming them he rose up & acquired a temporal kingdom composed of the three conquests & thereby became a horn of the Beast. And in token that he is a king as well as bishop he wears the crowns of three kingdoms upon his head in form of a triple crown & carries the keys of the cities of the two first kingdoms in his hand. His kingdom they call Peters patrimony because given by Pipin & Charles the great to St Peter. And for the same reason the keys of the cities of his kingdom they call St Peter's keys, they being offered to St Peter upon his Confession or altar. But some turning history into an allegory tell us that the keys represent the power of binding & loosing, & are the keys of heaven, & that the three crowns relate to heaven earth & hell, as if the Pope was crowned king of those three regions. These are whimsies which I need not stay to confute. Others come nearer to the truth who tell us that the crowns denote the Pontificial Imperial & Royal power of the Pope. One of his crowns was given him by Clodovæus king of the Franks as above. This Crown has no relation to the Exarchate or kingdom of Lombardy. It was given him as Pope of Rome: & after his subduing that city he deserved to weare it as its king. The other two crowns came to him with the two golden keys upon the conquest of the Imperial Exarchate & the kingdom of Lombardy, tho it was <27r> some time before he began to weare them.

In a small book printed at Paris 1689, & entituled, [24] An historical dissertation upon some coynes of Charles the great, Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius & their successors stamped at Rome, there is a draught of a piece of Mosaic work which Pope Leo the third caused to be made in his Palace neare the Church of Iohn Lateran, in memory of his sending the standard or banner of the city of Rome curiously wrought to Charles the great & which still remained there at the publishing of the said book. In this Mosaic work there appears Peter with three keys in his lap, reaching the Pallium to the Pope with his right hand & the banner of the city to Charles the great with his left. By the Pope is this incription SCSSIMVS D.N. LEO PP; by the king this, D.N. CARVLO REGI; & under the feet of Peter this BEATE PETRE DONA VITAM LEONI PP, ET VICTORIAM CARVLO REGI DONA. By the inscription it appears that this piece of mosaic work was made before Charles was Emperor, suppose in the year 796 or 797. The three keys in the lap of Peter signify the keys of the three parts of his Patrimony, vizt of Rome with its Dutchy, of Ravenna with the Exarchate & of the territories taken from the Lombards. These were the three Dominions whose keys were in the lap of Peter & whose crowns are now worn by the Pope. By Peters giving the Pallium to the Pope with his right hand & the banner of the city to the king with his left, & by the inscription may be understood that the Pope was then recconed superior in dignity to the kings of the earth.

After the death of Charles the great, his son & successor Ludovicus Pius, at the request of the Popea[25] confirmed the donations of his grandfather & father to the sea of Rome. And in this confirmation he names first Rome with its Dutchy, extending into Tuscia & Campania, then the Exarchate of Ravenna with Pentapolis, & in the third place the territories taken from the Lombards. These are his three conquests, & he was to hold them of the Emperor for the use of the Church sub integritate, intirely without the Emperors medling therewith, or with the jurisdiction or power of the Pope therein unless called thereunto in certain cases. This ratification the Emperor made in writing under an oath. And as the king of the Ostrogoths for acknowledging that he held his kingdom of Italy of the Greek Emperor stamped the Emperors effigies on one side of his coins & his own of the Reverse: so the Pope made the like acknowledgement of the western Emperor. For the Pope began now to coin money as a temporal Prince & the coins of Rome are henceforward found with the head of the Emperors (Charles Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius & their successors{)}, on one side & the Popes inscription on the reverse for many yeares.

To make the grandeur of the Sea of Rome ancienter then it was, there has been a story framed of a Donation of Constantine the great. But this is looked upon as a fable, & the author of the Historical Dissertation above mentioned affirms that in the days of Pope Leo X, there was remaining in the Vatican & till those days exposed to public view an Inscription in honour of Pipin the father of Charles the great, commemorating, Pipinum pium primum fuisse qui amplificandæ Ecclesiæ Romanæ viam aperuerit, Exarchatu Ravennate, et plurimis alijs oblatis, that Pipin the pious was the first who opened a way to the grandeur of the Church of Rome conferring upon her the Exarchate of Ravenna & many other oblations. In & before the reign of the Emperors Gratian & Theodosius, the Bishop of Rome lived splendidly, but this was by the oblations of the Roman Ladies, as Ammianus describes. After <28r> those days Italy was invaded by forreign nations, & did not get rid of her troubles before the fall of the kingdom of the Lombards. It was certainly by the victory of the Sea of Rome over the Greek Emperor, the king of Lombardy & the Senate of Rome that she arose to her greatness.

<29r>

This ejection was in the reign of Avitus as is mentioned in the Chronicum Boiorum & in Sidonius carm. 7 in Avitum which speaks thus of that Emperor

– Cujus solum amissas post sæcula multa

Pannonias revocavit iter, jam credere promptum est

Quid faciet bellis.

The Poet means that by the coming of Avitus the Hunns yeilded more easily to the Goths. This was written by Sidonius in the beginning of the reign of Avitus & his reign began in the end of the year 455 & lasted not one full year.

Iornandes tells us Duodecimo anno regni Valiæ post pene quinquaginta annos invasa Pannonia, Hunni a Romanis & Goths pulse sunt. And Marcelline: Hierio et Ardaburio Coss. Pannoniæ quæ per quinquaginta annos ab Hunnis retinebantur a Romanis receptæ sunt. Whence it should follow that the Hunns invaded & held Pannonia from the year 378 or 379 to the year 427 & then were driven out of it. But this is a plane mistake. For its certain that Theodosius left the Empire entire. And we have shewed out of Prosper that the Hunns were in quiet possession of Pannonia in the year 432. The Visigoths In those days had nothing to do with Pannonia & the Ostrogoths continued subject to the Hunns till the death of Attila AC 454. & Valia king of the Visigoths did not reign twelve years. He began his reign in the end of the year 415 reigned three years & was slain A.C. 419 as Idacius, Isidorus & the Spanish manuscript Chronicles seen by Grotius testify. Yea a[26] Olympiodorus who produces his history only to the year 425 sets down therein the death of this Visigothic Valia & conjoyns it also with that of Constantius which happened A.C. 420. Wherefore the Valia of Iornandes who reigned at least 12 years is some other king. And I take the name to be written corruptly for Valamir king of the Ostrogoths. For the action recorded was of the Romans & Ostrogoths driving the Hunns out of Pannonia after the death of Attila, & it is not likely that the historian would refer the history of the Ostrogoths to the years of the Visigothic kings. This action happened in the end of the year 455 which I take to be the twelft year of Valamir in Pannonia & which was almost 50 years after the year 406 in which the Hunns succeeded the Vandals & Alans in Pannonia. Vpon the ceasing of the line of Hunnimund the son of Hermaneric, the Ostrogoths lived without kings of their own nation about 40 years together being subject to the Hunns. And when Attila began to make war upon the Romans ✝ < insertion from f 29v > [27] ✝ And when Attila began to make war upon the Romans, which was in the year 444, he made Valamir with his brothers Theodemir & Videmir the grandsons of Vinithar, Captains or Kings of these Ostrogoths under him. And in the twelfth year of Valamir's reign dated from thence, the Huns were driven out of Pannonia.

Yet the Hunns were not so ejected – – – – – contraction Hungary.

10. The Lombards came into the Empire, beat the Vandals & seated themselves in Pannonia A.C. 397 as above. After the death of their captains Ibor & Ayon they had kings –

< text from f 29r resumes >

Yet the Hunns were not so ejected but that they had further contests which the Romans till the head of Denfix the son of Attila A.C. 469 (in the Consulship of Zeno & Marcian as Marcelline relates) was carried to Constantinople. Nor were they yet totally ejected the Empire. For besides their reliques in Pannonia, <30r> Sigonius tells us that when the Emperors Marcian & Valentinian granted Pannonia to the Goths (vizt A.C. 454) they granted some part of Illyricum to some of the Hunns & Sarmatans & in the year 526 when the Lombards removing into Pannonia made war there upon the Gepides, the Avares (a part of the Hunns who had now taken the name of Avares from one of their kings) assisted the Lombards in that war & the Lombards afterwards when they went into Italy left their seats in Pannonia to the Avares in recompence of their Friendship. And from this time the Hunns grew again very powerfull their kings (whom they called Chagan) troubling the Empire very much in the reign of Mauricius Phocas & Heraclius. And this is the original of the present kingdom of Hungary, which from those Avares & other Hunns mixed together took the name of Hun-Avaria & by contraction Hungary.

11.. These nine kingdoms being rent away it remains that we account the residue of the Empire for the tenth. While it continued entire it was the beast himself but now being but one of the tenn parts whereof the Beast consists it may be accounted one of his horns. And this horn may be dated from the translation of the Imperial seat from Rome to Ravenna which was in October A.C. 408. For then the Emperor Honorius fearing Alaric would besiege him in Rome if he stayed there, retired to Millain & thence to Ravenna & the ensuing siege & sacking of Rome confirmed his residence there so that he & his successors ever after made it their home. < insertion from f 29v > ✝ And accordingly Machiavel in his Florentine history writes that Valentinian having left Rome translated the seat of the Empire to Ravenna.

Of the nations which composed all these kingdoms, the Visigoths, the Hunns with the Ostrogoths under them, the Vandals, the Alans who seated themselves in Spain, the Alans who seated themselves in Gallia & the Latines were in arms within a year after the death of the Emperor Theodosius the great, & so began at that time to receive power as kings. The Suevians which their associates the Quades & Marcomans were also in arms the same yeare or soon after. The Burgundians invaded the Empire A.C. 406. The Salian Franks rose up in arms the next year, & the Britains separated from the Emperor the year following. All these ten kingdoms therefore arose within the short reign of Arcadius & Honorius. In the last year of Arcadius they were all formed, & within two or three years more were all fixed in certain seats. And these were the kingdoms into which the western Empire was rent at its first breaking

Of these ten kingdoms . . . . < text from f 30r resumes > <31r>

Of these ten kingdoms I see not which can be excepted for they were all at some time or other very potent & the shortest of above 110 years continuance except the Alan kingdom in Spain: for the shortness of which there is this double recompence that while it stood it was more potent then the Vandalic & Suevian kingdoms ijsque potentebatur as Isidorus speaks, & that when it fell the people were not dissipated but kept their seat there as the name thereof Catalaunia derived from them still testifies & consequently they remained still a horn. For having been once a horn they may be accounted one so long as the people endures notwithstanding that their dominion be taken away, as is plain out of Daniel's vision of the Ram & Goat where the Ram is represented with both of his horns till the Goat breaks them, and yet the dominion of the first horn was taken away by the second above 200 years before.

The shortness of this kingdom made me look about for another kingdom . There being some other Barbarians wh invaded the Empire together which these as the Saxons Gepides Marcomans, Quades &c. but those formed no kingdoms of their own but mixed with these, every king having a colluvies of other neighbouring nations mixed with his own. The Burgundians had Saxons joyned with them, the Gepides joyned with the Alans under Resplendial, & the Heruli were a kin both to the Gepides & the Vandals The Marcomanns & Quades were Suevian nations joyned under Ermeric, as was said above. The Suevians were one sort of the Alemans & The Alemans & Suevians which remained in Germany began their conquests of Rhetia but in the reign of Maximus which was <32r> < insertion from f 31v > almost 50 years after the rise of the horns. The Ostrogoths & Gepides continued subject to the Hunns till the death of Attila A.C. 454. They warred under him against the Romans & after his death the Gepides returned to their seats in Dacia beyond the Danube & the Ostrogoths to theirs in Pannonia & shook off the dominion of the Hunns. The Heruli who invaded Italy came into the Empire but at the fall of the western Cæsars A.C. 476, being then invited out of Germany by a party of Italians. In the reign of Martian the Emperor, that is, between the years 450 & 456 the Saxons under Hengist & Horsa were called in by the Britains & assisted them for a while, but six years after revolted & made war upon them. The kingdom of the Lombards is the only kingdom which remains to be considered, & it may be recconed in the room of the Alans in Spain.

For The Lombards came into the Empire, beat the Vandals & seated themselves in Pannonia A.C. 379, as above. After the death of their captains Ibor & Ayon they had kings, Agilmundus, Lamisso Lechu, Hildehoc, Gudehoc, Claffo, Tato, Wacho, Walter, Audoin, Alboin, Cleophis, &c. Agilmundus was the son of Ayon & became their king (according to Prosper) in the Consulship of Honorius & Theodosius A.C. 389 & reigned 33 years according to Paulus Warnefridus.. But considering that the Lombards were at this time a small kingdome, its probable that they continued in Pannonia by the permission of the Romans, & like the other barbarous nations lived quietly under them till after the death of Theodosius the great.✝ < insertion from f 32v > ✝ And that when Pannonia was invaded by other Barbarians (suppose about the year 400 or 403) they stood upon their own defence, the Romans being no longer able either to protect them or to keep them in obedience. Agilmundus was slain by the Bulgars, a people so called from the river Volga from whence they came with the Hunns. Prosper places his death in the consulship of Marinianus & Asclepiodorus A.C. 423 – – – till the year 774. < text from f 31v resumes > Agilmundus reigned 33 years according to Paulus Warnefredus & then was slain by the Bulgars, a people so called from the river Volga. Prosper places his death in the Consulship of Marinianus & Asclepiodorus, A.C. 423. Lamisso routed the Bulgars & reigned three years, & Lechu almost forty. Gudehoc was contemporary to Odoacer king of the Heruli in Italy, & about the year 478 led his people from Pannonia into Rugia a country on the north side of Noricum beyond the Danube in the borders of Germany & Moravia, from whence Odoacer then carried the Rugians into Italy. Tato overthrew the kingdom of the Heruli beyond the Danube & Wacho conquered the kingdom of the Suevians in Suabia. Audoin returned into Pannonia A.C. 526, & there overcame the Gepides , Alboin A.C. 551 overthrew the kingdom of these Gepides & slew their king Cunimundus, & A.C. 563 assisted the Greek Emperor against Totila king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, & A.C. 568, led his people out of Pannonia into Lombardy where they reigned till the year 774.

These are the kingdoms into which the Latine Empire was rent at its first breaking. < insertion from f 32r > These are the kingdoms into which the Latine Empire was rent at its first breaking. Afterwards some other new kingdoms arose, as that of the Allemans in Rhetia, & some of the old ones fell. For it is not to be imagined that the first ten kingdoms should continue always. They were liable to frequent changes, old ones falling & new ones rising, so as to be sometimes fewer sometimes more then ten, but yet are always called the ten horns from their number at their first rise.

< text from f 31v resumes > < text from f 32r resumes >

✝ The division of the Roman Empire into these ten kingdoms < insertion from f 31v > ✝ The division of the Roman Empire into these tenn kingdoms being understood, we are in the next place to describe the rise & dominion of the kingdom represented by the little horn which rose up after the ten. And this kingdom is to be considered in a double capacity: First as as it was a horn or temporal power with an army, & overthrew three of the first kings in rising up to this dominion, & then as it had eyes & a mouth speaking great things against the most High, changing times & laws in point of religion, & making war upon the saints.

< text from f 32r resumes >

<33r>

Chap. VI.
Of the Empire of the Latines.

The Romans were at first a small kingdome of Italy & began to make a figure in the world about the time that in conjunction with the king of Pergamus they took from Antiochus magnus all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus, & to grow great from the time that by the assistance of the Achæans they conquered Macedon. For after the conquest of Macedon they conquered Carthage & then united with the kingdom of Pergamus, inheriting it with all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus by the last Will & Testament of Attalus the last king thereof. And by this union the kingdom of Pergamus grew mighty, but not in its own power. For this united dominion of the Greeks & Latines gradually extended its power over Spain, Dalmatia, Syria, Gallia, Egypt, Britain, the Achæans or Greeks & Dacia & reigned over all these countries untill the revolt of Dacia, & the separation of the Empire of the Greeks from that of the Latines: the particular history of all which is every where to be met with.

Dacia was a large country bounded on the south by the Danube, on the east by the Euxine sea, on the north by the river Neister & the mountain Crapack, & on the west by the Tibesis or Teys which runs southward into the Danube a little above Belgrade, & comprehended the countries now called Transylvania Moldavia & Wallachia & the eastern part of the upper Hungary. Its ancient inhabitants were called Getæ by the Greeks & Daci by the Latines & Goths by themselves. Alexander the great attaqued them & Trajan conquered them & reduced their country into a Province of the Roman Empire, & thereby the propagation of the Christian religion amongst them was much promoted. They were composed of several Gothic nations called Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, Gepides, Lombards, Burgundians &c all which came originally from the southern parts of Scanzia or Scandinavia, that great Peninsula in the Baltic sea conteining Norway & most of Sueden, & reputed an Island by the ancients. Whence it came to pass that they all agreed in their manners & spake the same language as Procopius represents. Paulus Diaconus in his Historia Miscella, Lib. XIV, speaking of the times next after the death of Theodosius the great tells us: Eodem tempore erant Gothi et aliæ Gentes maximæ trans Danubium habitantes: ex quibus rationabiliores quatuor sunt, Gothi scilicet, Huisogothi, Gepides & Vandali, et nomen tantum et nihil aliud mutantes. Omnes autem fidei erant Arianæ malignitatis. Isti sub Arcadio et Honorio Danubium transeuntes locati sunt in terra Romanorum; et Gepides quidem (ex quibus postea divisi sunt Langobardi et Avares) villas quæ sunt circa Sengidonum et Sirmium habitavere. And Procopius in the beginning of his Historia Vandalica writes to the same purpose.

Before these nations revolted the Goths or Ostrogoths were seated in the eastern parts of Dacia; the Vandals in the western part upon the river Teys where the rivers Maresh & Keresh run into it. The Visigoths were between them. The Gepides were (according to Iornandes) upon the Vistula. The Burgundians (a Vandalic nation) were between the Vistula & the southern fountain of the Boristhenes at some distance from the mountain Crapac northwards where Ptolomy places them by the names of Phrugundiones & Burgiones. The Alans (another a[28] Gothic nation) were between the northern fountain of the Boristhenes & the mouth of the river Tanais <34r> where Ptolomy places the mountain Alanus. The Roxolani were on the southern coast of the Alans, & western side of the Palus Mœotis.

In the second year of the reign of the Emperor Philip, the Goths for want of their pay began to revolt from the Romans, & under the conduct of their king Ostrogotha the grandson of Amala, being assisted by the Thaphili & Astringi or Vandals & the Cappi (other Gothic nations) made war upon them. And the Gepides under their king Fastida routed the Burgundians with a great slaughter, & conquered some other nations, & then invaded the said Goths & were routed by them. Cniva (called Echina by Pomponius Lætus) succeeded Ostrogotha in the reign of Decius & routed the Roman army & slew Decius, & the next year invaded Greece Macedon, Pontus, Asia, & Illyricum, & kept Macedon & Illyricum almost fifteen years; & then the Goths invading the Empire (as Trebellius Pollio tells us) with an army of three hundred & twenty thousand Scythians composed of the Peuceni Grutungi, Ostrogoths, Vitringi, Gepides, Heruli; &c, & being beated in Mœsia & other places by the Emperor Claudius, returned to their seats beyond the Danube. And then the Emperor Aurelian (as Vopiscus informs us) cum vastatum Illyricum & Mœsiam deperditam videret, Provinciam trans Danubium Daciam a Trajano constitutam, sublato exercitu & Provincialibus, reliquit, desperans eam posse retineri: abductosque ex ea populos in Mœsia collocavit, appellavitque suam Daciam. This was about the year of Christ 272

But the Church of Dacia still continued united to the Church of the Roman Empire. For Theophilus Bishop or Patriarch of Dacia was at the Council of Nice A.C. 325, & his successor Vlphilas was at the Council of Constantinople A.C. 360.

Dioclesian in the year 286 divided the Roman Empire between himself & Maximianus, retaining the government of the eastern nations to himself, & leaving that of the western to Maximianus. And by this Act & the separation of the Goths, the Roman Empire began to be divided into the three parts touched upon in the Apocalyps, the Eastern Empire, the Western Empire, & the Empire of the Goths. For Dacia was large & valiant & the Goths soon grew into an Empire almost as large as either of the other two, & the Churches of all three under several Patriarchs were united in communion, as one Church Catholick, & continued so united till the fall of the Gothic Empire.

Constantine the great built Constantinople A.C. 330, & made it the Metropolis of the eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire, & Rome the Metropolis of the western; both cities being governed after one & the same manner by a Senate & Consuls. And by this Act he established the division. He left the Empire between his sons A.C. 337 & his son Constantius reunited it under himself A.C. 353, & Valentinian divided it between himself & his brother Valens A.C. 364 & after the death of Valens it was reunited under Gratian the son of Valentinian A.C. 378. But after five months Gratian made Theodosius Emperor of the East in the room of Valens 16 Ian. A.C. 379, & Theodosius left the Empire divided between his sons Arcadius & Honorius A.C. 395; after which it was no more united.

The eastern Empire (called also the Greek Empire) continued entire about 240 years & then lost Syria & Egypt to the Saracens but yet stood above 800 years longer before it came into the hands of the Turks. This Empire is represented in Daniel by the He-goat & in the Apocalyps by the great red Dragon. The western Empire or empire of the Latines is represented by the Beast with ten horns & by the little horn of the He-goat. It became a horn of the He-goat by inheriting the kingdom of Pergamus in Asia minor by the Legacy <35r> of Attalus. It had seven successive heads which were common to it self & the Dragon, & answered to the times of the seven seals; but its heads were without crowns, & the Dragons heads were crowned because the Dragon reigned first & included the Beast in his mystical body untill he gave the Beast his throne. It was wounded to death with a sword in the reign of Constantius. It revived & its deadly wound was healed by a new division of the Empire in the beginning of the reign of Valentinian & Valens. It rose out of the sea at the division of the Empire between Gratian & Theodosius & at its rise appeared with a wound which was made & healed in one of its heads before it rose, vizt in the head which was when five were fallen, that is, in the sixt head. At its rise out of the sea the seventh seal was opened, & the reign of the seventh head began. And at the division of the Empire between the sons of Theodosius, the Dragon gave the Beast his power & throne & great authority. And thereby the Beast became the eighth head, & yet was of the seven, being a part of the seventh. And on this eighth head are ten horns, all of them crowned, but on the Dragon's heads they are without crowns. They were therefore to rise out of the nations which were within the Dragons body but grew not into kingdoms before the reign of the eighth head. For they received power as kings at or about the same time with the Beast, that is, when the Dragon gave the Beast his power & throne, or presently after. And that we may know what kingdoms they were & how they rose, we must have recourse to the history of the kingdom of Dacia.

Cniva king of the Goths was succeeded by Araricus in the reign of Dioclesian, & Araricus by Geberic in the reign of Constantine the great. Geberic made war upon the Sarmatans between Dacia & Moravia: & the servants of the Sarmatans being armed by their masters against the Goths revolted & made their Masters fly into the Roman Empire where Constantine the great granted them seats. This was done, according to Eusebius, Ann. Olymp. 278. 2, A.C. 334. Geberic conquered also the Vandals, slew their king Wisumar & made them fly over the Danube into Pannonia where Constantine granted them seats. The kings of these Vandals according to Iornandes were of the Aedingi or Astingi a Vandalic nation which (according to Dio) came into Dacia in the reign of Marcus Antonius. They staid quietly in Pannonia under the dominion of the Romans about forty years, that is untill the other Gothic nations flying from the Hunns, came over the Danube & began to disturbe the Empire.

Hermaneric succeeded Geberic, & conquered the Heruli, Veneti, Antes & Sclavi & many other warlike nations of Scythia & Germany, as Iornandes informs us, & particularly the nations which Iornandes calls the Thuidi Visinambrocæ, Mœrens, Mordensimnis, Caris, Rocæ, Tadzans, Athual, Navigo, Bubegentæ, & Coldæ, & the Æstri or Estij a people seated upon the sinus Finnicus, & the Roxolani on the Palus Mœotis, & the Quades & Marcomans two German nations seated by Ptolomy in Bohemia. Thus the kingdome of the Goths by successive conquests grew into a large & potent Empire composed of many northern nations, & seems in the reign of Hermaneric to have extended eastward to the side of the Euxine sea the Lake Mœotis & the river Tanais; northward to the Sinus Finnicus where Revel & Narva are seated, & to the fountains of the river Volga where the city Moseo stands; & westward to the rivers Oder & Moraw & the fountains of the Elbe, so as to comprehend Silesia Moravia & part of Bohemia. And in this state it continued till the death of Hermanerick which was in the year 376 or the year before. And from these conquests, saith Iornandes, some have compared this king to Alexander the great.

<36r>

This king lived very long & just before his death heard of a great army of Hunns coming over the Lake Mœotis & beginning to invade him; & then he left his kingdom divided among many successors, Hunnimund, Fridigern, Vithimar, Athanaric, Box, & others. Hunnimund was his son & reigned over the eastern part of the Goths called Ostrogoths, & Fridigern reigned over the western part called Visigoths. For the Goths became now divided into two bodies called by these names. Vithimar or Winitharius was the son of Valeravan & grandson of Athaulphus or Vuldulph the brother of Hermaneric & reigned over a part of the Goths called Gruthungi by Ammian Marcelline, Gothunni by Claudian, & Sarmatǽ & Scythians by others. Athanaric reigned over another part of the Goths in Dacia called Thervingi, & Box over the Antes in Sarmatia; & the Gepides had also their king. These kings or some of them, seem to have been rectors of Provinces in the life time of Hermaneric, & to have kept their governments after his death. For Athanaric (according to Isidorus) began his reign in the fift year of the Emperor Valens & by consequens before the death of Hermaneric.

The Goths & other Scythian nations beyond the Danube had hitherto lived without letters, & the Christian religion had been hitherto propagated among them only by oral tradition. But now Vlphilas the Patriarch of Dacia invented the Gothic Letters & translated the scriptures into the language of Dacia, & propagated the Christian religion very much among the Goths & Gepides, so that Fridigern king of the Visigoths became a Christian, & Athanaric fearing that the Christian religion should also prevail in his kingdom (for the Thervingi were a branch of the Visigoths & Vlphilas instructed the people of both kingdoms) raised a vehement persecution against the Christians in his kingdom & put many of them to death.

In the mean time the Hunns advancing under the conduct of their king Balamber or Balamir invaded the Alans & other nations between the Tanais & Dacia & after the death of Hermaneric entred Dacia & made the people either submit or fly. The Ostrogoths submitted, but the Gruthungi made some resistance, their King Winitharius having strengthned himself by conquering the Antes the year before the Hunns invaded thim. He beat the Hunns in one or two battels, but was slain by Balamir in the third battel & his kingdom was given by the conqueror to Hunnimund. For Sigismund the son of Hunnimund had assisted the Hunns in this war with an army of Ostrogoths. After this, the Hunns pursued Athanaric; & the greatest part of his people deserting him fled with some other Goths to the side of the Danube under the conduct of Alavivus. Fridigern also fled thither with his people the Visigoths. And these nations sent an embassy to the Emperor Valens, & obteined leave to pass the Danube & seat themselves in Mœsia & Thrace. Their Patriarch Vlphilas was at the head of this Embassy. And presently after this, a great part of the Gruthungi under the conduct of Alatheus & Saphrax (the Guardians of Videric the young son of Winitharius, now their king,) flying from the Hunns & Ostrogoths, came to the side of the Danube & made the same petition, but were rejected. Yet they passed the Danube soon after without leave, while the Roman army was deteined in Rhoætia in a war against the Alemans & Sueves. This rout was in the year 377.

These Goths being thus seated in the Empire, were soon pressed with famin & grosly abused by the Roman Governours who sold them doggs flesh & other carrion at high rates, and <37r> otherwise provoked them. Whereupon they took up arms invaded Thrace, called in to their assistance some Goths Alans & Hunns from beyond the Danube, routed the Roman army, slew the Emperor Valens, & spread themselves into Greece & Pannonia as far as the Alps, Alatheus & Saphrax going westward. This was in the year 378. But in the years 379 & 380 they were checkt by the arms of the Emperors Gratian & Theodosius, & made a submissive peace, & the Visigoths & Thervingi returned to their seats in Mœsia & Thrace, the Hunns retired over the Danube, & the Alans & Gruthungi obteined seats in Pannonia.

During this war Athanaric king of the Thervingi came over the Danube & in autumn 1680, made the Emperor Theodosius a visit at Constantinople, was honourably received, died in Ianuary following, & was splendidly interred. And his people seing this treatment subjected themselves immediately to the Emperor without chusing another king. But Fridigern king of the Visigoths was succeeded by Alaric, & Videric king of the Gruthungi by Radagaisus.

In the reign of Hermaneric or before the Lombards came out of Scandinavia under the conduct of Ibor & Ayon to seek new seats. They were then called Winuli, but afterwards from their long beards had the name of Langobards given them. When the Gothic nations fled from the Hunns & came in great numbers into the Roman Empire, the Lombards came also over the Danube under the conduct of the same captains & beat the Vandals then seated in Pannonia, & remained in Pannonia many years. The Vandals retired westward, & the Emperor Gratian went into Gallia against them & the Alemans together, & the Vandals thereupon went back into Pannonia. This was when the Emperor Theodosius lay sick at Thessalonica A.C. 379. And accordingly Prosper places the victory of the Lombards over the Vandals in the consulship of Ausonius and Olybrius, which fell upon this year.

About the year 373 or 374 the Burgundians rose from their seats upon the Vistula with an army of eighty thousand men to invade Gallia, & being opposed seated themselves on the further side of the Rhene above Mentz. And in the year 358 a body of the Salian Franks with their king were received into the Empire by the Emperor Iulian & seated in Gallia between Brabant & the Rhene. And their king Mellobaudes was made Comes Domesticorum by the Emperor Gratian. And Richomer another noble Frank was made Comes Domesticorum & Magister utriusque militiæ by Theodosius, & A.C. 384 was Consul with Clearchus. He was a great favorite of Theodosius & accompanied him in his war against Eugenius, but died in the expedition, & left a son called Theudemir, who afterwards became king of the Salian Franks. In the time of this war some Franks from beyond the Rhene invaded Gallia under the conduct of Genobell Marcomir & Suno, but were repulsed by Stilico, & Marcomir being slain was succeeded in Germany by his son Pharamund.

And this was the state of things till Theodosius left the Empire divided between his sons, & thereby the Dragon retired into the eastern Empire & the Beast which was the eighth head & of the seven received the Dragon's power & throne in the west. And then his ten horns took up arms & received power as kings in the following manner.

After the death of the Emperor Theodosius the Visigoths under the conduct of Alaric, now their king, rose from their seats in Thrace & wasted Macedon, Thessaly, Achaia, Peloponnesus, & Epire with fire & sword five years together, & then turning westward invaded Dalmatia, Illyricum & Pannonia, & from thence went into Italy A.C. 402, & the next year was so beaten at Pollentia & Verona by Stilico the commander of the forces of the western Empire, that Claudian calls the remainder of the forces of Alaric tanta ex gente reliquias breves, & Prudentius gentem deletam. Thereupon Alaric <38r> made peace with the Emperor, being so far humbled that Orosius tells us he did pro pace optima et quibuscunque sedibus suppliciter & simpliciter orare. This peace a[29] was ratified by mutual hostages & Ætius was sent hostage to Alaric, & therefore Alaric continued a free Prince in the seats now granted to him.

When Alaric took up arms, the nations beyond the Danube began to be in motion, & the next winter (the winter between A.C. 395 & A.C. 396) a great body of Hunns, Alans, Ostrogoths & other northern nations came over the frozen Danube being invited by Ruffin; & their brethren also who had obteined seats within the Empire, took up arms. Ierome calls all this great multitude Hunns, Alans, Vandals, Goths, Sarmatans, Quades, & Marcomans, & saith that they invaded all places between Constantinople & the Iulian alps, wasting Scythia, Thrace, Macedon, Dardania, Dacia, Thessaly, Achaia, Epire, Dalmatia & all Pannonia. And the Suevians also invaded Rhætia. For when Alaric ravaged Pannonia the Romans were defending Rhætia which gave Alaric an opportunity of invading Italy as Claudian thus mentions

Non nisi perfidia nacti penetrabile tempus

Irrupere Getæ, nostras dum Rhætia vires

Occupat, atque alio desudant Marte cohortes.

And when Alaric went from those parts into Italy, some other barbarous nations invaded Noricum & Vindelicia, as the same Poet Claudian thus mentions

Iam fœdera gentes

Exuerant, Latijque audita clade feroces

Vendelicos saltus & Norica rura tenebant.

This was in the years 402 & 403. And among these nations I reccon the Suevians Quades & Marcomans. For they were all in arms at this time, & the Quades & Marcomans were Suevian nations & they & the Suevians came originally from Bohemia & the river Suevus or Sprahe in Lusatia sometimes subject to the Goths under Hermaneric, & were now united under one common king called Ermeric, who soon after led them into Gallia. The Vandals and Alans might also about this time extend themselves into Noricum. Also Vldin with a new great body of Hunns passed the Danube about the time of Chrysostoms banishment, that is A.C. 404 & wasted Thrace & Mœsia. And Radagaisus king of the Gruthungi & successor of Winithar inviting over more barbarians from beyond the Danube invaded Italy with an army of above two hundred thousand Goths, & the next year, A.C. 405 or 406) was overcome by Stilico & perished with his army. In this war Stilico was assisted by a great body of Hunns & Ostrogoths under the conduct of Vldin & Sarus. They were hired by the Emperor Honorius. And in all this confusion it was necessary for the Lombards in Pannonia to arm themselves in their own defense & assert their liberty the Romans being no longer able to protect them.

And now Stilico purposing to make himself Emperor procured a military Præfecture for Alaric, & sent him into the east in the service of Honorius the Western Emperor committing some Roman troops to his conduct to strengthen his army of Goths & promising to follow soon after with his own army. His pretence was to recover some regions of Illyricum which the Eastern Emperor was accused to detein injuriously from the western: but his secret designe was to make himself Emperor by the assistance of the Vandals & their allies. For he himself was a Vandal. And for faciliating this designe he invited a great body of the barbarous nations to invade the Western Empire, while he & Alaric invaded the Eastern. And these nations under their several kings, the Vandals under Godegisilus, the Alans in two bodies, the one under Goar the other under Resplendial, & the Suevians Quades & Marcomans under Ermeric, marched through Rhetia to the side of the Rhene leaving their seats in Pannonia to the Hunns & Ostrogoths, & joyned the Burgundians under Gundicar, & ruffled the Franks in their <39r> further march, & on the last day of December A.C. 406 passed the Rhene at Ments & diffused themselves into Germania prima & the adjacent regions, & amongst other actions the Vandals took Trevirs. Then they advanced into Belgium & began to ruffle that country. Whereupon the Salian Franks took up arms & under the conduct of Theudemir the son of Ricimer or Richomer above mentioned made so stout a resistance that they slew almost twenty thousand of the Vandals with their king Godegisilus in battel, the rest escaping only by a party of Resplendials Alans which came timely to their assistance.

Then the British soldiers allarmed by the rumour of these things, revolted & set up Tyrants there; first Marcus whom they slew presently, then Gratian whom they slew within four months, & lastly Constantine under whom they invaded Gallia A.C. 408, being favoured by Goar & Gundicar. And Constantine having possest a good part of Gallia, created his son Constans Cæsar & sent him into Spain to order his affairs there, A.C. 409.

In the mean time Resplendial seeing the aforesaid disaster of the Vandals, & that Goar was gone over to the Romans, led his army from the Rhene, & together with the Suevians & residue of the Vandals went towards Spain, the Franks in the mean time prosecuting their victory so far as to retake Trevirs, which after they had plundered they left to the Romans. The barbarians were at first stopt by the Pyrenean mountains, which made them diffuse themselves into Aquitain: but the next year they had the passage betrayed to them by some soldiers of Constance & entring Spain 4 Kal. Octob. A.C. 409, every one conquered what he could, & at length, A.C. 411, they divided their conquests by lot, & the Vandals obteined Bœtica & part of Gallæcia, the Suevians the rest of Gallæcia, & the Alans Lusitania & the Carthaginensian Province, the Emperor for peace sake confirming them in those seats by grant A.C. 413.

Also the Roman Franks above mentioned having made Theudemir their king began streight after their conquest of the Vandals to invade their neighbours. The first they set upon were the Galls of Brabant;[30] but meeting with notable resistance, they desired their alliance. And so those Galls fell of from the Romans, & made an intimate league with the Franks to be as one people, marrying with one another & conforming to one anothers manners till they became one without distinction. Thus by the access of these Galls, & of the foreign Franks also who afterwards came over the Rhene, the Salian kingdom soon grew very great & powerfull.

Stilico's expedition against the Greek Emperor was stopt by the order of Honorius, & then Alaric came out of Epire into Noricum, & requested a summ of money for his service. The Senate were inclined to deny him, but by Stilico's mediation granted it. But after a while, Stilico being accused of a traiterous conspiracy with Alaric & slain 10 Kal. Sept. A.C. 408, & so Alaric disappointed of his money & reputed an enemy to the Empire, brake streight into Italy with his army which he brought out of Epire, & sent to his brother Adolphus to follow him with what other forces he had in Pannonia, which were not great but yet not to be despised. Thereupon Honorius fearing to be shut up in Rome, retired to Ravenna in October A.C. 408, & from that time Ravenna continued to be the seat of the Western Emperors. In those days the Hunns also invaded Pannonia, & seizing the deserted seats of the Vandals Alans & Goths founded a new kingdom there. And Alaric advancing to Rome beseiged it & 9 Kal. Sept. A.C. 410 took it, & afterward attempting to pass into Afric was shipwrackt. After which <40r> Honorius made peace with him, & got up an army to send against the Tyrant Constantine.

At the same time Gerontius one of Constantines Captains, revolted from him, & set up Maximus Emperor in Spain. Whereupon Constantine sent Edobec, another of his Captains to draw to his assistance, besides the barbarians under Goar & Gundicar in Gallia, supplies of Franks & Alemans from beyond the Rhene; & committed the custody of Vienna in Narbonne to his son Constans. Gerontius advancing first slew Constans at Vienna & then began to beseige Constantine at Arles. But Honorius at the same time sending Constantius with an army on the same errand, Gerontius fled, & Constantius continued the siege, being strengthned by the access of the greatest part of the soldiers of Gerontius. After four months siege, Edobec having procured succours, the barbarian kings at Mentz, Goar & Gundicar, constitute Iovinus Emperor & together with him set forward to releive Arles. At their approach Constantius retired, they pursued, & he beat them by suprize; but not prosecuting his victory the Barbarians soon recovered themselves, yet not so as to hinder the fall of the Tyrants Constantine Iovinus & Maximus. But Britain could not be recovered to the Empire, but remained ever after a distinct kingdom.

The next year (A.C. 412) the Visigoths being beaten in Italy, had Aquitain granted to retire thence into, & they invaded it with much violence, causing the Alans & Burgundians to retreat who were then depopulating it. At the same time the Burgundians were brought to terms of peace, & the Emperor granted them for inheritance a region upon the Rhene which they had invaded And the same I presume he did with the Alans. But the Franks not long after retaking & burning Trevirs, Castinus A.C. 415 was sent against them with an army & routed them & slew Theudemir their king. This was the second taking of Trevirs by the Franks. And Merovæus about the year 448 took it again & destroyed it. So that it was taken four times, once by the Vandals & thrice by the Franks. Theudemer was succeeded by Pharamund a Prince of the Franks in Germany. From thence he brought new forces, reigned over the whole & had seats granted to his people within the Empire neare the Rhene.

And now the Barbarians were all quieted & setled in several kingdoms within the empire not only by conquest but also by the grants of the Emperor Honorius. For Rutilius in his Itinerary written in autumn Anno Vrbis 1169, that is, according to Varro's computation then in use, A.C. 416, thus laments the wasted fields

Illa quidem longis nimium deformia bellis, & then adds

Iam tempus laceris post longa incendia fundis

Vel pastorales ædificare casas. And a little after

Æternum tibi Rhenus aret.

And Orosius in this end of his history which was finished A.C. 417, represents now a general pacification of the barbarous nations by the words comprimere, coangustare, addicere gentes immanissimas, terming them imperio addictas because they had obteined seats in the Empire by league & compact, & coangustatas because they did no longer invade all regions at pleasure, but by the same compact remained quiet within the seats granted them.

Now by the warrs above described the western Empire was broken into the following kingdoms.

1 The kingdom of the Vandals

2 The kingdom of the Suevians.

3 The kingdom of the Alans in Spain

4 The kingdom of the Visigoths

5 The kingdom of the Alans in France

<41r>

6 The kingdom of the Burgundians.

7 The kingdom of the Franks.

8 The kingdom of the Britains.

9 The kingdom of the Hunns.

10 The kingdom of the Lombards.

11 The kingdom of Ravenna.

Eight of these kingdoms are thus mentioned by Sigonius. 1Honorio regnante in Pannoniam 2Hunni, in Hispaniam 3Vandali, 4Alani, 5Suevi et 6Gothi, in Galliam 7Alani 8Burgundiones et 6Gothi certis sedibus permissis accepti. Add the Franks & Lombards who were received before the reign of Honorius, & the Britains who were conquered long before, & you have all the kingdoms. But let us view them severally.

1. The kings of the Vandals were A.C. 406 Godegisilus, 407 Gunderic, 426 Geiseric, 477 Huneric, 484 Gundemund, 496 Thrasamund, 523 Geiseric, 531 Gelimer. Godegisilus led them into Gallia A.C. 406, Gunderic into Spain A.C. 409, Geiseric into Afric A.C. 427, & Gelimer was conquered by Belisarius A.C. 533. Their kingdom stood in Gallia Spain & Afric together 126 years, & in Afric they were very potent.

2. The kings of the Suevians were, A.C. 406 Ermeric, 438 Rechila 448 Rechiarius, 458 Maldra, 460 Frumarius, 463 Remismundus. And after some other kings whose names are unknown, reigned A.C. 558 Theodemir, 568 Miro, 582 Euboricus & 583 Andeca. This kingdom after its being seated in Spain remained always in Gallæcia & Lusitania. Ermeric after the fall of the Alan kingdom enlarged it into all Gallicia forcing the Vandals to retire into Bœtica & the Carthaginensian Province. This kingdom lasted 177 years according to Isidorus, & then was subdued by Leovigild king of the Visigoths & made a Province of his kingdom A.C. 585.

3 The kings of the Alans in Spain were Resplendial & Ataces Vtacus or Othocar. Resplendial began his reign in France A.C. 407 & in Spain A.C. 409 & Ataces was slain with almost all his army by Vallia king of the Visigoths A.C. 419. And then the remainder of these Alans subjected themselves to Gunderic King of the Vandals in Bœtica, & went afterwards with the Vandals into Afric as I learn out of Procopius & thence the kings of the Vandals in Afric stiled themselves kings of the Vandals & Alans, as may be seen in the Edict of Huneric recited by Victor in his history of the Vandalic persecution. In conjunction with the Catthi the Alans gave the name of Cathalaunia (or Catth-Alania) to the Province which is still so called. These Alans had also Gepides among them.

4 The kings of the Visigoths were A.C. 400 Alaric, 410 Athaulphus, 415 Sergeric & Vallia, 419 Theoderic, 451 Thorismund, 452 Theoderic, 465 Euric, 482 Alaric, 505 Gensalaric, 526 Amalaric, 531 Theudius, 548 Theudisclus, &c. I date this kingdom from the time that Alaric left Thrace & Greece to invade the western Empire. In the end of the reign of Athaulphus the Goths were humbled by the Romans & attempted to pass out of France into Spain. Sergeric reigned but a few days. In the beginning of Vallia's reign they assaulted the Romans afresh but were again repulsed & then made peace on this condition that they should on the behalf of the Empire invade the barbarian kingdoms in Spain, which they did together with the Romans in the years 417 & 418 overthrowing the Alans & part of the Vandals, & then received Aquitain of the Emperor by a full donation, leaving their conquests in Spain to the Emperor. And thereby the seats of the conquered Alans came into the hands of the Romans. A.C. 455 Theoderic (assisted by the Burgundians) invaded Spain which was then almost all subject to the Suevians & took a part of it from them. A.C. 506 the Goths were driven out of Gallia by the Franks. A.C. 585 they conquered the Suevian kingdom & became Lords of all Spain. A.C. 713 the Saracens invaded them, but in time they recovered their dominions & have <42r> reigned in Spain ever since.

<43r>

Chap. VI.
Of the Empire of the Latines.

The Romans were at first a small kingdom of Italy & began to make a figure in the world about the time that in conjunction with the king of Pergamus they took from Antiochus all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus, & to grow great from the time that they conquered Macedon. For after the conquest of Greece, they conquered Carthage & gradually extended their dominion ovfer Asia, Spain, Syria, Gallia, Egypt & Dacia, & reigned over all these countries untill the revolt of Dacia, & the separation of the Empire of the Greeks from that of the Latines: the particular history of all which is every where to be met with.

Dacia was a large country bounded on the south by the Danube, on the east by the Euxine sea, on the north by the river Neister & the mountain Crapack, & on the west by the river Tibesis or Teys which runs southward into the Danube a little above Belgrade, & comprehends the countries now called Transylvania Moldavia & Wallachia & the eastern part of the upper Hungary. Its ancient inhabitants were called Getæ by the Greeks & Daci by the Latines & Goths by themselves. Alexander the great attackt them & Trajan conquered them & reduced their country into a Province of the Roman Empire, & thereby the propagation of the Christian religion amongst them was much promoted. They were composed of several Gothic nations called Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, Gepides, Lombards, Burgundians &c, all which came originally from the southern parts of Scanzia or Scandinavia that great Peninsula in the Baltic sea conteining Norway & most of Sweden, & reputed an Island by the ancients. Whence it came to pass that they all agreed in their manenrs & spake the same language, as Procopius represents. Paulus Diaconus in his Historia miscella lib. XIV speaking of the times next after the death of Theodosius the great, tells us: Eodem tempore erant Gothi et aliæ Gentes maximæ trans Danubium habitantes: ex quibus rationabiliores quatuor sunt Gothi scilicet, Huisogothi, Gepides et Vandali, et nomen tantum et nihil aliud mutantes. Omnes autem fidei erant Arianæ malignitatis. Isti sub Arcadio et Honorio Danubium transeuntes locati sunt in terra Romanorum, et Gepides quidem (ex quibus postea divisi sunt Langobardi et Avares) villas quæ sunt circa <44r> Singidonem & Sirmium habitavere. And Procopius in the beginning of his historia Vandalica writes to the same purpose.

Before these nations revolted, the Goths or Ostrogoths were seated in the eastern parts of Dacia, the Vandals in the western upon the river Teys where the rivers Maresh & Keresh run into it; the Visigoths were between them, the Gepides were (according to Iornandes) upon the Vistula. The Burgundians, a Vandalic nation, were between the Vistula & the southern fountain of the Boristhenes at some distance from the mountain Crapac northward, where Ptolomy places them by the names of Phrugundiones & Burgiones. The Alans (another Gothic e[31] nation) were between the northern fountain of the Boristhenes & the mouth of the river Tanais where Ptolomy places the mountain Alanus. The Roxolani were on the southern coast of the Alans & western side of the Palus Mœotis.

In the second year of the reign of the Emperor Philip the Goths for want of their pay began to revolt from the Romans & under the conduct of their King Ostrogotha, the grandson of Amala being assisted by the Thaphili & Astringi or Vandals & the Carpi (other Gothic nations) made war upon them. And the Gepides under their king Fastida routed the Burgundians with a great slaughter & conquered some other nations & then invaded the said Goths & were routed by them. Cniva (called Echina by Pomponius Lætus) succeeded Ostrogotha in the reign of Decius & routed the Roman army & slew Decius, & the next year invaded Greece Macedon Pontus Asia & Illyricum, & kept Illyricum & Macedon almost fifteen years; & then the Goths invading the Empire (as Trebellius Pollio tells us) with an army of three hundred & twenty thousand Scythians composed of the Peuceni, Grutungi, Ostrogoths, Vitringi, Gepides Heruli &c & being beaten in Mœsia & other places by the Emperor Claudius, returned to their seats beyond the Danube. And soon after, the Emperor Aurelian, as Vopiscus informs us) cum vastatum Illyricum & Mœsiam deperditam videret, Provinciam trans Danubium Daciam a Trajano constitutam, sublato exercitu & provincialibus, reliquit, desperans eam posse retineri: abductosque ex ea populos in Mœsia collocavit, appellavitque suam Daciam. This was about the year of Christ 272.

But the Church of Dacia still continued united to the Church of the Roman Empire. For Theophilus Bishop or Patriarch of Dacia was at the Council of Nice A.C. 325 & his successor Vlphilas was at the Council of Constantinople A.C. 360.

Dioclesian in the year 285 divided the Roman Empire between himself & Maximianus, retaining the government of the eastern nations to himself & leaving that of the western to Maximianus . And by this act & the separation of the Goths the Roman Empire began to be divided into the three parts touched upon in the Apocalyps the Eastern Empire, the Western Empire & that of the Goths. For Dacia was large & the Goths soon became a great Empire.

Constantine the great built Constantinople A.C. 330, & made it the Metropolis of the eastern Provinces of the Empire, & Rome of the western; both cities being governed <45r> after one & the same manner by a Senate & Consuls. And by this act he established the division. He left the Empire between his sons A.C. 337, & his son Constantius reunited it under himself A.C. 353, & Valentinian divided it between himself & his brother Valens A.C. 364. And after the death of Valens it was reunited under Gratian the son of Valentinian A.C. 378. But after five months Gratian made Theodosius emperor of the East in the room of Valens 16 Ian. A.C. 379, & Theodosius left the Empire divided between his sons Arcadius & Honorius A.C. 395, after which it was no more united.

The two Empires into which the Roman Empire became now divided were distinguished by the names of the eastern & western or Greek & Latine Empires. And the Greek Empire continued entire about 240 years & then lost Syria & Egypt to the Saracens, but yet stood above 800 years longer before it came into the hands of the Turks. This Empire is represented in Daniel by the He-goat & in the Apocalyps by the great red Dragon. The Latin Empire is represented by the little horn of the He Goat & by the Beast with ten horns. It became a horn of the He Goat by inheriting the kingdom of Pergamus in Asia minor by the Legacy of Attalus. It had seven successive heads which were common to it self & the Dragon & answered to the times of the seven seals; but its heads are without crowns & the Dragons heads are crowned because the Dragon reigned first & included the Beast in his mystical body untill he gave the Beast his throne. It was wounded to death with a sword in the reign of Constantius. It revived & its deadly wound was healed by the new division of the Empire in the beginning of the reign of Valentinian & Valens. It rose out of the Sea at the division of the Empire between Gratian & Theodosius, & at its rise appeared with a wound which was made & healed in one of its heads before it rose, vizt in the head which was when five were fallen, that is in the sixt head. At its rise the seventh seal was opened & the reign of the seventh head began. And at the division of the Empire between the sons of Theodosius, the Dragon gave the Beast his power & throne. And thereby the Beast became the eighth head, & yet was of the seven, being a part of the seventh [so far as the seventh was common to them both.] And on this eighth head are ten horns all of them crowned, but on the Dragon's head they are without crowns. They were therefore to rise out of nations which were within the Dragons body but grew not into kingdoms before the reign of the eighth head. For they received power as kings at or about the same time with the Beast, that is, when the Dragon gave the Beast his power & throne or presently after the death of Theodosius. And that we may know what kingdoms they were & how they rose we must have recourse to the history of the kingdom of Dacia.

<46r>

Araricus reigned over the Goths after Cniva & was succeeded by Geberic in the reign of Constantine the great. < insertion from f 45v > Geberic made war upon the Sarmatans between Dacia & Moravia; & the servants of the Sarmatans being armed against the Goths, revolted & made their masters fly into the Roman Empire where Constantine the great granted them seats. This was done (according to Eusebius) An. Olymp. 278. 2, A.C. 334. < text from f 46r resumes > Geberic conquered also the Vandals slew their king Wisumar, & made them fly over the Danube into Pannonia where Constantine granted them seats. Their kings, according to Iornandes were of the stock of the Asdingi or Astingi a Vandalic nation which (according to Dio) came into Dacia in the reign of Marcus Antoninus. They staid quietly in Pannonia under the Dominion of the Romans about 40 years, that is untill the other Gothic nations flying from the Hunns came over the Danube & began to disturbe the Empire.

[32]Hermaneric succeeded Geberic & conquered the Heruli, Veneti, Antes, & Sclavi, & many other warlike nations of Scythia & Germany, as Iornandes informs us, & particularly the nations which Iornandes calls the Thuidi, Visinambrocæ, Mœrens, Mordensimnis, Caris, Rocæ, Tadzans, Athual, Navigo, Bubegentæ, & Coldæ, & the Æstri or Estij a people seated upon the Sinus Finnicus, & the Roxolani on the Palus Mœotis, & the Quades & Marcomans[33] two German nations seated by Ptolomy in Bohemia on the fountains of the Elbe. Thus the kingdom of the Goths by successive conquests grew into a large & potent Empire composed of many northern nations, & seems in the reign of Hermaneric to have extended eastward to the side of the Euxine sea the Lake Mœotis & the river Tanais & northward to the Sinus Finicus where Revel & Narva are seated & to the fountains of the river Volga, where the city Mosco stands, & westward to the rivers Oder & Moraw & the fountains of the Elbe so as to comprehend Silæisia Moravia & part of Bohemia;, & by all this extent it seems to have equalled the Greek Empire. In this state it continued till the death of Hermaneric which was in the year 376 or the year before. And from these conquests, saith Iornandes, some have compared this king to Alexander the great.

This king lived very long. & just before his death heard of a great army of Hunns coming over the Lake Mœotis & beginning to invade him; & then he left his kingdom divided among many successors, Hunnimund, Fridigern, Vithimar, Athanaric, Box, & others. Hunnimund was his son, & reigned over the eastern part of the Goths called Ostrogoths, & Fridigern reigned over the western part called Visigoths: for the Goths became now divided into two bodies called by these names. Vithimar or Winitharius was the son of Valeravan & grandson of Athaulphus or Vuldulph the brother of Hermaneric, & reigned over a part of the Goths called Gruthungi by A. Marcelinus, Gothunni by Claudian & Sarmatæ & Scythians by others. They were seated on the north east side of Dacia neare the Alans. Athaneric reigned in Dacia over another part of the Goths called Thervingi; & Box over the Antes in Sarmatia; & the Gepides had also their king. These kings or some of them seem to have been rectors of Provinces in the life time of Hermaneric, & to have kept their governments after his death.

The Goths & other Scythian nations beyond the Danube had hitherto lived without letters, & the Christian religion <47r> had been hitherto propagated among them only by oral tradition. But now Vlphilas the Patriarch of Dacia invented the Gothic letters & translated the Scriptures into the languages of Dacia, & propagated the Christian religion very much among the Goths & Gepides, so that Fridigern king of the Visigoths became a Christian; & Athaneric fearing that the Christian religion should also prevail in his kingdome (for the Therungi were a branch of the Visigoths & Vlphilas instructed the people of both kingdoms ) raised a vehement persecution against the Christians in his kingdom & put many of them to death.

In the mean time the Hunns advancing under the conduct of their King Balamber or Balamir invaded the Alans & other nations between the Tanais & Dacia & after the death of Hermaneric endured Dacia & made the people either submit or fly. The Ostrogoths submitted, but the Gruthungi made some resistance, their king Winitharius having strengthned himself by conquering the Antes the year before the Hunns invaded him. He beat the Hunns in one or two battels, but was slain by Balamir in the third battel, & his kingdom was given by the conqueror to Hunnimund. For Sigismund the son of Hunnimund had assisted the Hunns in this war with an army of Ostrogoths. After this, the Hunns pursued Athanaric, & the greatest part of his people deserting him, fled with some other Goths to the side of the Danube under the conduct of Alavivus. Fridigern also fled thither with his people the Visigoths. And these nations sent an Embassy to the Emperor Valens & obteined leave to pass the Danube & seat themselves in Mœsia & Thrace. Their Patriarch Vlphilas was at the head of this Embassy. And presently after this, a great part of the Gruthungi under the conduct of Alatheus & Saphrax the Guardians of Videric the young son of Winitharius (now their king,) flying from the Hunns & Ostrogoths, came to the side of the Danube, & made the same petition; but were rejected. Yet they passed the Danube soon after without leave, while the Roman army was deteined in Rhætia in a war against the Alemans & Sueves. This rout was in the year 377.

These Goths being thus seated in the Empire were soon pressed with famin & grosly abused by the Roman Governours who sold them dogs flesh & other carrion at high rates & otherwise provoked them. Whereupon they took up arms, invaded Thrace, called in to their assistance some Goths Alans & Hunns from beyond the Danube, routed the Roman army, slew the Emperor Valens & spread themselves into Greece & Pannonia as far as the Alps, Alatheus & Saphrax going westward. This was in the year 378. But in the years 379 & 380 they were checkt by the arms of the Emperors Gratian & Theodosius, & made a submissive peace, & the Visigoths & Thervingi returned to their seats in Mœsia & Thrace, <48r> the Hunns retired over the Danube, & the Alans & Gruthungi obteined seats in Pannonia.

During this war Athanaric king of the Thervingi came over the Danube &in autumn 1680 made the Emperor Theodosius a visit at Constantinople, was honourably received, died in Ianuary following, & was splendidly interred; & his people seeing this treatment subjected themselves immediately to the Emperor without chusing another king. But Fridigern King of the Visigoths was succeeded by Alaric, & Videric king of the Gruthungi by Radagaisus.

In the reign of Hermaneric the Lombards came out of Scandinavia under the conduct of Ibor & Ayon to seek new seats. They were then called Winuli but afterwards from their long beards had the name of Langobards given them. When the Gothic nations fled from the Hunns & came in great numbers into the Roman Empire, the Lombards also came over the Danube under the conduct of the same captains, & beat the Vandals then seated in Pannonia, & remained in Pannonia many years. The Vandals retired westward, & the Emperor Gratian went into Gallia against them & the Alemans together, & the Vandals thereupon went back into Pannonia. This was when the Emperor Theodosius lay sick at Thessalonica A.C. 379. And accordingly Prosper places the victory of the Lombards over the Vandals in the Consulship of Ausonius & Olybrius.

About the year 373 or 374 the Burgundians rose from their seats upon the Vistula with an army of eighty thousand men & seated themselves in Germany on the side of the Rhene. And a body of the Salian Francks with their king were received into the Empire by the Emperor Iulian about the year 358 & seated in Gallia between Brabant & the Rhene. And in this state things continued till the [death of Theodosius. Dragon gave the Beast his power & throne & the] ten horns of the Beast took up arms & received power as kings; which was in the following manner.

After the death of the Emperor Theodosius, the Visigoths, under the conduct of Alaric now their king, rose from their seats in Thrace & wasted Macedon, Thessaly, Achaia Peloponnesus & Epire with fire & sword five years together, & then turning westward invaded Dalmatia Illyricum & Pannonia, & from thence went into Italy A.C. 402, & the next year were so beaten at Pollentia & Verona by Stilico the commander of the forces of the western Empire, that Claudian calls the remainder of the forces of Alaric tanta ex Gente reliquias breves & Prudentius gentem deletam. Thereupon Alaric made peace with the Emperor, being so far humbled that Orosius tells us he did pro pace optima at quibuscunque sedibus suppliciter & simpliciter orare. This peace a[34] was ratified by mutual hostages, & Ætius was sent hostage to Alaric.

When Alaric took up arms the nations beyond the Danube began to be in motion, & the next winter (the winter between A.C. 395 & A.C. 396) a great body of Hunns, Alans, <49r> Ostrogoths & other northern nations came over the frozen Danube, being invited by Ruffin; & their brethren also who had obteined seats within the Empire, took up arms. Ierome calls all this great multitude Hunns, Alans, Vandals, Goths, Sarmatans, Quades & Marcomanns, & saith that they invaded all places between Constantinople & the Iulian Alps, wasting Scythia, Thrace, Macedon, Dardania, Dacia, Thessaly, Achaia, Epire, Dalmatia & all Pannonia. And the Suevians also invaded Rhætia. For when Alaric ravaged Pannonia, the Romans were defending Rhætia, which gave Alaric an opportunity of invading Italy, as Claudian thus mentions.[35]

Non nisi perfidia nacti penetrabile tempus

Irrupere Getæ, nostras dum Rhætia vires

Occupat, atque alio desudant Marte cohortes.

And when Alaric went from those parts into Italy, some other barbarous nations invaded Noricum & Vindelicia, as the same Claudian thus mentions[36]

Iam fœdera gentes

Exuerant, Latijque audita clade feroces

Vendelicos saltus & Norica rura tenebant.

Among these nations I reccon the Suevians Quades & Marcomans. For they were all in arms at this time, & the Quades & Marcomans were Suevian nations & they & the Suevians came originally from Bohemia & the river Suevus or Sprahe in Lusatia sometimes subject to the Goths under Hermaneric, & were now united under one common king called Ermeric who soon after led them into Gallia. The Vandals & Alans might also about this time extend themselves into Noricum. Also Vldin with a new great body of Hunns passed the Danube about the time of Chrysostoms banishment, that is A.C. 404, & wasted Thrace & Mœsia. And Radagaisus king of the Gruthungi, inviting over more barbarians from beyond the Danube invaded Italy with an army of above 200000 Goths, & the next year (A.C. 405 or 406) was overcome by Stilico & perished with his army. In this war Stilico was assisted by a great body of Hunns & Ostrogoths under the conduct of Vldin & Sarus. They were hired by the Emperor Honorius. In all this confusion it was necessary for the Lombards in Pannonia to arm themselves in their own defence & assert their liberty, the Romans being no longer able to protect them.

And now Stilico purposing to make himself Emperor, procured a military Præfecture for Alaric, & sent him into the east in the service of Honorius the western Emperor committing some Roman Troops to his conduct to strengthen his army of Goths, & promising to follow soon after with his own army. His pretence was to recover some regions of Illyricum which the eastern Emperor was accused to detein injuriously from the western: but his secret designe was to make himself Emperor by the assistance of the Vandals & their allies: for he himself was a Vandal. For faciliating this designe, he invited a great body of the barbarous nations to invade the western Empire, while he & Alaric invaded the eastern. And these nations under their several kings, the Vandals under Godegisilus, the Alans in two bodies, the one under Goar, the other under Resplendial; & the Suevians Quades & Marcomans under Ermeric marched through Rhetia to the side of the Rhene leaving their seats in Pannonia to the Hunns & Ostrogoths & joyned the Burgundians under Gundicar, & ruffled the Francks in their further march, & on the last day of December A.C. 406 passed the Rhene at Ments, & diffused <50r> themselves into Germania prima & the adjacent regions, & amongst other actions the Vandals took Trevirs. They then advanced into Belgium, & began to ruffle that country. Whereupon the Salian Franks under the conduct of Theudemir the son of Richomer or Ricimer took up arms & made so stout a resistance, that they slew almost twenty thousand of the Vandals with their king Godegisilus in battel, the rest escaping only by a party of Resplendials Alans which came timely to their assistance.

< insertion from f 49v > ✝ In the mean time Goar & Gundicar in conjunction with a party of the Romans set up Iovinus Emperor at Mentz. And Resplendial seing the disaster of the Vandals & that Goar was gone over to the Romans < text from f 50r resumes > Resplendial seing the disaster of the Vandals, & that Goar was gone over to the Romans led his army from the Rhene, & together with the Suevians & residue of the Vandals went towards Spain the Franks in the mean time prosecuting their victory so far as to retake Trevirs, which after they had plundered they left to the Romans. The barbarians were at first stopt by the Pyrenean mountains, which made them diffuse themselves into Aquitain; but the next year they had the passage betrayed to them by some soldiers of Constans, & entring Spain 4 Kal. Octob. A.C. 409, every one conquered what he could, & at length, A.C. 411, they divided their conquests by lot, & the Vandals obteined Bœtica, & part of Gallæcia, the Suevians the rest of Gallæcia & the Alans Lusitania & the Carthaginensian Province, the Emperor for peace sake confirming them in those seats by grant A.C. 413.

Then the British soldiers allarm'd by the rumour of these things, revolt & set up Tyrants there; first Marcus whom they slew presently, then Gratian whom they slew within four months, & lastly Constantine under whom they invaded Gallia A.C. 408 being assisted by Goar & Gundicar. And Constantine having possest a good part of Gallia, created his son Constans Cæsar, & sent him into Spain to order his affairs there A.C. 409.. [about which time it was that the barbarous nations were let into Spain by some of the soldiers of Constans betraying the Pyrenean passage to them.]

Also the Roman Franks above mentioned having made Theudemir the Prince of their old royal family king over them, began streight after their conquest of the Vandals to invade their neighbours; The first they set upon werea [37] the Galls of Brabant, but meeting with notable resistance, they desired their alliance. And so those Galls fell of from the Romans, & the two nations made an intimate league to be as one people, marrying with one another & conforming to one anothers manners till they became one without distinction. Thus by the access of these Galls, & of the forreign Franks also who afterwards came over the Rhene the Salian kingdom soon grew very great & powerfull.

Stilico's expedition against the Greek Emperor was stopt by the order of Honorius, & then Alaric came out of Epire into Noricum & requested a summ of money for his service. The Senate were inclined to deny him, but by Stilico's mediation granted it. But after a while Stilico being accused of a traiterous conspiracy with Alaric & slain 10 Kal. Sept. A.C. 408, & so Alaric disappointed of his money & reputed an enemy of the Empire, brake streight into Italy with his army which he brought out of Epire & sent to his brother Adolphus to follow him with what other forces he had in Pannonia, which were not great but yet not to be despised. Thereupon Honorius fearing to be shut up in Rome, retired to Ravenna in October A.C. 408, & from that time Ravenna continued to be the seat of the western Emperors. In those days the Hunns also invaded Pannonia, & seizing the deserted seats of the Vandals Alans & Goths

<51r>

Chap
Of the Empire of the Latines

The Romans were at first a small kingdom of Italy & began to make a figure in the world about the time that in conjunction which the king of Pergamus they took Asia from Antiochus magnus, & to grow great from the time that they conquered Macedon. For after that, they conquered Carthage & extended their dominion over Asia Spain Syria Gallia & Egpyt, & reigned over those countries untill the division of the Empire between Rome & Constantinople, the particular history of all which is every where to be met with.

Constantine the great built Constantinople A.C. 334 & made it the Metropolis of the eastern provinces of the Empire & Rome of the Western. He left the Empire divided between his sons & his son Constantius reunited it, & after a few years it became divided again between Valentinian & Valens & after the death of Valens was reunited under Gratian five months & then divided again between Gratian & Theodosius A.C. 379. & Theodosius left it divided between his sons Arcadius & Honorius A.C. 395. ✝ < insertion from lower down f 51r > < text from f 51r resumes > & soon after this the western Empire at once A.C. 408 & 409 became divided into ten kingdoms [represented in Daniel by the ten toes of Nebuchadnezzars Image & by the ten horns of the fourth Beast.] This last division being a very signal revolution in the Empire of the Latines & not distinctly described in any historian I shall here give an account of the rise & number of these kingdoms.

The Visigoths – – – – from their number at their first rise. And in this divided state the Latin Empire continued till the rise of the German Empire & still continues to this day.

In the reign of the Emperor Valens the Hunns rising from their seats beyond Tanais passed that river & the Niper, & invading Dacia & the neighbouring regions subdued some of the inhabitants & made others fly. The Visigoths flying from them passed the Danube invaded the eastern part of the Empire beat & slew Valens, were beaten by Theodosius

8, 38, 44 = 304, 44 = 3344, 4 = 13376 letters in a sheet. 8, 40, 50 = 16000 letters.

2, 50, 44 = 4400 letters in a ms. sheet. 54 MS sheets = 39600, 6 = 237600 letters = 20 sheets printed.

2, 48, 46 = 12, 368 = 3,1472 = 4416 letters in a MS sheet & 54 MS sheet = 39744, 6 = 238464 = 238464 letters = 15 sh.

In Octavo. 16, 36, 38 = 64, 342 = 8, 2736 = 21888. makes under 12 sheets printed.

54 MS sheets in 1 part & 69 M sheets in 2 Part. Vnder 30 sheets in Octavo. Vnder 35 in quarto.

In Octavo, 16, 40, 40 = 25600 letters in a printed sheet. 4400 letters in a MS sheet & 125 MS sheets make 550000 letters. 22 printed sheets in Octavo.

doubled. For upon the death of Assaradan or not long after the Empire of the Assyrians began to decline & some of the conquered nations to fall off from it. Ægypt had again its own kings & Manasseh was released out of Captivity, & fortified Ierusalem & put garrisons in all Iudea. & the Medes revolted & built Ecbatane which makes it probable that the Empire fell into civil dissentions, & that Babylon also separated. Herodotus tells us that the Medes were the first who separated & asserted their liberty, but what he tells us of their living in villages without a king till Dejoces a private man gained so much reputation among them by acts of justice as to be chosen king, & that he reigned peaceably 53 years & built Ecbatane is not likely. They might live in villages without a king till they were conquered but they could scarce revolt without a captain to lead their army, & before Dejoces a private man could make himself so famous in all Meadia for doing justice as to be made king, he would be too old to reign 53 years, & the Book of Iudeth ascribes the building of Ecbatane to Arphaxad a great warrior, who was slain in battel by the king of Assyria. Which makes it probable that the Medes revolted under the conduct of Arphaxad.

<51v>

& that Babylon also separated. But the Medes according to Herodotus were the first who separated & asserted their liberty.

The History of Nebuchadonosor – – – good condition. Arphaxad was therefore the Phraortes of Herodotus [& Ecbatane was built not by Dejoces as Herodotus represents but by Phraortes.] – – from Idolatry.

Now since Arphaxad was contemporary to Chiniladon king of Babylon & built Ecbatane & had wars which the king of Assyria & Phraortes according to herodotus was the first warlike king of the Medes we may reccon that the Medes revolted under his conduct . [For it is not likely that they would revolt without a warlike Prince to lead their army.] & by consequence under the conduct of Phraortes, & not under that of Dejoces who was a quiet Prince, & much less before like Numa – Dejoices their first king reduced them from a salvage life, civilized them by his laws & justice & formed them into a body politique For these things agree better these things agree better to the times before they were conquered & civilized by the Assryians then to the times after they revolted. And their revolting required a warlike Prince such as was Phraortes to lead their army.

How this king of Assyria after he had vanquished the king of the Medes sent Holofernes which an army to reduce the Western nations which had also revolted is described at large in the book of Iudeth. After him reigned Anacyndaraxas & his son Sardanapalus the two last kings of Assyria. & Callisthenes.

At that time the Scythians invaded

In the mean time the Scythians invaded & conquered Media & went thence towards Egypt but were met in Phœnicia by Psammiticus & bought off, & returning into Media reigned over a great part of Asia for some years & this together which the death of holofernes seems to have put a stop to the victories of the Assyrians.

<52r>

And now the Assyrian Empire seems to have been in its chief vigor & greatnes being united – – – name of Assyria. It comprehended also Cilicia, for there Sardanapalus afterwards built Tarsus & Anchiale. And since conquerors used to people the borders of their kingdoms which captivated nations for a defence therefrom, & Salmanasser placed the ten tribes in Halah & Habor & by the river Gozan & in the cities of the Medes, if by the two first places we may understand Colchos & Iberia by the river which runs between them & is now called Cyrus Corus Cyrrhus & Chiur, we may extend the kingdom of Assyria over the two Armenias & Media & as far as the Caspian & Euxine seas including Colchos & Iberia Asserhadon is the last king of Assyria, mentioned in scripture. For in the latter end of his reign or soon after it, the Assyrian Empire began to decay by the revolting of several nations the first of which according to Herodotus was that of the Medes. If the first king of the Medes was as ancient as Herodotus relates, their revolt must have happened neare the beginning of the reign of Assarhadon. But historians are apt to lengthen the reign of kings & Ecbatane the Metropolis of the kingdom was built later then Herodotus represents.

Assarhadon died in the year of Nabonassar 81 & was succeeded at Babylon by Saosduchinus. But whether Saosduchinus was king of all Assyria or of Baby{lon} alone or only Satrapa of Babylon under the king of Assyria may be doubted. And the same – – – – – – from Idolatry.

The two last kings of Assyria are a[39] Anacyndaraxes Anacyndaraxis seems to have re his son Sardanapalus. Callisthenes relates that there were two kings of Nineveh called Sardanapalus one stout & valiant the other soft & effeminate. The first without question was Assarhadon. For Sardanapalus is Assar-hadon-pul. The other was the last king of Assyria. He was contemporary to Nabopolassar king of Babylon the successor of Chniladon & to Astyages king of the Medes. For Nabopolassar married his son Nebuchadnezzar to Amyite the daughter of Asyages. And by this marriage having contracted affinity, they conspired against the Assyrians, & being old their sons Nebuchadnezzar & Cyaxeres led the armies of the two nations against Nineveh, destroyed the city & shared the kingdom of the Assyrians. This victory the Iews refer to the Chaldeans the Greeks to the Medes; Tobit, Polyhistor, Iosephus & Ctesias to both. It gave a beginning to the great successes of Nebuchadnezzar & Cyaxeres & laid the foundation of the two collateral Empires of the Babylonians & Medes which were branches of the Assyrian Empire: & thence the time of the fall of Nineveh is determined the conquerors being then in their youth. In the reign of Iosiah when Zephany prophesied Nineveh & the kingdom of Assyria was standing (Zeph. 1.1 & 2.13) And In the end of his reign the king of Assyria reigned over the nations upon Euphrates & lost part of his dominions to the king of Egypt (2 King. 23.29) But In the third & fourth year of Iehojakim the successor of Iosiah – – – – 140. Anno Abr. 1393.

<52v>

I may add also Cilica where Sardanapalus built Tarsus & Anchiale &

[1] This varies from the Ch. 6th printed.

[2] Isidor. Chron. Got

[3] in Podolia

[4] Iornand. Get. c 29, 31.

[5] a Sigon. de Occid. Imp. l. 10. an. 403.

[6] De bello Getico

[7] Galli Arborici, whence the region was named Arboric-bant, & contractly Brachbant

[8] Vid. Ch. VI. p. 48

[9] Apud Bucherum l. 14. c. 9. n. 8.

[10] ✝ In Zozimus tis tractus Armorich{us} in Procopius (lib. 1 Got. Arborichus. These are the Galls who united which the Franks

[11] a Rolevink's Antiqua. Saxon. l. 1. c. 6.

[12] Sigon. de Occid. Imp. ad An. 411.

[13] Note:The contents of this note are only visible in the diplomatic transcript because they were deleted on the original manuscript

[14] Thus far printed in Ch. VI. But which a great difference

[15] Anastas & Platina in vitis Ioan. VII & Greg. II Paul. Diac. de Gestis Longob. l. 6. c. 28, 43 Sigon. de Regn. Ital. l. 1, sub initio. Beda

[16] Sigon. de Regn. Ital. ad ann. 712

[17] Sigon. de Regn. Ital. ad an. 726

[18] Sigon. de Regn. Ital. lib. III. an. 750

[19] Sigon. de Regn. Ital. lib. III. an. 752.

[20] Sigon. ib. an. 773

[21] Sigon. de Regn Italiæ, ad Ann. 796.

[22] Vide Anastasium.

[23] Sigon. de Regno Italiæ.

[24] Vide Actorum Erudit. Suppl. Tom. 2. Sect. 1. pag. 37, 38.

[25] a Confirmationem recitat Sigonius lib. 4 de Regne Italiæ ad Ann. 817.

[26] a Excerpt. apud Photium.

[27] Procop. de Bello Vandalico lib. 1.

[28] a Procop. l. 1 de bel. Vandal.

[29] a Sigon. de Occid. Imp. l. 10 an. 403.

[30] Galli Arborici Whence the region was named Arboricbant & contractly Brabant.

[31] e Procop. l. 1. de Bello Vandal.

[32] Iornand. Get. c. 23

[33] Iornand. Get. c. 16.

[34] a Sigon. de Occid. Imp. l. 10. an. 403.

[35] De bello Getico.

[36] Ib.

[37] a Galli Arborici. whence the region was name Arboricbant, & contractly Brachbant.

[38] Callist. lib. 2 de rebus Persicis apud Suidam in Σαδαναπάλυ

[39] a Scholiastm Aristoph ad Aves p. 590. Suidas in Σαρδανάπαλλος & Α᾽ναχυνδάραξος

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