Chap. 1.
Of the Chronology of the first ages of three {sic} Greeks & Latines.


The Introduction
Chap. I.
Of the Chronology of the first ages of the Greeks & Latines

All nations before the ll just length of the Solar year was known, recconed Months by the course of ye Moon & years by thea[1] returns of Winter & Summer Spring & Autumn. And in making Calendars for their festivals they recconed 30 days to a Lunar month & & twelve Lunar months to a year, taking the nearest round numbers. Whence came the division of the Ecliptick into 360 degrees. So in the time of Noahs flood when the Moon could not be seen, Noah recconed 30 days to a month. But if the Moon appeared a day or two before the end of the month, theyb[2] began the next month with the first day of her appearance \And this was done generaly till the Egyptians of Thebais found the length of the solar year./ So Diodorusc[3] tells us that the Egyptians of Thebais use no intercalary months nor subduct any days [from the month] as is done by most of the Greeks. And Cicerod[4]: Est consuetudo Siculorum cæterorumqꝫ Græcorum quod suos dies mensesqꝫ congruere volunt cum Solis Lunæqꝫ rationibus; ut nonnunquam siquid discrepet, eximant aliquem diem, aut summum, biduum ex mense [\civili/ dierum triginta] quos illi ἐξαιρεσίμους dies nominant. And Proclus, upon Hesiods τριακὰς mentions the same thing. And Geminuse[5]: Propositum fuit Veteribus, menses quidem agere secundum Lunam, annos verò secundum solem. Quod enim a legibus et Oraculis præcipiebatur ut sacrificarent secundum tria, videlicet patria, menses dies annos; hoc ita distincte faciebant universi Græci ut annos agerent congruenter cum sole, dies verò et menses cum Luna. Porro secundum Solem annos agere est circa easdem anni tempestates annni eadem sacrificia Dijs perfici, & vernum sacrificium \semper/ in Vere perfici, æstivem autem in æstate: similiter et in reliquis anni temporibus eadem sacrificia cadere. Hoc enim putabant acceptum et gratum esse Dijs. Hoc autem aliter fieri non posset nisi conversiones solstitiales & æquinoctia in – ijsdem Zōdiaci locis fierent. Secundum Lunas vero dies agere est tale ut congruant cum Lunæ illuminationibus appellationes dierum. Nam a Lunæ illuminationibus appellationes dierum sunt denominatæ. In qua enim die Luna apparet nova, ea per synalœphem compositionem Neomenia seu Novilunium appellatur. In qua vero die secundam facit apparitionem, eam secundam lunar vocarunt. Apparitionem Lunæ quæ circa medium Mensis fit, ab ipso eventu, διχομηνίαν, id est, medietatem mensis nominarunt. Ac summatim, omnes dies a Lunæ illuminationibus denominarunt. Vnde etiam tricesimam Mensis diem, cum – ultima sit, ab ipso eventu τριακάδα vocarunt.

The ancient Calendar year of the Greeks consisted <2r> therefore of twelve Lunar months & every month of thirty days, & these years & months they corrected from time to time by the courses of the Sun & Moon omitting a day or two in the month as often as they found the month too long for the course of the Moon & adding a month to the year as often as they found the twelve Lunar months too short for the return of the four seasons. Cleobulusf[6] one of the seven wise men \of Greece/ alluded to this year of the Greeks in his Parable of one father who had twelve sons each of wch had thirty daughters \half white &/ half black & Thalesg[7] called the last day of the mo |called the last day of the month τριακαδα the thirtieth. And Solon| counted the ten last days of the month backwards from the thirtieth, calling that day ἔνην καὶ νέαν the old & the new. He introduced months of 29 & 30 days alternately, making the thirtieth day of every other month to be the first day of the next month.

To the twelve Lunar monthsa[8] the ancient Greeks added a thirteenth every other year,wch made their Dietens \& this they did till after the days of {Theodotus}/. And because this recconing made their year too long by a month in eight years, they omitted an intercalary month once in eight years, wch made their Octaeteris, one half of wch was their Tetracteris. And these periods seem to have been as old as the religions of Greece, being used in divers of their sacra. The Octaeterisb[9] was the Annus magnus of Cadmus & Minos & seems to have been brought into Greece & Crete by the Phenicians who came with Cadmus & Europa & to have continued till after the days of Herodotus. For in counting the length of seventy yearsc[10] he reccons 30 days to a lunar month & twelve such months or 360 days to the ordinary year wthout the intercalary months & 25 such months to the Dieteris. And according to the number of days \in/ the Calendar year of the Greeks, Demetrius Phaloreus had 360 statues erected to him by the Athenians. But the Greeks Cleostratus Harpalus & others to make their months agree better with the course of the Moon, in the days of the Persian – Empire, varied the manner of intercaling the three months of the Octaeteris, intercaling a month in the second fourth & seventh year or in the third fifth & eigth year \or there sixt & eighth/, & Meton found out the Cycle of intercaling seven months in 19 years.

The ancient year of the Egyptians was also Lunisolar & continued to be so till the days of Hyperion or Osiris a king of Egypt the father of Helius & Selene or Orus & Bubaste. For the Israelites brought this year out of Egypt & Diodorusa[11] tells us that Vranus the father of Hyperion used this year &b[12] that in the temple of Osiris the Priests appointed thereunto filled 360 milk bowles every day. I think he means one bowle every day, in all 360, to count the number of days in the Calendar year, & thereby to find the difference between this & the true solar year. For this was the year to the end of which they added five days.


That the Israelites used the Lunisolar year is beyond question. Their months began with their new moons; their first month was called Abib from the earing of corn in that month; their Passover was kept upon the 14th day of the first month the Moon being then in the full; & the \first/ fruits of the corn were offered in that festival & the harvest got in before the Pentecost; & the other fruits gathered before the feast of the seventh month. David had only twelve courses of guards for the twelve months of the year, but it is to be understood that when a thirteenth month was added to the year, the course wch was to serve upon the first month of the next year, served upon the intercalary month & the next course served upon the first month of ye next year, & so on perpetually.

Simplicius in his Commentarya[13] on the 5t of Aristotels Physical Aeroasis, tells us that some begin the year upon the Summer Solstice, as the people of Attica, or upon the autumnal Equinox, as the people of Asia, or in winter as the Romans, or about the Vernal Equinox, as the Arabians & people of Damascus: & the month began according to some, upon the full Moon, or upon the new. The years of all these nations were therefore Luni–solar, & kept to the four seasons. The ancient civil year of the Assyrians & Babylonians was also Lunisolar. For this year was used by the Samaritans who came from several parts of the Assyrian Empire; & the Iews who came from Babylon, called the months of their Luni–solar year after the names of the months of the Babylonian year. And Berosusb[14] tells us that the Babylonians celebrated the feast Sacea upon the 16th day of the month Lous, wch was a Lunar month of the Macedonians, & kept to one & the same season of the year. And the Arabians, a nation who peopled Babylon, use Lunar months to this day. And Suidasc[15] tells us that the Sarus of the Chaldeans conteins 222 Lunar months, wch are eighteen years & six months that is eighteen years consisting each of twelve Lunar months, besides six intercalary months. Whence it seems to me that the Chaldeans intercaled a month every third year for 18 years together & {illeg} at the end of every Sanus corrected the recconing by the course of the Moon. \For in this Period & another Lunar month, the motions of the Moon returned to their former course very nearly./ And when Cyrusd[16] cut the river Gindes into 360 channels, he seems to have alluded unto the number of days in the Calendar year of the Medes & Persians.

At length the Egyptians for the sake of navigation applied themselves to the star observe the stars, & by their heliacal risings & settings found the true solar year to be five days longer then the Calendar year, & thereupon added five days to the twelve equal Calendar months, making the solar year to consist of twelve months & <4r> five days. Strabo a[17] & Diodorusb[18] ascribe this invention to to the Egyptians of Thebes. The Theban Priests, saith Strabo, are above others said to be Astronomers & Philosophers They invented the recconing of the days not by the course of the Moon but by the course of the Sun. To twelve months each of 30 days they add yearly five days. In memory of this emendation of the year they dedicatedc[19] the five additional days to Osiris Isis Orus senior Typhon & Nephthe the wife of Typhon, feigning that those days were added to the year when these five Princes were born. \that is, in the reign of Ammon the father of Sesac./ And in the Sepulchred[20] of Amenophis who reigned soon after, they placed a circle of 365 cubits in compass covered on the upper side with a plate of gold & divided it into 365 equal parts to represent all the days in the year, & noted upon each part the heliacal risings & settings of the stars on that day: wch circle remained there till the days of Cambyses \invasion of Egypt by Cambyses King of Persia/. In the reign of Vranus the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helins & Selene the Thebans applied themselves to Navigation & Astronomy, & by the heliacal risings of the starrs determined the length of the solar year. And in the reign of Amenophis when by further Observations they had sufficiently determined the new year time of the summer solstice, they might place the beginning of this new year upon the Vernal Equinox. And this year being propagated into Chaldea gave occasion to the Æra of Nabonassar. For the years of Nabonassar & those of Egypt began on one & the same day \(the first day of the first month called by them Thoth)/, & were in all respects the same. And the first year of Nabonassar began on the 26th day of February seven hundred forty & seven years before the vulgar Æra, & thirty & three days & five hours before the Vernal Æquinox according to the Suns mean motion. For it is not likely that the Equation of the Suns motion should be known in the infancy of Astronomy. Now recconing that the year of 365 days, wants five hours & 49 minutes of the Equinoctial year; the beginning of this year will move backwards 33 days & five hours in 137 years; & by consequence this year began \at/ first in Egypt upon the Vernal Equinox according to the Suns mean motion 137 years before the Æra of Nabonassar began, that is in the year of the Iulian Period 3830, or 96 years after the death of Solomon. \For then ended the reign of Amenophis./ And if it began upon the day next after the Vernal Equinox, it might begin four years earlier. This year the Persian Empire received from the Babylonian, & the Greeks also used it in the Æra Philippœa dated from the death of Alexander, & Iulius Cæsar corrected it & made by adding a day in every four years, & made it the year of the Romans.

The first month of the Lunisolar year began sometimes a week or fortnight before the Vernal Equinox. <5r> & sometimes as much after it. And this year gave occasion to the first Astronomers who formed the Asterisms, to place the Equinoxes & Solstices in the middle of the Constellations of Aries, Cancer, Chelæ & Capricorn. Achillesa[21] Tatius tells us that some anciently placed the solstice in the beginning of Cancer others about \in/ the eighth degree of Cancer, others about the twelfth degree & others about the fifteenth degree. This variety of opinions proceeded from the Precession of the Equinox then not known to the Greeks. When the sphere was first formed the {Equinoctial} \solstice/ was in the 15th degree or middle of the Constellation of Cancer. Then it came into the twelth, 8th \4th/ & 1st degree successively. Eudoxus \(who was contemporary to Meton)/ in describing the sphere of the ancients placed the Solstices & Equinoxes in the middle of the Constellations of Aries {Chelæ} Cancer Chelæ & Capricorn, as is affirmed by Hipparchus Bithynus & appears also by the description of the Equinoctial & Tropical circles in Aratus who copied after Eudoxus, & by the positions of the Colures of the Equinoxes & Solstices wch in the sphere of Eudoxus went described by Hipparchus, went through the middle of those Constellations. For Hipparchus tells us that Eudoxus drew the Colure of the Solstices through the middle of the great Bear & the middle of Cancer & the neck of Hydrus & the star between the Poop & Mast of Argo, & the Tayle of the South Fish, & through the middle of Capricorn & of Sagitta, & through the neck & right wing of the Swan & the left hand of Cepheus. And that he drew the Equinoctial Colure through the left hand of Aretophylax & along the middle of his body, & cross the middle of Chelæ & through the right hand & foreknee of the Centaur, & through the flexure of Eridanus & head of Cetus & the back of Aries across, & through the head & right hand of Perseus.

Now Chiron delineated σχήματα ὀλύμπου the Asterisms, as the ancient author of Gigantomachia cited by Clemensa[22] Alexandrinus, informs us. For Chiron was a practical Astronomer, as may be {illeg} understood by what is there said of his daughter Hippo. And Musœus the Master of Orpheus & one of the Argonautsb[23] made a sphære & is reputed the first among the Greeks who made one. And the Sphære it self shews that it was designed in the time of the Argonautic Expedition. For that expedition is delineated in the Asterisms, together with several other ancienter histories of the Greeks. < insertion from f 5v > There's the golden Ram \(the Ensign of the vessel in wch Phriseus fled to Colchos) the bull wth brazen hoofs \tamed by Iason,//, the fiery Bull, the Twins Castor & Pollux two of the Argonauts, with{illeg} \&/ the Swan of Leda their mother. There's the ship Argo, & \Hydra/ the watchfull Dragon called Hydra with Medea's Cup & a Raven upon its carcass the symbol of death. There's Chiron the master of Iason with his Altar & sacrifice. There's the Argonaut Hercules with his Dart & Vultur falling down, & the Dragon, Crab, & Lyon whom he slew \& the Harp of Orpheus the Argonaut./ All these relate to the Argonauts. There's Orion their contemporary, the grandson of Minos, with his Doggs & Hare & River & Scorpion. Ther's the story of Perseus in Constellations of Perseus, Andromeda, Cepheus, Cassiopeia & Cete. That of Callisto & her son Arcas is Vrsa major & Arctophylax. That of Icareus & his daughter Erigone in Bootes, Plaustrum & Virgo. Vrsa minor relates to one of the nurses of Iupiter, {Aoviga} to Erechthenius, Ophiuchus to Phorbas, Sagittary to Crotaes the Centaur the son of the nurse of the Muses, Capricorn to Pan & Aquarius to Ganimede. There's Ariadnes crown, Bellerophon's Horse, Neptune's Dolphin, Ganimede's Eagle, Iupiter's Goat with her Kidds, Bacchus's Asses, & the fishes of Venus & Cupid, & their parent the south fish. There are the old Constellations, & they all relate partly to the Argonautic Expedition & partly to things done preceding it: & nothing later then that expedition < text from f 5r resumes > but \and/ nothing – later then that expedition was delineated there originally. Antinous & Coma Berenices are novel. It \The sphere/ seems therefore to have been formed by Chiron & Musæus for the use of the Argonauts. For the ship Argo was the first long ship built by the Greeks. Hitherto they had kept by \to/ \within sight of/ the shore in round vessels of burden without sails, & now upon an Embassy to several Princes upon the coasts of the Euxine & Mediterranean seas they \e[24] by the dictates of the Oracle & consent of the Princes of Greece the flower of Greece/ were to sail with Expedition through the deep & guide their ship by the starrs. The people of the Island Corcyrac[25] attributed the invention of the sphere to Nausicae the daughter of Alcinous king of the Pheaces in that Island. And its most probable that she had it from the Argonauts who d[26] in their return home sailed to that Island & in her \made some/ stay there with her father. So then in the time of the Argonautic expe <6r> dition the cardinal points of the Equinoxes & Solstices were in the middles of the constellations of Aries Cancer {Chalax} & Capricorn.

In the end of the year 1689 the star called Prima Arietis was in 28.51.00 with north Latitude, 7.8.58. And the star called ultima caudæ \Arietis/ was in 19.3.42 with north latitude 2. 34.5. And the Colurus Æquinoctiorum passing through the middle point \in the middle/ of those two stars did then cut the Ecliptick in 6.44. And by this recconing the Equinox was gone back in the end of the year 1689 was gone back 36gr 44 since the Argonautick Expedition. But it may be better to fix the cardinal points by the starrs through wch the Colures \then/ passed. < insertion from higher up f 5v > By the Colurus Æquinoctionem I mean a great circle cutting the Ecliptic \in the Equinoxes/ in an angle of 6612 degrees the complement of \the suns greatest Declination/ 2312 gr. And by the Colurus Solstitiorum I mean a great great circle cutting the Ecliptic at right angles in the solstices < text from f 6r resumes > By the Colures &c

In the back of Aries is a star of the sixt magnitude marked {illeg} V by Bayer. In the end of the year 1689 its longitude was 9.38.45, & north Latitude 6.7.56. And the Colurus Æquinoctiorum drawn through it cuts the Ecliptick in {illeg} 6.58.57. In the head of Cetus are two stars of the 4th magnitude called V & ξ by Bayer. In the end of the year 1689 their longitudes were 4.3′.9″ & 3.7′.35″ & their south latitudes 9.12′.26″ & 5.53′.7″. And the Colurus Æquinoctiorum passing in the mid way between them cuts the Ecliptick in 6.58′.51″. In the extreme flexure of Eridanus \righly {sic} delineated/ is a star of the fourth magnitude of late referred to the breast of Cetus & called ρ by Bayer. It is the only star in Eridanus through wch this Colure can pass. Its longitude in the end of the year 1689 was 25.22′.10″, & south Latitude 25.15′.50″. And the Colurus Æquinoctiorum passing through it, cuts the Ecliptick in 7.12′.40″. In the head of Perseus rightly delineated is a star of the 4th magnitude called {illeg} \Τ/ by Bayer. The Longitude of this star in the end of the year 1689 was 23.35′.30″ & north Latitude 34.20.{illeg} \12/. And the Equinoctial Colure passing through it, cuts the Ecliptick in { 40.46.40} 6.18′.57″. In the right hand of Perseus rightly delineated is a star of the 4th magnitude called η by Bayer. Its longitude in the end of the year 1689, was 24.23′.27″, & north latitude 37.26′.50″. And the Equinoctial Colure passing through it cut the Ecliptick in 4.56′.40″. And the fift part of the summ of the places in wch these five Colures cuts the Ecliptick, is .6.29′.15″ And therefore the great circle wch in the time of the Argonautick expedition was the Colurus Æquinoctiorum passing through the stars above described, did in the end of the year 1689 cut the Ecliptick in 6.29′.15″ as nearely as we have been able to determine by the Observations of the ancients wch were but coarse.

In the middle of Cancer are \is/ the \South/ Asellús two \a/ stars of the fourth magnitude called by Bayer γ & δ. Their \Its/ longituds in the end of the year 1689 were|as| 3.13.0 & 4. 23′.40″. And the longitude of the point in the middle between them was – 3.48.20. In the neck of Hydra rightly delineated is a star of the fourth magnitude called δ by Bayer. Its longitude in the year 1689 was 5.59′.3″. Between the Poop & Mast of Argo is a star of the third magnitude called ι by Bayer. Its longitude in the end of that year was 7.5′.31″. [In the tail of the south Fish is a star of the third magnitude whose longitude was in the end of that year was, – – – –] In Sagitta is a star of the sixt magnitude called θ by <7r> 37.28 & may {illeg} Bayer. Its longitude in the end of the year 1689 was by {illeg} Athem was 6.37.26] / 6.29.53. – – –\ –In the middle of Capricorn is a star of the fift magnitude called η by Bayer. Its longitude in the {illeg} end of the said year was 8.25.55. [In the neck of the Swan are the stars η & χ of the fourth & fift magnitudes Their Longitudes in the end of that year were 8.37.28. & 4. 36.37 & the longitude of the middle point between them was 6.37.2. In the left hand of Cepheus rightly delineated is a star of the fift magnitude called ο by Bayer. Its longitude in the end of the year 1689 was 5.42.36.] And the fift part of the sum of the three first longitudes & the complements of the two last to 180 degrees, is 6gr.28′.46″. And therefore the Colurus solstitiorum wch passes as nearely as can be through these five stars, cuts the Ecliptick in 6.28′.46″. The same Colurus passes also in the middle between the starrs η & χ of the fourth & fift magnitudes in the neck of the Swan, being distant about a degree from each. It passes also by the star κ of the 4th magnitude in the right wing of the Swan; & by the star ο of the 5t magnitude in the left hand of Cepheus rightly delineated; & by the stars in the tayl of the south fish; & is at right angles with the Colurus Æquinoctiorum found above: & so it has all the characters of this Colure rightly drawn.

The Colures therefore wch in the time of the Argonautick expedition cut the Ecliptic in the Cardinal points, do now cut it in 6.29′, 6.29′, 6.29′. & 6.29′ as nearely as we have been able to determin from the coarse observations of the ancients. And therefore the Cardinal points between the time of that expedition & the end of the year 1689 have gone back 1sign 6gr 29′, wch after the rate of 72 years to a degree answers to 2627 years. Count these years backwards from the end of the year 1689 & the recconing will place the Argonautick Expedition about 4{7}3 years after the death of Solomon. The first star of Aries in the end of the year 1689 was in 28.51. \as above./ Count backwards

About 320 years after this period Thales received Astronomy among the Greeks, & in this period of time the Equinoxes would go backwards 40degr. 26′ 1signe. 6degr. 29′; & its longitude in the time of the Argonautic Expedition will be 22degr. 22′:.

After the Argonautic Expedition & Trojan war we have nothing more of Astronomy till the days of Thales. Hea[27] revived Astronomy & wrote a book of Tropics & Equinoxes \& predicted eclipses/, & Plinyb[28] tells us that he placed \determined/ the occasus matutinus of the Pleiades to be upon the 25t day after the autumnal Equinox. And thence Petaviusc[29] computes the Longitude of the Pleiades in 23.53 And by consequence the summer solstice was then the 11th \the first star of was then in 26.48.52, It therefore then Equinoxes & solstices/ the difference of their Longitudes \{of those two starrs}/ being 27 degr.4′.8″. And therefore the Equinoxes degree of Cancer. It had therefore /& solstices had\ moved backwards since the Argonautic Expedition about between 4 & 5 degrees or 412. \4degr 26′.52″./ And this motion after the rate of 72 years to a degree answers to 32012 degrees years. Count these years back from the time in wch Thales was a young man fit to apply himself to Astronomical studies, that is \from/ about the 41th Olympiad: & the recconing will place the Argonautic Expedition about {illeg} \44/ years after the death of Solomon as above. \And in the days of Thales the Soltices & Equinoxes will have been in the middle of the 11th degrees of the signes./ But Thales in publishing his book about the Tropicks & Equinoxes might lean a little to the opinion of former Astronomers who placed the Cardinal points in the middles of the signes so as to place them \omit the fraction &/ in the twelft degree there of Τ signes

Moton & Euctemona[30] in order to publish the Lunar cycle of 19 years, observed the summer solstice in the year of Nabonassar 316: & Columellab[31] tells us that they placed it in the eighth degree of Cancer: wch is \at least/ seven degrees backwards then at first. Now the Equinox after the rate of 72 years to a degree goes backwards seven <8r> degrees in 504 years. Subduct those years from the 316 year of Nabonassar & the Argonautic Expedition will fall upon the 44th year after the death of Solomon, or thereabouts as above.

Hipparchus Rhodius the great Astronomer comparing his own observations with those of former Astronomers, concluded first of any man that the Equinoxes had a motion backwards in respect of the fixed stars; & his \his/ opinion was that they went backwards about one degree in \about/ an hundred years. He made his observations of the Equinoxes between the years of Nabonassar 586 & 618 or about 286 years after the aforesaid Observation of Maton & Euctemon; & in these years the Equinox must have gone backward four degrees, & so have been in the 4th degree of Cancer Aries in the days of Hipparchus, & by consequence have then gone back eleven degrees since the Argonautic Expedition, that is in 1090 years according to the Chronology of the ancient Greek's then in use. And this is after the rate of an hundred years to a degree \as was then stated by Hipparchus./{sic} But it really went back a year degree in seventy two years & eleven degrees in 792 years. Count backwards these 792 years, & the recconing will place the Argonautic Expedition about 44 years after the death of Solomon as above. The – Greeks have therefore made the Argonautic Expedition about \almost/ three hundred years ancienter then the truth & thereby given occasion to the {illeg} opinion of the great Hipparchus that the Equinox went backwards after the rate of only a degree in an hundred years.

Hesiod tells us that sixty days after the winter solstice the star Arcturus rose just at sunset. Till his days & long after, the solstices were placed in the middles of the signes, their {illeg} motion not being then known; & the Suns Aphelium was then in 24.degr. In those sixty days & almost six hours more from noon to sunset, the sun would move from the winter solstice into 0.degr {9}′; & the opposite point of the Ecliptick wch rises \rose/ at the same time wth Arcturus, would be in 0degr. 9′. The North Latitude of Arcturus is 30degr. 57′, & the elevation of the Pole at the mountain Helicon neare Athens where Hesiod lived, was 37degr 45′ according to Ptolomy. And thence Ricciolus (Lib VI Alm\a/gest. cap. xx. Prob. 8) teaches how to compute the Excess of the Longitude of Arcturus above the Longitude of the said opposite point of the Ecliptic: & by the computation I find that this excess is 11deg. 14′. Which being added to 0{d}. 9′, gives the Longitude of Arcturus 11deg. 23′. When the Sun sets visibly in winter his upper limb is 33 below the Horizon, being so much elevated by the refraction of the Atmosphere & his center is still 16′ minutes lower, in all 49′ below the Horizon, & the part of the Ecliptic between the horizon & the center of the Sun is an arch of 621 minutes. And when the star rises visibly it is 33′ below the horizon being so much elevated by the refraction. And the Arch between the horizon & the star in the parallel of the stars latitude is 4114 minutes. And these 10314 minutes being added to the longitude of the star found above gives its correct longitude in 13deg. 06′14. In the end of the year 1689 the longitude of Arcturus was 19deg.. 53′ 52″. And therefore Arcturus had there moved 36 degrees & {illeg} \47/ minutes form his first place: that is, the Equinox had{illeg} gone so much backward <9r> since the first fo\r/mation of the Asterisms & the Argonautic Expedition. This calculation agrees with the former within half a degree \18 minutes of a degree/ & the difference will vanish by allowing a minute or two of time between the observation of the setting sun whereby the eyes of the spectator would be dazzelled & the observation of the rising star after the eyes were recovered.

From all these calculations grounded upon the coarse observations of the Ancients we may reccon it certain that the Argonautic Expedition was not earlier then the reign of Solomon, & most probable that it was almost 40 or 45 years after his death.

The Trojan war was one generation later then that Expedition, several Captains of the Greeks in that war being sons of the Argonauts. And the ancients Greeks recconed Memnon or Amenophis king of Egypt to have reigned in the times of that war, feigning him to be the son of Tithonus the elder brother of Priam. Amenophis was therefore of the same age with the elder children of Priam. In the last year of the Trojan war he was with his army at Susa according to the opinion of the ancient Greeks; & after that he might return into Egypt & adorn it with Buildings Obelisks & Statues & dye there about 90 or 95 years after the death of Solomon when he had determined & setled the beginning of the new Egyptian year of 365 days upon the Vernal Equinox so as to deserve the monument above mentioned in memory thereof.

Thus by two arguments founded upon Astronomy, the


Thus by two arguments founded upon Astronomy the one taken from the Precession of the Equinox, the other from the Æra of the Theban year, it appears that the Argonautic Expedition was about 40 or 450 \45/ years later then the death of Solomon & the Trojan war about 70 or 80 years later then his death, & the death of Amenophis or Memnon the supposed son of Tithonus the brother of Priam, about 90 or 95 years later. And the truth of these things will be further confirmed when it shall appear that Sesostris was Sesac & invaded the nations one generation before the Argonautic Expedition. Now these recconings differing from the Chronology of the Greeks, give us occasion to enquire into the reason of the difference.

The Europeans had no Chronology before \the times of/ the Persian Monarchy. And what ever chronology they have of ancienter times has been framed since by reasoning & conjecture \in ye beginning of that Monarchy {Euxiope} that Acusilaus in his {illeg} Tables put 1020 years from the flood of {Ogiges} to the beginning of the Olympiads wch is above {640} years too much. And his followers have endeavoured to fill up this intervall/. Plu {sic}Plutarch tellsa[32] us that the Philosophers anciently delivered their opinions in verse, as Orpheus, Hesiod, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Empedocles, Thales but afterwards left off the use of verses, & that Aristarchus, Timocharis, Aristillus, Hipparchus, did not make Astronomy the more contemptible by describing it in prose after Eudoxus Hesiod & Thales had wrote of it in verse. Solonb[33] & Pythagorasc[34] wrote in verse, & all the seven wise men were addicted to Poetry as Anaximenesd[35] affirmed. Till those days the Greeks wrote only in verse & while they did so there could be no Chronology, nor any other History then such as was mixed with Poetical fancies. Plinye[36] in recconing up the inventors of things tells us that Pherecides Syrius taught to compose discourses in prose in the reign of Cyrus, & Cadmus Milesius to write history. And in another place hef[37] saith that Cadmus \Milesius {f}/ was the first that wrote in prose. Iosephus tellsg[38] us that Cadmus Milesius & Acusilaus were but a little before the expedition of the Persians against the Greeks. And Suidash[39] calls Acusilaus a most ancient historian & saith that he wrote Genealogies out of tables of brass which his father, as was reported, found in a corner of his house. Who hid them them there may be doubted. For the greeksi[40] had no public table or inscription older than the laws of Draco madek[41] in the 39th Olympiad; \according to Suidas, or rather in the 50th or 51th/ Pherecides Atheniensis in the reign of Darius Hipstaspis or soon after, wrote of the antiquities & ancient genealogies of the Athenians in ten books & was one of the first European writers of this kind, & one of the best: whence he had the name of Genealogus, & by l[42]Dionysius Halicarnassensis is said to be second to none of the Genealog{illeg}ers. Epimenides, not the Philosopher but an Historian, wrote also of the ancient genealogies And Hellanicus who was twelve years older then Herodotus digested his history by the ages (or successions) of the Priestesses <11r> of Iuno Argiva. Others digested theirs by those of the Archons of Athens, or Kings of the Lacedemonians. Hippias the Elian published a Breviary of the Olympiads supported by no certain arguments as Plutarchm[43] tells. He was contemporary to Plato lived in the 105th Olympiad & was derided by Plato for his ignorance. This Breviary seems to have conteined nothing more than a short account of the Victors in every Olympiad. Then Ephonusn[44] the disciple of Isocrates formed a chronological history of Greece beginning with the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & ending with the siege of Perinthus in the 20th year of Philip the father of Alexander the great \that is eleven years before the fall of the Persian Empire/. But he digested things o[45] by generations. And the recconing by the Olympiads was not yet in use. The Arundelian marbles were composed sixty years after the death of Alexander the great (An. 4 Olymp 128) & yet mention not the Olympiads: But \Chronology was now reduced to a reconing by years. & And/ in the {illeg} next Olympiad Tiniæus Siculus \improved it. For he/ wrote a history in several books down to his own times according to the Olympiads, comparing the Ephori, the kings of Sparta, the Archons of Athens & the Priestesses of Iuno Argiva Argos with the Olympic victors, so as to make the Olympiads & the Genealogies & successions of Kings & Priestesses & the Poetical histories suit best with one another according to the best of his judgment; & where he left off Polybius began & carried on the history. Eratosthenes wrote above an hundred years after the death of Alexander the great. He was followed by Apollodorus, & these two have been followed ever since by Chronologers. But how uncertain their chronology is, & how doubtfull it was reputed by the {illeg} of those times, may be understood by these passages of Plutarch. Some reccon Lycurgus, saithp[46] he, contemporary to Iphitus, & {so}{to} have been his companion in ordering the Olympic festivals, amongst whom was Aristotel the Philosopher: arguing from the Olympic Disk which had the name of Lycurgus upon it. Others supputing the times by the succession of the Kings of Lacedemon, as Eratosthenes & Apollodorus, affirm that he was not a few years older then the first Olympiad. Here \He began to flourish in the eighteenth Olympiad but at length/ Aristotel & some others made him as old as the first Olympiad, & then Erastosthenes, Apollodorus & their followers made him above an hundred years older. And in another place Plutarchq[47] tells us, The congress of Solon with Crœsus some think they can confute by chronology. But a history so illustrious & verified by so many in any witnesses, &, wch is more, so agreable to the manners of Solon & worthy of his mind the greatness of his mind & of his wisdom, I cannot persuade my selfe to reject because of some chronical Canons, as they call them, wch hundreds of authors correcting, have not yet been able to constitute any thing certain in wch they could agree amongst themselves {illeg}{illeg}|a|bout repugnancies.

And as for the chronology of the Latines, that is still more uncertain. Plutarcha[48] represents great uncertanties in the originals of Rome, & so dothb[49] Servius. The <12r> old Records of the Latines were burnt by the Gauls \120 years after the Regifuge[50] &/ 64 years before the death of Alexander the great. And Quintus Fabius Pictor the oldest Historian of the Latines lived an hundred years later then that King: & his contemporary Ernius made Rome above an hundred years older than the Olympians.

Diodorusa[51] in the beginning of his history tells us that he did not define by any certain space the times preceding the Trojan war because he had no certain foundation to rely upon: but from the Trojan war according to the recconing of Apollodorus Atheniensis whom he followed there were eighty years {illeg} to the return of the Heraclides into Peloponaasus; & from that period to the first Olympiad there were three hundred & twenty \eight/ years, computing the times from the kings of the Lacedemonians. Apollodorus followed Erastothenes & both of them followed Thucydides \& perhaps he followed Aeusilaus/ in recconing eighty years from the Trojan war to the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus: but \For they attempted to return about twenty years before the taking of Troy, but were then repulsed & directed by the Oracle to return after three generations or an hundred years. But/ in recconing three hundred twenty & eight years from that return to the first Olympiad, they \Chronologers/ only computed the times by the successions of the Kings of Lacedæmon, as Plutarchb[52] also affirms; & therein they have been ever since followed by \later/ Chronologers. And since this recconing was gathered by computing the times from the Kings of the Lacedemonians, that is, from their number \considered as generations/ let us reexamin that computation.

All nations before they began to keep exact accounts of time, have been prone to raise their antiquities, & this humour has been promoted by the contention – between nations about the{illeg} antiquity{illeg} of their originals. The Greeks & Latines have been more modest in this point then the Egyptians \& Persians/ & some other nations but yet have exceeded the truth. For in stating the times by the reigns of such Kings as were ancienter then the Persian Monarchy they have put their reigns equi{v}ollent to generations, & accordingly made them one with another an age a piece, recconing three ages to an hundred years. For they make the seven kings of Rome who proceeded the Consuls to have reigned 244 years wch is one with another 35 years a piece. And the 14 kings of the Latines between Æneas & Numitor, or between the destruction of Troy & the founding of Rome to have reigned 425 years which is above 30 years a piece. And the first ten kings of Macedon (Caranus &c) to have reigned 353 years wch is above 35 years a piece. And the first ten kings of Athens (Cecrops &c) 351 years which is 35 years a piece. And the eight first kings of Argos (Inachus, Phoroneus &c) to have reigned 371 years, wch is above 46 years a piece. And between the <13r> return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & the end of the first Messemian war, the ten kings of Sparta by one race (Eurysthenes, Agis, Echestratus, Labotas, {D}oriagus, Agesilaus, Archelaus, Telechus, Alcamenes, & Polydorus,) the nine of the other race (Procles, Sous, Euripon, Prytanis, Eunomaes, Polydectes, Charilaus, Nicander, Theopompus,) the ten Kings of Messene (Cresphontes, Epytus, Glaucus, Istmius, Dotadas, Sybaotas, Phintas, Antiochus, Euphars, Aristodemus) & the nine of Arcadia (Cypselus, Olœas, Buchalion, Phialus Simus, Pompus, Ægineta, Polymnestor, Æchmis) took up 379 years, which is 38 years a piece to the ten kings, & 42 years a piece to the nine. And the five kings of Sparta of the race of Eurystenes between the end of the first Messenian war & the beginning of the reign of Darius Hystaspis (Eurycrates, Anaxander; Eurycrates II, Leon Anaxandrides) reigned 202 years wch is above 40 years a piece

Thus the Greek Chronologers who followed Ephorus \Timæus & {Eratostherass}/ have made the kings of their several cities who lived before the times of the Persian Empire to reign about 35 or 40 years a piece one with another, which is a length so much beyond the course of nature as is not to be credited. For by the ordinary course of nature kings reign one with another about eighteen or 20 years a piece. And if in some instances they reigne five or six years longer in others they reign as much shorter. Eighteen or twenty years is a medium. So the 18 kings of Iudah who succeeded Solomon, reigned 390 years, wch is 1123 years a piece. The 10 Kings of Persia (Gyrus &c) reigned 208 years wch is almost 21 years a piece. The 16 successors of Alexander the great \{Anidæus} & Alexander II/ in Syria (Sleucus &c) reigned 244 years a piece \after Anidæus/ wch is 1514 years a piece. The 11 in Egypt (Ptolomæus Lagi &c) reigned 277 years wch is 25 years a piece. The ten \eight/ in Macedonia (Aridæus &c \Cassander &c/ reigned 136 years, wch is 1714 years a piece. The 29 Kings of England (William the conqueror &c) reigned 648 years, which is 2213 a piece. The first 24 kings of France {(}Faramond &c) 458 years, which is 19 years a piece. The next 24 kings of Frace (Ludovicus Balbus &c) 451 years wch is 1834 years a piece. The next 15 (Philippus Valesius &c) <14r> 315 wch is 21 years a piece. And all the 63 kings ofFrance 1224 years which is 1912 years a piece. Generations from father to son may be recconed one with another about 35 years a piece or about three generations to an hundred years. But if the generations proceed by the Eldest sons they are shorter, so that three of them may be recconed to about 75 or 80 years. And the reigns of kings are still shorter because kings are succeeded not only by their eldest sons but sometimes by their brothers & sometimes they are slain or departed & & succeeded by others of an equal or greater age, especially in elective & turbulent kingdoms. But Ephorus \Timæus/ & his followers have taken the reigns of kings for generations, & recconed three generations to an hundred & sometimes to an hundred & twenty years & founded the technical chronology of the Greeks upon this way of recconing. Let the recconing be reduced to the course of nature by putting the reigns of kings one with another at about 18 or 20 years a piece: & the ten kings of Sparta by one race, the nine by another race, the ten kings of Messene & the nine of Arcadia above mentioned between the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & the end of the first Messenian war, will scarce take up above 180 or 200 years.

Euryleon the son of Ægeusa[53] commanded the main body of the Messenians in the first fift year of the first Messenian war, & was in the fift generation from Oiolycus the son of Theras the brother in law of Aristodemus & Tutor his sons Eurysthenes & Procles, as Pausanian relates. And by consequence, from the return of the Heraclides, which was in the days of Theras, to the battel in the fift year of this war there were six generations; which (as I conceive) being for the most part by the eldest sons, will scarce exceed 30 years to a generations, & so may amount to about 175 or 180 years. That war lasted \19 or/ 20 years. Add the last 15 years & there will \be/ about 190 or 195 years to the end of that war: whereas the followers of Aphorus \Timæus/ make it about 380 years.

In the race of the Spartan kings descended from Eurysthenes, after Polydorus reigned these kings Eurycrates I, Alexander, Eurycrates II, Leon, Anaxandrides, Cleomenses, Leonidas, &c, & in the other race, after Theopompus, reigned Zeuxidamus, Anaxidamus, Archidamus, Agasicles, Ariston, Demaratus, Leotycides &c Cle according to Pausanias, or Anaxandridas, Archidemus, Anaxileus, Leutychildes, Hippocratides, Ariston, Demaratus, Leutychides II according to Herodotus. Leonidas was slain at Thermopylæ in the sixt year of Xerxes, & Leutychides was then alive, so that in one race there were seven kings between the end of the first Messenian war & the sixt year of Xerxes & in the other race there were between six & seven kings <15r> according to Pausanias or between seven & eight according to Herodotus, or at a medium, seven kings in both races. And their reigns at 20 years a piece one wth another, amount to 140 years, that is 90 years to the death of Cyrus, & 50 years more to the invasion of Greece by Xerxes. Anaxandrides & Ariston the last of those seven kings of Sparta but two, werea[54] contemporary to Cræsus. who lived till the last year of Cambyses. And therefore between the end of the first Messenian war & the {illeg} death of Cambyses there were about five reigns of the Spartan kings; wch at 20 years to a reign make about an hundred years. And Cræsus began his reign about 28 years before the death of Cyrus. Count backwards eighty years more for the four – preceding reigns of the kings of Sparta unto the end of the first Messenian war, & 190 years more {illeg} unto the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus: & this return will be about 298 years before the death of Cyrus. Subduct the years of the Olympiads & there will remain about 51 years between the return of the Heraclides & the first Olympiad. But the followers of Ephorus place the return of the Heraclides about 275 years earlier; & this is the fundamental error of the artificial chronology of the Greeks.

The kingdom of Macedona[55] was founded by Caranus & Perdiccas, who being of the race of Temenus king of Argos, fled from Argos in the reign of Phidon the brother of Caranus. Temenus entered Peloponnesus with the Heraclides as above. And after him & his son Cisus the kingdom of Argos became divided among the posterity of Temenus untill Phidon reunited it expelling his |own| kindred. He grew potent, appointed weights & measures in Peloponnesus, & coyned Silver moneys, & removing the Pisæans & Eleans, presided in the Olympic games, but was soon after subdued by the Eleans & Spartans. Herodotusb[56] reccons yt Perdiccas \was/ the first king of Macedon. Later writers, as Livy, Pausanias & Suidas make Caranus the first King. Iustin calls Perdiccas the successor of Caranus, & Solinus saith that Perdiccas succeeded Caranus, & was the first that obteined the name of King. Its probably that Caranus & Perdiccas were contemporaries & fled at the same time from Phidon, & at first erected small Principalities wch after the death of Caranus became one under Perdiccas. Herodotusc[57] tells us that after Perdiccas reigned Aræus (or Argæus) Philip, Aeropus, Alcetus, Amyntas & Alexander successively. Alexander was contemporary to Xerxes king of Persia & died An. 4 Olymp. 79 & was succeeded by Perdiccas II. And Paustenaus \Thucȳdides/d[58] tells us that there were eight kings of Macedon before Archelaus the son of Perdiccas. Now by recconing above 40 years a piece to these kings, Chronologers have made Caranus older then the Olympiads: where as if we should reccon their reigns at about 18 or 20 years a piece, the first seven reigns counted backwards from the death of Alexander, will place the beginning of the kingdom of Macedon under Perdiccas & Caranus upon the <16r> 46th Olympiad or thereabouts. It could not be older because Leocides the son of Phidon & Megacles the son of – Alemæon an Athenian at one & the same time courted Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes king of Sityon (ase[59] Herodotus tells us,) & the Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Alcmæon & Clisthenes & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army in their war against Cyrrha, & the Chyrrhæans were conquered An. 2, Olymp. 47, according to the marbles. Phidon therefore & his brother Caranus were contemporary to Alinæon & all of them to Clisthenes & Solon, & flourished about the 47th or 48th Olympiad. This Alcanæonf[60] enterteined & conducted the messengers whom Cræsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delhpos An. 1 Olymp 56 according to the marbles, & for so doing was sent for by Cræsus & rewarded with much riches: Megacles the son of Alcmæon married Agarista: & Pisistratus when he obteined the Tyranny at Athens named the daughter of Megacles & Agarista: & Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista expelled the sons of Pisistratus An. 1, Olymp 67 according to the marbles. By all which circumstances, the times of Leocedes & Megacles & their fathers are Phidon & Alemæon are sufficiently stated. < insertion from f 16v > But the Greeks corrupted their Chronology before the Marbles were made, so as to add to the antiquity of all things done before the war of the Persians against them. And therefore the war against Cyrrha may have been a little later, suppose an, 1. Olymp. 53, & the message of Craæsus to the Oracle at Delphos an. 1. Olymp. 58, & the expulsion of the sons of Pisistratus an. 1. Olymp. 69. And suitably to these recconings, the Legislature of Draco may have been in the 51th Olympiad, that of Solon in the 55th Olympiad & that of the taking of Sardes by Cyrrus in the 59th Olympiad, the first annual Archon of Athens in the 50th Olympiad, |the conversation of Solon {with} Cræsus with Solon in the 51th Olymp. The return of Solon to Athens after a travel of ten years an. 4. Olymp. 57. The death of Solon an 3 Olymp. 58. The tyranny of {Pissicuretus}an. 1. Olymp. 58. His death an. 2 Olymp 65.| & the first annual Archon of Athens in the 50th Olympiad, & the first decennial Archon in the 38th 40th Olympiad, or not long before. For some of the seven decennial Archons might dye in their regency. The death of Codrus the last king of Athens might be about 40 or 50 years before the Olympiads & the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus \& their building of Miletus/ might be within five a a ten \a/ years \or two/ after his death. \And/ The Bœotians might be driven from Æna by the Thessali & seize Cadmeis & call it Bœotia about 50 or 60 years after the taking of Troy. And about the same time was the Æolic migration \from Aulis into Thrace/ under Penthelus the son of Orestes. < text from f 16r resumes >

Iphitusa[61] presided both in the temple of Iupiter Olympius & in the Olympic games; & so did his successors till the 26th Olympiad; & so long the Victors were rewarded with a Tripus. But then the Pisæans getting above the Eleans began to preside & rewarded the Victors with a crown, & instituted the Carnea to Apollo, & continued to preside till Phidon interrupted them, that is till about the time of the 48th Olympiad. Forb[62] in the 48th Olympiad the Eleans entred the country of the Pisœans, suspecting their designes, but were prevailed upon to return home quietly. Afterwards the Pisœans confederated with several other Greek nations & made war upon the Eleans & in the end were beaten. In this war I conceive it was that Phidon presided, suppose in the 49th Olympiad. Forc[63] in the 50th Olympiad, for putting an end to the contentions between the kings about presiding, two men were chosen by lot out of the city Elis to preside & their number in the 65th Olympiad was increased to nine, & afterwards to ten, & these Iudges were called Hellenodicæ judges for or in the name of Greece. Pausanian tells us that the Eleans called in Phidon & together with him celebrated the 8th (he should have said the 49th) Olympiad, but Herodotus, that Phidon removed the Eleans. And both might be true. The Eleans might call in Phidon against the Pisœans & upon overcoming them claim the presiding in the Games & be refused by Phidon, & then confederate wth the Spartans & by their assistance overthrow the kingdom of Phidon & recover their ancient right of presiding in the games.

[64]Strabo tells us that Phidon was the tenth from Temenus; not the tenth king (for between Cisus & Phidon they reigned not) but the tenth by generation from father to son including Temenus. If 27 years be recconed to a generation by the eldest sons, the nine intervalls will amount to 243 years, which being subducted \{covonted} back/ from the 48th Olympiad in which Phidon flourished, they will <17r> place the return of the Heraclides about 50 years before the beginning of the Olympiads as above. But chronologers reccon about 515 years from the return of the Heraclides to the 48th Olympiad, & account Phidon the seventh from Temanus: which is after the rate of 85 years to a generation & therefore not to be admitted.

The artificial Chronologers have made Phidon \Lycurgus/ the Legislator as old as Iphitus the restorer of the Olympiads, & Iphitus above an hundred years older then the first Olympiad: And to help out the Hypothesis they have feigned 28 Olympiads older than the first Olympiad – wherein Coræus was victor. But these things were feigned after the days of Thucydides & Plato. For Socrates died three years after the end of the Peloponnesian war, & Platoa[65] introduceth him saying that the institutions of Lycurgus were not of three hundred years standing or not much more. And Thucydidesb[66] in the reading followed by Stephanus, saith that the Lacedemonians had from ancient times used good laws & been free from tyranny & that from the time that they had used one & the same administration of their commonwealth to the end of the Peloponnesian war there were three hundred years & a few more. Count 300 years back from the end of the Peloponnesian war, & they will place the legislation of Lycurgus upon the 19th Olympiad. Athenæusc[67] tells us out of ancient authors (Hellanicus, Sosimus & Hieronymus) that Lycurgus the legislator that Lycurgus was contemporary to Terpander the musician, & that Terpander was the first man who got the victory in the Carnea in a solemnity of Music instituted in those festivalls in the 26th Olympiad. He overcame four times in the Pythic games & therefore lived at least to the 29th Olympiad. He overcame four times in the Pythic games & therefore lived at least to the 29th Olympiad. And beginning to flourish in the days of Lycurgus, it is not likely that Lycurgus began to flourish much before the 18th Olympiad. The name of Lycurgus being on the Olympic Disk, Aristotel concluded thence that Lycurgus was the companion of Iphitus in restoring the Olympic games. And this argument might be the grownd of the opinion of Chronologers that Lycurgus & Iphitus were contemporary. But Iphitus did not restore all the Olympic games. Hed[68] restored the racing in the first Olympiad Coræbus being Victor. In the 14th Olympiad the double stadium was added Hypænus being Victor. And in the 18th Olympiad the Quinquertium & wrastling were restored Lampus & Eurybatus (two Spartans) being Victors. And the Disk was one of the games of the Quinquertium, & Pausaniase[69] tells us that there were three Disks kept in the Olympic treasury at Altis. These therefore having the name of Lycurgus upon them, shew that they were dedicated by him at the restoring of the Disk in the 18th Olympiad. Now Polydectes king of Sparta being slain before the birth of \his/ son. Charillus or Charil{illeg}aus, left the kingdom to Lyrugus his brother & Lycurgus upon the birth of Charillus‡ became Tutor to the child \Labotas then reigning in the other race of the Spartan kings & then travelled into Crete & Asia/ & \afterwards/ published his laws in the reign of Agesilaus the \son &/ successor of Dorissus or Doriagus \& grandson of Labotas/ in the <18r> other race of Kings of Sparta \Charillus being then grown up./{sic} And therefore Lycurgus & Agessilalas flourished \in or a little/ after the 18th Olympiad. & Charillus was then a child. \Lycurgus might dedicate the Disque in ye 18th Olympiad & publish his laws in the 20th or 22th/ From the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus to the beginning of the reign of Agusilaus there were six reigns including that short one of Aristodemus the father of Eurysthenes & Procles. For Aristodemus came to the kingdom according tof[70] Herodotus. And from the same return to the beginning of the reign of Polydectus in the other of the Spartan kings there were also six reigns, & these reigns at twenty years a piece one with another amount to 120 years. Count those years backwards from the 18th Olympiad & the return of the Heraclides will be about 52 years before the first Olympiad as above.

[71]Iphitus who restored the first Olympick games was descended from Oxylus the son of Hæmon the son of Thoas, the son of Andræmon. Hercules & Andræmon married two sisters. Thoas warred at Troy. Oxylus returned into Peloponnesus # < insertion from f 18v > # – with the Heraclides. \Imithis return/ He commanded a body of Ætolians & recovered Elea He by from whence his ancestor Ætolus the son of Endymeon [72] \the son of Aethlius/ had been driven by Salmoneus the son \grandson/ of Hellen And by the friendship of the Heraclides, Ætolus had the care of the Olympic Temple committed to him: & the Heraclides for his service done them had granted to him further upon oath that the country of the Eleans should be free from invasions & be defended by them from all armed force. And when the Eleans were thus consecrated Oxylus restored the Olympic games. And after they had been again intermitted, [73] Ip\h/itus their king restored them again. Iphitus is by some recconed the son of Hæmon – < text from f 18r resumes > with the Heraclides. Iphitus is by some recconed the son of Hæmon. But Hæmon being the father of Oxylus I would reccon Iphitus the son of Praxonides the son of Oxylus the son of Hæmon. And by this recconing the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus will be two generations by the eldest sons (or about 54 years) before the first Olympiad as above.

\ Pausanias represents/ < insertion from f 18v > [74] Pausanias represents that Melas the son of Antissus (of the posterity of Gonussa the daughter of Sicyon) was not above six generations older then Cypselus king of Corinth, & that he was contemporary to Aletes who returned with the Heraclides into Peloponnesus. This return I placed The reign of Cypselus began An. 2 Olymp. 31, & six generations at 29 years to a generation, amount to 173 years. Count those years backwards & they will place the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus about 52 years before the first Olympiad, where I placed it above. In this interval of time reigned nine kings of Corinth; Aletes, Ixion, Agelas, Prymnes, Bacchis, Agelas, Endemus, Aristodemus & Telestes. besides \And/ Then reigned the Prytanes annually till the tyranny of Cypselus & his son Periander. If to the nine reigns wch preceded the annual Prytanes & the two wch followed them, be allotted about 18 years a piece on wth another they will take up about 209 \198/ years: wch being subducted from the interval of 244 years between the return of the Heraclides & the death of Periander an. 4. Olymp. 48, there will remain 46 years for the annual Prytanes \And there may be a few more {wch} Periander died a little {before} suppose an. 4 Olymp. 50./. But Chronologers for raising the antiquities of the Greeks have made these kings & Prytanes reign 517 years. < text from f 18r resumes > From the return of the Heraclides count 75 {illeg} 80 years backwards to the Trojan war, & the destruction of Troy will be about 72 or 80 years after the destruction of Troy death of Solomon, & the Argonautic expedition wch was one generation earlier will be about 40 or 45 years after it, as was determined from above by arguments taken from Astronomy.

And these recconings are confirmed by \one or/ two argumts more. For Æsculapius & Hercules were Argonauts and Hippocrates was the 18th from Æsculapius inclusively by the fathers side & the 19th from Hercules by the mothers side. And because these generations being taken notice of in history were most probably by the principals of the family & so for the most part by the eldest sons: we may reccon about 28, or at most, 30 years to a generation. And thus the 17 intervalls by the fathers side & eighteen by the mothers, will at a middle recconing amount unto about 507 years, wch counted backward from the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, at wch time Hippocrates began to flourish, will reach up to the 43th year after the death of Solomon, & there place the Argonautic expedition.

When the Romans conquered the Carthaginians the Archives of <19r> Carthage came into their hands. And thence Appion in his history of the Punic wars tells us in round numbers that Carthage stood 700 years. And Solinus adds the odd numbers of years in these words. Hadramyto et Carthagini author est a Tyro populus. Carthaginem (ut Cato in Oratione Senatoria autimat) cum rex Hiarbus rerum in Libya potiretur, Elissa mulier \extruxit/ domo Phœnix, & Carthadam dixit, quod Phœnicum ore expirimit civitatem novam, mox sermone verso Carthago dicta est: quœ post annos sepling eutos triginta septem exiditur quam fuerat extruata. Elissa was Dido, & Carthage was destroyed in the Consulship of Leptulus & Mummius in the year of Iulian Period 4568; from whence count backwards 737 years, & the Encæmia or dedication of the city will fall upon the 16th year of Pigmaleon the brother of Dido & King of Tyre. She fled in the seventh year of Pigmaleon, but the Æra of the city began with its Encænia. Now Virgil & his Scholiast Servius who might have some things from the archives of Tyre & Cyprus as well as from those of Carthage, relate that Teucer came from the war of Troy to Cyprus in the days of Dido a little before the reign of her brother Pigmaleon, & in conjunction with her father seized Cyprus & ejected Conyras. And the \Marbles say that Teucer came to Cyprus seven years after the destruction of Troy & built Salanis./ & Apollodorus saith that Cenyras married Metharme the daughter of Pigmaleon \& built old Paphus./{sic} And therefore if the Romans in the days of Augustus followed not the artificial chronology of Eratosthenes but had these things from the records of Carthage Cyprus & Tyre; the destruction of Troy \arrival of Teucer at Cyprus/ will be in the reign of the Predecessor of Pigmaleon, & by consequence \the destruction of Troy/ about 70 or 75 years later then the death of Solomon, as above. < insertion from f 19v > Thucydides tells us that the Corinthians were the first of the Greeks who built long ships [75] wth three orders of Oars called Triremes; & that Aminocles, a ship Carpenter of Corinth, \who had governed the first ships/ went then \thence/ to Samos about three hundred years before \the end of/ the Peloponnesian war & built \also/ four such ships for the Samians: & that two hundred & sixty years before the end of that war \(that is about the 29th Olympiad/ there was a fight at sea between the Corinthians & the Corcyreans wch was the oldest sea fight mentioned in history. Thucydides tells us further that the first Colony wch the Greeks sent into Sicily came from Chalis in Eubœa under the conduct of Thucles & built Naxus, & the next year Archias came from Corinth with a Colony & built Syracuse, & that Lamits came about the same time into Sicily with a Colony from Megara in Achaia & lived first at Trotilum & then at Leontini & died at Thapsus neare Syracuse & that after his death this Colony was invited by \Byblos/ to Megara in Sicily, & lived there 245 years, & was then expelled by Gelo king of Sicily. Now Gelo flourished about 74 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war. Count backward the 74 & the 245 years & about 12 years more for the reign of Lanis in Sicily, & the recconing will place the building of Syracuse about 331 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war, or in the 11th Olympiad. And there Eusebius & others place it. And the first building of Treremes whereby Colonies might be safely sent abroad without danger of Pirates, wch till those days infected the Greek seas, might be ten \five/ or twenty \ten/ years earlier. From the Colonies henceforward send into Italy & Sicily came the name of Græcia Major.

[76] Thucydides tells us further that the Greeks began to come into Sicily a little almost 300 years after the Siculi had invaded that island with an army out of Italy. And therefore that invasion was almost 631 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war, that is almost as early as the 27th year of Davids reign, whence it may be placed in the reign of Solomon. b[77] Hellenicus tells us that it was in the third generation before the days of Solomon Trojan war, & in the 26th year of the {illeg} the Priesthood of Iuno Argiva: & Philistus of Syracuse that it was 80 years before the Trojan war. Whence it follows that the Trojan war & Argonautic Expedition were later then the days of Solomon & Rehoboam.

[78] Dionysius Halycarnassæus tells us that in the time of the Trojan war Latinus was king of the Aborigenes in Italy, & that in the sixteenth age after that war Romulus built Rome. By ages he means reigns of kings. For after Latinus he names sixteen kings of the Latines the last of wch was Numitor in whose days Romulus built Rome. For Romulus was contemporary to Numitor. And after him Dionysius reccons six kings more over Rome to the beginning of the Consuls. Now these 22 Kings at about 18 years to a reign one with another (for many of them were slain) reigned 396 years; wch counted backwards from the first Consulship of the first Consuls Iunius Brutus & Valerius Poplicola, place the coming of Æneay from Troy into Italy, about 78 years after the death of Solomon. And by this recconing the taking of Troy will be about 70 or 75 years after the death of Solomon as above, & Æneas will be contemporary to Pygmaleon & Dido, as Virgil affirms. < text from f 19r resumes >

After the destruction of Troy & death of Æneas there reigned 14 Kings at Alba untill the building of Rome & seven at Rome untill the Consulship of the first Consuls Iunius Brutus & Valerius Poplicola.‡ These < insertion from f 18v > These 21 kings at about 18 years a piece one with another will take up about 378 years, wch counted backwards from the said Consulship, p\l/aces the death of Reneas in the reign of Pigmaleon where Virgil places it, & the building of Rome in the 36th Olympiad, or almost where the Emperor Iulian places it reign of Iosias king of Iudah < text from f 19r resumes > The 14 Kings at about 20 years a piece one wth another might take up about 280 years, & the seven (six of them being either slain or expelled) might take up {illeg} \{illeg}/ 100 or \or 110/ years more. And this recconing \counted backwards from the said Consulship/ places the death of Æneas in the reign of Pigmaleon, where Virgil placeth it.

Tatian in his book against the Greeks relates that – amongst the Phœnicians flourished three ancient Historians Theodotus, Hypsicrates & Mochus, who all of them delivered in their histories (translated into Greek by Lætus) that under one of the Kings happened the rapture of Europa, the voyage of Menelaus into Phœnicia & the league & friendship between Solomon & Hiram when Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon & supplied him with timber for building the Temple, & that the same is affirmed \also/ by Menander of Pergamus. Vnder one of the kings, that is, within the compass of the age of a man. For so the phrase \is/ used by Isaiah chap. xxlll. 15. Iosephus lets us [79] know that the Annals of the Tyrians from the days of Abibalus & Hiram were extant in his days, & that Hiram's friendship to Solomon & assistance in building the Temple was extant \mentioned./ in them \& that the Temple was founded in the 11th year of Hiram/. And so by the testimony of Menander & three ancient Phœnician Histo <20r> rians, the rapture of Europa happened not long before the building of Solomons Temple. The voyage of Menelaus might be in pursuit of Paris & Helena twentyb[80] years before the destruction of Troy. Solomon therefore reigned in the times between the raptures of Europa & Helena, & Europa & her brother Cadmus flourished in the days of David; Minos the son of Europa flourished in the days of Solomon; & the children of Minos (namely Adrogeus his eldest son, Deucalion his youngest son & one of the Argonauts, Ariadne the mistres of Theseus & Bacchus, & Phædra the wife of Theseus,) flourished in the latter end of the reign of Solomon & in the days of Rehoboam Abia & Asa.

The expedition of Sesotris was one generation older then the Argonautic Expedition. For in his return back in Egypt, he left Æetes at Colchos, & Æetes reigned there till the Argonautic Expedition & Prometheus was left with a body of men at mount Caucasas by Sesostris, & after thirty years released by Hercules the Argonaut. At the return of Sesostris into Egypt, his brother Danaus fled from him into Greece with his fifty daughters in a long ship, after the pattern of which the ship Argo was built & Argus the son of Danaus was reputed the master builder thereof. And Nauplius the Argonaut was born in Greece of the Argonaut Anymone one of the daughters of Danaus soon after their arrival. And two others of the daughters of Danaus married Archander & Archilites the sons of Achæus the son of Cruesa the daughter of Erechtheus king of Athens, & therefore the daughters of Danaus were three generations younger then Erechtheus & by consequence contemporary to Theseus the son of Ægeus the adopted son of Pandion the son of Erechtheus; And Theseus in the time of the Argonautic expedition, was about 50 or 52 /or 51\ years of age \& so was born about the 32th year of Solomon/. For he stole Helena justa[81] before that expedition \or just after in the beginning of it,/{sic} being then fifty years old & she but sever or as some say ten. Perithous the son of Ixion helped Theseus to steal Helena, & thenb[82] Theseus went with Perithous to steal Preserpina the daughter of Adoneus, \& was taken in the action,/ & whilst he lay in prison, Castor & Pollux \returning from the Argonautic Expedition/ released their sister Helena & captivated Æth{ena} the mother of Theseus. & then sailed with the Argonauts. Now the daughters of Danaus being contemporary to Theseus, & some of their sons being Argonauts, Danaus with his daughters fled from his brother Sesostris into Greece about one generation before the Argonautic Expedition, & therefore Sesostris returned into Egypt in the reign of Rehoboam, & so was Sesac. For Sesac came out of Egypt in the fift year of Rehoboam &c[83] spent nine years in that Expedition against ye Eastern nations & Greece & therefore returned back into Egypt in the 14th year of Rehoboam. Sesac & Sesostris were therefore kings of all Egypt at one & the same time. And they agree not only in time but also in their actions & conquests. God gave Sesac – – ממלכות הארצות the kingdoms of the Earth. 2 Chron. 12. Where Herodotus describes the Expedition of Sesostris Iosephusd[84] tells us that he described the Expedition of Sesac & attributed his actions to Sesostris, erring only in the name of the king. Corruptions of names are frequent in history. Sesostris was otherwise called Sesochris, Sexichis Sesoosis, Sethosis, Sesonchis, Sesonchosis. Take away the Greek terminations & the names become Sesost, Sexoch, Sesoos, Sethos, Sesonchi; which names differ very little from Sesach. As the Greeks changed Moph into Memphis, so they changed Sesach in of Sesonchis differ no more from one another then Moph & Memphus two names of the same city.

Rehoboam was born in the last year of King David, being 41 years old at the death of Solomon (1 King. 14. 41) & therefore his father Solomon was born in the 18th year of Davids reign or before. And two or three years before his reign birth David besieged Rabbah the Metropolis of the Ammonites & committed adultery with Bathsheba. And the yeare before this siege began David vanquished the Ammonity & their confederates the Syrians of Zobah & Rehok & Ishlob & Moacah & Damascus extending his dominion over all those nations as far as to the entring in of Hamath & the river Euphrates. And before this war began he smote Moab & Amabee & Edom, & made the Edomites fly, some of them into Egypt with their king Hadad then a little <21r> child, & others to the Philistines where they fortified Aroth against Israel, & to other places whether they could escape. And before this, he had several – battels with the Philistins. And all this was after the eighth year of his reign in which he came from Hebron to Ierusalem. We cannot therefore err above a year or two if we place his victory over Edom in the twelft year of his reign & that over Ammon & the Syrians in the fourteenth or fifteenth. After the flight of Edom the king of Edom grew up & married the sister of Pharohs Queen \{Takephanes or Daphnis}/, & before the death of David had by her a son called Genubah, & this son was brought up among the children of Pharaoh. And among these children were Solomons Queen the chief (or first born) of her mothers children, & her little sister sho being a child had no breasts, & her brother who sucked the breasts of his mother (Cant. 6. 9, & 8. 1, 8.) And of about the same age \with that brought these children/ was Sesac or Sesostris. For he became king of Egypt in the days of Solomon (1 King. 11.40) & before he began to reign he warred under his father & whilst he was very young conquered Arabia Troglodytica, & the greatest part of Libya carrying his conquests to the river Triton & coasting the Mediterranean to the mouth of the straits. And therefore he was contemporary to Solomons Queen of about the same age with the children of Pharaoh above mentioned, & \{so}/ being the brother of Solomons Queen he was born \near the end of/ Davids reign, & might be about \46 or/ 50 or 55 years old in the fift year of Rehoboam when he came out of Egypt with a great army to invade the east.

Adrogeus the eldest son of Minos upon his overcoming in the Athenæa or quadrennial games at Athens in his youth was perfidiously slain out of envy, & Minos thereupon made war upon the Athenians, & compelled them to send every eighth year to Crete seven beardless youths & as many young virgins to be given as a reward to him that should get the victory in the like games instituted in Crete in honour of Androgeus. These games seem to have been celebrated in the beginning of the Octaeteris & the Athenæa in the beginning of the Tetraeteris then brought into Crete & Greece by the Phenicians. And upon the third payment of this Tribute of Children, that is about twenty years after the victory & death of Androgeus, Theseus became victor & returned from Crete with Ariadne the daughter of Minos: & coming to the island Naxus or Dia, Ariadnea[85] was there taken from him by Glaucus a commander at sea, & became the mistress of the great Bacchus, &b[86] by him had two sons Phlyas & Eumedon who were Argonauts < insertion from f 20v > ✝ This Bacchus was therefore one generation older then the Argonauts; & being king of Egypt at the same time with Sesostris, they are one & the same king. For they agree also in their actions. Bacchus invaded Greece & And after Bacchus \he/ was routed by Perseus & the Greeks \the army of Perseus/, & the war was composed, the Greeks did him great honours & built a Temple to him at Argos, & called it the Temple of the Cresian Bacchus because [87] Ariadne was buried in it, as Pausanias relates. Ariadne therefore died in the end of the war just before the return of Sesostris into Egypt, that is, in the 13th or 14th year of Rehoboam. She had two or more children by him, & before that was taken from Theseus & upon the return of Bacchus from India became his mistress \& accompanied him in his triumphs/. And therefore the expedition of Theseus to Crete & the death of his father Ægeus < text from f 21r resumes > & was buried in Greece in a temple erected \at Argos/ by the Greeks \& called the temple of/ to the Cresian Bacchus For so they called Sesostris because his mistress Ariadne was buried in it. Ariadne therefore died \just/ before the return of Sesostris into Egypt & had two or more children by him & before that was taken from Theseus \& became the mistress of Bacchus upon his return from India./ And therefore the expedition of Theseus to Crete & the death of his father Ægeus was about nine or ten years after the death of Solomon. Theseus was then a beardless young man suppose about 20 or 21 years old, & Androgeus was slain about {18 or} 20 years before, & born about 20 or 22 years before \that/ & his father Minos might \then/ be about 25 years older & so be born about the middle of Davids reign, \& be about 70 or 75 years old when he pursued Dædoclus into Crete,/ & Europa & her brother Cadmus might come into Europe three or four years before the birth of Minos. £ < insertion from f 20v > £ \And/ Theseus might be slain about within three or four years after the Argonautic Expedition. He was succeeded in Athica by six kings \who reigned/ till the death of Codrus & the Ionic migration under his sons; & then Attica was governed by twelve successive Archons for life & after them by {illeg} seven decennial Archons \& then by annual Archons./{sic} And \And the 18 Kings & Archons for life/ (if there were so many) the kings at 16 or \about/ 17 years a piece might take up about 300 years & the Archons for life about 200, & the decennial Archons about 40 or 50 years more two or three of them dying in their regency. And according to this recconing the annual Archons might begin about the 48th \49th/ Olympiad, & Draco might be Archon in the 51th Olympiad as above < text from f 21r resumes >

When Sesostris returned into Egypt he left Æetes with part of his army at Colchos to guard that pass; & Phriseus & his sister Helle fled from Ino the daughter of Cadmus to Æetes soon after. Ino was therefore alive in the 14th year of Rehoboam & by consequence her father Cadmus flourished in the reign of David & not before. Cadmus was the father of Polydorus, the father of Eteocles & Polynices who in their youth slew one another in the war of the seven captains at Thebes about eight or ten years after the Argonautic Expedition. And Thersander the son of Polynices warred at Troy. These generations being by the eldest <22r> sons, if they be recconed about 23 years to a generation they will place the birth of Polydorus upon the 16th or 18th year of Davids reign. And thus Cadmus might be a young man not yet married when he came into Greece, & Harmonia might be his first wife \At his first coming he sailed to Samothnace & there married Harmonia./ \The sister of Iason & Dardærus/ & Polydorus might be their son born a year or two after his coming, & \his/ sister Europa might be then a young woman in the flower of her age. These generations cannot well be shorter, & therefore Cadmus & his son Polydorus were not younger then we have recconed them: nor can they be much longer without making Cadmus too old to be the father of Ino & brother of Harmonia Europa & Polydorus too old to be born in Europe & to be the son of Harmonia. Labdacus was therefore born in the end of Davids reign, Laius in the 23th of Solomons & Dedipus in the sixt of Rehoboams or thereabouts.

Polydorusa[88] the son of Cadutus married Nicteis the daughter of Nicteus a native of Greece, & dying left his kingdom & young son Labdacus under the administration of Nicteus. Then Epopeus king of Ægialus (afterwards called Sicyon) stole Antiopa the daughter of Nicteus, & Nicteus thereupon made war upon him & in a battel wherein Nicteus overcame, both were wounded & died soon after. Nicteus left the tuition of Labdacus & administration of the kingdom to his brother Lycus, and Epopeus or (as Hyginusb[89] calls him) Epaphus the Sijcyonian, left his kingdom to Lamedon who presently ended the war by sending home Antiopa & she in returning home brought forth Amphion & Zethus. Labdacus being grown up received the kingdom from Lycus, & soon after dying left it again to his administration for his young son Laius. When Amphion & Zethus were about twenty years old, at the instigation of their mother Antiopa they killed Lycus & made Laius {they} fly to Pelops & seized the city Thebes & compassed it with a wall, & Amphion married Niobe the sister of Pelops & by her had several children amongst whom was Chloris the mother of Periclymenus the Argonaut Pelops was the father of Plisthenes Atreus & Thyestes. And Agamemnon & Menelaus the sons of Plisthenes & adopted sons of Atreus warred at Troy. Ægysthus the son of Thyestes slew Agamemnon. And Atreus died just before Paris stole Helena \wch according to c[90] Homer was twenty years before the taking of Troy./ Denecalion the son of Minosd[91] was an Argonaute, & Talus another son of Minos was slain by the Argonauts, & Idomeneus & Meriones the grandsons of Minos were at the Trojan war. And all these these things confirm the ages of Cadmus & Europa & their posterity above assigned, & place the death of Epopeus or Epaphus king of Sicyon & birth of Amphion & Zethus upon the \{illeg}/ tenth year of Solomon & the taking of Thebes by Amphion & Zethus & flight of Laius to Pelops upon the 36th year of that king or thereabouts. Amphion might marry the sister of Pelops a year or two after, & Pelops come into {Europe} Greece three or four years before that marriage.

Trogus in his 18th book tells us: A rege Ascaloniorum expugnati Sidonij novibus appulsi Tyrum urbem ante annum Trojanœ cladis condiderunt. And Strabo (lib. 16:) yt Aradus was built by men who fled from Sidon. Hence Isaiah calls Tyre the daughter[92] of Zidon, the inhabitants of the isle whom the merchants of Zidon have replenished. And Solomon in the beginning of [93] his reign calls the people of Tyre Zidonians. My servants, saith he in a message to Hiram king of Tyres, shall be with thy servants & unto thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that thou desirest; for thou knowest that there is not amongst us any that call skill to hew timber like the Zidonians. 1 King. v. 6. The new inhabitants of Tyre had not yet lost the name of Zidonians, nor had the old inhabitants (if there were any considerable numbers of them) gained the reputation of the new ones for skill in hewing of timber, as they would have done had shipping been long in use at Tyre. The artificers wch came from Zidon were not yet dead, & therefore his flight of the Zidonians was in the reign of David, & by consequence in the beginning of the reign of Abibalus the father of Hiram & the first king of Tyre mentioned in history. David in the twelft year of his reign conquered Edom as above, & made some of the Edomites & chiefly the {illeg} Merchants & seamen fly from the red sea to the Philistines upon the Mediterranean, where they fortified Azoth. For Stephanus (in Arot) tells us Ταυτύν ἔκτισαν ἑις τῶν ἐπανελθόντων απ᾽ Ερυθρᾶς θαλάσσης φευγάδων: A fugitive from the red sea built <23r> Azoth. In three of four years they might build a competent number of ships upon that sea the Mediterranean for beginning a trade upon that sea, & thereby enable the Philistins to invade Sidon by sea & take it; & then did the Zidonians fly by sea to the islands Tyre & Aradus & \when they fled to those islands they fled also/ to other havens in Asia minor Greece & Libya with which by meanes of their trafic they had been acquainted before; the great warrs & victories of David prompting them to fly by sea. For they fled \came with a great multitude of Phenicians not to seek Europa, but/b[94] to seek new seats & therefore fled from their enemies. And when some of them fled under Cadmus \& his brothers/ to Asia minor & Greece, others fled under other commanders to seek new seats in Libya, & \there/ built many \walled/ cities as Nonnus affirms. And their leader was also there called Cadmus, \which signifies/ an Eastern man, & his wife Sithonis, a Zidonian. And many from those as \cities/ went [95] afterwards with Sesostris \the great Bacchus/ in his armies. \/ < insertion from f 22v > And by these things the taking of Zidon & flight of the Zidonians under Abibalus, Cadmus, \{Glive}/ Thasus, Atymnus & other captains to Tyre Aradus, Assi Cilicia, Asia minor, \Caria Bithynia Phrygia Thatus Samothyace/ Crete, Greece & Libya, & the building of Tyre \& Thebes/ & beginning of the reign \of/ Abibalus & Cadmus over those cities, are fixed upon the 16th or 18th year of Davids reign or thereabouts. By means of these Colonies of Phœnicians, the people of Caria learnt sea affairs in \such/ small vessels wth oars as were then in use, & began to frequent the Greek seas & people some of the islands therein before the days of Minos. For from these Colonies Carriad[96] was anciently called Phœnice < text from f 23r resumes >

The Sidonians being still possessed of the trade of the Mediterranean as far as Greece & Libya, \& the trade upon the red sea being richer,/ the Syrians traded on the red sea in conjunction with Solomon & the kings of Iudah till after the Trojan war. And so also did the merchants of Aradus, Arvad or Arpad. For in the Persian gulph were two islands called Tyre & Aradus wch had Temples built like the [97] Phœnician. And therefore the Tyrians & Aradians sailed thither & beyond to to coasts of India. And hence it is that Homer celebrates Zidon & makes no mention of Tyre. But at length, in the reign of Iehoram king of [98] Iudah Edom revolted from the dominion of Iudah & made themselves a king, & the trade of Iudah & Tyre upon the red sea being thereby interrupted, the Tyrians built ships for merchandise upon the mediterranean, & began there to make long voyages to places not yet frequented by the Zidonians, some of them going to the coasts of Afric beyond the Syetes & building Carthage, others going to the coasts of Spain & others \building Carteia & others going/ beyond the straits mouth. \/ < insertion from f 22v > {Iehoram} reigned eight years, & the twoo last years was sick in his bowels & before that sickness Edom revolted because of the Iehorams wicked reign. If we place that revolt upon the middle of the first six years, it will fall upon the fift year of Pygmaleon \king of Tyre, or about twelve years after the taking of Troy./ And then, by reason of this revolt, the Tyrians retired from the red sea & began long voiages upon the mediterranean. For in the seventh year of Pigmaleon king of Tyre his sister Dido sailed to the coast of Afric beyond the Syrtes where she built Carthage {illeg} a flew. They began to come from the red sea when they Edomites fled from David < text from f 23r resumes > For this navigation of the Tyrians began in the reign of Pigmaleon when Dido about twelve years after the Trojan war, when Dido fled from her brother. And this retiring of the Tyrians from the red sea & the flight of the Edomites from the red sea in the reign of David gave occasion to theb[99] opinion of the ancients that the Phenicians came originally from the red sea \to the Mediterranea & there presently undertook long voiages./ It gave occasion also to the Phœnicians to call many places Erythra in memory of the Erythrean sea. For Erythra was the name of a city in Ionia, of another in Libya, of another in Locris, of another in Bœotia, of another in Cyprus, of another in Ætolia, of another in Asia neare Chius, & Erythrœa area was a promontory in Libya, & Erythrœum a promontory in Crete & Erythros a place neare Tybur & Erethini a city or country of Paphlagonia, & \the name/ Erythia or Erythræ \was given/ to the island Gades peopled by Phœnicians. And among the Phenicians who came with Cadmus into Greece there were Arabiansc[100] & Erythreansd[101] or inhabitants of the red sea, that is Edomites. And in Thrace there setled a people who were circumcised & called Odomantes, that is (as some think) Edomites. For when the Edomites fled from David, they also wanted new seats.

Strabo mentioning the first men who leaving the sea coasts[102] ventured out into the deep & undertook long voiages names Bacchus, Heroules, Iason, Vlysses & Menelaus, & \saith/ that the dominion of Minos over the sea was celebrated, & the navigation of the Phœnicians who went beyond the pillars of Hercules & built cities there & in the middle of the sea coasts of Afric presently after the war of Troy. These Phenicians were the Tyrians who at that time [103] built Carthage in Afric & Tartessus in Spain & peopled Gades in the island of that name without the mouth of the straits. And there they built also a Temple to the Tyrian Hercules, & adorned it [104] with sculptures of his labours, & of his Hydra, & the horses to whom he threw Diomedes \king of the Bistones in Thrace./ to be devoured. In this Temple was the golden belt of Teucer, & the golden olive of Pigmaleon bearing Smaragdine fruit. And by these consecrated gifts of Teucer & Pigmaleon you may know that it was built in their reign. Pomponius derives it from the time of the Trojan war. \For/ Teucer seven years after that war according to the Marbles, arrived at Cyprus being banished from home by his father Telamon, & there built Salamis, & he & his posterity reigned there till Evagoras the last of them was conquered by the Persians in the 20th year of Artaxerxes Maemon.

In the days of Erechtheus king of Athens and Celeus king of <24r> Eleusis, Ceres came into Attica & educated Triptolemus the son of Celerus, & taught him to sow corn. She lay with Iason or Iasius the [105] brother of Harmonia the wife of Cadmus. And presently after her death Erechtheus was slain in a war between the Athenians & Eleusinians: & for the benefaction of bringing tillage to Greece, the Eleusinia sacra were instituted to her with Egyptian ceremonies by Celeus & [106]Eumolpus; & a sepulchre or Temple was erected to her in Eleusine, & the families of Celeus & Eumolphus became her Priests. And this is the first instance that I meet with in Greece of deifying the dead with Temples & sacred rites & sacrifices & initiations & a succession of Priests to perform them. Now by this history it is manifest that Erechtheus, Celeus, Eumolpus, Ceres, Iasion, Harmonia, Cadmus, \Asterius/ & Dardanus the brother of Iasion & founder of the kingdom of Troy were all contemporary to one another, & flourished in their youth when – Cadmus came first into Europe. Erechtheus could not be much older because his daughter Proeris conversed with Minos king of Crete, & his grandson Thespis had fifty daughters who lay with Hercules, & his daughter Orithya was the mother of Calais & Zetes two of the Argonauts, & his son Orneusv[107] was the father of Petros the father of Menestheus who warred at Troy: nor much younger because his second son Pandion (who with the Metionides deposed his – elder brother Cecrops) was the father of Ægeus the father of Theseus & Metion (another of his sons) was the father of Eupalamus the father of Dædalus who was older then Theseus; & his daughter Creusa married Xuthus the son of Hellen & by him had two sons, Achæus & Ion, & Ion commanded the army of the Athenians against the Eleusinians in the battel in which his grandfather Erechtheus was slain; & this was before the institution of the Eleusinia sacra & before the reign of Pandion the father of Ægeus. Erechtheus being an Egyptian procured corn from Ægypt, & for that benefaction was made king of Athens. And at that time Ceres came into Attica. She pretended to come \from Sicily/ in quest of her daughter, but might come \thither/ with the corn from Egypt \or Sicily/ to take care of it & prepare it for food; for she was worshipped with Egyptian ceremonies. Corn grows naturally in Sicily, & that might give occasion to {illeg} \the opinion/ that she came from thence. We cannot err much if we place her coming about the 20th or 30th year of Davids reign, & the dispersion of corn by Triptolemus about the 40th year of Davids reign, & the death of Erechtheus & institution of the Eleusinia sacra about the tenth \or fifteenth/ year of Solomon.

In the time of the Argonautic Expedition, Castor & Pollux were young men, & their sisters Helena & Clytemnestra were children, & their wives Phoebe & Ilaira were also very young. All these with the Argonauts Lynceus & Idas were the grandchildren of Gorgophone the daughter of Perseus the son of Danae the daughter of Aerisius & Eurydice. And Perieres & Oebalus the husbands of Gorgophone were the sons of Cynortes the son of Amyclas the brother of Eurydice. And Sthenelus & Mestor the brothers of Gorgophone married Nicippe & Lycidice the daughters of Pelops. And Pelops married Hippodamia the daughter of Euarete the daughter of Aerisius. And Alcmena the mother of Hercules was the daughter of Electryo the son of Perseus. And the Argonautl Æsculapius was the grandson of Leucippus & Phlegia, & Leuccippus was the son of Amyclas the brother of Eurydice And Capaneus one of the seven captains against Thebes was the husband of Euadne the daughter of Iphj|i|s the son of Alector the son of Anaxagoras the son of Megapenthes the son of Prœtus the brother of Acrisius. And from these generations it may be gathered that Perseus & Cynortes were of about the same age with Minos Pelops \Ægeus/ & Sesac & that Acrisius Prœtus Eurydice & Amyclas being two little generations older, were of about the same age with king David & Erechtheus.

Pelops came \wasa[108] one generation younger then Endymion & \from Phrygia// into Peloponnesus in the days of \Acrisius & {illeg} in those of/ Endymion & his sons Epeus & Ætolus, & took Ætolia from Ætolus. Endymion was the {father} son of Aethlius, the son of Protogenia the sister of Hellen & daughter of Deucalion. \And Deucalion or his father might come from Asia minor into Greece in the days of Samuel or Eli./ Phrixus & Helle the children of Athamas the brother of Sisyphus & son of \Æolus the son of/ Hellen fled from their stepmother Ino the daughter of Cadmus to Æetes at Colchos presently after the return of Sesostris into Egypt. And Iason the Argonaut was the son of Æson the son of Critheus the son of Æolus the son of Hellen. And by these circumstan <25r> ces \ < insertion from f 24v > Aethlius, Sisypus, Athamas, Æolus, Zuthus, Dorus, & Protogenia \Astesdus Tantalus & Danae/ were contemporary to Erechtheus, Iasion & Cadmus; & < text from f 25r resumes > / Hellen was about one & Deucalion about two generations older older than Erechtheus. They could not be much older because Xuthus the youngest son of Hellen after the death of his father married [109] Creusa the daughter of Erechtheus, & their youngest son Ion upon the death of Ceres commanded the army of the Athenians against the Eleusinians in a battel in which Erechtheus was slain. Nor could they be much younger because Cephalus the son of Deioneus the son of Æolus the eldest son [110] of Hellen married Procris the daughter of Erechtheus & Procris fled from her husband to Minos. Vpon the death of Hellen his youngest son Xathus [111] was expelled Thessaly by his brothers Æolus & Dorus, & fled to {Thebes} Erechtheus & married Creusa the daughter of Erechtheus by whom he had two sons Achæus & Ion, the younger of wch grew up before the death of Erechtheus & commanded the army of the Athenians in the war in which Erechtheus was slain. And therefore Hellen died about one generation before Erechtheus.

Celeus king of Eleusis who was contemporary to Erechtheusa[112] was the son of Rharus the son of Cranaus, & in the reign of Cranaus Dencalion fled with his sons Hellen & Amphictyon from the flood wch then invaded Thessaly. They fled to Attica & there Deucalion died, & Pausanias tells us that his sepulchre was to be seen neare Athens. His eldest son Hellen succeeded him in Thessaly, & his other son Amphictyon married the daughter of Cranaus & stayed in Attica. Symbol (cross with two intersections) in text < insertion from f 24v > Symbol (cross with two intersections) in text marryed the daughter of Cranaus; & reigning at Thermopylæ erected there the Amphictyonic Council; & Aerisius soon after erected the like Council at Delphos. This I conceive was done when they were aged & fit to be councellours, suppose in the latter half of the reign of David. For Aerisius was of about the same age with David. The Council at Thermopyla included twelve Greek nations of the Greeks without Attica & therefor Amphictyon did not reign at Athens. He might endeavour to succeed Cranaus & his wifes father & be prevented by Erechthonius, or rather by Erechtheus. < text from f 25r resumes > Amphitryon & Acrisius erected the Amphictyonic Council, & this was done when they were aged & fit to be councellours, & Acrisius was of about the same age with David & {illeg} as above: & therefore we cannot err much if we place the erecting of this Council about the middle of Davids reign. For it was erected when Amphictyon reigned \flourished/ in Attica & this was after Deucalions flood & before the reign of Erechtheus.

For Between the reign of Amphictyon \Cranaus/ & Erechtheus Chronologers {illeg} placed {illeg} place \also/ Erechthonius & \his son/ Pandion, & so make Amphictyon older then is here represented. But I take Erechthonius & his son Pandion to be the same men with Erechtheus & his son \& successor/ Pandion the names being only repeated with a little variation in the list of the kings of Attica. For Erechthonius (he that was the son of the earth nursed up by Minerva) is by Homer called Erechtheus And Themistius (Orat XIX) tells us that it was Erechtheus who first joyned a chariot to horses. And Platob[113] alluding to Erechthonius in a basket, saith, The people of magnanimous in a basket Erechtheus is beautiful, but it behoves us to behold him taken out. Erechtheus therefore immediately succeeded Amphictyon, & \Cranaus while/ Amphictyon flourished \reigned/ in Attica from the time of the flood. & some say that he deposed Cranaus &c[114] was deposed by Erechthonius, that is, by Erechtheus. \Thermopylæ/

Lycurgus Cepheus & Augeo2[115] were the children of Aleus the son of Aphidamas the son of Arcas the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon. Augeo lay with Hercules, & Ancæus the son of Lycurgus was an Argonaut & his unkle Cepheus was his governour in that expedition & Aleus {illeg} \his grandfather/ Lycurgus stayd at home to look after his aged father Aleus. Aleus therefore being aged at the time of the Argonautic Expedition, \might be born about the tenth year of Solomon &/ his grandfather Arcas might be born about the beginning of the reign of David, & the Poets place the flood of Deucalion about the beginning of presently after the death of Lycaon the grandfather of Areas, & Lycaon \who/ had many children & might live till the birth of his grandson Arcas & some years longer.

< insertion from f 24v > Herodotus tells us that the Phenicians who came ––––––– by Amphi|y|ctyon the predecessor of Erechtheus. < text from f 25r resumes > I have now carried up the antiquities of Greece as high as to the first walling of cities about & the first building of Temples; the \invention &/ first use of brass & iron & iron tools in Europe, & the beginning of the manual arts depending thereupon; the beginning of plowing & sowing of corn in Europe; the erecting of the Amphictyonic Council; the coming of Cadmus with colonies of Phenicians into Greece, the first use of Letters, & the flood of Deucalion. It remains now that I carry up these antiquities as high as to the flood of Ogyges & the first memory of things done in Europe; wch could not be above three or four generations before the first use of letters.

Cranaus who flourished in the first half of Davids reign, was the son of successor of Cecrops an Egyptian who came into Greece in the days of Cranaus \Aretæus/ & married his daughter Agraulos & reigned after him in the regions of Attica. Cecrops therefore flourished in <26r> the reign of Samuel & Actæus in the days of Eli latter part of the days of Eli. He might come into Greece from Asia minor.

Cara[116] the son of Phoroneus the son of Inachus built a temple to Ceres in Megara, & this was in imitation of the Temple then built to Ceres in Eleupine: & therefore he flourished in the first half of the reign of Solomon & his father Phoroneus flourished in the reign of David, & his grandfather Inachus might be contemporary to Cecrops & come into Greece at the same time. He gave his name to the river Inachus. And Phoroneus is reputed to oldest legislator in Greece.

Areasa[117] the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon the son of Ereus, or as some say, as Pelasgus, received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people in Arcadia to make bread of it. Andb[118] so did Eumelus the first king of a region afterwards called Achaia, from & therefore Areas & Eumelus were contemporary to Triptolemus, & Callisto to Cebeus & \to/ his father {Pel} Celeus, Callisto to Rharus, Lycaon to Cranaus, & Ezeus & Pelasgus to Cecrops. But Lycæon did before Crenaus so as to leave room for Deucalion, flood between their deaths.

Aerisius & Prætus were the sons of Abas the son of Lynceus. But this Lynceus was not the same with Ægyptus \Lynceus/ the sone of Ægyptus the brother of Danaus, but an Ægyptian as old as Inachus & Cecrops Abas built Abæ in Phocis|.|

< insertion from f 26v > Danaus came into Greece a year or two after the return of Sesac into Egypt as above, that is about the 16th year of Rehoboam. He succeeded Gelanor the brother of Eurystheus at Argos; & Gelanor was the son & successor of Sthe\ne/lus. And Mastor Electrio & Sthenelus were the sons of Perseus & Andromeda. Perseus was the grandson of Acrisius. And Acrisius & Prœtus were the gran sons of Abas. but this Abas was not the grandson same with Abas the grandson of Ægyptus but a much older Prince, who built Abæ in Phocis & might come from Eubœa \Asia minor into Eubœa or send a colony thither,/ that is land being anciently called Abantis, & the people Abantus.[119] < text from f 26r resumes > Acrisius & Prœtus were the sons of Abas the son of Lynceus. But this Lynceus was not the same with Ægyptus \Lynceus/ the son of Ægyptus the brother of Danaus, but an Ægyptian as old as Inachus & Cecrops. Abas built Abæ in Phocis.

Eurydice the wife of Acrisius & her brother Amyclas were the children of Lacedæmon & Sparta, & Lacedæmon was the son of Taygeta, & Sparta the daughter of Eurotas the son or brother of Myles the son of Lelexa[120] an Egyptian. Myles succeeded his father Lelex in Elis, &b[121] Polycaon the younger brother of Myles married Messene \an {Argive}/ the daughter of Triopas the son of Phorbas the brother of Pirasus & invaded Massene then peopled only by villages & built cities therein & called it Messene after the name of his wife. Myles set up a Quern or hand mill to grind corn & is reputed the first who did so But he flourished before Triptolemus & seems to have had his corn & artificers from Egypt. Lelexc[122] was the father of Cleson the father of Pylas the father of Scyron who married the daughter of Pandion the son of Erechtheus & contended with Nisus the son of Pandion \& chronologer of Ægeus/ for the kingdom & Æacus adjudged it to Nisus. But the former recconing Lelex was three generations older then Acrisius & Eurydice. By the latter he was two generations older then Erechtheus. By both compared together he might be contemporary to Cecrops, & Inachus, Ereus, Pelasgus, & Lynceus, & come with them from Egypt. And Phorbas & Pirasus seem to have been of the same age. And the coming of the Egyptians with colonies into Greece suits with the times when Eli was High Priest.

When these men came from Egypt they found Ogyges in Greece & either he or his son Eleusine built the city Eleusine in Attica: that is, they built a few houses of clay wch in time grew into a city. They were Scythians, & the Scythians came into Greece over the Danube & other rivers from beyond the black sea, there being no other way into Greece before the Mediterranean began to be navigated as far as Europe. And the Scythians beyond the Danube \in those northern regions/ lived a wandering live without towns or houses long after those days. But the Egyptians were used to live in houses in Egypt & therefore upon their first coming into Greece would be apt to build huts & houses of such materials as were at hand, that is, of clay & boughs \branches/ of trees. For the houses of the Greeks were of clay till the brothers Euryalus & Hyperbius taught them to harden the clay into bricks & to build therewith. And the Scythians in Greece might soon learn of the Egyptians to do the like. And the flood of Ogyges I place next before this building of houses, suppose in the days of Eli the High Priest. For I meet with no mention of towns, houses, generations, wars, or actions of the Europeans ancienter then that flood.

According to Acusilaus, Ogyges flourished 1020 years before the first Olympiad, & Phoroneus was older then Ogyges. But Acusilaus was an Argive & feigned these things in honour of his country. To call things Ogygian has been a phrase as old among the ancient Greeks to signify that they are as old as the first memory of things, & therefore we may reccon Ogyges as old at least as Inachus, the man from whom the river had its name. Phoroneus flourished in the days of Samuel & Saul, & the death of Saul was but 284 years before the first Olympiad. And therefore <27r> Acusilaus has made Phoroneus & Ogyges above seven hundred years older then the truth. And this fiction has given occasion to the Chronologers who flourished one or two hundred years after Acusilaus & setled to Chronology of the Greeks, to represent all things done in Greece before the Olympiads, much ancienter then they really were.

And for lengthening the races of the kings of Argos & Sicyon they have changed several contemporary Princes of Argos into successive kings, & inserted many feigned kings into the race of the kings of Sicyon

Ægialeus the first king of Sicyon was the brother of Phoroneus & son of Inachus, & therefore flourished in the days of Samuel & Saul. He died without issue & after him reigned Europs Telchin Apis [123] Lamedon Sicyon & others successively, & Sicyon gave his name to the kingdom. Herodotusb[124] saith that Apis in the Greek tongue is Epaphus & Hyginus that Epaphus the Sicyonian got Antiopa with child & others that Epopeus the Sicyonian got Antiopa with child. But the later Greeks have made two men of the two name Apis & Epopeus, & between them inserted twelve feigned kings of Sicyon who made no wars nor did any thing memorable & yet reigned 520 years, wch is one wth another above 42 years a piece. If these feigned kings be rejected Ægialeus will become contemporary to his brother Phoroneus.

The three first kings of Argos were Inochus Phoroneus & Argoss the grandson of Phoroneus. For the Ancients tell us that Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus was the first woman with whom Iupiter lay & that after he begot Argus. So then Argus was one generation younger ten Apis the brother of Niobe & two generations younger then Phoroneus & by consequence flourished in the reign of Solomon. For Epopeus (who is Apis) was slain about the 15th year of Solomon as above ✝ < insertion from f 26v > ✝ Argus was succeeded by his son Pirasus or Peranthus or Criasus. Phorbas the brother of Peranthus went with a colony to Rhodes & reigned there purging that Island from serpents & wild beasts: & perhaps he fled from Abas \with the Telekines/. For Callithyia the daughter of Peranthus was Priestess of Apollo at Delphos \in/ & there gave the \Phoci in a Temple built there/ \by her father Peranthus to this god, gave the & gave there the/ first answers of the Oracle to Acrisius the son of Abas. & therefore Abas was contemporary to the brothers Peranthus & Phorbas. Abas was also contemporary to Lacidæmon & Sparta for his son Acrisius married their daughter Eurydice. [Abas built Abæ in Phoeis, & therefore reigned in Achaia. He might come from Eubœa, for that Island was anciently called Abantis.] Phorbas might be succeeded in Rhodes by his son Triopas for Agenor the son of Tripas invaded Argos with a great multitude of horse, \& married his daughter Messene to {Mythos} Polycaon as above/ & was succeeded either in Rhodes or some part of Argos by his son Crotopus. [Danaus came into Greece in the reign of Rhehoboam & succeeded Gelanor the brother of Eurystheus at Argus; & Gelanor was the son & successor of Sthenelus the son of Perseus the grandson of Acrisius] But in what parts of Argos or other places all these Kings or Princes reigned I leave to be examined. < text from f 27r resumes > Argus had several sons & grandsons who might \was succeeded by his son {Granaus Oineasus} or Peirasus or Peiranthus or Criasus Perasus or Peranthus or Criasus & Phorbas./ reign after him in several parts of the kingdom of Argos. Danaus came into Greece in the reign of Rehoboam, & succeeded Gelanor \the brother of Eurysthieus/ at Argos, & Gelanor was the son & successor of Sthenelus the son of Perseus the grandson of Acrisius. But in what parts of the kingdom of Argos all these kings reigned I leave to be examined.

As Erechtheus & Apis have \each of them/ been split each \of them/ into two kings so Plutarcha[125] tells us that the people of Naxus, contrary to what others write, pretended that these were two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & that the first Ariadne married Bacchus & the last war carried away by Theseus. Butb[126] Homer, Hesiod, Thucydides, Herodotus & Strabo knew but of one Minos, & Homer describes him the son of Iupiter & Europa & the brother of Rhadamanthus & Sarpedon. & the father of Deucalion the Argonaut & grandfather of Idomeneus who warred at Troy, & that he was the legislator of Crete & judge of hell: Herodotusc[127] makes Minos & Rhadamanthus the sons of Europa contemporary to Ægeus. Andd[128] Apollodorus & Hygenus say that Minos the father of Androgeus Ariadne & Phædra was the son of Iupiter & Europa & brother of Rhadamanthus & Sarpedon.

Inachus had several sons who reigned in several places of Peloponnesus & there built towns, as Phoroneus who built Phonicum, afterwards called Argos form Argus his grandson, Ægialeus who built Ægialea afterwards called Sicyon from Sicyon the grandson of Erechtheus, Phegeus who built Phegea afterwards called Psophis from Psophis the daughter of Lycaon. And these were the oldest towns in Germany Peloponnesus. Then Sicyphus the son of Æolus & grandson of Hellen built Ephyra afterwards called Corinth & Aëthlius the son of Æolus built Elis. And before them Cecrops built Cecropia the citadel of Athens, & Lycaon built Lycosura recconed by some of the oldest town in Arcadia & his sons [129] who were four & twenty in number built each of them a town except the youngest called Oenotrus who succeeded Lycaon sailed thence into Italy with his people & there set \on/ foot the building of towns & became the Ianus of the Latines. And this <28r> is recconed the first colony wch the Greeks sent abroad. Phoroneus had also several children & grandchildren, who reigned in several places & built new towns as Car Spartus, Apis. \And Hæmon, the son of Pelasgus reigned in Hæmonis afterwards called Shusaly, & built towns there./ And this division & subdivision of territories has made great confusion in the history of the first kingdoms of Peloponnesus & thereby given occasion to the vain glorious Greeks to make those kingdoms much older then they really were. But by all the recconings above mentioned, the first civilizing of the Greeks & teaching them to dwell in houses & towns, & the oldest towns & in{illeg} Europe could scarce be above three generations older than the first coming of Cadmus from Sidon into Greece. But its difficult to set right the genealogies & Chronology of the fabulous ages of the Greeks, & I leave these things to be further examined.

Herodotusa[130] tells us that the Phenicians who came wth Cadmus brought many doctrines into Greece. For amongst those Phenicians were a sort of men called Curetes, who were skilled in arts & sciences above other men, & setled, some in Phrygia [131] where they were called Corybantes, some in Crete where they were called Idœi Dactyli, some in Samothrace where they were called Cabyri, some in Rhodes where they were called Telchines some in Eubœa where before the invention of iron they wrought in copper a city thence called Chalis, some in Lemnos where they assisted Vulcan, & some in Imbrus & other places. And a considerable body of them setled in Ætolia wch was thence called the country of the Curetes untill Ætolus the son of Endymion invaded it & called it by his own name. Where they setled they wrought first in iron copper till iron was invented, & then in iron. And when they had made themselves armour they danced in it at the sacrifices with tumult & clamour & bells & pipes & drumms & swords with which they strick upon one anothers armour in musical times appearing seized with a divine fury. And this recconed the original of musick in Greece. Stadium musicum inde cœptum cum Idœi Dactyli modulos crepitu & tinnitu œres deprehensos in versificum ordinem transtulissant: Solinus Polyhist. c. 11. Studium musicum ab Idœis Dactylis cœptum. Origen.   l. 14. c. 6. Clemens calls [132] the Idozi Dactyli barbarous, that is, strangers, & saith that they were reputed the first wise men to whom both the letters which they call Ephesian & the invention of Musical rhimes is referred. It seems that when the Phenician letters ascribed to Cadmus were brought into Greece, they were at the same time brought also into Phrygia & Crete by the Curetes who setled in those countries, & called Ephesian from the city Ephesus where they were first taught. The Curetes by their manufacturing copper & iron & making swords & armour & edged tools for hewing & carving of wood, brought into Europe a new way of fighting & gave Minos an opportunity of setting out a potent fleet, & gaining the dominion of the seas; & set up the trades of smiths & carpenters in Greece which are the foundation of all other manual arts. The fleet of Minos was without sails, & Dœdalus fled from him by adding sails to [133] his vessel; & therefore ships with sails were not used by the Greeks before the reign of this king. Dœdalus & his nephew Talus invented the {chip}-ax & saw & Wimble & Perpendicular & Compass & Turning-lath & Glew & the potters Wheel; & therefore the trades of Carpenters Ioyners & Potters were not older in Greece then those days. The Curetes who thus introduced Letters & Music & Dancing & Poetry & Arts, & attended on the sacrifices,[134] were no less active about religious institutions; & for their skill & knowledge & mystical practises, were accounted wise men and <29r> conjurers by the vulgar. In Phrygia their mysteries were about Rhea, called also Magna Mater, & from the places where she was worshipped, Cybele, Berecynthia, Pessinuntia, Dindymene, Mygdonia, & Idœa Phrygia; & in Crete & the Terra Curetum they were about Iupiter Olympius the son of the Crestæn Rhea. They represented that when Iupiter was born in Crete, his [135] mother. Rhea caused him to be educated in a cave in mount Ida under their care & tuition, & that they danced about him \in/ armour with great noise that his father Saturn might not hear him cry, <30r> in a cave in mount Ida under their care & tuition, & that they danced [136] about him in armour with a great noise that his father Saturn might not hear him cry, & when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father & his fathers friends the Titans, & in memory of these things instituted their mysteries.

The two first kings of Crete contemporary to the Curetes were Asterius & Minos, & Europa was the Queen of Asterius & mother of Minos, & the Idœan Curetes were her country men & came with her & \her/ brother Atymnus into Crete, & dwelt in the Idœan cave in her reign, & there educated Iupiter & found out iron & made armour. And therefore these three Asterius Europa & Minos must be the Saturn Rhea & Iupiter of the Cretans. Minos is usually called the son of Iupiter, but his is with relation to the fable that Iupiter in the shape of a bull carried away Europa from Sidon. For the Phenicians upon their first coming into Greece gave the name of (Iao-pater) \Iupiter/ to every king, & so Minos was a Iupiter of the Greeks. According to Echemenes an ancient author cited by Athenæus, he was that Iupiter who committed the rape upon [137] Ganimede, the others say it was Tantalus. He was that Iupiter who was most famous among the Greeks for justice & dominion, being the greatest King in all Greece in those days. Lucian let us know that his mother Europa was [138] worshipped by the name of Rhea in the form of a woman sitting in a chariot drawn by Lions with a drumm in her hand & a corona turrita on her head like Astarte & Isis. And the Cretans anciently shewed the house where this Rhea [139] lived. And Apollonius Rhodius tells us that Saturn, while he reigned over the [140] Titans in Olympus [a mountain of Crete] & Iupiter was educated by the Curetes in the Cretan cave, deceived Rhea & of Philyra begot Chiron. And therefore the Cretan Saturn & Rhea were but one generation older then Chiron, & by consequence not older then Asterius & Europe the parents of Minos. For Chiron lived till after the Argonautic Expedition, & had two grandsons in that expedition, & Europa came into Crete above an hundred years before that expedition. Lucian [141] tells us that the Cretans did not only relate that Iupiter was born and buried among them, but also shewed his sepulchre. And Porphyry that Pythagoras went down [142] into the Idœan Cave to see his sepulchre. And Cicero in numbering three Iupiters, said yt[143] the third was the Creton Iupiter Saturn's son whose sepulchre was shewn in Crete. And the Scholiast upon Callimachus lets us know that his was the sepulchre of Minos. his words are. [144]Ε᾽ν Κρήτη ἐπὶ τῶ τάφῳ τοῦ Μίνωος ἐπιγέγραπτο ΜΙΝΩΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΟΣ ΤΑΦΟΣ. τῷ χρόνῳ δὲ τὸ τοῦ Μίνωος ἀπηλέιφθη ὤστε περιλειφθῆναι Διὸς τάφος. ἐκ τούτου οῦν ἔχειν λέγουσιν Κρῆτες τὸν τάφον τοῦ Διός. By Saturn Cicero who was a Latin understood the Saturn so called by the Latines. For when Saturn was expelled his kingdom he fled from Crete by sea to Italy. And because he lay hid in Italy the Latines called him Saturn & Italy Saturnia & Latium & themselves Latines. So Cyprian: [145]Antrum Iovis in Creta et sepulchrum ejus ostenditur, et ab eo Saturnum fugatum esse manifestum est; unde Latium de latebra ejus nomen accepit. Hic literas imprimere et siguare nummos in Italia primus instituit, unde œrarium Saturni vocatur; et rusticitatis hic cultor fuit, unde falcem fereus pingitur. And Minutius Felis: Saturnus Creta profugus Italian metu filij sœvientis accesserat, et Iani susceptus hospitio, rudes illos homines et agrestes multa docuit ut Græculus et politus, literas imprimere, et numnos signare, instrumenta conficere. Itaqs latebram suam quod tuta latuisset vocari maluit Latium, et urbem Saturniam de suo nomine. – Ejus filius Iupiter Creæ excluso parente regnavit, illic obijt, illic filios habuit; ad huc antrum Iovis visitur & sepulchrum ejus ostenditur, et ipsis sacris suis humanitatis arguitur. And Tertullian: Quantum rerum [146] argumenta docent, nusquam invenio fideliora quam apud ipsam Italiam, in quo Saturnus post multas expeditiones, postqs Attica hospitia, consedit; exceptus ab Iano, vel Iane ut Salij vocant. Mons quem incoluerat Saturnius dictus. Civitas quam depalaverat Saturnia usqs nune est. Tota denique Italia, post Oenotriam, Saturnia cognomin abatur. Ab ipso primun Tabulæ, et imagine signatus nummus, et inde ærario prœsidet. By Saturn's carrying letters into Italy & coining money & teaching agriculture & the making of instruments & his building a town, you may know that he fled from Crete after Letters & the coining of money & manual arts were brought into Europe by the Phenicians, & agriculture from Attica after agriculture was brought into Greece by Ceres, & so could not be older then Asterius & Europa & her brother Cadmus. And by Italy's being called Oenotria before it was called Saturnia, you may know that he came into Italy after Oenotrus, & so was not older then the sons of Lycaon. Oenotrus carried the first colony of Greeks into Italy, Saturn the second, & Evander the third: And the Latines know nothing older in Italy then Ianus & Saturn. And therefore Oenotrus was the Ianus of the Latines & Saturn was contemporary to the sons of Lycaon, & by consequence also to Celeus Erechtheus Ceres and Asterius. For Ceres educated Triptolemus the son of Celeus in the reign of Erechtheus, and then taught him to plow & sow corn; Areas the son of Callisto & grandson of <31r> Lycaon received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people to make bread of it \as above/, & Procris the daughter of Erechtheus fled to Minos the son of Asterius. In memory of Saturns coming into Italy \by sea/ the Latines coined their first money with his head on one side & a ship on the other. Macrobius tells us thatSymbol (cross with four intersections) in text < insertion from f 30v > Symbol (cross with four intersections) in textMacrobiusa[147] tells us that when Saturn was dead, Ianus erected an Altar to him with sacred rites as to a God & instituted the Saturnalia, & that humane sacrifices were offered to him {illeg} till Hercules driving the cattel of Gerion through Italy abolished that custome. By the humane sacrifices you may know that Ianus was of the race of Lycaon. And Dionysius [148] Halicarnassæus tells us further that Oenotrus having found in the western parts of Italy a large region fit for pasturage & tillage, but yet for the most part uninhabited, & where it was inhabited, peopled but thinly: in a certain part of it purged from the barbarians, he built cites towns little & numerous in the mountains: wch manner of building was familiar to the ancients. And this was the original of towns in Italy. < text from f 31r resumes >

Pausanias tells us that the people of Elis who were best skilled in [149] in antiquities, related this to have been the original of the Olympic games: that Saturn reigned first & had a Temple built to him in Olympia by the men of the golden age; & when Iupiter was newly born his mother Rhea recommended him to the care of the Idei Dactyli who were also called Curetes: That afterwards five of them called Hercules, Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasus, & Ida, came from Ida a mountain in Crete into Elis, & Hercules Idæus being the oldest of them instituted the game of racing every fourth year, & that the victor should be rewarded with a crown of olive, \& there erected an alter to Iupiter Olympians,/ & called these games Olympic: & that some of the Eleans said that Iupiter \Herc/ contended here with Saturn for the kingdom; others that the \Hercules/ Idæus Dactyli instituted these games in memory of their victory of the Titans. For \ < insertion from f 30v > [150] For the people of Arcadia had a tradition that the Giants fought with the Gods in the valley Bathos neare the river Alpheus & the fountain Olympias. Teutamus < text from f 31r resumes > / Teutamus the father of Asterias came into Crete with a Colony from Olympia, & upon the flight of Asterius some of his friends might retire into their own country & be pursued & beaten there by the Idean Hercules. The Eleans said \also/ that Clymenus the grandson of [151] the Idæan Hercules, about fifty years after Deucalions flood, – coming from Crete celebrated these games again in Olympia & erected there an altar to Iuno Olympia \that is to Europa/ & another to this Hercules & the rest of the Curetes, & reigned in Elis till he was expelled by Endymion, who thereupon celebrated these games again. And so did Pelops who was one generation younger then Endymion. \& Atreus ye son of Pelops. & Hercules the son of Atemena. And at length Iphitus made them quadrennial./ They might be celebrated first by Hercules Idæus upon the conquest of Saturn & the Titans, & then by Clymenus upon his coming to reign in the Terra Curetum, & then by Endymion upon his conquering Clymenus & afterwards by Pelops upon his becoming lord of that region This Iupiter had a Temple & Altar erected to him in Olympia where the games were celebrated, & from the place was called Iupiter Olympius, & to him the games were dedicated. Olympia was the name of ye city Pisa. [152]

In the island Thasus where Cadmus left his brother Thasus, the Phœnicians built a temple to Hercules Olympius, that Hercules when Cicero calls ex Idæis cui inferias afferunt. When the mysteries of [153] Ceres were instituted in Eleusis, there were other mysteries instituted to her & her daughter & daughters husband in Samothrace by the Phenician names of Dij Cabiri, Axieros, Axiopersa & Axiokerses, that is, the great Gods, Ceres, Proserpina & Pluto. For Iasion a Samothracian whose sister married Cadmus, was familiar with Ceres: [154] & Cadmus & Iasion were initiated in these mysteries. Iasion \was the brother of Dardanus &/ married Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia, & by her had Corybas; & after his death Dardanus Cybele & Corybas went into Phrygia & carried thither the mysteries of the mother of the Gods & Cybele called the Godess after her own name, & Corybas called her Priests Corybantes. Thus Diodorus. But Dionysius saith that Dardanus [155] instituted the Samothracian mysteries, & that his wife Chryses learnt them in Arcadia, & that Idœus the son of Dardanus instituted afterwards the mysteries of the mother of the Gods in Phrygia. The Phrygian Goddess was drawn in a chariot by Lyons & had a corona turrita on her head & a drumm in her hand like the Phenician Goddess Astarte, & the Corybantes danced in armour at her sacrifices in a furious – manner like the Idæi Dactyli. And Lucian lets tells us that she [156] was the Cretan, Rhea \that is Europa the mother of Minos./ And thus the Phœnicians introduced the practise of deifying dead men among the Greeks & Phrygians. For I meet with no instance of deifying dead men & weomen in Greece before the coming of Cadmus & Europa from Sidon

From these originals it came into fashion amongst the Greeks κτερίζειν, parentare, to celebrate the funerals of dead parents with festivals & invocations & sacrifices offered to their Ghosts & to erect magnificent sepulchres in the form of Temples <32r> with alters & status to persons of renown. & there to honour them with sacrifices & invocations. Every man might do it to his ancestors & the cities of Greece did it to all the eminent Greeks, as \to Europa the sister to Alymnus the brother &/ to Minos & Rhadamanthus the nephews of Cadmus, to Ino his daughter & Melicertes the son of Ino, to Bacchus the son of his daughter Semele, Aristæus the husband of his daughter Antonoe, Iasion the brother of his wife harmonia, Hercules a Theban & his mother Alemena, to Æsculapius the son of Apollo or Orus, Machaon the son of Æsculapius & Palemocrates the son of Machaon; to Pandion & Theseus kings of Athens, Hippolytus the son of Theseus, Pan the son of Penelope, Proserpina, Triptolemus, Celeus, Trophonius, Castor, Pollux, Helena, Menelaus, Agamemnon, Amphiaraus & his son Amphilochus, Hector & Alexandra the son & daughter of Priam, Phoroneus, Orpheus, Protesilaus, Achilles & his mother Thetis, Ajax, Arcas, Idomeneus, Merion, Æacus, Melampus, Britomartis, Adrastus, Iolaus, & divers others. They deified their dead in divers manners according to their abilities & circumstances & the merits of the person; some only in private families as houshold Gods or Dij penates, others by erecting gravestones to them in public to be used as Altars for annual sacrifices, others by building also to them sepulchres in the form of houses or Temples, & some by appointing mysteries & ceremonies & set sacrifices & festivals & initiations & a succession of Priests for observing & performing those institutions in the Temples & handing them down to posterity. Altars might begin to be erected in Europe a little before the days of Cadmus for sacrificing to the old \God or/ Gods of the \former/ Colonies, but Temples began a little after. For Æacus the son of Ægina [157] who was two generations older then the Trojan war, was one of the first, some say the first who built a Temple in Greece. Oraclus came from Egypt into Greece about the same time, as did also the custome of forming the images of the Gods with their leggs bound up in the shape of the Egyptian Mummies. For idolatry began in Chaldea & Egypt & spread thence into Phenicia & the neighbouring countries long before it came into Europe \And was propagated in Greece by the dictates of their Oracles./{sic} The countries upon the Tigris & Nile being exceeding fertile were first frequented by mankind & grew first into kingdoms & therefore first began to adore their dead kings & Queens. Hence came the Gods of Laban, the Gods & Goddesses called Baalim & Ashteroth by the Canaanites, the Dæmons or Ghosts to whom they sacrificed, & the Moloch to whom they offered their – children in the days of Moses & the Iudges: Every city & kingdom set up the worship of its own founder & kings, & by alliances & conquest they spread this worship, & at length the Philistines Phenicians brought into Europe the practice of deifying the dead, & Sesostris by conquest spread the worship of the Gods of Egypt into all his conquests, & made them more famous & more universal then the Gods of any other nation had been before, so as to be – called Dij magni majorum gentium. He conquered Thrace, & Amphijctyon \the son of Prometheus an Egyptian/ brought the twelve Gods from Thrace into Greece. \Herodotus tells us that they came from Ægypt: And/ By the names of the cities of Egypt dedicated to many [158] of these Gods, you may know that they were of an Egyptian original. <33r>

By all this it may be understood that as the Egyptians who deified their \{priests}/ kings, began their kingdom with the reign of their Gods & Heroes, recconing Menses the first man who reigned after their Gods: so the Greeks had the ages of their Gods & Heroes, calling them the golden silver brazen & iron ages. Hesiod describing these four ages represen of the Gods & [159] Demigods of Greece represents them to be four generations of men each of wch ended when the men then living grew old & dropt into the grave, & tells us that the fourth ended with the warrs of Thebes & Troy. And so many generations there are between the destruction of Troy & the coming of the Phenicians \into Greece/ who introduced the practise of deifying dead men. Apollonius Rhodius saith that when the Argonauts [160] came to Crete they slew Talus a brazen man of the brazen age who remained of those that were of the brazen age & guarded that Island. Talus was the son of Minos & therefore the sons of Minos lived in the brazen age & Minos reigned in the silver age. It was the silver age of the – Greeks in which they began to plow & sow, & Ceres who taught them to do it flourished in the silver reign of Celeus Erechtheus & Minos. Mythologists say that the last woman with whom Iupiter lay was Alcmena, & thereby they seem to put an end to the reign of Iupiter among mortals when Alemena was with child of Hercules.X < insertion from f 32v > Chiron was begot by Saturn in the golden age when Iupiter was a child in the Cretan C cave as above, & this was in the reign of Asterius in Crete & therefore Asterius reigned in Crete in the golden age, & the silver age began when Chiron was a child. And unless Chiron was above 80 years old in the time of the Argonautic Expedition when he invented the Asterisus the silver age will not begun before the fourth year of Solomon – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Niobe the daughter of Pharoneus is said to be the first woman with whom Iupiter lay, A& therefore the silver age commenced the year before the birth of their son Argus. Io the daughter of Imachus was one generation older than Niobe, & was carried away from Greece by Phenician merchants when they began first to extend their trade as far as Greece; that is, presently after the flight of the red sea merchants of the red sea from David & their mixing with the Philistins & Sidonians & beginning a new trade upon the mediterranean. And this was about the 15 or 18th year of David as above. And Niobe being one generation younger then Io, the birth of Argus & beginning of the silver age was one generation or abolater or about 30 or 35 years later then the rapture of Io, & so may be placed about the 4th & 10th year of Solomon. And the \preceding/ age, that between the rapture of Io & birth of Argus, answers to the golden age. < text from f 33r resumes > Chiron was begot by \Saturn/ in the golden age when Iupiter was a child in the Cretan cave as above, & this was in the reign of Asterius in Crete.X < insertion from f 32v > X Hesiod tells us that he himself lived in the fift age, & therefore he & Homer flourished within thirty or forty years after the taking of Troy. Some ancient authorsa[161] placed Homer in the days of Orestes the son of Agamemnon; & Cornelius Nepos placed him an hundred years before the first Olympiad. This fable of the four ages seems to have been formed by the Curetes in the time of the fourth age. The Curetes \b[162] sacrificed children to Saturn &/ according to Bochast were Philistins. He shews that the Philistins were by the Hebrews called Cerethim or Crethim & their Country Creth, & thinks that the {illeg} Curetes & the Isla{illeg}nd Crete had their names from thence. And Eusebius saith that Crete had its name from Cres one of the Curetes who nursed up Iupiter. Whatever was their original, they came into Asia minor with the Phenicians into Asia minor & Europe & particularly with Europa & her brother Atymnus into Crete, about the time of Deucalions flood, & measured the first four ages of their new world by the reigns of their first four kings in Crete; Asterius the husband of Europa the Saturn of the Latines; Minos her son celebrated for justice & dominion, the Iupiter nursed up by the Curetes, in whose reign the Greeks began to plow & sow, & on whose sepulchre was inscribed ΤΟΥ ΔΙΟΣ; Deucalion the son of Minos who reigned till the Argonautic Expedition; & Idomeneus his grandson who warred at Troy. These four ages immediately succeeded the flood of Deucalion, & therefore that flood was about the 16th year of King David. At that time the reign of Lycaon ended in Arcadia & that of Hellen began in Thessaly \& that of Amphictyon of {Thermiopys}, & that of Abibalus at Tyre./ Cranaus then reigned in Attica, & soon after \(suppose in the 22th year of David)/ was succeeded by Amphictyon the predecessor of Erechtheus. And \At that time the {I}dœi Dactyli might find out iron &/ Ceres might come into Attica within two{illeg} or three years after. And Erechtheus might marry his daughter Creusa to Xuthus the son of Hellen about the seventh \sixth fift/ year of his reign & their sons Acheus & Ion be grown up before the death of Erechtheus his death. < text from f 33r resumes >

Before the Phenicians introduced the deifying of dead men, the Greeks had a Court of Elders in every Town for the government thereof, & a Prytaneum \place/ where the Elders & people worshipped their God with sacrifices. And when many of these towns for their common safety united under a common Council they erected a {common} Counsel \Prytaneum/ in one of the towns with a Prytaneum where the Council & people met at certain times to consult of their common safety & worship their common God with sacrifices & to buy & sell. The towns where these Councils met, the Greeks called δήμοι peoples or communities or corporation towns; & at length when many of these δήμοι for their common safety united by consent under one common Council, they erected a \Prytaneum or/ Court in one of the δήμοι with a Prytaneum for the \common/ Council & people to meet in & consult & worship & feast & buy & sell, & this δήμος they walled about for it's safety, & called it τὴν πόλιν the City. And this I take to be the original of Villages, Market Towns, Cities, common Councils, – Vestal Temples, Feasts & Fairs in Europe. The Prytanea were \Courts wth/ places of worship so named \perhaps/ from the perpetual fire kept therein for sacrificing. From the word Ἑστὶα fire came the name Vesta wch at length the people turned into a Goddess, & so became fire worshippers like the ancient Persians. And when these Councils made war upon their neighbours, they had a general Commander to lead their armies, & he became their king.

So Thucydidesa[163] tells us that under Cecrops & the ancient{illeg} kings untill Theseus, Attica always was inhabited city by city, \each/ having Magistrates & Prytanea. Neither <34r> did they consult the king untill when there was no fear of danger, but each apart administred their own commonwealth & had their own Council. Yea some, (as the Eleusinians with Eumolpus against Erechtheus) did sometimes make war. But when Theseus, a prudent & potent man, obteined the kingdom, he took away the Courts & Magistrates of other cities & made them all meet in one Council & Prytaneum at Athens. Polemon as he is cited by Strabob[164] tells us that in this body of Attica there were 170 δήμοι one of wch was Eleusis. And Philochorusc[165] relates that when Attica was infested by sea & land by the Cares & Bæoli; Cecrops the first of any man reduced the multitude (that is, the 170 towns) into twelve cities whose names were Cecropia Tetrapolis, Epacria, Decelea, Eleusis, Aphydna, Thorieus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephissa, & Phalerus, & that Theseus afterwards contracted these twelve cities into one which was Athens.

The original of the kingdom of the Argives was much after the same manner. For, saith Pausaniasa[166], Phoroneus the son of Inachus was the first who gathered into one community the Argives who till then were scattered & lived every where apart: & the place where they were first assembled was called Phoronicum, the city of Phoroneus. And Strabo[167] saith that Homer calls all the places wch he reccons up in Peloponnesus, a few excepted, not cities but regions because each of them consisted of a convention of many δήμοι, free towns, out of wch afterwards noble cities were built & frequented. So the Argives composed Mantinea in Arcadia out of five towns, & Tegea out of nine. And out of so many was Herœa built by Cleombrotus or by Cleonymus. So also Ægium was built out of seven or eight towns, Patræ out of seven, Dyne out of eight; & so Elis was erected by the conflux of many towns into one city.

And Pausaniasa[168] tells us that the Arcadians accounted Pelasgus the first man, & that he was \the first man & that he was/ their first king & taught the ignorant people to build houses for defending themselves from heat & cold & rain & to make them garments of skins, & instead of hearbs & roots which were sometimes noxious, to eat the acorns of the Beach tree; & that his son Lycaon build the oldest city in all Greece. \He tells us also that in the days of Lelex the {Arco} Spartans lived in villages apart./ The Greeks therefore began to build houses in the days of Pelasgus the father of Lycaon \& in the days of Lalex the father of Myles & Polycaon/ & by consequence about two generations before the flood of Deucaleon & the coming of Cadmus. Till thenb[169] they lived in woods & caves of the earth. Theb first houses were of clay till the brothers Euryalus & Hyperbius taught them to harden the clay into bricks & to build therewith. In the days of Ogyges, Pelasgus, Æzeus, Inachus, Lelex & Phorbas they began to build villages of clay \Doxius the son of {Cœlusb} teaching them to do it/; & in the days of Lycaon, Phoroneus, <35r> Ægyaleus, Phegeus, Eurotas, Myles \Polycaox/ & Cecrops & their sons to assemble the villages into δήμοι & the δήμοι into cities. The < insertion from f 34v > The Pelasgi spoke a language different from the Greek & were famous for wandering from place to place. And thence I seem to gather that they were of the race of the Scythians who peopled Greece from beyond the Danube before any Colonies came thither from Egypt & Phenicia, & that Pelasgus was the first king who reigned over them in Arcadia after they began to be civilized by those colonies & to build houses. < text from f 35r resumes >

The Pelasgi < insertion from f 34v > The Pelasgi spoke a language different from the Greek & Lycaon the son of Pelasgus sacrificed men, & thence I gather that Pelasgus with his people were a branch of the shepherds who came \by sea/ from Egypt. And Inachus with his sons Phoroneus & Ægialeus & their people were another branch of them. For Herodotus[170] affirms that the old inhabitants of Peloponnesus, before the coming either of Danaus or of Ion the son of Xuthus, were called Ægialean, Pelasgi; & Apollodorus makes Ægialeus to be the grandchild of Oceanus & son of Inachus \Whence Inachus was the son of Oceanus, a forreigner who came from beyond \the/ sea|s|./{sic} And another branch of the Pelasgi settled in Attica as I learn from Herodotus who[171] tells us that the Pelasgi under Cranaus were named Cranai & under Cecrops Ceropidæ & under Erechtheus Athenians. As the Greeks called those men Autochthones who were the first inhabitants, & those men Aborigenes[172] who came from the mountains: so they seem to have called those men Pelasgi who came from \beyond/ the seas, the names Pelasgus & Pelagus being derived from \one &/ the same original: unless you had rather say that the Pelasgi had their name from Pelasgus the \name of two one or two/ of their kings.

When Oenotrus the son of Lycaon carried a colony into Italy he found that country for the most part uninhabited & where it was inhabited peopled but thinly, & seizing a part of it he built houses \towns/ in the mountains little & numerous as above. These towns were at first without walls, but after this colony < text from f 35r resumes >

Dionysius Halicarnassæus tells us that Oenotrus the youngest [173] son of Lycaon, coming into Italy, & having found there a large region fit for pasture & tillage, but yet for the most part uninhabited, & where it was inhabited, peopled but thinly: in a certain part of it purged from the barbarians, he built cities little & numerous in the mountains: which manner of building was familiar to the ancients. These towns were without walls. But after this Colony grew numerous & began to want room, they expelled the Siculi & compassed – many cities with walls, & became possest of all the {country} territory between the two rivers Lires & Liber \& from the mountains where they first lived were called Aborigenes, or Mountaneers./{sic} And it is to be understood that these cities had their Councils & Prytanea. For Dionysius tells us also that the \new/ kingdom of Rome [174] as Romulus left it, consisted of thirty Courts or Councils in so many towns each with the sacred fire kept in the Prytanæum of the Court for the Senators who met there to perform sacred rites after the manner of the Greeks. Whence the Senators were called Curiales. But when Numa the successor of Romulus reigned, he leaving the several fires in their own Courts, instituted one common to them all at Rome.

So also in Sicily the Sicanians who were the first \memorable/ inhabitants of that Island, a[175] built little villages or towns upon the hills, & every town had its own king. And by this means they spread themselves over the country before they formed themselves into larger governments with a common king.

The antiquities of Libya were not much older then those of Europe. For Diodorus tells us that [the Libyans [176] had a tradition that] Vrantus the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helius & Selene (that is Ammon the father of Sesac) was their first \king/ & caused the people who then wandered up & down, to dwell in towns & cities, {illeg} & reducing them from a lawless & salvage course of life taught them to use & lay up the fruits of the earth & do many other things useful for mans life. {illeg} And Herodotus tells us that all Media [177] was peopled by δήμοι, towns without walls, till they revolted from the Assyrians, wch was about 267 years after the death of Solomon; & that after that revolt they set up a king over them, & built Ecbatane with walls for his seat, the first town which they walled about. \And Benhadad king of Syria had 32 kings in his army against Ahab I King 20. 16./ And when Ioshua conquered Canaan the land of Canaan, every city of the Canaanites had its own king like the cities of Europe before they conquered one another: & therefore towns began to be built in that land not many ages before the days of Ioshua. For the Patriarchs wandered there in tents & fed their flocks wherever they pleased, the fields of Phenicia not being yet \fully/ appropriated for want of people. The countries first inhabited by mankind were in those days <36r> so thinly peopled that four kings from the coasts of Shinar & Elam invaded & spoiled the Rephaims & the inhabitants of the countries of Moab, Ammon, Edom, & the kingdoms of Sodom Gomorrah Admah & Zeboim & yet were pursued & beaten by Abraham with an armed force of only 318 men, the whole force which Abraham & the Princes with him could raise. And Egypt was so thinly peopled before the birth of Moses that Pharaoh said of the Israelites: Behold the people of the children of Israel are more & mightier then we: & to prevent their multiplying & growing too strong, caused their male children to be drowned. These footsteps there are of the first peopling of the earth by mankind not long before the days of Abraham, & of the overspreading it with – villages towns & cities, & their growing into kingdoms first smaller & then greater untill the rise of the monarchies in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medea & Persia, Greece & Rome, the first great Empires on this side India. For mankind lived together in the land of Shinar & were all of one language till the days of Peleg who was not above 191 years older then Abraham.

When navigation was so far improved that the Phenicians began to leave the sea shore & sail through the Mediterranean by the help of the starrs, it may be presumed that they began to discover the Islands of the Mediterranean, & for the sake of trafic to sail as far as Greece: & this was not long before they carried away Io the daughter of Inachus from Argos. And accordingly \The Cares first infested the Greek seas with pyracy. And then Minos the son of Europa got up a potent fleet & sent out Colonies./ Diodorus tells us that the Cyclade Islands (those near [178] Crete) were at first desolate & uninhabited: but Minos the son of Europa having a potent fleet sent many colonies thither out of Crete & peopled many of them, & particularly that the island Carpathus was first seized by the soldiers of Minos. Syme lay wast & desolate till Triops came thither with a Colony under Chthonius. Strongyle or Naxus was first inhabited by the Thracians in the days of Boreas a little before the Argonautic Expedition. Samus was at first desart & inhabited only by a great multitude of terrible wild beasts \till Matearius peopled it as he did also the islands Chius & Coos: Lesbos lay wast & desolate till Xanthus sailed thither from Lycia with a Colony. Tenedoos lay desolate till Tennes a little before the Trojan war sailed thither with a colony from Troas./ Aristæus who married Autonoe the daughter of Cadmus, carried a Colony from Thebes into Cœa an island not inhabited before. The island Rhodes was at first called Ophiusa, being full of serpents before Phorbas a Prince of Argos went thither & made it habitable by destroying the serpents: in memory of which he is delineated in the heavens in the Constellation of Ophiuchus. The discovery of this & some other islands made a report that they rose out of the sea. In Asia Delos emersit & Hiera et Anaphe & Rhodus: Ammian. l. 7. Clarœ jamdudum insulæ Delos et Rhodos memoria produntur enatœ; postea minores, ultra Melon Anaphe, inter Lemnum et Hellespontum Nea, inter Nebedum et Teon Alone &c. Plin. l. 2, c. 87.

Diodorus tells us also that the seven islands called [179] <37r> Æolides between Italy & Sicily were desart & uninhabited till Liparus & Æolus about the time of \a little before/ the Trojan war went thither from Italy & peopled them. And that Malta & Gaulus or Gaudus on the south side of Sicily were first peopled by Phenicians; & so was Madera without the {illeg} straits. \And Homer relates that Vlysses found the Island Ogygia (i.e. Gades) covered wth wood & uninhabited except by Calypso & her maids who lived in a cave without houses./ And it is not likely that Great Britain & Ireland could be peopled before navigation was propagated beyond the straits.

< insertion from f 36v > The first inhabitants of Sicily were \were/ called Sicanians. They \They/ were there before the death of Minos; \& came into that island five years before the {Sicani}/ & by their having many cities on the mountains each with its own king, it may be concluded that they came into that Island not very long before. Philistusa[180] saith that they were transplanted from the river Sicanus in Spain, & Dionysiusb[181] that they were a Spanish people who fled from the Ligures in Italy. He means the [182]Ligures who opposed Hercules when he returned from his expedition against Gerion in Spain, & endeavoured to pass the Alps out of Piemont \Gaull/ into Italy. Hercules that year got into Italy & made some conquests there \& founded the city Croton/, &d[183] after winter upon the arrival of his fleet from Erythra in Spain sailed to Sicily and left \with the {illeg} Gerion/ there the \Sicari reputed the/ first inhabitants of that Island: \unless you had rather say that he left them in Italy./ For it was his custome to recruit his army with conquered people, & after they had assisted him in making new conquests, to reward them with new seats. This was the Egyptian Hercules who had a potent fleet, & \in the days of Solomon/ sailed to the pollar straits, & set up the Pillars, & conquered Gerion, & was by ye ancient Galls called Ogmius, that is, potent at sea.[184] \& by the Ægyptian Nilus/. For Erythra & the country of Geryon were without the Straits. Dionysius {illeg} f[185] represents this \Hercules/ contemporary to Evander. {First here} Ceres was now left in Sicily, or came thither from Libya in a former colony may be questioned. But the sowing of corn could \scarce/ come from Egypt into Sicily before the invention of sailing by the starrs, wch was in the reign of Ammon who taught the Libyans to dwell in towns & lay up the fruits of the earth. \But he was scarce later then Ceres who {bred like from} Sicily into Greece the {and often saving some}/

[186] Thucydides tells us that the Greeks began to come into Sicily almost 300 years after the Siculi had invaded that island with a great army out of Italy. And first Thacles led a Colony from Chalcis in Eubœa {Vrbania} into Sicily & built Naxus there. And the next year Archias came from Corinth with a Colony & built Syracuse. And about the same time Lamis came \into Sicily/ with a Colony from Megara in Achaia & lived first at in Sicily first at Tybtilum, than at Leontini & then at Thapsus neare Syracuse \when he died/. And \that/ after his death they were invaded by Hyblo to Megara & from him called Hybleans. And when they had lived there two hundred & forty & five years, they were driven out from thence by Gelo king of Sicily. Now Gelo flourished about the year before Christ 478. Count backwards the 245 years & about ten years more for the reign of Lamis, & the building of Syracuse by Archias will be about 733 years before Christ: wch agrees wth the recconing of Eusebius & the later Chronologers. Count backwards almost 300 years more, & the invasion of Sicily by the Siculi will be almost 1033 or about 1000 years {illeg} before Christ that \{illeg}/ is in the middle of Solomons reign \or three generations before the Trojan war as is affirmed by[187] Hellanicus an author older than Thucydides./ And the Migration of the Sicani into Sicily M DidevelX from Dionisius Halycarnassaus \Hellenicus/ X[188], places five years earlier then that of the Siculi. And according to this recconing the expedition of Hercules in wch he set up the pillars, conquered Gerion & left the Sicani in Sicily was not in the \younger/ days of Sesostris the Hercules of the Egyptians. So then the Greeks in the days of Thucydides, had not raised their antiquities so high as they did afterwards by admitting the fables of Ctesias. < text from f 37r resumes >

The first inhabitants of Sicily were called Sicanians Philistusa[189]saith that they were transplanted from the river Sicanus in Spain. \And Dionysius Halicarnasseus calls them {the} Spanish people driven out of Italy/ They might be left {illeg} /by the Ligures a little before the migration of the Siculi:\ \{illeg}/ by Sesostris when he returned from Spain by the coasts of \Genoma &/ Italy in the reign of his father Ammon \& fought with the Ligures./ \For/ They were in Ita Sicily before the death of Minos. And by their having many cities each with its own king, it may be concluded that they came into that Island not very long before.

The first inhabitants of Crete \according to Diodorus/ were called Eteocretans: [190] but whence they were & how they came thither is not said in history. Then sailed thither a colony of Pelasgians from Greece. And soon after Tentamus the grandfather of Minos carried thither a colony of Dorians from Laconia & \from/ the territory of Olympia in Peloponnesus. And these several Colonies spake several languages & fed on the spontaneous fruits of the Earth & lived quietly in caves & huts till the invention of iron tools in the days of Asterius the son of Teutamus, & at length were reduced into one kingdom & one people by Minos, who was their first lawgiver & built many towns & ships & introduced plowint & sowing, & in whose days the Curetes conquered \king &/ his fathers friends in Peloponnesus Crete & Peloponnesus.‡ < insertion from f 37v > But whatever was the original of the name of the Island it doth not appear to have been peopled ab ‡ The Curetesb[191] sacrificed children to Saturn & according toc[192] Bochart sever Phenicians Philistines. He shews that the Philistines were by the Hebrews Cherethum or Crethim & their country Creth, & then by that the Curetes & the Island Crete had their names from then on. And Eusebius saith that Crete had its name from Cres one of the Curetes who nursed up Iupiter. But whatever was the original of the name of the Island, it seems to have been first peopled by the Colonies wch spake different languages till the days of Asterius & might come thither two or three generations before, & scare above. < text from f 37r resumes >

And the island Cyprus was discovered by the Phenicians not long before. For Eratosthenes[193] tells us that – Cyprus was at first so overgrown with wood that it could not be tilled, & that they first cut down the wood for – melting of copper & silver, & afterwards when they began to sail safely upon the Mediterranean they built ships & even navies of it: & when they could not thus destroy the wood they gave every man leave to cut down what wood he pleased & to possess all the grownd wch he cleared of wood. So also Europe {illeg} at first abounded very – much with woods, one of which called the Hercynian took up a great part of Germany, being full nine days \journeys/ broad & above forty long in Cæsars' days. And yet the Europeans had been cutting down their woods to make room for mankind ever since the invention of iron tools in the days of Asterius & Minos.

All these footsteps there are of the first peopling of the Mediteranean islands & Europe & its islands. Egypt Phenicia, Syria, Assyria & Chaldea were people some ages before. Abraham was the fift from Peleg, & all mankind lived together in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons untill the days of Peleg. So long they were of one language, one society & one religion. And yn they divided the Earth, being perhaps disturbed in Chaldea by the rebellion of Nimrod & forced to leave of building <38r> the tower of Babel. And from thence they spread themselves into the several countries which fell to their share, carrying along with them the laws customes & religions under which they had till those days been educated & governed by Noah & his sons & grandsons. And these laws were handed down to Abraham, Melchizedec & Iob \& their contemporaries/ & for some time were observed by the Iudges of the eastern countries Iob. 31. 11, 28. Several of them are mentioned {illeg} by Iob, chap \v. 5 & ch./ 31, vizt not to \blasphem God nor to/ worship the sun or Moon &c least you should deny the God above; not to deceive, nor defraud, nor kill, nor steal, nor commit adultery, nor covet, nor trust in riches, nor oppress the poor or fatherless, nor curse your enemies, nor rejoyce at their misfortunes; but to be friendly & hospitable & mercifull & to relieve the poor & needy. This was the morality & religion of the first ages \\still/ called by the Iews, the Precepts of the sons of Noah./ This was the religion of Moses & the Prophets comprehended in the two great commandments of loving the Lord our God with all our heart & soul & mind, & our neighbour as our selves. This was the religion enjoyned to the \by Moses to the uncircumcised/ stranger within the gates of Israel as well as to the Israelites \& comprehended {illeg} the Iews in the Precepts of the sons of Noah./ And this is the religion of both Iews & Christians to this day, & ought to be the standing religion of all nations. And Moses adds the precept of being mercifull even to bruit beasts, so as not to suck out their blood nor to cut off their flesh alive with the blood in it, {bleed} \nor to kill them for their blood sake of their blood,/ nor to strangle them, but in killing them for food, to let out their blood & spill it upon the ground. Gen 9. 6 & Levit. 17. 12, 13. This law was ancienter then the days of Moses being given to Noah & his sons \long before the days of Abraham/, & therefore when the Apostles & Elders in the Council at Ierusalem declared that the Gentiles were not obliged to be circumcised & observe the law of Moses, they excepted this law \of abste\in/ing from blood & things strangled/ as being an earlier law of God imposed not on the sons of Abraham only, but \on the strangers within the gates of Israel,/ on all the sons of Noah, \a law imposed originalls/ not on Iews or Christians but even on Gentiles a law of \imposed on/ all nations while they lived together unde in shinar under the dominion of Noah & his sons. And of the same kind is the law of absteining from meats offered to idols or fals Gods, & from fornication. So then the religion of beleiving that the world was governed \formed/ by one supreme God, & is governed by him, & of loving & worshipping him & of loving or neighbour as ourselves & being mercifull even{illeg} to bruit Beasts is the oldest of all religions. And the original of Letters \agriculture navigation musick/ \Ido/ art, & sciences \metalls smiths & carpenters/ towns & houses in Europe, was not older then the days of Eli Samuel & David. And before those days the Earth was so thinly peopled & so overgrown with woods, that mankind could not be older then is represented in scripture

[1] a Gen. 1. 14. 84 8. 22. Censorinus c. 19 & 20. Cicero in Verrem. Geminus c. 6. p. 3. 2

[2] b Cicero in Verrem.

[3] c Diodor. l. 1

[4] d Cicero in Verrem

[5] e Gem. c. 6

[6] f Apud Laertium in Cleobulo

[7] g Apud Laertium in Thalete.

[8] a Censorinus {Ε}18. Herodot. l. 2 prope initium

[9] b Apollador. l. 3. p. 169. Shabo l. 16. p. 476. Homer Odyss. τ. vers. 179

[10] c Herod. l. 1

[11] a Diodor. l. 3. c. 4

[12] b Diodor. S. 1. c. 3

[13] a Apud Theodox Gazam de Mensibus

[14] b Apud Athenæum l. 14

[15] c Suidas in Σάροι

[16] d Herod. l. 1

[17] a Strabo l. 17 p. 816. c

[18] b Diodor. l, p. 32 d.

[19] c Plutarch de Osiride & Iside Diodor. l. 1. p. 9.

[20] d Hecatæus apud Diodor. l. 1. c. 4.

[21] a Isagoge p. 1.

[22] a Strom. 1. p. 306, 332.

[23] b Laertius Proœm. l. 1

[24] e Apollodor. l. 1 sect. 16 c. 9. sect. 16.

[25] c Suidas in Ἀναγαλλίς.

[26] d Apollodan l. 1 c. 9. sect. 25.

[27] a Laert. in Thalate. Plin. l. 2. c 12.

[28] b Plin. l. 18. c. 23

[29] c Petav. Var. Dissen l. 1. c. 5. can. 19.

[30] a Petav. Doct. Temp. l. 4. c. 26.

[31] b Columel. l. 9. c. 14. Plin. l. 18. c. 25.

[32] a De Pytheœ Oraculo.

[33] b Plutarch in Solon

[34] c

[35] d Apud Diog. Laert. in Solon p 10

[36] e Nat. Hist. l. 7 c. 56.

[37] f Ib. l. 5. c. 29 {f}

[38] g Contr. Apion sub initio

[39] h In Α᾽κουσίλαος

[40] i Ioseph. cont. Ap. l. 1

[41] k Suid

[42] l Dionys. l. 1, initio.

[43] m In Numa

[44] n Didor. l. 16 p. 550. Edit. {illeg} Steph.

[45] o Poly 6. p. 379. 6

[46] p In vita Lycurgi sub initio

[47] q In Solon p. 151

[48] Plutarch in Romulo et {illeg} Numa.

[49] In Æneid. VII v. 678.

[50] Diodor. l. 1

[51] Lib. 1 in Proæmio.

[52] b Plut in Lycurgo sub initio.

[53] a Pausan {illeg} \l. 4. c. 3. p. 28/ c. 7. p. 296. et l. 2. c. 15 p. 245. et {illeg} o

[54] a Herod. l. 1. c. 67.

[55] Herod. l. 8

[56] b Herod. l. 8

[57] c Herod. l. 8

[58] d Pausat. \Thucyd./ l. 2 sub finem.

[59] e Herod. l. 6.

[60] f Herod. l. 6. c. 125, 126.

[61] a Strabo l. 8. p. 355.

[62] b Pausan. l. 6. c. 22

[63] c Pausan. l. 5. c. 9.

[64] Strabo

[65] a Plato in Minoe.

[66] b Thucyd. l. 1. p. 13.

[67] c Athen. l. 14. p. 625

[68] d Pausan. l. 5. c. 8.

[69] e Pausan. l. 6. c. 19.

[70] f Herod. l. 6. c. 52.

[71] Pausan. l. 15. c. 4

[72] Pausan. l. 5. c. 1, 3, 8. Strabo. Geogr. l. 8. p. 357.

[73] Pausan. l. 5. c. 4.

[74] Pausan. l. 5. c. 18.

[75] Thucyd. l. 6. initio. Euseb Chron

[76] Thucyd. ib.

[77] b Apud Dionys. l. 1. p. 15

[78] Dionys. l. 1. p. 15.

[79] Antiq. l. 8. c. 2, 5. & l. 9. c. 14.

[80] b Homer. l l. w.

[81] a Apollon. in Argonaut. l. 1. v. 101.

[82] b Plutarch in Theseo

[83] c Diodor. l. 1. p. 35

[84] d Ioseph. Antiq. c. 8. l. 4.

[85] a Euanthes apud Athenæum l. 67. p. 296.

[86] b Hygixus Fab. 14.

[87] Pausan. l. 2. c. 23.

[88] a Pausan. l. 2. c. 6

[89] b Hygin. Fab. 7 & 8

[90] c Homer 2λ. w.

[91] d Hygin. Fab 14.

[92] Isa. 23. 2

[93] 1 King. 5. 6.

[94] b Conor Namet. 37

[95] Nonnus Dionysiae. l. 13. v. 333 & seq. Bochart Canaan. l. 1. c. 24.

[96] d Athæn. l. 4. c. 23

[97] Strabo l. 16.

[98] 2 Chron. 21. 8, 10.

[99] b Herod. l. 1. initio.

[100] c Strabo. l. 10. p. 447. & l. 9. p. 401.

[101] d Herod. l. 5

[102] Strabo l.

[103] Bochart. Canaan l. 1. c. 34

[104] Philostratus in vita Apollonij l. 5. c. 1. & apud Photium.

[105] Homer Odys. 5. Diador. l. 5. p. 237.

[106] Diador. l.1 p.17.

[107] v Pausan. l. 2. c. 25

[108] a Pausan l. 5. c. 8 Pausan. l. 5. c. 1 p. 376. Apollodor l. 1. c. 7.

[109] Pausan. l. 7. c. 1

[110] Pausan. l. 1. c. 37. & l. 10. c. 29.

[111] Pausan. l. 7. c. 1

[112] a Hesych. in Κράναυς. Suidas in Πάρυς.

[113] b in I Alcib.

[114] c Pausan. l. 1. c. 2

[115] 2 Pausan. l. 8. c 4. Apollote. Argon. l. 1. v. 161.

[116] a Pausan. l. 1. c. 39, 40.

[117] a Pausan. l. 8. c. 4.

[118] b Pausan. l. 7. c. 18

[119] Bochart Canaan part. 2. cap. XIII.

[120] a Pausan. l. 1. c. 44.

[121] b Pausan l. 3. c. 20. p. 260 & l. 4. c. 1. p. 280.

[122] c Pausan. l. 1. c 8

[123] a Pausan. l. 2. c. 5, 6.

[124] b Herod. l. 2. Hygin. Fab. 7 & 8.

[125] a in Theses.

[126] b s λ. ν & ξ. Odys. λ & τ.

[127] c Herod. l. 1

[128] d Apollod. l. 3. c. 1 Hygin. Fab. 40, 41, 42. 178.

[129] Dionys. l. 1. p. 9, 10.

[130] a Herod. l. 5. c. 58.

[131] Strabo l. 10. p. 464, 465, 466.

[132] Clem. Strom. l. 1

[133] Pausan. l. 9. c. 11.

[134] Strabo l. 10. p. 472, 473. Diodor. l. 5. c. 4.

[135] Strabo l. 10. p. 468, 472. Diodor l. 5. c. 4.

[136] Lucian. de sacrificijs. Apollodos l. 1. c. 1. sect. 3 & c. 2. sect. 1.

[137] Athen. l. XIII p. 601

[138] Lucian de Dea Syr.

[139] Diodor. l. 5. c. 4.

[140] Argonaut. l. II. v. 1236.

[141] Lucian in Sacrificijs.

[142] Porphyr. in vita Pythag.

[143] Cic. de Nat. Deor. l. 3.

[144] Ode 1 in Iovem v. 8.

[145] Cypr. de Idolol|r|um vanitate

[146] Apologet. p. 12. et Ad Nationes l. 2.

[147] a Saturnal. l. 1. c. 7.

[148] Dionys. l. 1. p. 10

[149] Pausan. l. 5. c. 7, \13/ 14

[150] Pausan. l. 8. c. 29.

[151] Pausan. l. 5. c. 8, 14.

[152] steph. Herod. l. 2. c. 44.

[153] Cic. de Natura Deor. lib. 3.

[154] Diodor. l. 5. c. 3.

[155] Dionys. l. 1. p. {&} 38, 42.

[156] Lucian de Saltatione.

[157] Arnob. adv. Gentes l. 6. p. 131

[158] Herod l. 2. initio

[159] Hesiod. opera v. 168.

[160] Argonaut. l. 4. v. 1638 & Schol in eundem. Et Apollodor. l. 1. sed 26.

[161] a Apud Euseb. in Chron.

[162] b Ister apud Porphyr. Aost. l. 2. sect. 56.

[163] a Thucyd. l. 2 p. 110. & Plutarch in Theseo.

[164] b Strabo l. 9. p. 396.

[165] c Apud Strabone l. 9. p. 397.

[166] Pausan. in Corinthiacis.

[167] Strabo l. 8. p. 337.

[168] a Pausan. l. 8 sub initio

[169] b Plin. l. 7. c. 56.

[170] ✝ in Polymnia

[171] ✝ in Vrania

[172] Dionys. Halicarnas. l. 1. p. 11. lin 24.

[173] Dionys. l. 1. p. 9, 10.

[174] Dionys. l. 2 p. 70, 94

[175] a Diodor. l. 5 c. 1.

[176] Diodor. l. 3. c 4

[177] Herod. l. 1

[178] Diodor. lib. 5. c. 3 & 4.

[179] Diodor. l. 5. c. 1

[180] a Apud Diodor. l. 5. cap.

[181] b Dionys. l. 1. p. 15

[182] c Dionys. l. 1. p. 26, 27.

[183] d Dionys. ib.

[184] e Ptol. Hephæst. l. 2.

[185] f g Dionys. ib.

[186] Thucyd l. 6 initio

[187] ✝ Apud Dionys. Halycarnass lib. 1 initio.

[188] X {illeg} Apud Dionys. ib.

[189] a Apud Diodorum. l. 5. c.

[190] Diodor. l. 5. c. 4.

[191] b Ister apud Porphyr. Abst. l. 2. sec. 56.

[192] c Bochart. Canaan c. 15.

[193] a Apud Strabonem lib. 14. p. ult.

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