Chap. 1.
The original of Monarchies.

The whole earth was by the first inhabitants divided into many coordinate governments according to ye number of families. For when Moses had recconed up the posterity of Noah to ye fourth generation, he adds: These are the families of the sons of Noah after their generations in their nations & by these were ye nations divided after the flood.[1] Which is as much as to say, that as Noah divided the whole earth between his three sons & gave Europe to Iaphet Asia to Sem & Africa to Ham without making any one Lord of the others territories: so each of these divided his part between his sons & each of them their {sic} parts between theirs without making any one Lord of anothers inheritance till the whole earth was distributed into independant & coordinate nations tribes & families. For what Moses saith of the division of the whole earth among all the posterity of Noah, he saith of the division of the several parts among ye posterity of his severall sons {sic}. For when he had recconned up the children & grand-children of Iaphet he subjoyns: By these were the Isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands every one after his tongue after their families in their nations. And so of the rest. So then upon the first plantation of the earth there were no standing kingdoms. Every father was soveraign Lord of his own inheritance during his life & then ye son's became several soveraign Lords of their several shares & so on till the earth was planted wth innumerable scattered families not subject to any other Lords then their common fathers. For I here reccon every father with all his posterity to be one family & upon ye fathers death to break into so many families as he left sons surviving him. These families by encrease of people soon grew into towns & towns consisting of <93v> many families required ✝ < insertion from the left margin > that the fathers of families should assemble & consult together for ye common good of their families & agree upon such laws as should be common to them all & appoint a common Iudge to judge between family & family according to those laws. Thus the first towns became what we now call Cities each with its Court & Iudges & ye fathers of ffamilies became Elders of the City \& the towns which sprang up afterwards became villages of ye Cities from whence they sprang & in whose fields they were built./, & the Iudge by degrees enlarging his authority became |a| King thereof, & the City with its Villages became his Kingdom & such Kingdoms < text from f 93v resumes > a Court & Iudge to make laws & do common justice between them & thereby became a City & such Citys wth their villages either by consent |either by appointing a common captain of all their forces| or by conquering one another grew into kingdoms greater & greater \Kingdoms/ till they arrived to ye bigness they are now at. For in the first ages the Cities & kingdoms were so small & numerous that Abraham with 318 men beat four kings wth their armies when they had newly beaten five others |& Moses wth only 1200 men beat five Kings of Midian & Ioshua overcame 31 on yewest of Iordan besides the two great Kingdoms of Sihon King of Heshbon & Og ye King of Bashan on ye other side of the river, & some other kingdoms of the Canaanites wchhe left unconquered.| & Ioshua found above thirty kingdoms in that small country of Canaan, & in the twelft part thereof wch was Iudahs lot, there were 125 Cities besides villages.

So Egypt after the death of Menes or Misraim their first king common father of the Eygptians became divided into several kingdoms. Sr Iohn Marsham[2] has given catalogues of the kings of cities of Egypt, Thebes, This, Memphis & Heliopolis down from ye reign of Menes their first king for many ages These cities first became Lords of all the {illeg} \other cities/ of Eygpt & then the kingdom of Thebes swallowed up those of This and Memphis about the days of the Patriarch Iacob & thereby became the greatest kingdom in the world then known to ye Greeks, as I gather from Homer's celebrating Thebes above all other cities for riches & greatness & saying nothing of Nineveh & Babylon wch have since their empire been so famous.

In Syria the first kingdom of any considerable bigness was that of Damascus & that grew great after the days of king David. ffor in his days [3] Hadadezer was king of Soba a town & country between Iudea & Euphrates & was confederate wth Damascus & wth three other kings of Syria who served him & had wars with Toy king of Hamath or Epiphania another City of Syria. All these kingdoms were seated neare Iudea, \& so was besides the Kingdom of Tyre. And beyond these to ye in the \more/ northern part of Syria was the Kingdom of Arond/ In the further parts of Syria tis tis not to be doubted but that there were others.

In Asia minor the first kingdom of any great extent was the Lydian seated at Sardes, & that <94r> grew great only in the reign of the two last kings Alyatte & Croesus.

Greece also consisted of small polities till the reign Philip of Macedon conquered them, & those small polities were at first much smaller. Every City was a distinct & absolute polity (as even the word \Polity (derived from πολυς a City)/ {still} imports) untill divers cities for strengthening themselves combined to set up a common king over them to manage their affairs in time of {illeg} danger, & this king by steps got the government into his own hands. For this is plain by the history of the Cities of Attica thus set down by Thucydides.[4] Vnder Cecrops saith he, & the ancient kings untill Theseus, Attica aways {sic} κατὰ πολεις ὠκειτο, πρυτανεια τε ἔχουσα καὶ ἄρχοντας was inhabited town City by City having magistrates & prytanæa or Courts {illeg} \wherein/ ye sacred fire wch was kept. Neither did they consult the king when there was no fear of danger but each apart administred their own commonwealth & had their own Council. Yea some, as the Eleusinians wth Eumolpus against Eurichtheus {sic}, did sometimes make war. But when Theseus a prudent & potent man obteined the kingdom he took away the Councils & Magistrates of other cities & made them all meet in one Council & Prytanæum at Athens.

So also Italy consisted anciently of many small dominions & those arose out of smaller. ffor when Romulus founded Rome[5] the dominion of the Latines was but a small \part of Italy/ & yet consisted of 30 Courts or Councils in so many towns each wth the sacred fire in the kept in the Prytanaeum or Court for the {illeg} Senators who met there to perform sacred rites after the manner of the Greeks. whence the Senators were called curiales. But when Numa the successor of Romulus reigned, he leaving the several fires in their own courts instituted one common to them all at Rome.

Had we good accounts of the earliest ages of the more eastern nations I doubt not but we <94v> might find the same constitution of things there. For \all/ the Medes, \as Herodotus tells us,[6] / after they had been conquered by the Assyrians & recovered their liberty, lived for a while under their old laws without a king: & then by consent making Dejoces their king, he caused \required/ them to build him a city fit to reside in, that this being fortified & adorned, then might have no great care of the rest. Whereupon they built & walled Ecbatane. Their want of a regal City shews that they till now there was {illeg} no kingdom of any considerable bigness in all Media. So Gaule & Britain with \till/ Cæsar conquered ✝ < insertion from the right margin > ✝ them consisted of many little kingdoms, & so did America till the Spaniards & other Europeans invaded it. < text from f 94v resumes >

So then it was not without good ground that \Iustin out of/ Trogus gives this account of the original of Kingdoms. [7] Principio rerum, gentium nationumqꝫ imperium penes reges erat: quos ad fastigium hujus majestatis non ambitio popularis sed spectata inter bonos moderatio prohevebat. Populus nullis legibus tenebatur; arbitria Principum pro legibus erant: Fines imperij tueri magis quàm proferre nos erat : Intra suam cuiqꝫ patriam regna finiebantur. Primus omnium Ninus rex Assyriorum veterem & quasi avitum gentibus morem nova imperij cupiditate mutavit. Hic primus intulit bella finitimis.

To make this a little plainer, its to be considered that the name of kings was {sic} at first given to the fathers of families, & that of kingdoms to their families. For the four first ages so much celebrated by antiquity are the ages of the four first generations of kings. Saturn reigned \was King/ in ye golden age, & Iupiter in the silver one, & his sons and grand-sons in those of brass and iron \thô each reigned over nothing more then his ffamily. For/. This Theology was Egyptian & therefore Iupiter here in Iupiter Hammon or Ham: & by consequence S his father Saturn is Noah. He reigned in the first age till the division of the earth between his sons. Then reigned Iupiter Hammon in his own lot till the division thereof between his sons. Then in the third age reigned Osiris & Isis wth their several brethren in their several lots till Chus not content wth his own inheritance invaded the inheritance of the posterity of Sem & {placed} planted his sons (as Bochartus has shewn)[8] in several regions round about the Persian gulf, from the furthest part of Arabia felix to the furthest part of Carmania. And with this <95r> war & the reign of the sons of Chus in their several territories began the iron age. Nimrod was at this time planted by his father in ye land of Shinar, & there saith Moses was the beginning of his kingdom: but not content with this country he went out thence into Assyria & planted that land wth his posterity, placing them in several seats wch at length grew into \great/ citites. Whence Assyria is called the land of Nimrod. Micah.5.6. And Noah divided his kingdom between his sons & Ham his kingdom between his sons & Chus his kingdom between his sons so doubtless the sons of Chus (Nimrod as well as the rest) according to the law received from their fathers divided their several kingdoms among their sons & so on untill untill families for want of room to spread into grew into, grew into towns, & the competition between several families in the same town altered the law of dividing the inheritance equally between all the sons & brought in the custome of giving all to ye eldest son for preserving the family in its power & authority. So then Nimrod or Ninus left no standing kingdom. Assyria like all other countries became divided among many families & every family was a town & a kingdom & every father a king. [But when \a/ town {sic} began to hold many families, the fathers made a Council & became elders of the City and the Moderator or Iudge whom they appointed to do justice among them all became supplied the office of a common father or king & the towns wch came up afterwards became villages of the city. And from this small beginning kingdoms have ever since (whether by compact or war) grown greater & greater & governments more & more compound.] For Resen wch Nimrod built in Assyria neare Nineve \is by/ Moses called a great city & no doubt its greatness (like that of all other ancient \great inland/ Cities) arose from its \proper/ dominion distinct from that of Nineve in the first ages, distinct from that of Nineve & ye other greater \great/ Cities of Assyria till Nineve {sic} subdued it & wth the rest of Assyria.


Its true that Nimrod|s| is said to reigned over a kingdō of divers Cities \kingdom was composed of {illeg} more cities then one./ But Bochartus has shewn that ye sons of Chus were planted \in several regions/ round about ye Persian gulf from ye furthest part of Arabia felix to ye furthest part of Carminia & therefore Chus with his family left leaving \the parts of/ Eygpt where they first dwelt wth their father Cham, went into Babylonia & Chaldea made war wth went into ye region of Chaldea & ye Persian gulf & expelling \subduing & perhaps/ ye former ye inhabitants divided those regions seated themselves there, And as Chus divided those \his conquered/ regions \his new territories/ amongst his sons according to ye custome of yt {illeg} age so the father dividding his new territories among all his sons according to ye law of those times & the lot of Nimrod falling in Chaldea. ffor there was ye beginning of his kingdom tho he went out whence into Now as ye Assyrians \before he went into Assyria/ And as Chus \thus/ divided his territor conquests new con we territories amongst all his sons so it is to be presumed that his sons \& grandsons/ & divided \(Nimrod as well as ye rest) divided/ theirs among their children according to ye same law, & therefore left no standing kingdoms till kingdoms became {sic} as small in those regions as in other parts of the world. [ffor we have no other evidence of a standing Monarchy of Assyria if we pass by ye fabulous writings of Ctesias & other his followers, we meet wth no mention of ye Assyrian monarchy before ye days \reign/ of Phul. Herodotus makes ye whole duration of this {sic} Monarchy till it was subverted by the Medes to be but 500 years. Ianus describes Nineve a great city in his days And so long perhaps ye city might flourish: but ye dominion therof continued not in its greatness] ffor I shew els where that ye \famous/ Assyrian monarchy was of a much grew up long after these times \by conquest out of many small kingdoms long after/ these first ages.

Its true that Nimrod built & reigned over divers cities but its {illeg} it may be presummed that Nimrod built \he left/ those cities \built them/ for his children & left them to every one his inheritance. ffor Bochartus – – –

<96r> < insertion from f 96v >

Ægypt upon several occasions has been called by several names ffor \When/ the Ethiopians {sic} reigned over the Egyptians it was recconed a part of Ethiopia & accordingly \{illeg} invaded it & made it a a part off of their kingdom it was/ called Ethiopia. From the city Abaris or Avaris wch was the Metropolis of the Sheepherds it was called Aeria \by the Phoenicians./ {illeg} When it was under the kings \dominion/ of Thebes \it was/ called \the/ Ammon No by the Hebrews No Ammon & Ammon No, that is the people of Ham \or Cham/, it was called the land of Ham \& by/ \& Chemia by the inhabitants Chemia/ & the Coptites still call it Chemi. Bochart. p. 8 {illeg} When it was under the dominion of Thebes it was called \by ye Greeks/ Thebes. \{illeg} [Herodotus:[9] / Πάλαι ἁι Θηβαι Αἴγυπτος ἐκαλέετο.] Thebes was called by the Hebrews No Ammon & Ammon No that is the people of Ham & thence Egypt was called u] {illeg} by the Hebrews the land of Ham or Cham & by the Egyptians Chamia or Chemia & to this day the Coptites call it Chemi. /Bochart. p. 8.\ Herodotus Πάλαι ἁι Θηβαι Αἴγυπτος ἐκαλέετο . Thebes by the {illeg} Hebrews |For Herodotus tells us Πάλαι {illeg} ἁι Θηβαι Αἴγυπτος ἐκαλέετο, & For the Hebrew name of Thebes| was called Hammon No & No Ammon that is the people \(Diospolis) the city {illeg}/ of {illeg} \Ham/ /Ham.\ Whence the Greeks formed the name Diospolis that is the city of Iupiter Ham {illeg} Hammon or Ham. In Thebais was t neare Thebes was the city Coptus {illeg} the metropolis of a Nomus or Province \Government/ And from the Coptites we have now give \by some \ancient/ domain now forgotten/ \have given/ their name to the Thebans & {illeg} by them to all the Egyptians, And \&/ to this day \they & the {illeg} \neighbouring/ Arabians/ call Egypt Caphti or Cuphti, whence the Greeks have formed ἀια Cupti. {illeg} AEgypt s

By the Dynasties of Manetho

< text from f 96r resumes >

By the Dynasties of Manetho it seems \appears/ that Thebes on ye east side of the Nile & This on the west side thereof over against Thebes & {sic} Memphis \on ye west side of Nile above the Delta/ neare the Pyramids & Heracleopolis & Bubastis in the lower Egypt, have been anciently the seats of kings of Egypt, but when those kings reigned, how large their kingdoms were & how many contemporary kingdoms were in Egypt when they reigned is very uncertain. To these royal Cities Sr Iohn Marsham adds Heliopolis. To the Sr Iohn Marshal divide Thebes between into two kingdoms under Some add \all/ their years together whereby Egypt is made older then the flood. Other reccon \them/ contemporary kingdoms as old as the days of Misraim. But I had rather believe them \of a/ later date & not so large as they are usually recconed there being more contemporary kingdoms in Egypt in the first ages then we have any account of . of now remaining. ffor its probable that since \ffor its probable that/ \ffor since/ the Coptites hav gave their name to all the Egyptians its probable that Coptus was anciently a royal city. In the And in the days of Iacob & Mosesthe seat of the king of Egypt {illeg} went upon {illeg} ye {illeg}eastern next Syria was Ramesses a city upon ye eastern stream of Nile next Abaris \Rameses was a kingdom another kingdom a {illeg} upon the seat of the east stream of ye Nile neare Palisyan |seems to be the seat of the kingdome where was the seat of another kingdom.|/ ffor when the field of \the Israelites were in servitude the/ land of Goshen \where the Israelites dwelt/ was in {illeg} ye way from Syria to Pharao's Court \not far from the court/ Gen 46.28, 29. in the field land of Ramesses not far from the \Royal/ City Gen {sic}. 47.11, {illeg} the banks of the Nile Exod. 2.5. between \& adjoining to the city Ramesses. Exod. 1.11 & therefore the cities/ the Pithom & {illeg} Ramses \under the Government of that City./ adjacent to the cities \{Pithom} or Palusium &/ Ramesses {or Pithom} & by consequence \& that was/ between them, Exod. 1.11. ffor Pithom is Palusium at ye entrance of Egypt & Rameses is (the capital & bordering upon the Nile & adjacent to the {held} city Rameses & the court was upon the Nile Ex banks of the Nile Exod. 2.5 & bordered upon the land of Goshen \Ramesses/ so \so neare the land of Goshen/ that Ioseph went thither from it the second man in Egyp Pharoah the same night that his the first born were smitten \Ioseph went thither \thither/ from court to meet his brethren \in Goshen/ & when ye first born were smitten at midnight Pharoah could send away/ could send away the Is children of Israel before morning, & therefore & \when/ the Israelites went out of Egypt they journied from Rameses to Succoth, that is from the city Rameses \which they had first built/. Exod. 12.37 & Num 33.3. ffor The {sic} land of Goshen was in the territory of this city Exod. 1.11 \Gen 47.11./ And this city was a city of treasure that is a fortified city Exod 1.11 & the land of Goshen where Israel dwelt was in the territory of this city (Gent 47.11 & in the way from Syria to Pharaoh's court Gen 46.28, 29 which was seated upon the banks of the river Nile. Exod. 2.5 so neare \bordering upon/ the land of Goshen \or so near it/ that Ioseph went thence to meet his father in Goshen & when the first born were slain at midnight Pharaoh could send away the children of Israel before morning \the same night/ Exod. 12.29, 31 & the children of Israel went that \in the/ morning from Rameses \to Succoth/ that is from the city which they had built \& where Pharoh was/. Exod 12.29, 31, 37 & Num 33.2


The middlemost tract is Thebais called in scripture the land of Pathmos & the lowermost is Ægyptus inferior \more {illeg} commonly called Eygpt. Symbol (cross with 3 uprights) in text/ < insertion from f 97r > Symbol (cross with 3 uprights) in text In the middle of this land region is the City Memphys or Moph upon the western banks of the Nile {illeg} against the neare the Pyramids, & a little below this city the Nile divides it self into two streams comprehending a spacious \triangular/ region called Raab by the Hebrews Rib & Rif by the natives & Delta by the Greeks: & this region with the land on either side is usually called the lower Egypt. # |# In Thebais were 10 Nomi or counties |  provinces, in the lower Egypt \Delta/ 10 & in the middle 16 region 16 [according to Strabo. l. 17 init.]| The eastern stream \{illeg}/ called the Bubastic river is 146 miles long & flows into the sea at ye Pelusiotic mouth of ye Nile, the western stream flows 256 miles & goes into ye sea at the Canobic mouth of ye river. These two mouths are 170 miles asunder. Between them flows ffrom the Canobic river \neare the division of the Nile/ flows the Thermuthiac river northward through the midle of the Delta by into the sea by the Sebennitic streams \/ |‡ These three streames are the biggest. Between the Canotic & Sebennitic Ostia is the Bellitic ostium and by the \made by art/ on the other side the Sebennitic is \first/ the Bucolic or Phatnic ostium {illeg} beyond them the Busiritic river running to the {illeg} Bucolic or Phatnic ostiū & then these two {illeg} Ostia (the Bulbitic & Bucolic were made by art {another} also made art.| ffrom the Bubastic \& between them in the Balbitic ostiū/ flows \{illeg}/ the Athribitic by the city Athrebis \to the/ & then the Busiritic by \to/ the Pathmetic ostium Between the Bubastic & Businitic & Bubastic ostia \were are ye Mendesian & Tanitic ostia {sic} &/ {illeg} \{illeg}/ the city Tanis & the Tanates flows {illeg} \or Zoan built seven years before Hebron where/ Abraham {illeg} sojourned (Num 13 22) & |ye| Tanaites nomus or field of Zoan where Moses did marvelous things Psal 78.12 & At the entrance of Egypt in the way from Syria is Pelusium distant about 3 miles for ye sea This city was Pithom called also Abaris, Sethron & Sin by the Greeks Pelusuim. & {illeg} over against P Pithom in the eastern bank of the {illeg} Pelusiotic mouth of Nile was Pharoahs court & the city Rameses & Pharoahs court in the days of Moses & between Pelusium & the court was the land of Goshen where Israel were in bondage.

For Pithom & Rameses - - - < text from f 96v resumes > the lower Egypt |&| therein the Islands \all the region of Islands/ compassed by the mouths of Nile are called the Delta & in hebrew Raab a peare because {illeg} it resemble {sic} the figure of that letter Δ & \that/ of a peare. And the large Island between the two eastern streams is the feild of Tanis and Zoan & between the eastern stream & the city Pelusium lay the land of Goshen in the province of Rameses {sic}. & upon the \length of the/ eastern stream of the Nile over against Pelusium {illeg} was the city Rameses where Pharaohs \court was/ in the time of Iacob & Ioseph & Moses kept his court. For this city was            & Num 33.2. The Israelites were imployed in building Pitho treasure cities Pithom \that is Abaris or Pelusium/ & Rameses treasure cities for Pharoah that is in Pithom & Abaris or Pelusium. For Pithon (that is Aba Pelusium) & Rameses were treasure cities of treasure (that is fortified cities) wch the children of Israel built for Pharoah \& therefo/ Exod. 1.11. & {illeg} & therefore were seated in or neare the land of Goshen Exod. 1.11 & where Israel dwelt Exod 1.11 & had land \land of Goshen/ where Israel dwelt was in the \territory or/ province of Rameses territory or province of Remeses Gen. 47.11 \bordering upon adjoining to upon the river (Exod. 1.22 & 2.3.)/ & in the way from Syria to Paraohs {sic} court Gen 46.28, 29. wch \This way lay by Pelasium & Pharaohs/ court was seated upon the banks of the river Nile Exod 2.5 & 7.15, 20 & 8.20 & therefore \in the/ border {sic} upon of the land of Goshen or was so neare it that Ioseph (the second man in Egypt) \upon notice given by Abraham him by Iudah/ went from thence to meet his father in Goshen \Gen 46.28, 29/ & when the first born were slain at midnight Pharaoh was able to \could/ \sent {sic} for Moses & Aaron the & by their hand/ sent {sic} away the children of Israel the same night & they \could/ prepare {sic} for their journey & borrowed {sic} Iewels & rayment {illeg} of the Eygptians the same night & in the {nex} morning \under the conduct of Moses & Aaron began/ began their journey from Rameses under the conduct of Moses and Aaron \the city which they were/ building. Exod 12.29, 31, 37, & Num 33.2.


Chap: II. —
Of the Kingdome of Egypt.

The first great kingdom in the world on this side the Indies seems to have been that of Eygpt. ffor a[10] Pliny in recconing up the first inventors of things ascribes to the Egyptians the invention of a royal City, & to the inhabitants of Attica that of a popular one. Which is as much as to say that Athens was by the Greeks accounted the first city in the world under wch other cities – united into a popular dominion by a common Council, & the Eygptian Thebes the first city wch became the seat of a kingdom. For Thebes was famous in Homers days when the four Monarachies & their head cities were not yet talked of. For, saith b[11] Strabo Homer knew nothing of the Empire of the Medes & Assyrians, otherwise c[12] naming the Eygptian Thebes & her riches & those of the Phoenicians, he would not have passed over in silence the riches of Babylon Nineveh & Ecbatane.

Egypt is a long & narrow tract running north & south on both sides the river Nile between two mountains. The south end of this region \wth the spacious country beyond it/ was called Ethiopia & the people Ethiopians. The middlemost tract was Thebais called in scripture the land of Pathros & the lowest northern part was Mizraim. In Thebais between the Nile & the red Sea, not far from Thebes was Coptus the city Coptus,[13] wch \{illeg}/ {simply} \whence its probable/ that the Coptites were originally a people of the upper Eygpt \Thebais./ but in time \they/ gave their name to all the Egyptians: For thence the Greeks \seem to have/ called their country \whence comes/ {illeg} Coptus Ægyptus, & yet Egypt is most {illeg} usually taken {it} hence comes αια Copti, Ægyptus |and thence the Greeks formed Ægyptus {illeg} ἀια Copti, the land of the Coptites Ægyptus. It's probably {sic} that ye Coptites founded Thebes & thereby spread their name wth their dominion| Sr Iohn Marsham reccons that Thebais was anciently divided into two kingdomes the one on the east side of the Nile under the head city Thebes, the other on the west side under the head city This, & that Misraim or the lower Egypt \below Thebais/ was also anciently divided into two kingdoms, the lower upon the seven streams of Nile & the <97r> upper between that & Thebais; both which were called Misraim in the dual {illeg} number \to signify that they were two./ And out of these four kingdomes & perhaps some others at length arose the Monarchy of Egypt. But how those kingdoms \at first/ arose out of smaller ones is hard to relate by reason of the great antiquity of the kingdoms. Yet some footsteps there are of their first original.

T On the western bounds of Egypt about 180 miles above Pelusiū was {On} the city On or Heliopolis. The way between them was through a desert through \over/ wch there was an open access \{from}/ fro into Egypt till Sesostris fenced Eygpt on that side wth a great ditch {illeg} \of water/ carried from {illeg} Pelusuim to Helipolis. The Kingdom of Pharoah in the days of Ioseph & Moses comprehended Pelusuim & Heliopolis \the countries of the territories of/ Pithom & On & the \other/ regions \{illeg}/ between them & the {main} River \Nile/ & the land of Zoan on the other side the {illeg} Pelusiotic mouth of the river Whether it extended whether it extended \any/ further is \not/ certain {sic}. \How much further it extended is uncertain/ Ioseph's going throughout all the land of Egypt, \(Gen 41.45, 46)/ & I Israel's being scattered in \two days time/ throughout all the land of Eygpt \in two days time/ to gather stubble in stead of straw (Exod. 5.12, 14) shews that this kingdom in those ages was but of small extent. {illeg} It is called Mizraim, {illeg} that is the two Egyp lands \or two cities/ of Misor meaning perhaps the two lands on both sides the Eastern branch of the Nile. But \but what those lands or cities were is uncertain {illeg} being not in history./ The word Mizraim {illeg} \was afterwards was afterwards/ used to signify all Egypt below Thebais, & the Turks still call it Missir.


Chap. III.
The Monarchy of Egypt.

Egypt called in scripture Misor, Misraim {sic} & ye land of Ham is a long & broad valley - - - - Tropic of Cancer, that is in ye north Latitude of 2312 degrees.

One of the first great kingdomes in the world was that of Eygpt. For Pliny in recconing - - - - the riches of Babylon Nineveh & Ecbatane.

Iosephus tells us out of Manetho that after the shepherds went out of Egypt to Ierusalem, Tethmosis who expelled them reigned 25 years & 4 months & then was succeeded by his son Chebron after whom reigned Amenophis. And after another king or two he names Mephramuthosis, Thmosis & Amenophis as reigning in order, & after some other kings wch seem to be placed out of order as Orus & Armais or Danaus, he names Armesses Miamun & his son & successor Amenophis & his son & sucessor Sethosis the brother of Armais or Danaus. The same Kings are recited out of Manetho by Africanus & Iosephus Eusebius wth a little variation of the name as follows

IosephusAfricanusEusebius in GreekIeroms version of Eusebius in Latin
2Tethmosis {sic}Amos or AmosisAmosis or TethmosisAmosis
1MephramuthosisMisphragmuthosisMisphragmuthosis.Misphragmuthosis & Mispharmutosis {sic}
2ThmosisTeuthmosis {sic}TuthmosisTuthmosis & Thomosis
2ArmessesRammesesAmmeses {sic} & Rameses {sic}Remesses
4AmenophisAmmenophAmenophis & Menophis.Menophes

The first king Tethmosis or Amosis who expelled the shepherds is plainly the same wth Thmosis or Thuthmosis whose {sic} successor of \Predecessor/ Misphragmuthosis who shut them up in Abaris & therefore the first & second Amenophis is one & ye who succeeded them is one & ye same Amenophis, & I take the third Amenophis to be still the same & his predecessor Armesses Rammeses or Ammeses to be the same wth the \their/ first king \Predecessors./ Amosis \Thomosis/ or Tethmosis. the predecessors of the first \& second/ Amenophis Africanus recites also \further/ out of ye 11th & 12th Dynasties of Manetho these \four/ kings as reigning in order, Ammenemes, Gesongoses the son of Ammenemes, Ammanemes & Sesostris whereas \& of these/ the first & second <98v> seem to be the same kings wth the third & fourth, Gesongoses \(whom Eusebius calls Sesonchosis)/ being corruptly written for Sesonchosis {illeg} or Sesak {sic}. By all wch its plain to me that Man it was frequent wth Manetho to repeat the same kings several times. And by comparing all these successions of kings together they seem to me to be but several repetitions of the same race of Kings succeeding in this order. 1 Mephramuthosis, Mispharmuthosis or Misphragmuthosis. 2 Chebron or Chebros Tethmosis, Thmosis, If \2/ Tethmosis, Thmosis, Thomosis, Amosis, Ammeses, Armesses, Rammeses, Rameses, Remesses. 3 Chebron or Chebros if he be rightly inserted. 4 Amenophis, Amenophthis, Menophis, \Ammenoph/ Ammenemes, Ammon. 5 Sethos, Sethosis, Gesongoses, Sesonchosis, Sesostris.

Herodotus is giving an account of ye ancient state of Egypt — — — — — Apries, Amasis, Psammenitus. To these Kings I would prefix

Considering that Amosis besieged ye Shepherds after his father Misphragmuthosis had shut them up in Abaris: its probable that this siege was in the beginning of the reign of Amosis so that Amosis might reign many years after the expulsion of the Shepherds & so be contenporary to Saul & some part of the reign of David ffor I reccon that he expelled ye Shepherds after ye 20th year of Samuel when Samuel by one single victory over the Philistines restored peace liberty & \a long/ peace to Israel 1 Sam. \7./13, 14 & before ye 2d year of Saul when the Israelites were again in bondage & the Philistines wth a very numerous army made a new vehement & lasting war upon Saul & David & could not be subduded any more till they had been beaten in many battels 1. Sam 13.{illeg}. According to Manetho he reigns after ye expulsion of ye Shepherds 25 years 4 months & Chebron 13 years & accord by this recconing the reign of Amenophis will begin about ye 24th year of David & that of his son Sethosis will be coincident with the reign of Sesak.

We are told in Scripture that Sesak came out of Egypt wth 1200 chariots – – — — — answers to that of Sesak in scripture. Well therefore doth Iosephus affirm[14] that Herodotus ascribes {sic} the \to Sesostris ye invasion & conquest of Iudea & other/ actions of Sesak & Sesostris \& particularly his invasion & conquest of Iudea/ erring only in the name of the King.

Herodotus in giving an Account of ye ancient state of Egypt — — — — — Apries, Amasis, Psammenitus. To these Kings I would prefix Ammon the Father of S

Diodorus tells us[15] that the father of Sesostris gathered together <99r> out of all Eygpt the male children who were born the same day wth Sesostris & placed them with nurses & governours & prescribed to them all the same form of education & discipline being perswaded that they who were so brought up with his son would be most faithfull & usefull to him in his warrs. These children he brought up wth exercises of dayly labours commanding that none of them should eat till he had run 180 stadia. By wch means they became endued with strong & active bodies & great aspiring minds. Hence I gather that the father of Sesostris was king of Egypt before Sesostris or Sesak was born, that is before the reign & by consequence he was that Pharaoh king of Egypt who married his daughter to Solomon & took Gezer from the Canaanites & gave it to his daughter for a present. ffor Sesak as we shall shew hereafter was of about the same age with Solomon's \young/ spouse & her little sister who had no breasts being a child by reason of her childhood had no breasts.

Sesostris being thus brought up was sent by his father with an army into that Arabia wch lies between Egypt & ye Red Sea & being accompanied with those his companions who were brought up wth him they overcame the want of water & food & conquered all that nation wch till then had been unconquered. Then being sent towards ye west he overcame a great part of Afric though but yet a youth. By the first of these conquests the Troglodytes & by the latter the Libyans of Marmorica & Cyrene came under the dominion of Egypt. And this seems to have given occasion to the trafic of Solomon into Egypt for horses. ffor Egypt was supplied wth horses from Cyrene, a country famous for breeding a multitude of good horses.


[16] Chap. 1 \The Introduction./
Of the Chronology of the first ages

All nations at first \before ye just length of the Solar year was known/ recconed months by the course of the Moon & years by the returns of winter & summer spring & autum (Gen. 1.14 \& 8.22/.)[17] And in making Kalendars for their festivals they recconed 30 days to a Lunar month & twelve Lunar months to a year \taking the nearest round numbers./. Whence came the division of the Elliptic {sic} into 360 degress. So in the time of Noahs flood when the Moon could not be seen Moses \Noah/ recconed 30 days to a month. But if the \new/ Moon appeared upon the 30th day, that day was recconed both for the last day of the preceding month & the first day of the following. \before the end of the month they ✝[18] began the next month with the first day of her appearance. To the Calendar of this year Cleobulus one of ye seven wise men alluded in his Parable of one father who had 12 sons, each of wch had 30 daughters half white & half black./ Thales called the last day of the \Lunar/ month the 30th, & Solon called it ἕνην καὶ νέαν the old & the new. |And if the Moon appeard upon ye 29th day the ✝[19] accounted that ye 1st day of the next Month or the last day of the old month & the first day of the new.| And if twelve months were found too short for the return of the seasons of the year they added a thirteenth. < insertion from f 100v > [20] This the ancient Greeks did every other year wch made their {sic} Dieteris of the & because this recconing made the year too long by a month in eight years they omitted the inter {the in} an intercalary month once in eight years, which made their Octaeteris, with the Tetraeteris alternately wanting an intercalary month. And this state of the Luni-solar year continued in use till the days of Herodotus. ffor he in counting the length of 70 years he reccons 30 days to ye month, 12 months to ye ordinary year & 25 months to ye Dieteris. And these periods seem to have been as old as the religions of Greece being used in divers of their sacra The Octaeteris was the Annus magnus of Cadmus & Minos, & seems to have been brought into Greece {illeg} & Crete by the Phenicians who came with Cadmus & Europa, & to have continued till after the days of Herodotus. For in counting the length of 70 years he reccons 30 days to a Lunar month & 12 such months \or 360 days/ to the ordinary year \without the intercalary months/ & 25 such months to ye Dieteris. And according to the number of days in the Calendar year of the Greeks Demetrius Phalareus had 360 statues erected to him by the Athenians. But the Greeks \(Cleostratus, Harpalus & others, to make their months agree better wth the course of the Moon/ in the days of ye Persian Empire varied the manner of intercaling the three months in the Octaeteris \inserting a month in the third 5t & 8th year/ & Meton found out ye cycle of intercaling seven[21] months in 19 years. ‖The ancient year of the Egyptians was also Lunisolar, & continued to be so till the days of Hyperion or Osyris a king of Egypt the father of Helius & Selene or Orus & Bubaste. for the Israelites brought their this year out of Egypt, & Diodorus tells us that Vranus the father of Hyperion used this year, & that in the Temple of Osiris the Priests appointed thereunto filled 360 milk bowls every day; I think he means one bowle every day, in all 360, to count the number of days in the Calendar year, & thereby to find the difference between this & the true solar year. For this was the year to ye end of wch they added five days. That ye Israelites used a year of 36 the Lunisolar year is beyond question. Their months began wth their new moons; their first month was called Abib from the earing of corn in that month; their Passover was kept upon the 14th day of the first month the Moon being then in the full & the first fruits of the corn were offered in that ffestival & the harvest got in before the Pentecost, & the other fruits gathered before the ffeast of the seventh month. David had \only/ 12 courses of Guards for the 12 months of the year, but its to be understood that when a thirteenth month was added to the year, the course wch was to serve upon the first month of the next year, served upon the intercaly month & the next course served upon the first month of the next year, & so on perpetually.[22] ‖ Simplicius in his Commentary on the 5t of Aristotels Acroasis Physical Acroasis, tells us that some begin the year[23] <101v> upon the summer solstice as the people of Attica, or upon the autumnal Equinox as the people of Asia, or in winter as the Romans, or about the vernal Equinox as the Arabians & people of Damascus: & the month [24] began (according to some) upon the full Moon or upon the new. The years of all these nations therefore were Lunisolar & kept to the four seasons. The ancient civil year of the Assyrians & Babylonians was also Lunisolar ffor this year was used by the Samaritans who came from several parts of the Assyrian Empire, & the Iews who came from Babylon called the months of their Lunisolar year after the names of the months of the Babylonian year. And Berosus tells us that the Babylonians celebrated the ffeast of Sacæa upon the 16th day of the month Lous wch was a Lunar month of the Macedonians & kept to \one &/ ye same season of the year. And the Arabians \a nation/ who peopled Babylon use Lunar months to this day. And Suidas tells us that the Sarus of the Chaldeans conteins 222 Lunar months wch are 18 years & four \six/ months that {illeg} is of 18 ordinary years consisting each of 12 Lunar months \or 366 days/ besides six intercalary months. Whence it seems to me that the Chaldeans intercaled a month every third year for 18 years together, & the next year \at the end of every Sarus/ correctd the recconing by the course of the Moon.|And when Cyrus cut the river Gindus into {illeg} 300 channels he seems to have alluded unto the {illeg} number of days in the Calendar year of[25] the Medes & Persians.|

At length the Egyptians for the sake of Navigation, applyed themselves to observe the starrs, & by their heliacal risings & settings found the true \solar/ year to be five days longer then the Calendar year & thereupon added five days to the twelve equal Calendar months, making the Solar year to consist of twelve months & five days. Strabo \& Diodorus/[26] ascribed this invention to the Egyptians of Thebes. The Theban Priests, saith he \Strabo/, are above others said to be Astronomers & Philosophers. They invented the recconing of Days not by the course of the Moon but by the course of the Sun. To twelve months each of 30 days they add yearly five days. In In memory of this emendation of the year they dedicated the five additional days to Osiris, Isis, Orus senior \Typhon/ Nephthe the wife of Typhon,[27] feigning that those days were added to the year when these five Princes were born.[28] And in the sepulchre of Amenophis who reigned soon after they placed a circle of 365 cubits in compass, covered on the upper side with a plate of gold & divided it into 365 equal parts to represent all the days of {sic} of in the year & noted upon each part the heliacal risings & settings of the starrs on that day: wch circle remained there till the days of Cambyses. In the days \reign/ of Vranus the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helius & Selene the Thebans applyed themselves to navigation & Astronomy & by the heliacal risings of the stars determined the length of the solar year. And in the reign of Amenophis when by further Observations they had sufficiently determined the time of the summer solstice, they might place the beginning of this new year upon the Vernal Equinox. And this year being propagated into Chaldæa gave occasion the Æra of Nabonassar. ffor the years of Nabonassar & those of Egypt began on one & the same day & were in all respects the same. And the first year of Nabonassar began on the 26th day of February seven hundred forty & seven years before the vulgar Æra.[29] < text from f 100r resumes > This the Greeks did every other year till the days of Herodotus a[30] every other year except once in eight years, wch made the Octaeteris of Herodotus or Annus magnus of the Ancients. And |the Dieteris & the Octaetereris {sic} of the ancient Greeks, wth the Tetraeteris alternately omit an interval ab{illeg} between them. Which periods seem to be as ancient as ye religion of Greece being used in divers of their {illeg}| The {sic} Octaeteris was the {sic} use among the Greeks from the days of Minos. |Annus magnus of Cadmus & Minos & seems to have been brought into Greece & Crete by the Phenicians who came {illeg} Cadmus & E{uro}pa. According {illeg} the number of d{illeg} in ye Calendar ge{illeg} the Greeks, Dem{illeg} Philareus had {illeg} \statues/ erected to him {illeg} Athenians.| \magnus of Cadmus & Minos being their annus magnus & seems to have been brought/ < insertion from f 100v > The ancient year of the Egyptians was also Lunisolar, & continued to be so till ye days of Hyperion or Osyris a king of Egypt the father of Helius & Selene or Orus & Bubaste. For the Israelites brought this year out of Egypt & Diodorus tells us that Vranus the father of Hyperion used this year & that In the Temple of Osyris the Priests filled appointed thereunto filled 360 milk bowls every day that is one bowl every day, the number anwering to the number of days in the Calendar year | I think he means one bowle every day, in all 360, to count the number of days in the Calendar year, & thereby find out the difference between this & the Solar year.| The ancient \civil/ year of the Assyrians |&| Babylonians was also Luni-solar. ffor the {illeg} \this was/ Samaritans brought this year wth them from Assyria & the Iews from Babylon, callin ffor this year was used by the Samaritans who came from \several parts of the Kingdom of/ Assyrian /Empire\ & the Iews who came from Babylon called their Lunar the months of their Luni-solar year after the names of the months of the Babylonian year. And [31] Berosus tells us that the Babylonians celebrated the feast {Sarcas} Sacea upon the 16th day of the month Lous wch was a civil Lunar month. And the Arabians who peopled Babylon use Lunar months to this day. < text from f 100r resumes > The ancient year of ye Egyptians was \also/ Lunisolar because \for/ the {sic} Israelites brought this year out of Egypt \& Diodorus tells us that Hyperion an ancient of Egypt used this year./. That of Babylonia was also Lunisolar because the \Samaritans brought this year out of Assyria & the/ Iews applied the names of the Babylonians months to the mo Lunar months of their own years. Berosus a[32] wrote that upon the 16th day of the month Lous which was a Lunar month the Babylonians celebrated the feast Sacea, continuing it five days together. This was the civil year of the Babylonians. And the ancient year of the Romans was also Lunisolar.

At length the Eygptians for the sake of Navigation applyed {sic} themselves to observe the stars & \by/ theire heliacal risings & settings found the \true/ solar year to be five days longer then the Calendar year & thereupon added five days to ye twelve {sic} equal {sic} Calendar months, making the year to consist of {illeg} \twelve months & five/ days \making the year to consist of twelve months & five days/ And in memory thereof they |dedicated the five days to Osiris Isis {illeg} Orus Typhon & Nepthe {sic} the wife of Typhon & placed| placed {sic} in the Sepulchre of Amenophis a circle of 365 cubits {illeg} in compass \guilded expen/ plated \guilded/ over \plated {sic} on the upper side/ wth gold, & divided into 365 equal parts to represent all the days in the year, & noted upon each part the heliacal risings & settings of the stars on that day, wch circle remained till the days of Cambyses. And this year being propagated into Chaldea gave occasion to the Æra of Nabonassar. ffor the {illeg} years of the Nabobonassar {sic} \& those of Egypt/ began on one & the same day & were in all respects the same. Now the first year of Nabonassar began on the 26th day <101r> of February seven hundred & forty & seven years before the vulgar Æra, & thirty & three days & five hours before the vernal Equinox according to ye Suns mean motion. ffor it is not likely that the Suns[33] Equation of the suns motion should be known in the infancy of Astronomy. Now recconing that the year of 365 days wants 5 hours 49′ of the Equinoctial year the beginning of this year will move backwards 33 days & five hours in 137 years & by consequence this year began \first in Egypt/ upon the vernal equinox according to the suns mean motion 137 years before the Æra of Nabonassar began, that is, in the year of ye Iulian Period 3830 or 98 years after the death of Solomon. And if it began upon the day net next after the Vernal Equinox it might begin three or four years earlier. This year the Persian \Empire/ received from the Babylonian, & the Greeks also used it in the Æra Philippæa dated from the death of Alexander, & Iulius Cæsar corrected it by adding a day in every four years & made it the year of the Romans

[34] The first month of the Lunisolar year began sometimes a week or fortnight before the Equinox & sometimes as much after it. And this gave occasion to the first Astronomers who formed the Asterisms to place the Equinox & Solstices in the middle of the Constellations of Aries Cancer Chelæ & Capricorn. Achilles Tatius tells us that some anciently placed the Solstice in the beginning of Cancer, others in the eighth degree of Cancer others about the twelft degree & others about the 15th degree. This variety of opinions proceeded from the præcession {sic} of the Equinox then not known to the Greeks. When the sphere was first formed the Equinox was in the 15th degree or middle of the constellation of Cancer. Then it came into the 12th 8th &1st degree successively. Eudoxus in describing the sphere of the ancients placed the Solstices & Equinoxes in the middle of the Constellations of Cancer Aries Chelæ Cancer & Capricorn as is affirmed by Hipparchus Bithynus, & appears also by the description of the Equinoctial & Tropical circles in Aratus who copied after Eudoxus, & by the positions of the Colures of the Equinoxes & Solstices wch in the sphere of Eudoxus described by Hipparchus went through the middle of those Constellations. Now Chiron the Centaur Master[35] of Iason the Argonaut delineated σχήματα ὀλύμπου the Asterisms as the ancient author of Gigantomachia cited by ✝[36] Clemens Alexandrinus informs us. And Musæus the master of Orpheus & one of the Argonauts [37] made a sphere & is reputed the first among the Greeks who made one. And the sphære it self shews that it was designed in the time of the Argonautic Expedition. ffor that expedition is delineated in the Asterisms wth several other ancienter histories of the Greeks: but nothing later then that expedition is delineated there. It seems therefore to have <102r> been formed by Chiron & Musæus for the use of the Argonauts. For the ship Argo was the first long ship built by the Greeks. Hitherto they had kept to the shore in round vessels[38] of burden wth out sails & now they were to s upon an Embassy [to the Princes upon the sea coasts subject to Egypt] they were to sail wth expedition through the deep & guide their ship by the stars.[39] And The people of the Island Corcyra attributed the invention of the sphere to Nausicae the daughter of Alcinous king of the Pheaces in that Island & its most probable that she had it from the Argonauts who in their return home sailed to that Island & made some stay there wth her father.[40] At that time therefore the solstice was reputed in the middle \fifteenth degree/ of the constellation of Cancer. Afterwards when Thales began to revive Astronomy & \Pherecides the Astronomer observed the Solstice in the Island & Cyrus & his disciple Thales/ wrote a book of the Tropicks &[41] Equinoxes it was found in the 12th degree of that signe. And at length in order to publish the Lunar Cycle of 19 years Meton & Euctemon observed the solstice[42] in the year of Nabonassar 316, & Columella tells us that they placed it in the eighth degree of Cancer wch is seven degrees backwarder then at first. Now the Equinox goes backward {sic} one degree in 72 years & seven degrees in 504 years. Subduct those years from the 316th year of Nabonassar, & the Argonautic Expedition will fall upon the 45th year after the death of Solomon, or thereabouts. And the Trojan war was one generation later, several captains of the Greeks[43] in that war being sons of the Argonauts {sic}. And the ancient Greeks recconed Memnon or Amenophis to be contemporary to that war calling feigning him to be the son of Tithonus the elder brother of Priam. Memon Amenophis was therefore contemporary \/ to Iehosaphat & might live to {for} determine \& settle/ the length of ye year of 365 days so as to deserve the monument above mentioned in memory thereof. \of the same age with the elder children of Priam/ In the last year of the Trojan war he was with his army at Susa according to the ancient Greeks. After that he might return into Egypt & adorn it with Buildings {sic} Obelisks & Statues & dye there about 90 or 100 years after ye death of Solomon, when he had determined & setled the length of the Egyptian year of 365 days so as to deserve the monument above mentioned in memory thereof

These recconings founded upon Astronomy give us occasion to differing from the Chronology of the Greeks give us occasion to enquire into the reason of the difference.

The Europæans had no Chronology ancienter then the Persian Monarchy. And what ever Chronology they have of ancienter[44] times has been {formed} by rea framed since by reasoning & conjecture. Plutarch tells us that the Philosophers anciently delivered their opinions in verse as Orphius, Hesiod, Parmenides, Xenophanes Empedocles Thales but afterwards left of the use of verses; & that Aristarchus, Timocharis <103r> Aristillus Hipparchus did not make Astronomy the more contemptible by describing it in prose after Exdoxus Hesiod & Thales had wrote of it in verse. Solon & Pythagoras wrote in verse, & all the seven wise men were addicted to poetry ✝[45] as Anaximenes affirmed. Till those days the Greeks wrote only in verse, & while they did so there could be no Chronology, nor any other history {sic} then such as was mixed with poetical fancies. Pliny ‡[46] in recconing up the first inventors of things tells us that Pherecides Syrius taught to compose discourses in prose in the reign of Cyrus, & Cadmus Milesius to write history. And ‡[47] in another place he saith that Cadmus Milesius was the first that wrote in prose. Iosehpus tells us that Cadmus Milesius & Acusilaus were but a little before the Expedition of the Persians again {sic} the Greeks. And Suidas calls Acusilaus a most ancient historian & saith that he wrote Genealogies out of tables of brass wch his father as was reported found in a corner of his house. Who hid them there may be doubted. < insertion from f 102v > For the Greeks had ✝[48] no publick Table or inscription older then then the laws of Draco made in \or after/ ye 39th Olympiad. < text from f 103r resumes > \Pherecides Atheniensis/ In the reign of Darius Hystaspes or soon after Pherecides Atheniensis wrote of the ancient antiquities & ancient geneologies of the Athenians in ten books & was one of the first European writers of this kind & one of the best, whence he had the name of Genealogus, & by ✝[49] Dionysius Halicarnassensis is said to be second to none of the Genealogists Epimenides {sic} not the Philosopher but an historian wrote \also/ of the ancient genealogies. And Hellanicus who was twelve years older then Herodotus digested his history by the ages (or successions) of the Priestesses of Iuno Argiva. Others digested theirs by those of the Archons of Athens or Kings of the Lacedemonians. Hitherto the Greeks had no chronology by years, but at length \/ < insertion from f 102v > \{illeg}/ Hippias the Elean, as Plutarch tells us, published a Breviary of the Olympiads supported by no certain arguments. And Plato derided him for his ignorance. This Breviary seems to have conteined nothing more then a short account of the Olympic \Then Ephorus/ Victors in every Olympiad. Then Ephorus . . . < text from f 103r resumes > Ephorus the disciple of Isocrates a[50] formed a chronological history of Greece of almost 750 years beginning with the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & ending wth \the siege of Perinthus in/ the 20th year of Philip the father of Alexander the great .\/ < insertion from f 102v > But he digested things e[51] by generations. And the recconing < text from f 103r resumes > And {sic} the recconing by Olympiads was not yet received use \in use/. The Arundelian marbles were composed sixty years after the death of Alexander the great. (An 4 Olymp. 128) & yet mention not the Olympiads. But in the next Olympiad Timæus Siculus wrote a history in several books down to his own times according to the Olympiads, comparing the Ephori, the kings of Sparta, the Archons of Athens, & the Priestesses of Argos wth the Olympic victors, so as to make the Olympiads, & the Genealogies & reigns of successions of Kings & Priestesses & the poetical histories suit wth one another according to the best of his skill judgment, & where he left off, Polybius began & carried on the history. < insertion from f 102v > Eratosthanes wrote above an hundred years after the death of Alexander ye great. Apollo He was followed by Apollodorus, & these two have been[52] followed ever since by Chronologers. But how uncertain their Chronology is, & how doubtfull it was reputed by the Greeks of those times may be understood by these passages of Plutarch. {a} Some reccon Iphitus \Lycurgus,/ saith he, a[53] equal contemporary to Iphitus & \to have been/ his companion in ordering the Olympic festivals, amongst whom was Aristotel the philosopher: arguing from the Olympic Disk wch had the name of Lycurgus upon it. Others supputing the times by the succession of the kings of Lacedæmon as Eratosthenes & Apollodorus, affirm that he was not a few years older then the first Olympiad. ffirst Aristotel & some others made him as old as the first Olympiad, then <103v> Eratosthenes Apollodorus & their followers made him above an hundred years older. And in b[54] another place Plutarch tells us: The congress of Solon wth Crœsus some think - - - - < text from f 103r resumes > And from \that/ time forward several other Chronologers, as \Eratosthenes/ Ister, Philochorus Apollodorus Atheniensis &c, wrote histories by the Olympiads reprehending the conjectures of one another, till the Chronology now in use was formed. Which how uncertain it is, & how little credit it gained among the Greeks of those times may be understood by this passage of Plutarch. The <104r> congress, saith he, of Solon with Crœsus some think they can confute by Chronology. But a History so illustrious & verified by so many witnesses & wch is more, so agreeable to the manners of Solon & worthy of the greatness of his mind & of his wisdome, I cannot persuade my self to reject because of some chronical Canons as they call them, which six hundreds of authours correcting have not yet been able to \constitute anything/ certain in wch they could agree amongst themselves about repugnances. Diodorus in the beginning of his history tells us that he did not define by any certain space of years the times preceding the Trojan war because he had so certain foundation to rely upon. But from the Trojan war according to the recconing of Apollodorus Atheniensis whome he followed there were eighty years to the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & from that period to the first Olympiad there were three {sic} hundred & twenty eight years, computing the times from the kings of the Lacedemonians.

And as for the origins \Chronology/ of the Latines, that was still[55] more uncertain. Plutarch ✝[56] represents great uncertainty in the originals of Rome, & so doth Servius ‡[57] . The old Records of the Latines were burnt by the Gauls 64 years before ye death of Alexander the great. And Quintus Fabius Pictor the oldest Historian of the Latines lived an hundred years later then that King.

[58] Diodorus neare \Symbol (inverted obelus) in text[59] in/ the beginning of his history tells us that he did not define by any certain space the times preceding the Trojan war because he had no certain foundation to rely upon: but from the Trojan war according to the recconing of Apollodorus Atheniensis whom he followed, there were eighty years to ye return of the Heraclides into Pelopponesus & from that period to ye first Olympiad there were three hundred & twenty eight years, computing the times from the kings of the Lacedemonians. Thucydides recconed 80 \Apollodorus followed Eratostosthenes & both of them followed Thucydides in recconing 80/ years from the Trojan war to the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus & Ephores recconed by the recconing of Ephorus there were about \but in recconing/ 328 years from that return to the first Olympiad, & these two recconings have been ever since followed by Chronologers without any considerable variation. And Diodorus tells us that the latter recconing was gathered by \they computed the times by the succession of the kings of Lacedemon, as Plutarch also ✝[60] affirms. And therein they \have/ been ever since followed by Chronologers. And since this recconing was gathered by/ computing the times from the kings of the Lacedemonians, that is from their number, Let us therefore reexamin that computation.

All nations before they began to keep exact accounts of time have been prone to raise their antiquities, & this humour has been promoted by the contention between nations about the antiquity of their originals. The Greeks & Latines have been more modest in this point then the Egyptians & some[61] other nations but yet have exceeded the truth. For in stating <105r> the times by the reigns of such kings as were ancienter then the Persian Monarchy they have put their reigns equipollent to generations, & accordingly made them one with another an age a piece, recconing three ages to an hundred years. For they make the seven kings of Rome who preceded the Consuls to have reigned 244 years, wch is one with another 35 years a piece. And the 14 Kings of the Latines between Æneas & Numitor or the destruction of Troy & founding of Rome to have reigned 425 years wch is above 30 years a piece. And the first ten kings of Macedon (Caranus &c) to have reigned 353 years a piece wch is above 35 years a piece & the first ten kings of Athens (Cecrops &c) 351 years wch is 35 years a piece. And the eight first kings of Argos (Inachus, Phoroneus &c) to have reigned 371 years wch is above 46 years a piece. And between the return of the Heraclides & the end of the first Messenian war the ten kings of Sparta by one race (Exrysthenes {sic} Agis, {illeg} Echestratus, Labotas, Doriagus, Agesilaus, Archelaus, Telechus Alcamines & Polydorus) the nine by the other race (Procles, Sous Euripon, Prytanis, Eunomus, Polydectes, Charilaus, Nicander Theopompus,) the ten kings of Messene (Cresphontes Epytus, {illeg} Glaucus, Istmius, Doladas, Sybolas, Phintas, Antiochus, Euphaes, Aristodemus,) & the nine of Arcadia (Cypselus, Olæas, Bucolion, Phialus, Simus, Pompus, Ægineta, Polymnestor, Æchmis) took up 379 years wch is 38 years a piece to the ten kings & 42 years a piece to the nine. And the five kings of Sparta of the race of Eurysthenes reigned 359 years between the end of the first Messenian war & the beginning of the reign of Darius Hystaspis (Eurycrates, Anaxander, Eurycrates II, Leon, Anaxandrides) {illeg} reigned 202 years wch is above 40 years a piece. Thus the Greek Chronologers who followed Ephorus have made the kings of their several cities who lived before the times of the Persian Empire to reign about 35 or 40 years a piece one wth another, wch is a length so much beyond the course of nature as is not to be credited. For by the ordinary course of nature kings reign one wth another about 18 or 20 years a piece And if in some instances they reign 5 or 6 years longer in others they reign as much shorter. Eighteen or 20 years is a medium. So the 18 kings of Iudah who succeeded Solomon reigned 390 years wch is one wth another 22 years a piece. The 15 kings of Israel after Solomon reigned 259 years wch is 1714 years a piece. The 18 Kings of Babylon \Nabonassar &c/ reigned 209 years wch is 1123 years a piece. The 10 Kings of Persia (Cyrus &c) reigned 208 years wch is almost 21 years a piece. The 16 successors of Alexander the Great in Syria (Seleucus &c) reigned 244 years wch is 1514 years a piece. The eleven in Egypt (Ptolomæus Lagi &c) reigned 277 years wch is 25 years a piece. The ten in Macedonia (Aridæus &c) reigned 156 years, wch is 1512 years a piece. The 29 {sic} Kings of England (William the Conqueror &c) reigned 648 {sic} years, wch is 2213 years a piece. The first 24 kings of ffrance (Faramond &c) 458 years wch is 19 years a piece. The next 24 Kings of France (Ludovicus Balbus &c) 451 years wch is 1834 years a piece The next 15 (Philippus Valesius &c) 315 wch is 21 years a piece. And all the 63 kings of France 1224 years wch is 1912 years a piece. Generations from Father to son may be rec <106r> coned one with another about 34 {sic} years a piece or about three generations to an hundred years. But if the generations proceed by the eldest sons they are shorter so that three of them may be recconed to eighty years {t} 75 or 80 years. And the reigns of Kings is still shorter because Kings are succeeded not only by their eldest sons but sometimes by their brothers & sometimes they are slain or deposed & succeeded by others of an equal or greater age, especially in elective & turbulent kingdoms. But Ephorus & his followers have taken the reigns of kings for generations & recconned thre generations to an hundred & sometimes to an hundred & twenty years & founded the technical chronology of the Greeks upon this way of recconing. Let the recconing be reduced to the course of nature by putting the reigns of kings one with another at \about/ 18 or 20 years a reign: & the two races of \ten kings/ the \ten/ kings of Sparta by one race, the nine by another race the ten kings of Messens & the nine of Arcadia above mentioned between the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus & the end of the first Messenian war will scarce take up above 180 or[62] 200 years. whereas ye Antient Chronolo followers of Ephorus make it about 380 years. Euryleon the son of Ægeus commanded the main body of the Messenians in the fift year of the first Messenian war & was in the fift generation from Oiolyeus the son of Theras the brother in law of Aristodemus & Tutor of his sons Eurysthenes & Proclus as Pausanias relates; & by consequence from the return of the Heraclides wch was in the days of Theras to the battel in the fift year of this war there were six generations, wch ( as I conceive) being for the most part by the eldest sons, may be recconed at about 28 or |will scarce exceed| 30 years to a generation & so will \may/ amount to about to about 170 or \175 or/ 180 {sic} years. That war lasted 20 years. Add the last 15 years & there will be about 190 {sic} or 195 years to ye end of that war. Thus by five several ways of recconing this period scarce amounted to 200 years, whereas the followers of Ephorus make it about 380 years. In the race of the Spartan kings descended from Eurysthenes, after Polydorus reigned these kings, Eurycrates I, Anaxander, Eurycrates II, Leon, Anaxandrides, Cleomenes, Leonidas, &c., and in the other race after Theopompus reigned Zeukidamus, Anaxidamus, Archidamus, Agasicles, Ariston, Demaratus, Leotycides, &c according to Pausanias, & or Anaxandridas Archidemus, Ananileus, Leutychides, Hippocratides, Ariston, Demaratus, Leutychides II according to Herodotus. Leonidas was slain at Thermopylæ in the sixt year of Xerxes & Leutychides was then alive, so that in one race there were seven kings between the end of the first Messenian war & the sixt year of Xerxes & in the other {sic} race there were between six & seven kings according to Pausanius & or between seven & eight according to Herodotus, or at a medium, seven kings in both races. Which at 20 years to a reign take up 140 years. And these years being added to the 190 or 200 years between the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus & the end of the first Messenian war & to the 139 years between the end of the first Messenian war \sixt years of Xerxes/ the 20th year of Philip an 4 Olymp. 109, <107r> make almost 480 years from the return of the Heraclides into Peloponesus to the 20 year of Philip: Whereas Ephorus reccons this interval to be almost 750 years, & later Chronologers make it 760 years, wch is 280 years too long. Subduct the years of the Olympiads to ye 20th year of Philip, & there will remain but 45 about 46 ye 40 or 50 years from the return of the Heraclides to the first Olympiad which interval the followers of Ephorus reccon to be about 320 years. And this is the fundamental error of the technical {sic} \artificial/ chronology of the Greeks.

|⊡ The kingdom of Macedon|

< insertion from f 108r >

– of the ancient Chronology of the Greeks

⊡ The kingdom of Macedon was founded by Caranus & Perdiccas who being of the race of Temenus king of Argos fled from Argos in the reign of Phidon the brother of Caranus. Temenus entred[63] Peloponnesus with the Argonauts \Heraclides/ as above & after him & his son Cisus the kingdom of Argos became divided among the posterity of Temenus untill Phidon reunited it expelling his kindred. He grew potent, appointed weights & measures in Peloponnesus & removing the Pisæans & Eleans presided in the Olympic games, but was soon after subdued by the Eleans & Spartans. Herodotus[64] & Thucydides reccons Perdiccas the first king of Macedon. Later writers as Livy Pausanias & Suidas make Caranus the first king. Iustin calls Perdiccas the successor of Caranus & Solinus saith that Perdiccas succeeded Caranus & was the first that obteined the name of king. Its probable that Caranus & Perdiccas were contemporaries, & fled at the same time from Argos, & Phidon & at first erected small Principalities wch after the death of Caranus became one under Perdiccas. Herodotus tells us[65] that after Perdiccas reigned Aræus (or Argæus,) Philip, Aeropus, Alcetas, Amyntas, & Alexander successively. Alexander was contemporary to Xerxes king of Persia, \& died an . 4 Olymp. 79/ & was succeeded by Perdiccas, & Pausanias tells us[66] that there were eight kings of Mecedon {sic} before Archelaus ye son of Perdiccas. Now by recconing above 40 years a piece to these kings, Chronologers have made Caranus older then the Olympiads. Whereas if we should reccon their reigns at about 18 or 20 years a piece the first seven reigns counted backwards from the death of Xerxes \Alexander/ will place the beginning of the kingdom of Macedon under Perdiccas & Caranus upon the 46th Olympiad or thereabouts. It could not be older because Leocides the son of Phidon & Megacles the Son of Alcmæon an Athenian \at one & the same time/ courted Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes king of Sicyon (as Herodotus[67] tells us,) & the Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Alcmæon & Clysthenes {sic} & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army in their war against Cyrrha & the Cyrrhæans were conquered an. 2, Olymp. 47, according to the Marbles. Phidon therefore & his brother Caranus were contemporary to Alcmæon & all of them to Clisthenes & Solon, & flourished about the 47th \or 48th/ Olympiad. This Alcmæon enterteined & {condued {sic}} the Messesgers {og} \which/ Crœsus sent to consult the Oracles at Delphos \an. 1 Olymp. 56 according to the Marble/[68] & for so doing was sent for by Crœsus & rewarded with much riches. Megacles the son of Alcmæon married Agarista. And Pisistratus when he obteined the tryanny at Athens married the daughter of Megacles & Agarista, & Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista expelled the sons of Pisistratus an. 1 Olymp. 67, according to the Marbles {sic}. |By all wch circumstances the times of Leocides & Megacles & their fathers. Phidon & Alcmæon are sufficiently stated.|[69]

Iphitus presided[70] both in the Temple of Iupiter Olympus & in the Olympic games, & so did his succcessors till the 26th Olympiad, & so long the victors were rewarded with a {Tripeus}: but then the Pisæans getting above the Eleans began to preside & rewarded the victors with a crown & instituted the Carnea to Apollo, & continued to preside till Phidon interrupted them, that is till about the time of the 48th Olympiad.[71] For in the 48th Olympiad the Eleans entred the Country of the Pisæans suspecting their designes but were prevailed wit upon to return home quietly Afterwards the Pisæans confederated with several other Greek nations, (vizt Phidon & those under him) & made war upon the Eleans \who called in Phidon to their assistance./ & in the end were beaten. In this war I conceive it was that Phidon præsided, suppose in the 49th Olympiad.[72] ffor in the 50th Olympiad, for putting an end to the contentions between the kings <108v> about presiding, two men were chosen by lot out of the city Elis to preside, & their number in the 65th Olympiad was increased to nine & afterwards to ten, & these Iudges were called Hellenodicæ, judges for or in the name of Greece. Pausanias tells us that the Eleans called in Phidon, & together with him celebrated the 8th (he should have said the 49th) Olympiad, but Herodotus that Phidon removed the Eleans. And both might be true. The Eleans might call in Phidon against the Pisæans & upon overcoming them claim the presiding in the games & be refused by Phidon, & then confederate with the Spartans & by their assistance overthrow the kingdom of Phidon, & recover from the Pisæans their ancient right of presiding in the games.

Strabo tells us that Phidon was the tenth from Temenus not the tenth king, for between Cisus & Phidon they reigned not, but the tenth by generation from father to son including Temenus. If 27 years be recconed to a generation by the eldest sons, the nine intervalls will amount to 243 years, which being subducted from the 48th Olympiad in wch Phidon flourished, they will place the return of the Heraclides about fifty years before the beginning of the Olympiads as above. But Chronologers reccon about 514 years from the return of the Heraclides to the 48th Olympiad, & account Phidon the seventh from Temenus: wch is after the rate of 85 years to a generation & therefore not to be admitted.

The artifical Chronologers - - - < text from f 107r resumes > The artificial Chronologers have made Lycurgus the[73] Legislator as Old as Iphitus the restorer of the Olympiads & Iphitus above an hundred years older then the first Olympiad, & to help out the fei hypothesis they have feigned 28 Olympiads older then the first Olympiad wherein Coræbus was victor. But these things were feigned after the days of P Thucydides & Plato. ffor Socrates died three years after the end of the Peloponnesian war & Plato[74] introduceth him saying that the institutions of Lycurgus were not of three hundred years standing or not much more. And Thucydides, in the reading followed by Stephanus, saith[75] that the Lacedemonians had from ancient times used good laws & been free from tyranny, & that from the time that they had used one & the same administration of their commonwealth to the end of the Peloponnesian war there were three hundred years & a few more. Count 304 years back from ye end of the Peloponnesian war & they will place the legislation of Lycurgus upon the 18th Olympiad. Athenæus[76] tells us out of ancient authors (Hellanicus Sosimus & {sic} Hieronymus) that Lycurgus the legislator was contemporary to Terpander the Musician & that Terpander was the first man who got the victory in the Carnea in a solemnity of music instituted in those festivals in the 26 Olympiad. He overcame four times in the Pythic games & therefore lived at least to ye 29th Olympiad. And beginning to flourish in the days of Lycurgus, it is not likely that Lycurgus began to flourish much before the 18th Olympiad. The name of Lycurgus being upon the Olympic disk Aristotel concluded thence that Lycurgus was the companion of Iphitus in restoring the Olympic games. And this argument might be the ground of the opinion of Chronologers that Lycurgus & Iphitus were contemporary. But Iphitus did not restore all the Olympic games. He restored <109r> the racing in the first Olympiad Coræbus being Victor[77] In the 14th Olympiad the double Stadium was added Hypænus being victor. And in the 18th Olympiad the Quinquertium & Wrastling were restored, Lampus & Eurybatus (two Spartans) being victors. And the Disk was one of the games of ye Quinquertium & Pausanias tells us[78] that there were three disks kept in the Olympic treasury at Altis. These therefore having the name of Lycurgus upon them, shew that they were dedicated by him at the restoring of the Disk in ye 18th Olympiad. Now Polydectes king of Sparta being slain before the birth of his son Charillus or Charilaus, left the kingdom to Lycurgus his brother & Lycurgus upon the birth of Charillus became Tutor to the child, & published his laws in the reign of Dorissus or Doriagus Agesilaus the successor of Dorissus or Doriagus in the other race of the kings of Sparta. And therefore Lycurgus & Agesilaus flourished in the 18th Olympiad & Charillus was then a child. ffrom the return [79] of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus to the beginning of the reign of Agesilaus there were six reigns including that of Aristodemus the father of Eurysthenes & Procles. who reigned \For Aristodemus came to the kingdom/ according to Herodotus. And {sic} from the same return to the beginning of the reign of Polydectes in the other race of the Spartan kings there were also six reigns, & these reigns at 20 years a piece amount to 120 years. Count those years backwards from ye 18th Olympiad & the return of the Heraclides will be about 51 years before the first Olympiad as above.

Iphitus who restored the Olympic {sic} games was[80] [81] descended from Oxylus the son of Hæmon the son of Thoas, the son of Andræmon. Hercules & Andræmon married two sisters. Thoas warred at Troy. Oxylus returned into Peloponnesus wth ye Heralides. Iphitus is by some recconed the son of Hæmon, by others the son of Praxonidas the son of Hæmon. But Hæmon being the father of Oxylus I would reccon Iphitus the son of Praxonidas son of Oxylus the son of Hæmon, & by this recconing the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus will be two generations |by ye eldest sons| {illeg} (or about 54 or 60 years) before the first Olympiad.

From the return of the Heraclides count 80 years backwards & the return to the Trojan war & the destruction[82] of Troy will be about 70 or 80 years {illeg} after the death of Solomon & the Argonautic expedition wch was one generation earlier will be about 40 yea or 45 years after it, as was determined above by arguments taken from Astronomy.

The ancient Greeks \ And these argument are confirmed by one \two/ arguments more &c/ < insertion from f 108v > [83] These recconings are confirmed by one argument more For Æsculapius & Hercules were Argonauts & Hippocrates was the 18th from Hercule Æsculapius \inclusively/ by the fathers side & the 19th by from Hercules by the mother's side. And because these generations, being taken notice of in history, were most probably by the principal of the family & so for the most part by the eldest sons: we may reccon about 28 or, at the most, 30 generations years to a generation. And thus, the 17 intervalls by the fathers side & eighteen by the mothers will at a middle recconing amount unto about 508 years, wch counted backwards from the beginning of the Peloponnesian warr, at wch time Hippocrates began to flourish, will reach up to the 42th year after the death of Solomon, & there place the Argonautic Expedition.

< text from f 109r resumes >

When the Romans conquered the Carthaginians, the archives of Carthage came into their hands. And thence Appion in his history of the Punic wars tells us in round numbers that Carthage stood 700 years. And Solinus adds the odd number of years in these words Hadramyto et Carthagini author est a Tyro populus. Carthaginem (ut Cato in Oratione Senatoria autumat) cum rex Hiarbas rerum in Libya potiretur, Elissa mulier extruxit domo Phœnix, & Carthadam <110r> dixit quod Phœnicum ore exprimit civitatem novam: mox sermone verso Carthago dicta est, quæ post annos septingentos triginta septem exciditur quam fuerat extructa. Elissa was Dido, & Carthage was destroyed in the consulship of Lentulus & Mummius in the year of the Iulian Period 4568, from whence count backwards 737 years, & the Encæmia or Dedication of the city will fall upon the 16th year of Pigmaleon the brother of Dido. She fled in the seventh year of Pigmaleon, but the Æra of the city began with its Encænia. Now \both Sychæus and {illeg} upon taking that land might come into the hands of the Romans &/ Virgil & his Scholiast Servius relate that Teucer came from the war of Troy to Cyprus in the days of Dido a little before the reign of her brother Pigmaleon & in conjunction with her father seized Cyprus & ejected Cinyras {sic} \& Apollodorus \saith/ that Cinyras married Metharme the daughter of Pygmaleon./ And if the Romans in the days of Augustus followed not the artificial chronology of Eratosthenes but had these things from the Records of Carthage \& Cyprus/; the destruction of Troy will be in the reign of the predecessor of Pigmaleon, & by consequence about 70 or 80 years later then the death of Solomon \as above/ Veresimile est etiam quod orig [Its probable also that the originals of the kingdom of the Greeks in Cyprus were recorded also in the annals of (Tyre & Cyprus & Tyre.

② The expedition of Sesostris was one generation older then the Argonautick expedition. ffor in his return back into Æygpt he left Æetes at Colchos, & Æetes reigned there till the Argonautick expedition. And at his entring into Egypt, his brother Danaus fled from him into Greece with his fifty daughters into Greece in a long ship after the pattern of wch the ship Argo was built. And Argus the son of Danaus was the master builder. And Nauplius the Argonaut was born in Greece of Amymone one of the daughters of Danaus \soon after their arrival/. And two others of the daughters of Danaus married Archander & Archilites the sons of Achæus the son of Creusa the daugther of Erechtheus king of Athens, & therefore the daughters of Danaus were contemporary to Erechtheus three generations younger then Erechtheus & by consequence contemporary to Theseus the son of Ægeus. the \adopted/ son of Pandion the son of Erechtheus: & Theseus stole Helena about the time of the Argonautic expedition being then 50 years old \& she but 10./ Sesotris was therefore contemporary to Rehoboam & by consequence was Sesac.\For Sesostris & Sesaak were both of them kings of Eygpt, & they agree not only in time but also in their actions & conquests./ Where Herodotus describes the expedition of Sesostris, Iosephus tells us that he described the expedition of Sesac & attributed his actions to Sesostris erring only in the name of the king. Corruptions of names are frequent in history. Sesostris was otherwise called Sesochris, Sesoosis, Sethosis, Sesonchis, Sesonchosis. Take away the Greek terminations, & the names becomes Sesost, Sesoch, Sesoos, Sethos, & Sesonch; wch names differ very little from Sesac. As the Greeks changed Moph into Memphis so they changed Sesach into Sesonchis.

② Androgeus the son of eldest Son of Minos upon his <111r> fled from him into Greece with his fifty daughters in a long ship after the pattern of wch the ship Argo was built. And Argus the son of Danaus was \reputed/ the master builder. And Nauplius the Argonaut was born in Greece of Amymone one of the daughters of Danaus soon after their arrival. And two others of the daughters of Danaus married Archander & Archilites the sons of Achæus the son of Creusa the daugther of Danaus Erechtheus king of Athens, & therefore & the daughters of Danaus were three generations younger then Erechtheus, & by consequence contemporary to Theseus the son of Ægeus. the adopted son of Pandion the son of Erechtheus & Theseus stole Helena about the time of the Argonautic expedition being then 50 years old & she but ten. Sesotris was therefore contemporary to Rehoboam & by consequence was Sesak. For Sesostris & Sesak were both of them kings of Eygpt, & they agree not only in time but also in their actions & conquests. Where Herodotus describes the expedition of Sesostris Iosephus tells us that he described the expedition of Sesac & attributed the {sic} actions \of Sesac/ to Sesostris, erring only in the name of ye king. Corruptions of names are frequent in history. Sesostris was otherwise called Sesochris, Sesoosis, Sethosis, Sesonchis, Sesonchosis. Take away the Greek terminations, & the names become Sesost, Sesoch, Sesoos, Sethos, Sesonch: wch names differ very little from Sesak. As the Greeks changed Moph into Memphis so they changed {sic} Sesac into Sesonchis.

Sesac came out of Egypt in the fift year of Rehoboam &[84] spent nine years in that expedition & therefore returned back into Egypt in 14th year of Rehoboam, & at that time left Æetus at Colchos, And {sic} Phrixus & his sister Helle fled from Ino the daughter of Cadmus to Æetes soon after. Ino was therefore alive in the fourteenth year of Rehoboam & by consequence her father Cadmus flourished in the reign of David & not earlier. Cadmus was the father of Polydorus the father of Labdacus the father of Laius, the father of Oedipus the father of Eteocles & Polynices who in their youth slew one another in the war of the seven captains at Thebes about ten years after the Argonautic expedition. And Thersander the son of Polynices warred at Troy. These generations being by the eldest sons many be recconned at about 24 or 25 years to a generation. At wch rate Polydorus might be born about the beginning of Davids reign & come with his father came into Greece when he was about 16 \or 18/ years old. Androgeus the eldest son of Minos upon his overcoming in the[85] Athenæa or quadrennial games at Athens in his youth, was perfidiously slain out of envy, & Minos thereupon made war upon the Athenians, & compelled them to send every eighth year seven beardles youths & as many young Virgins to be given as a reward to him that should get the victory in the like games instituted in Crete in honour of Androgeus. These games seem to have been celebrated in the beginning of the Octacteris, & the Athenæa in the beginning of the Tetraeteris then brought into Crete & Greece by the Phenicians. And upon the third payment of this tribute of children, that is, 20 or 24 years after the death of Androgeus Theseus became victor & returned from Crete with Ariadne the daughter of Minos, & coming to ye island Naxus or Dia, Ariadne was there taken from him by Glaucus a commander at sea, & <112r> became the mistress of Bacchus the great Bacchus & by him had two sons called Phlias & Eumedon who were Argonauts. Minos was therefore about 65 or 70 years old when Theseus overcame, & his mother Europa & her brother Cadmus came into Crete & Greece about the middle of Davids reign or but a very little before.

Polydorus the son of Cadmus married Nicteis the daughter[86] of Nicteus, & dying left his kingdom & young son Labdacus under {sic} the administration of Nicteus. Then Epopeus king of Egyalus (afterwards called Sicyon) stole Antiope the Daughter of Nicteus, & thereupon Nicteus made war upon him & in a battel wherein Nicteus overcame, both were wounded & died soon after. Nicteus left the tuition of Labdacus & administration of the kingdom to his brother Lycus, & Epopeus ( or, as Hyginus calls him, Epaphus) left his kingdom to Lamedon who presently ended the war by sending home Antiopa, & she in returning home brought forth Amphion & Zethus. Labdacus being grown up received the kingdom of \from/ Lycus, & afterwards dying left it again to his administration. When Amphion & Zethus were about twenty years old, at the instigation of their mother Antiopa they killed Lycus, & made Laius the young son of Labdacus fly to Pelops, & seized the city Thebes & compassed it with a wall. Amphion married Niobe the sister of Pelops & by her had several children amongst whom was Chloris the mother of Periclymenus who was one of the Argonauts. Amphion & Zethus, Niobe & Pelops, Lamedon & Laius were therefore two little generations older then the Argonauts, & Epopeus was contemporary to Polydorus. Agamemnon & Menelaus the sons of Plisthenes the son of Atreus the son of Pelops were {sic} at the Trojan war, & so were Idomeneus & Meriones the grandsons of Minos. And Deucation the son of Minos & grandson of Europa was an Argonaute. And by all these circumstances the coming of Cadmus & Europa into Greece & Crete is determined to be about three ordinary generations or an hundred years before the Argonautic expedition & four ordinary generations before the destruction of Troy.

In the days of Erechtheus king of Athens & Celeus king of Eleusis,[87] Ceres a woman of Sicily came into Attica & taught Triptolemus the son of Celeus to sow corn. She lay with Iasion the brother of Harmoniæ the wife of Cadmus. And soon after her death Erechtheus was slain in a war between the Athenians & Eleusinians; & for the benefaction of bringing tillage into Greece, the Eleusinia sacra were instituted to her by Celeus & Eumolpus, & a sepulcher or temple was built to her in Eleusine, & the families of Eumolpus & Celeus became her Priests. And this |is| the first instance that I meet with in Greece of deifying the dead with Temples & sacred rites & sacrifices & initiations & a succession of Priests to perform them. Now by this history it is manifest that Erechtheus, Celeus, Eumolpus. Ceres, Iasion, Harmoniæ & Cadmus were all contemporary to one another, & therefore flourished about 90 or 100 years before the Argonautic expedition & scarce above. For Calais & Zetes the sons of Orithyia {sic} the daughter of Erechtheus were Argonauts.

Celeus was the son of Rharus the son of Cranaus the successor of Cecrops. Car the son of Phoroneus the son of Inachus <113r> built a temple to Ceres in Megara. Arcas the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon the son of Æzeus \(or as {illeg} some say, of Pelasgus)/ received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people to make bread of it. Myles the son of Lelex was the first who set up a \hand/ mill or Quern in Greece to grind corn, & Polycaon the brother of Myles married Messene the daughter of Triopas the son of Phorbas the brother of Pirasus. Pelops came into Peloponnesus {sic} in the reign of Epeus the son of Endymion the son of Aëthlius the son of Æolus, & Ætolus the brother of Epeus slew Apis the son of Phoroneus. And by these circumstances Cecrops, Inachus, Æzeus, \Pelasgus,/ Lelex, Phorbas, Pirasus & Æolus flourished two or three generations before the coming of Cadmus & Europa into Europe. Certainly they could not be earlier, because Cadmus brought in letters, & it is not likely that any thing done in Europe could be remembered above three generations before the use of letters. These men came with colonies from Egypt & began to build towns, soon after their coming. ffor And these towns seem to have been \are recconed/ the oldest in Europe. ffor before the seas began to be navigated, Europe could be peopled only by Scythians from the north side of the {illeg} Euxine Sea, & the Scythians long after those days lived without towns or houses.

< insertion from f 113v > [88] Inachus had several sons who reigned in several part of Peloponnesus & {sic} there built towns, as Phoroneus who built Phoronicum afterwards called Argos from Argus his grandson, Ægialeus who built Ægialea afterwards called Sicyon from Sicyon the grandson of Erechtheus. Phegeus who built Phegea afterwards called Psophis from Psophis the daughter of Lycaon. And these were the oldest towns in Peloponnesus. At that time Lycaon built Lycosura recconed the oldest town in Greece \Arcadia/ & his sons who were 24 in number built each of them a town except the youngest called Oenotrus who sailed thence with his people into Italy & there set on foot the building of towns. And this is recconed the first colony wch the Greeks sent abroad. Phoroneus had also several children & grandchildren who reigned in several places & built new towns, as Car, Spartus, Apis. And this division & subdivision of territories has made great confusion in the history of the first kingdoms {sic} of Peloponnesus, & thereby given occasion to the vainglorious Greeks to make these kingdoms of Peloponesus much older then they \really/ were. \Particularly/ Acusilaus the Argive out of his brazen tables made \feigned yt/ Phoroneus \was/ the oldest man in the world & to make the kingdom of Argos older then the rest either he or some other Greek hath collected several collateral \races of/ Princes into one \continued/ series of kings pretended to reign successively at Argos. Others \by faining many spurious kings of Sicyon/ have made the kingdom of Sicyon still older the by above 200 years \older then that of Argos/. tho it was founded by Ægialeus ye brother of Sicyo Phoroneus |For| Apis the third or fourth king of this kingdom was the grandson of Ægyaleus by the fathers side & the grandson of Phoroneus by the mothers side being the son of Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus, & Herodotus tells us that Apis in the Greek tongue is Epaphus, & Hyginus (Fab. 7 & 8) that Apis was the predecessor of Lamedon in the kingdom of Sicyon Epaphus the Sicyonian got Antiopa wth child & others call him Epopeus. And some later Greeks to make the kingdom of Sicyon look ancient \But the {illeg} later Greeks/ have made two men of the two names Apis & Epopeus & between them inserted twelve feigned kings who made no wars nor did any thing mentioned in history, & one yet reigned 620 years that is, above 50 years a piece one with another. By the extravagant length of their reign you may know that they have been feigned to make the kingdom of Sicyon look ancient.

And as of one Apis or Epopeus the Greeks {sic} have made two kings so of one Inachus & one Io his daughter they have made two corruptly writing Iasus for the second Inachus |& of one Sthenelus they have made two the son of Perseus & predecessor of Danaus they have made two putting many kings between them:|: {illeg} & so of one Pandion & one Erechtheus kings of Athens they have made two, giving the name of Erecthonius to the first Erechtheus. Its impossible that any thing done in Greece could be remembred above three generations before the use of letters, & therefore the kingdoms of Sicyon Argos & Athens could not be above three generation older then ye coming of Cadmus.

Bacchus the conqueror loved two weomen Venus & Ariadne &c And Amphictyon the son of Deucalion a Scythian they have made the third king of Athens, tho the name denotes a senator of the Amphictyonic Council & this Council was not so ancient, being erected by a confeceracy of the Greeks against Sesostris or Bacchus. For Amphictyon enterteined Bacchus & the rest of the [Egyptian] Gods in a feast. Its impossible that any thing done in Greece could be remembred above three generations before the use of letters, & therefore the kingdoms of Sicyon, Argos & Athens Sicyon & Argos could not be above three generations older then the coming of Cadmus.

It seems to me therefore that Cecrops Erecht Cranaus, Erechtheus, \Cecrops II & his brother/ Pandeon, & Ægeus, \&/ Theseus &c reigned successively at Athens; Ægialeus, Europs, Telchin, Apis or Epopeus, Lamedon, Sicyon &c at Sicyon; & Phoroneus, Apis, Argus, Criasus &c at Argos. Abas was either the same man with Apis the Argive or his contemporary to him. Abas was contemporary to Apis the Argive & might be the same man: for his sons Acrisius & Prætus reigned in several parts of the kingdom of Argus. And if Acrisius at length inherited Argos, he must be the same <114v> man with Criasus the successor of Argus. for the ancient names have been very liable to corruption. Acrisius left Argos to his grandson Perseus, but Perseus changed kingdoms with Megapenthe the son of Prætus & built Mycene, & was succeeded by his Son Sthenelus, & Sthenelus left his kingdom between his sons Eurystheus, & Gelanor. Eurystheus reigned in Mycene, but Gelanor was ejected by Danaus the Egyptian about 20 or 25 years before the Argonautic expedition. By this recconing the oldest cities & kingdoms of Greece will [89] not be above two or three generations older then the coming of Cadmus, but its difficult to set right the genealogies, reigns & chronology of the fabulous ages, & I leave these things to be further considered \examined./

Bacchus the conqueror loved two weomen, Venus & Ariadne. -

< text from f 113r resumes >

The ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods relate that Io the daughter of Inanchus was carried into Egypt & there became the Egyptian Isis & that Apis the son of Phoroneus after death became the God Serapis. And some said that Epaphus was the son of Io. Serapis & Epaphus are Osiris, & therefore Osiris & Isis in the opinion of the ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods, were not above two or three generations older then the Argonautic expedition. |\And hence/ Dicæarchus represented them two generations older then Sesostris, saying yt after Orus the son of Osiris & Isis reigned Sesonchosis.|

Bacchus the conqueror loved two weomen Venus & Ariadne. Venus was the mistress of Anchises \& Cinyras {sic}/ & mother of Æneas who all lived till the destruction of Troy, & the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts as above: & therefore the great Bacchus flourished but one generation before the Argonautic expedition. Plutarch tells us[90] that the people of Naxus, contrary to what others relat wrote, pretended that there were two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & that the first Ariadne married Bacchus & the last was carried away by Theseus. But Homer Hesiod Thucydides Herodotus Strabo &c knew but of one Minos, & Homer describes him to be the son of Iupiter & Europa, the brother of Rhadamanthus & Sarpedon & the father of Deucaleon the Argonaute & the grandfather of Idomeneus who warred at Troy, & that he was the legislator of Crete & judge of Hades. Herodotus makes Minos & Rhadamanthus the sons of Europa contemporary to Ægeus the father of Theseus. Apollodorus & Hyginus say yt Minos the father of Androgeus Ariadne & Phædra was the son of Iupiter & Europa & brother of Rhadamanthus & Sarpedon; & Hyginus that two of <114r> the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts. This Bacchus was[91] potent at sea conquered eastwards as far as India, brought his army over the Hellespont, conquered Thrace, left music & poetry there killed Lycurgus king of Thrace & \{illeg}/ Pentheus whose father Echion was one of the Spartæ in the days days of Cadmus \the grandson of Cadmus/, gave the kingdom of Tharops to Lycurgus to Tharops, & one of his minstrells called by the Greeks Calliope to Oeagrus the son of Tharops, & of Oeagrus & Calliope was born Orpheus th who sailed with the Argonauts. This Bacchus was therefore contemporary to Sesostris or Sesac. And both being kings of Egypt & potent at sea & great conquerers & carrying on their conquests into India & Thrace they must be one & the same man.

The ancient Greeks, who made the fables of the Gods, relate that[92] Io the daughter of Inachus was carried into Egypt & there became the Egyptian Isis, & that Apis the son of Phoroneus after death became the God Serapis. And some said that Epaphus was the son of Io. Serapis & Epaphus are Osiris, & therefore Osiris & Isis in the opinion of the ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods, were not above two or three generations older then ye Argonautic expedition. Dicæarchus a[93] represents them two generations older then Sesostris, saying that after Orus the son of Osiris & Isis reigned Sesonchosis. He seems to have followed the opinion of the people of Naxus who made Bacchus two generations older then Theseus & for that end feigned two Minoses & two Ariadnes: ffor by the b[94] consent of all antiquity Osiris & Bacchus were one & the same king of Egypt. This is affirmed by the Egyptians as {sic} well as by the Greeks. \And some c[95] of the ancient Mythologists as Eumolpus & Orpheus, called Osiris by ye the names of Dionysus & Sirius)/ Osiris was king of all Egypt, & a great conquerer \& came over the Hellespont in the days of Triptolamus/ & there killed Lycurgus, & therefore his expedition falls in with that of Bacchus. Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris lived about the same time & by the relation of historians were all of them kings of all Egypt, & reigned at Thebes, & adorned that city, & were very potent by land & sea. All three were great conquerers & conquered the same regions & carried on their conquests by land thro Asia as far as India. All three came over the Hellespont & were there in danger of losing their army. All three conquered Thrace & there put a stop to their victories, & returned back from thence into Egypt, And all three left pillars with inscriptions in their conquests. And therefore they must be one & the same king of Egypt, & this king can be no other then Sesak. All Egypt including Thebais Æthiopia & Libya, had no common king before the expulsion of the shepherds who reigned in the lower Egypt, no conqueror of Syria India Asia & Europe befoe Sesak. The sacred history admits of no Egyptian[96] conqueror of Palestine before this king.

Thymetes a[97] who was contemporary to Orpheus & wrote a Poesy called Phrygia of the actions of Bacchus in very old language & character, said that Bacchus had Libyan weomen[98] in his army, amongst whom was Minerva a woman born in Libya near the river Triton & that Bacchus commanded the men & Minerva the weomen. Diodorus b[99] calls her Myrina, & saith that she was Queen of the Amazons in Libya & there conquered the Atlantides & Gorgons, & then made a league {sic} wth Orus the son of Isis, & passing through Egypt subdued the Arabians & Syria & Cilicia & came through Phrygia [\vizt/ in the army of Osiris or Bacchus] to the mediterranean, but passing over into Europe, was slain with many of her weomen by the Thracians & Scythians under the conduct of Sipylus a Scythian & Mompsus a Thracian whom Lycurgus king of Thrace had banished. This was that Lycurgus <115r> who opposed the passage of Bacchus over the Hellespont & was soon after conquered & slain by him. But afterwards Bacchus met with a repulse from the Greeks under the conduct of Perseus c[100] who slew many of his weomen as Pausanias relates, & was assisted by the Scythians & Thracians under the conduct of Sipylus & Mompsus, wch repuls put a stop to his victories. And in returning home he left part of his army men at Co men in Colchos under Æetes & part of his weomen upon the river Thermodon near Colchos under Marthesia & Lampeto. ffor Dionysius d[101] speaking of the Amazons who were seated at Thermodon, saith that they dwelt originally in Lybia, & there reigned over the Atlantides, & invading their neighbours conquered as far as Europe. And Ammianus e[102] that the ancient Amazons breaking through many nations attackt the Athenians, & there receiving a great slaughter retired to Thermodon. And Iustin f[103] that these Amazons had at first [he means at their first coming to Thermodon] two Queens who called themselves daughters of Mars, & that they conquered part of Europe & some cities of Asia [vizt in the reign of Minerva] & then sent back part of their army to Thermodon with great booty [under their said new Queens;] that Marthesia being afterwards slain was succeeded by her daughter Orithya {sic} & she by Penthesilea; & that Theseus married captivated & married Antiopa the sister of Orithya, Hercules made war upon the Amazons in the reign of Orithya, & Penthesilea came to the Trojan war. Whence the first wars of the Amazons in Europe & Asia & their setling at Thermodon were but one generation before those actions of Hercules & Theseus & but two before the Trojan war, & so fell in with the expedition of Sesostris. And since they warred in the days of Isis & her son Orus & were a part of the army of Bacchus or Osiris; we have here a further argument for making Osiris & Bacchus contemporary to Sesostris, & all three one & the[104] same king with Sesak.

The Greeks reccon Osiris & Bacchus to be sons of Iupiter, & the Egyptian name of Iupiter is Ammon. Manetho in his 11th & 12th Dynasties, as he is cited by Africanus & Eusebius, names these four kings of Egypt as reigning in order: Ammenemies, Gesongeses or Sesonchosis {sic} the son of Ammenemes. Ammenemes who was slain by his Euneuchs & Sesostris who subdued all Asia & part of Europe. Gesongeses & Sesonchoris are corruptly written for Sesonchosis: & the two first of these four kings Ammenemes & Sesonchosis are corruptly written for the same with the two last, Ammenemes & Sesostris, that is, with Ammon & Sesack. So then Ammon was the father of Sesak. For Diodorus saith[105] that Osiris built in Thebes a magnificent temple to his parents Iupiter & Iuno, & two other Temples to Iupiter, one \a larger/ to Iupiter Vranius [his \great/ grandfather] & a less to his father Iupiter Ammon who reigned in that city. And Thymetes abovementioned who was contemporary to Orpheus wrote expresly that Bacchus the father of Bacchus was Ammon a king reigning over part of Libya, that is, a king \of Egypt/ reigning over all that part of Libya anciently called Ammonia. {illeg} Stephanus \saith/; Πασα ἡ Λιβυη οὕτως ἐκαλειτο, ἀπὸ Ἄμμονος.[106] All Libya was called Ammonia from Ammon. This is that king of Egypt from whom Thebes was called No-Ammon & Ammon-no, the city of Ammon, & by <116r> the Greeks Diospolis, the city of Iupiter Ammon. Sesostris built it[107] sumptuously & called it by his fathers name.

The lower part of Egypt being yearly overflowed with the Nile was scarce inhabited before the invention of corn wch made it usefull. And the king who by this invention first peopled it & reigned[108] over it & taught the people the use of Oxen in tillage (perhaps the king of \the city/ Mesir where Memphis was afterwards built) seems to have been worshipped in the Ox \or calf/ after death by his subjects for this benefaction. And this I take to be the state of the lower Egypt called Mizraim[109] till the shepherds or Phenicians who fled from Ioshua conquered it. For \there was a tradition that/ some of them fled as far as Afric & \{sic} some said that they/ there a[110] erected pillars with this inscription. We are Canaanites & flee from the face of Ioshua the robber the son of Nun. some of wch pillars a[111] remained there till the days of Procopius And Eusebius b[112] tells us that these Canaanites flying from the sons of Israel built Tripolos in Afric. And the Ierusalem Gemara c[113] that the Gergesites fled from Ioshua going into Afric. These Phenicians staying in great numbers in the lower Egypt erected a kingdom there, & reigned long under their own kings Salatis, Bæon,[114] Apagnas, Apophis, Ianias, Assis, & others successively. And in the mean time the upper part of Egypt called Thebais & in scripture the land of Pathros, was under other kings, reigning perhpas at \Pathros &/ Coptos, & Thebes, & This, \& Syene/ & Elephantis, & Heracleopolis & other greater cities till they conquered one another \or were conquered by the Ethiopians/. ffor cities \grew/ great in those days by being the seats of kings. But at length one of these kingdoms having conquered the rest, made war upon the shepherds, & in the reign of their \its/ kings Misphragmuthosis & Amosis or Thomosis drove them out of Egypt, & united all Egypt into one monarchy, & under < insertion from f 115v > made a las war upon the shepherds & drove them out of a good \the western/ part of Egypt & in the reigne of Amosis or Tethmosis took Heliopolis from them & there abolished their practice of sacraficing men & made them relinquish all the rest of Egypt retiring through Abaris or Pelusium into Phenicia & Phenicia & the neighbouring regions, & by this success united all Egypt into one monarchy, & under < text from f 116r resumes > their next kings Ammon & Sesak grew into a great empire. This conquering people worshipped not the kings of the Shepherds whom they conquered & expelled, but \abolished their religion of sacrificing men &/ after the manner of those ages deified their own kings who founded their new dominion, beginning the history of their Empire with the reign & great acts of their Gods & Heros. Whence their Gods \Vranus or/ Ammon \Vranus/ & Titæa or Rhea, Osiris & Isis, & Typhon, Orus & Bubaste, & their secretary Thoth & General Hercules & Admiral Iapetus Neptune or Typhon, were all of them Thebans & flourished after the expulsion of the Shepherds. For Osiris & Isis built Thebes sumptously & reigned over all the Egypt including Thebais: wch cannot be said of any king of Egypt before the expulsion of the Shepherds. Homer places Thebes in In those days the writing of the Thebans & Ethiopians was in Hieroglyphicks. They had no letters to write down the in Ethiopia, & the Ethiopians e[115] reported that the Egyptians were a colony drawn out from them by Osiris, & that thence it came to pass that most of the laws of Egypt were the same with those in Ethiopia & that the Egyptians learnt from the Ethiopians the custome of deifying their kings.

< insertion from f 115v >

In those days the writing of the Thebans & Ethiopians was in Hieroglyphicks. And this way of writing seems to have spread into ye lower Egypt before the days of Moses. For thence came the worship of their Gods in ye various shapes of birds beasts & fishes forbidden in the second Commandment. Now this emblematical way of writing gave occasion to ye Thebans & Ethiopians who in the days of Samuel David Solomon & Rehoboam {sic} conquered Egypt & the nations round about & erected a great Empire, to represent their conquering Kings & Princes by various hieroglyphical figures; as by painting Ammon with Rams {sic} horns to signify the King who conquered Libya a country abounding wiath sheep; his father \Amosis/ with a sith to signify the king who conquered the lower Egypt a country abounding with corn; his son Osiris by an Ox because he taught the conquered nations to plow with oxen, & Bacchus wth bulls horns for the same reason, & wth grapes because he taught the nations to plant maze, \& upon a Tiger because he subdued India/ his grandson Orus \the son of Osiris/ wth a Harp to signify the Prince who was eminently skilled on <116v> that instrument; |Iupiter upon {sic} Eagle to signify the sublimity of his dominion & upon a {eagle} with a thunderbolt to represent him a warrior. Venus in a chariot drawn with two doves to represent her amorous lustfull disposition| Neptune with a Trident to signify the commander of a fleet composed of three squadrons; Thoth with a doggs head \& wings on his feet/ & a caduceus writhen about with two serpents to signify a man of craft & an Embassadour who reconciled two contending nations; & \Pan with a pipe & with the leggs of a goat to signify a man delighted in piping and dancing/ Hercules with Pillars & a Club, because Sesostris set up pillars in all his conquests & in the reign of his father Ammon fought wth against the Libyans wth clubs. So Hyginus: Afi et Egyptij primum fustibus dimicaverunt, postrea Belus Neptuni filius gladio belligeratus est, unde bellum dictum.[116] And hence it came to pass that upon the division of Egypt into Nomes by Sesostris, the great men of the kingdom to whom the Nomes were dedicated were represented \& worshipped/ in their sepulchres or Temples of the Nomes \not in the shape of men but/ by various hieroglyphicks, & were as by an Ox, a Cat, a Dog, \a Cebus,/ a Goat, a Lyon, \a Scarabeus,/ an Ichneumon, a Crocodile, an Hippopotamus, an Oxyrinchus, an Ibis, a Crow, a Hawk, a Leek, & were worshipped by the Nomes in the shapes of these creatures.

And while this new kingdom thus deified her Princes - - -

< text from f 116r resumes >

In those days the writing of the Thebans & Ethiopians was in Hieroglyphicks. Letters seem invented long before in the lower Egypt the Egyptian reed being the oldest paper. ffor the Egyptians were learned before the days of Moses, & he being skilled in all their learning wrote the law in letters upon tables of stone & in books. And \after the conquests of Egypt by the Ethiopians/ this became the vulgar way of writing in Ægypt; after the conquest but \while/ the Priests of Egypt in their sacred books used the Hieroglyphic character of the Ethiopians: which shews that the sacred rites & ceremonies & modes of worship \& Gods/ wch prevailed in Egypt after the expulsion of the shepherds were of an Ethiopic original.

Now whilst the Ethiopians had no letters to write down sounds, but used an <117r> sheperds. And Osiris was also a very great conquereor of foreign nations & therefore not older then Sesak |emblematical way of writing, they wrote not down the names of men but represented them by hieroglyphical figures: as by painting them. Ammon|

In those days the writing of the Thebans & Æthiopians was in Hieroglyphicks. They had no letters to write down the names of men but represented them by hieroglyphical figures: as by painting Ammon with rams horns to signify the king who conquered Libya a country abounding with sheep; his father with a sith to signify the king who conquered the lower Egypt a country abounding with corn, \his son Osiris by an Ox because he was worshipped in that animal \& Bacchus by a man with bulls horns for ye same reason/, his grandson/ Orus wth a harp to signify the Prince who was eminently skilled on that instrument; Neptune with a Trident to signify the commander of a fleet composed of three squadrons; Thoth wth a doggs head & a caduceus writhen about wth two serpents to signify a man of craft & an Embassadour who reconciled two contending nations; |Bacchus with bulls horns & & Hercules by a man with pillars & a club because Sesak set up pillars in all his conquests & in the| Osiris by an Ox because he taught the conquered nations to plow & sow \with Oxen/, & Hercules wth a club because \{illeg} was viceroy of the Ethiopians who in those days fought with clubs./ [Sesak in the reign of his father Ammon fought against the Libyans wth clubs] So a[117] Hyginus: Afri at Ægyptij primum fustibus dimicaverunt, postea Belus Neptuni filius gladio belligeratus est unde bellum dictum. And hence it came to pass that \upon the division of Egypt into Nomes/ the great men of this kingdom |to whom ye Nomes were dedicated| were represented in their sepulchres \or Temples of the Nomes/ by various hieroglyphicks & worshipped \by the Nomes/ in those shapes as in an {sic} Cat \Ox, a/ Cat, \a Dog/ a Goat, \an Ichneumon/ a Crocodile, \an Oxyrinchus/ an Ibis a |Crow {sic}. \a Hawk/| a Leek.&c the Ape Cebys |The Ox seems to have been first dedicated to him who taught plowing and sowing originally in the lower Egypt & afterwards translated to Osiris.| |The calf was worshipped in the lower Egypt before these days, but upon what occasion {illeg}|

And while this new kingdom thus deified her Princes, the Phœnicians[118] also upon the erecting of new kingdoms deified their {sic} co deified theirs {sic} Princes who either founded new kingdoms or enlarged them or were otherwise great benefactors; an instance of wch we have in the kingdome of Damascus \Cœlo-/Syria. For when David b[119] smote Hadad-ezer king of Zobah, & slew the Syrians of Damascus who came to assist him, Rezon fled from his lord Hadad-ezer & gathering a band of men became their captain & reigned in Damascus over Syria. He is called Hezion 1 King. 15.18, & his successors were Tabrimon Hadad or Benhadad, Hazael, Ben-hadad *** Rezen; & in the reign of the last Rezen, Tiglathpulaser king of Assyria captivated the Syrians & put an end to their kingdom. Now Iosephus c[120] tells us that the Syrians till his days worshipped both Adar (that is Adad or Benadad) & his successor Hazael as Gods for their benefactions & for building Temples by which they adorned ye city Damascus. For, saith he, they daily celebrate solemnities in honour of these kings, & boast their antiquity not knowing that they were novel & lived not above eleven hundred years ago. \It seems these kings built sumptuous sepulchres for themselves & were worshipped therin./ Iustin[121] calls the first of these kings Damascus, saying that the city had its name from him & that the Syrians in honour of him worshipped his wife Arathes as a Goddess, using her sepulchre for a Temple.

Another instance we have in the kingdom of Cyprus &[122] Byblus.[123] In the reign of Minos king of Crete, when Rhadamanthus the brother of Minos carried colonies from Crete to the Greek islands & gave the islands to his captains, he gave a Lemnos to Thoas or Theias or Thoantes the father of Hypsipyle, a Cretan worker of in metals & by consequence a disciple of the Idæi Dactyli, & perhaps a Phœnician; for the Idæi & Telchines & Corybantes brought their arts & sciences from Phœnicia.[124] Thoas married Calycopis the mother of Æneas & daughter of Otreus King of Phrygia, & for his skill on the harp was by the Greeks called Cinyras {sic} & said to be exceedingly beloved of Apollo or Orus. Sesostris \The great Bacchus/ loved his wife & \{illeg}/ lay with her being caught in bed with her in Phrygia, composed the matter by giving \making/ him \king of/ Cyprus & Byblus, & then <118r> came over the Hellespont with his army & conquered Thrace & was by the Phrygians & Thracians called Ma-fors \or Mavors, The Valiant,/ & by contraction Mars. Thoas reigned in Cyprus & Byblus till the times of the Trojan war living to a very great age & becoming exceeding rich, & after the death of his wife Calycopis[125] he built temples to her at Paphos in Cyprus & at Byblus in Syria & instituted Priests to her with sacred rites & lustful orgia, whence she became the Dea Cypria & the Dea Syria. And from temples erected to her in several places she was also called Cytharea, Amathusia, Paphia, Byblia, Salaminia, Gnydia Erycina, Idalia. Fama tradit a Cinyra consecratum vetustissimum Paphiæ Veneris templum, deamqꝫ ipsam conceptam mari huc appulsam. Tacit. Hist. l. 2. p. 338. Cinyras also deified his son G From her sailing from Phrygia to the island Cythara & thence to be Queen of Cyprus she was said \(by the Cypreans)/ to be born of the froth of the sea & pain was painted sailing upon a shell. Cinyras deified also his son Gingris by the name of Adonis, & perhpas was \for assisting the Egyptians with armour was perhaps/ himself deified by his friends the Egyptians by the name of a[126] Vulcan. ffor Vulcan was most celebrated \chiefly/ by the Egyptians, & was a king according to Homer \& reigned in Lemnos/ & Cinyras made armour for the Egyptians & others was an inventor of arts,[127] & found out copper in Cyprus, & the hammer & anvil & tongues & laver, & imployed workmen in making armour & other things & was the only King celebrated in history for working in metals, & both he and Vulcan was king of Lemnos & the husband of Venus \all wch is the Character of Vulcan/, & about the time of the death of Cinyras the Egyptians built a very sumptuous temple at Memphys to Vulcan & neare it a smaller Temple to Venus[128] hospita.

< insertion from f 117v >

ffor Thoas lay with his own daughter Smyrna & of her begat

< text from f 118r resumes >

And as the Thebans, Phenicians & Syrians in those days deified their own kings, so upon their coming[129] into Asia minor & Greece \with Cadmus & Sesostris/ they taught those nations to do the like. For then it came there into fashion κτερίζειν parentare, to celebrate the funerals of their dead fathers with festivals & invocations & sacrifices offered to their ghosts & to erect magnificent sepulches {sic} in the form of Temples with Altars & statues to persons of renown & there to honour them with sacrifices & invocations. Every man might do it to his ancestors & the Greeks did it to all the eminent Greecians, as to Minos & Rhadamanthus the nephews of Cadmus, |to| Ino his daughter & Melicertes the son of Ino, |to| Bacchus the {sic} grandson on son of his daughter Semele, Aristæus the husband of his daughter Autonoe, Iasion the brother of his wife Harmonia, Hercules the son of Alcmena, Æsculapius the son of Apollo or Orus, Machaon the son of Æsculapius, Palemocrates the son of Machaon, \to Pandion &/ Theseus kings of Athens, Hippolytus the son of Theseus Pan the son of Penelope, Ceres, Proserpina, Triptolemus, Celeus Trophonius, Castor, Pollux, Helena, Menelaus, Agamemnon, Amphiaraus & his son Amphilochus. Hector & Al Cybele, Hector & Alexandra the son & daughter of Priam, Phoroneus, Orpheus, Trophonius Protesilaus, Achilles & his mother, Ajax, Arcas, Pandion Idomeneus, Merion, Æacus, Melampus, Britomartis Adrastus, Iolaus & divers others. They deified their dead in various manners according to their abilities & circumstances & the merits of the person, some only in private families as household Gods or Dij Penates, others by erecting gravestones to them in publick for annual sacrifices, others by building <119r> also to them sepulchres in the form of houses or temples & some by appointing also mysteries & ceremonies and set sacrifices & festivals & initiations & a succession of Priests for observing & performing those institutions in the Temples & then handing them down to posterity. Altars might begin to be erected before the days of Cadmus but Temples began a little after.[130] For Æacus the son of Ægina who \who/ was two generations older then the Trojan war, was one of the first, some say the first, who built a Temple in Greece. The custome of deifying men founded upon the doctrine of Dæmons or transmigration of souls \& their being either parts or powers of the supreme Deity/, the Greeks & Asiaticks had from the Egyptians & therefore formed the first images of the Gods in the shape of the Egyptian Mummies \with their leggs bound up./. But Idolatry began in Egypt & Assyria & spread thence into the neighbouring countries long before it came into Europe. For ye countries upon the Nile & Tigris being exceeding fertile were first frequented by mankind & grew first into kingdoms & therefore first began to adore their kings. But these kingdoms were little ones \in the beginning/ & every kingdom worshipped only its own kings untill they conquered one another, at length Sesostris by conquest spread the worship of the Gods of Egypt into all his conquests & made them more famous & universal then the Gods of any other kingdom had been before [so as to be called Dij magni majorum Gentium. These were the Gods who according to the Poem of Solon above mentioned, in the days of Cecrops Erectheus & others before Theseus, conquered far & wide & divided the whole earth amongst themselves partly into larger partly into smaller portions & instituted Temples & sacred rites to themselves. [Sesostris a[131] returning from his conquest with great multitudes of captives, divided Egypt into Nomes & built the capital cities of the Nomes wth their Temples upon ground raised higher then before. For he cut canales from the Nile to all the cities & raised the ground of the cities with the earth cut out of the canales. This he did by the hands of his Princes & Heroes who named the cities after themselves gave their own names to the cities & after death were worshipped in the Temples.] Whence Diodorus[132] tells us that of all the Provinces of the world there were in Egypt alone many cities built by the ancient Gods, as by Iupiter, Sol, Hermes, Apollo, Pan, Eylit Eilithyia & many others. [At that time Sesostris being slain the Libyans invaded Egypt by Sea & land & caused his Empire to break in pieces by civil dissentions, as is mentioned by Solon.]

And Lucian a[133] an Assyrian who travelled through Syr had viewed the antiquities of Assyria Syria & Ægypt, tells us that the Temples of Ægypt were very old, those in Phœnicia built by Cinyras as old & those in Assyria almost as old as the former but not altogether so old. Which shews that the Monarchy of Assyria rose up after the the monarchy of Egypt, & that the monarchy of Egypt rose up when |temples of Egypt were \then standing were/ those built by Sesostris at the sam about the same time that| the Temples of Phœnicia & Cyprus were built by Cinyras Hiram & Adad.

Diodorus saith[134] in his 40th book that in Egypt there were formerly multitudes of strangers of several nations who used forreign rites & <120r> ceremonies in worshipping the Gods, for wch they were expelled Egypt, & under Danaus Cadmus & other skilfull commanders after great hardships came into Greece & other places, but the greatest part of these came into Iudæa not far from Egypt a country then uninhabited & desart, being conducted thither by one Moses a wise & valiant man, who after he had possest himself of the country, among other cities built Ierusalem & the Temple. Diodorus here mistakes the original of the Israelites as Manetho Apion. Ptolomy the Mendosian & some others had done before, confounding their flight into ye wilderness under the conduct of Moses with the flight of the shepherds from Misphragmuthosis & Amosis into Phœnicia. But however he lets us know that the shepherds were expelled Egypt a little before the building of Ierusalem & the Temple, & that after several hardships several of them came into Greece & other places under the conduct of Cadmus & other captains, but the most of them setled in Phœnicia next Egypt. We may reccon therefore that the expulsion of the shepherds by the kings of Thebais was the occasion that the Philistims were so numerous in the days of Saul, & that so many men came\in those days/ with colonies out of Egypt & Phenicia into Greece, as Cecrops, Lelex, Inachus, Pelasgus Æzeus, Ægialeus, Cadmus, Phineus, Memblierius, Alymnus, Erechtheus, Peteos, Phorbas, in the days of Eli Samuel & David; some of them flying (as Cecrops, Lelex, Inachus) flying in the days of Eli from Misphragmuthosis who conquered part of Egypt; others flying retiring from his successor Amosis into Phœnicia & Arabia petræa in the days of Samuel, & there mixing with the old inhabitants & \who/ not long after being agai conquered by David & flying \fled/ from him by sea under the conduct of Cadmus & other captains into Asia minor Greece & Libya, |& there built towns, erected kingdoms & set on foot ye worship of the dead|

Ammenemes or Ammon the next king of Egypt by his conquests laid the foundation of the Egyptian Empire In his days the Egyptians invented long ships with sails, & began to study Astronomy |observe the \positions &/ heliacal risings & settings of the stars & the length of the year solar year| for enabling them to sail by the stars without sight of the shore \& this gave a beginning to Astronomy & Navigation/: for hitherto they had sailed /gone\ only by the shore |with oars| in round vessels of burden, \with oars/ first invented upon the red sea. He prepared a fleet of such long ships upon \in/ the red sea & another upon \in/ the mediterranean upon the coast of Libya, I think where there were connvenient sea ports & timber for shipping, I think in Cyrene at Iraca the city of \his son/ Antæus. For he conquered all Lybia as was said above & a[135] called it Ammonia \& Antæus governed Libya in the days of his successor Osiris —/. [He reigned at Thebes then recconed a city of Ethiopia. From him it was called No-Ammon the city of Ammon & by the Greeks Διοσπολις the city of Iupiter Ammon. & Which makes it probable that before his days it had been the metropolis \frontere/ of an Ethiopian kingdom & was conquered by him.] By his fleet upon the red sea he invaded also & conquered Arabia. \And/ After his death in the Temples erected to him at Thebes & in Ammonia \& Ethiopia at {Merae} in Ethiopia/ they set up Oracles & thereby made the people worship him as a God \who acted in them/. And these are the oldest Oracles mentioned in history the Greeks therein imitating the Egyptians. By the extent of his worship you may gather the extent of his dominion.

[136] Quamvis Æthiopum populis Arabumqꝫ beatis

Gentibus atqꝫ Indis unus sit Iupiter Ammon.

| The ancient Egyptians &c| < insertion from f 119v > [137] The ancient Egyptians feigned[138] that Rhea lay secretly with Saturn, & Sol prayed that she might bring forth neither in any month nor in the year: that Mercury playing at dice with Luna overcame & took from the Lunar year the 72th part of every day, & thereof composed five days & added them to the 360 days that she might bring forth in them. & that the Egyptians celebrated those days as the birth days of her five children Osiris, Isis, Typhon, Orus senior & Nephthe the wife of Typhon. And therefore according to the opinion of the ancient Egyptians, the five days were added to the Lunar calendar year in the reign of Saturn & Aken the parents of Osiris Isis & Typhon, that is in the reign of Ammon & Titæa the parents of the Titans. But the Solstices not being yet setled, the beginning of this new year was not fixed to the Vernal Equinox before the reign of Amenophis. In those days every king among the Greeks was a Iupiter during his own reign; & thence it is that Ammon was the Iupiter of the Egyptians during his own reign, their Saturn during his sons reign & their Vranus during his Grandsons reign. This is that Saturn who was the father of Iupiter Neptune & Pluto. And his wife was that Rhea Titæa or Terra who was worshipped as the mother of the Gods. So also Asterius king of Crete was the Iupiter of ye Cretans during his own reign, but when he was expelled by his son Minos & lay hid in Italy, he became the Saturn of the Latines, & his son Minos the Iupiter of the Cretans.

< text from f 120r resumes > <121r>

Sesak first warred under his father Ammon being the Hero or Hercules of the Ægyptians during his fathers reign & afterwards their king. Vnder his father he invaded all the coasts of the mediterranean going westward \upon the coast of Afric/ as far as the straits mouth, |& back again upon the coast of Europe as far as the Tyrrhene sea.|

[139] Venit ad occasum mundiqꝫ extrema Sesostris.

And partly in his fathers reign &, partly, in his own he subdued all Ethiopia & Troglodytica, \& perhaps Arabia felix/ & in the fift year of Rehoboam came out of Egypt with a great army of Libyans Troglodytes & Ethiopians, & spoiled the Temple & reduced Iudea into servitude & went on conquering eastward as far as \towards/ India & westward as far as Thrace. ffor God had given him the kingdome of the countries, 2 Chron. 12.2, 3, 8. In this expedition he spent nine years. He set \In this expedition he spent nine years setting/ up pillars wth inscriptions in all his conquests, & in the 14th year of Rehoboam returned back into Egypt leaving a par Æetes with a part of his army at \at in/ Colchos \& Prometheus at mount Caucasus/ to defend his army conquests from the Scythians. Apollonius Rhodius & his Scholiast tell {sic} us that Sesonchosis king of all Egypt (that is Sesak) invading all Asia & a great part of Europe peopled many cities wch he took & that Æa (the Metropolis of Colchos) remained stable ever since his days with the posterity of those Egyptians whom he placed there, & that they preserved pillars or tables in wch all the journeys & the bounds of sea & land were described for the use of them that were to go any whether. These Tables therefore gave a beginning to Geography. Vpon his return home he divided Egypt by measure amongst his soldiers & this gave a beginning to Geometry. In the Temples wch he built in the capital cities of the Nomes of Egypt, they set up Oracles, some |surveying He divided Ægypt also into \Nomes or/ counties & |dug| after his return home a canale from ye Nile to ye head city of every Nome & with the earth dug out he caused the ground of the city \to be raised/ higher & built aTemple in every city for the worship of the Nome & set up Oracles in the Temples set up Oracles, some| of wch remained till the days of Herodotus: & by this means the Egyptians of every Nome were induced to worship the great men of the kingdom to whom \the Nome/ the city {sic} & ye Temple {sic} \or {illeg} sepulchre of the God/ was dedicated. For every Temple had its proper God & modes of worship & annual festivals at wch the Council & people of the Nome met to sacrifice & do \& regulate the affairs of the Nome & administer/ justice & buy & sell. But Osiris & Isis were worshipped /Sesak himself & his wife by the names of Osiris & Isis were \worshipped/\ in all Egypt. And because Sesak to render the Nile more useful dug channels from it to all the capital cities of Egypt that river was consecrated to him & he was called by its names Ægyptus, Siris & Nilus. From the word Nahal a Torrent, that river was called Nilus & Diodorus[140] tells us that Nilus was that king who cut Egypt into canales to make the river usefull. In scripture the River is called Selichor or Sihor: & thence the Greeks formed the words Siris, Sirius, \Ser- Apis/ O–Siris. But Plutarch tells us that the syllable O put before the word S by the Greeks made it scarce intelligible to ye Egyptians. He seems to have been slain about the 5t year of Asa. For from that year the land of Iudea had quiet ten years & Asa built the fenced cities of Iudea being free from war, & prepared an army of 580000 men. Whence I gather that in those days Egypt was embroyled in several wars. But at the end of ten years {Zera} an Ethiopian who had conquered Ægypt & Libya came out against Asa with an arny of an 1000000 men. During his reign the Iews & other nations |The Arabians from the word Bacche Bacche wch in their language signifies Great {sic} Great {sic} called him Bacchus. And one of the epithites of Bacchus was ἐνυαλιος a word peculiar to Mars. He conquered \Phrygia &/ Thrace and they {sic} Thrassians called him Ma fors, Mars. And this I take to be the true original of the Nomes & religions & Gods & Temples of Egypt, & of the cities built by the Gods & called after their names. Whence Diordorus ✝[141] tells us that of all the Provinces of the world — there were in Ægypt alone many cities built by the ancient Gods, as by Iupiter Sol Hermes Apollo Pan {Eilithyiæ} & many others. And ‡[142] Lucian an Assyrian who had viewed the antiquities of Assyria Syria & Ægypt tells us that the Temples of Egypt were very old, those in \{illeg}/ Phœnicia built by | <121v> Cinyras almost as old & those in Assyria almost as old as the former but not altogther so old. Which shews that the monarchy of Assyria rose up after the monarchy of Egypt, & that the temples of Egypt then standing were those built by Sesostris about the same time that the temples of Phœnicia & Cyprus were built by Cinyras Hiram & Adad.

During the reign of Sesostris Israel was without <122r> During his reign Israel was without a teaching Priest & without law & the nations were in great adversity. ffor in those times there was no peace to him that went out nor to him that came in but great vexations were upon all the inhabitants of the countries And nation was destroyed of nation & city of city: for God did vex them sore. 2 Chron. 15.3, 5, 6. But in the fift year of Asa the land of Iudah became quiet from war & had quiet ten years, & Asa took away the altars of strange Gods, & brake down the images, & built the cities fenced cities of Iudah with walls & towers {sic} & gates & barrs, having rest on every side & got up an army of 580000 men, with wch in the 15th year of his reign he met Zerah the Ethiopian who came out against him with an army of an hundred \a thousand/ thousand Ethiopians & Libyans. The way of the Libyans was through Egypt & therefore Zerah was now Lord of Egypt. They fought at Maresha nere Gerar bewteen Ægypt & Iudea & Zerah was beaten so that he could not recover himself. And from all this I seem to gather that Osiris or Sesak was slain about in the 4th or 5t year of Asa & there upon Egypt fell into civil wars being invaded by the Libyans & defended by the Ethiopians for a time & afterwards becoming subject to the Ethiopians who slew Orus the son & successor of Sesak \drowning him in the Nile/ & seized his kingdom. By these civil wars of Egypt the land of Iudah had rest ten years. Sesostris reigned long, Manetho saith 48 years, & therefore he began his reign about the 17th year of Solomon, & Egypt was his son Orus was slain & Egypt subdued by the Ethipoians before the 15th year of Asa For Pliny tells us:[143] Ægyptiorum bellis attrita est Æthiopia visissim imperitando serviendoqꝫ clara et potens etiam usqꝫ ad Trojana bella Memnone regnante. Æthiopia seems to have reigned over the upper part of Th Egypt as far as Thebes till Ammon & Sesak conquered it. Then it served Ægypt till the death of Sesostris Sesak & no longer: for Herodotus tells us[144] that he alone enjoyed the empire of Ethiopia. Then Zerah the Ethiopian \the Ethiopians under Zerah revolted &/ became lords of Egypt & Libya \& were expelled the lower Egypt by Osarsiphus an Egyptian./. And the next King of Egypt was \the Ethiopians was \called/ Amenophis or/ Memnon subdued the lower Egypt.

When Asa by his victory of \over/ Zerah became safe from Egypt[145] he assembled all the people & they offered sacrifices out of the spoils & entred into a covenant upon oath to seek the Lord & in lieu of the vessels taken away by Sesak, he brought into the house of the Lord the things wch he & his father had dedicated the gold & the silver & the vessels 2 Chron. 15.

When Zerah was beaten so that he could not recover himself[146] the people of the lower Egypt revolted from the Ethiopians called in to their assistance 200000 Iews & under the conduct of one Osarsiphus caused the Ethiopians to retire \now under Memnon to retire first/ to Memphys |where he {sic}| & to fortify that pass \& then went back into Ethiopia/. But after thirteen years Memnon & his young son Ramesses came down with a great army from Æthiopia conquered the lower Egypt & drove out the Iews And this action the Egyptian writers & their followers call the second expulsion of the shepherds taking Osarsiphus for Moses: Manetho saith that the shepherds obteined \kept/ Egypt <123r> 511 years. Count backwards those years from the 28th or 30th year of Asa & the beginning of the reign of the kingdom of the shepherds in Egypt will begin about 6 or 8 years after the expulsion of the Canaanites by Ioshua.

Historians agree that the Menes reigned in Egypt next after the Gods & built Memphys & the magnificent Temple of Vulcan. He built only the body of the temple of his successors Ramses or Ramesses \Rhampymitus/, Mæris, {Asychis} & Psammiticus built the western, eastern northern & southern eastern & southern porticos thereof. And \{illeg}/ Psammiticus who built the last portico of this Temple reigned three hundred years after the victory of Asa over Zerah, & it is not likely that this temple could be above {illeg} ye three hundred years in building, |or that any {Menes} King of all Egypt \could/ reigne {sic} before the expulsion of the Shepherds| The last of the Gods of Egypt was Orus with his mother, |Isis| & sister \Bubastes & {illeg} Thoth/ & their contemporaries & the king who reigned next after their deaths was Memnon or Amenophis called by the Egyptians Amenoph & therefore he is Menes. For the names Amenoph or Menoph & Menes do not much disagree \differ/. And from Amenoph the city Memphis said to be built by Menes had its Egyptian names /Memp\ Menaph Moph Noph \Moph Noph Menoph or Menuf as it is still called by the Arabian Historians/. \The fortifying of this place against Osarsephus gave occasion to the building of it./ He reigned in the times of the Trojan War & I think for some years after \about ten or twenty years longer/, & the Temple of Vulcan might be \then/ founded by him upon the death of Cyn Cinyras the |husband of Venus| |&| Vulcan of Egypt \who had furnished their kings with armour/. The Kings of Egypt reigned first at Thebes & then at Memphys, & Thebes was famous in Homers days but Memphys grew famous afterwards And therefore the Pyramids & other great works neare Memphys were made by the kings who reigned after the times of the Trojan war \& in the days of Herodotus were not above 400 years old: For Herodotus tells us that Homer and Hesiod were but 400 years before him/. In a plane not far from Memphis are many small Pyramids said to be built by Venephes, & I take \suspect yt/ Venephes has been {sic} written corruptly for A Menophis or Amenophis. ffor after the example of these Pyramids the following Kings built others much larger |The plane in wch they were built was the burying place of that city as appears by the Mum̄ies there found & therefore the Pyramids were the sepulchal {sic} monuments of the {sic} kings & Princes of that city.|

For Aphis \next after/ Amenophis & his son Ramses {sic}, called Rhampsinitus by Herodotus reigned Moeris who built the lake of Mœris with two great pyramids of brick in the middle of it. And after the example of the pyramids |ffor preserving the division of Egypt into equal shares amongst the soldiers this king wrote a book of surveying which gave a beginning to Geometry. And after the example of the two brick Pyramids wch he built| Cecrops Cephren & Mycerinus who reigned successively after him, built the three great Pyramids of marble. Mycerinus died before the third was finished & his sister & successor Nitocris finished it. Then reigned Asychis who build the eastern Portico of the temple of Vulcan very slendidly, & a large Pyramid of brick, & was succeeded by Anysis a blind man. And these are the kings who reigned at Memphys, & spent their time in adorning that city untill Ægypt was again invaded by the Ethiopians divided into several small kingdoms. For \Nitocris &/ Asychis were succeeded at Memphis & Thebes by Gnephactus & his son Boccharis; at Sais by Stephanates Necepsos & Nechus; & at Tanis by Petubastes, Osorchon, Psammis & {sic} Zet {illeg}. & some where by Anysis a blind man. And Egypt being weakened by this division was again invaded & \gradually/ conquered by the Ethiopians under Sabacon who slew Bochoris, & Nechus & made Anysis fly.

Isaias[147] speaking of the times next preceding the reign of Sabacon mentions the kingdoms seated at Zoan or Tanis & Noph or Memphis. I will set, saith he, the Egyptians against the Egyptians & they shall fight every one against his brother neighbour, city against city & kingdom against kingdom, & the spirit of Egypt shall fail. — And the Egyptians will I give over into the hand of a cruell Lord [vizt <124r> Sabacon] & a fierce king shall reign over them. —— Surely the Princes of Zoan are fools, the Counsell of the wise Counsellours of Pharaoh is become brutish. How say ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise the son of the ancient kings. —— The Princes of Zoan are become fools, the Princes of Noph are deceived, they have also seduced Egypt, they that were the stay of the Tribes thereof. —— In that day there shall be a high way out of Egypt into Assyria & the Assyrian shall come into Egypt & the Egyptian into Assyria, & the Egyptians shall serve \with/ the Assyrians. {sic}

After the study of Astronomy was set on foot for ye use of navigation & the Egyptians continued by the heliacal risings & settings of the starrs had determined the length of the solar year of 365 days, & by other observations had \fixed the {illeg} &/ formed the fixt stars into asterisms (all wch was done in the reign of Ammon Sesak & Memnon) it may be presumed that they continued to observe the Planets. ffor they named them after their Gods & Nicepsos by the assistance of Petosiris a Priest of Egypt invented Astrology grounding it upon the {sic} motions \of the Planets/. And when the Ethiopians under Sabacon invaded Egypt, a body of Egyptians fled from him to Babylon & carried thither \the worship of their God/ the Egyptian yeare & the study of Astronomy & Astrology. & founded the Æra of Nabonasser. Hestiæus thus mentions this transmigration: The Priests who escaped (that is who escaped from Sabacon) taking the sacra of Iupiter ἐνυάλιος came into Senaar a field of Babylonia. Iupiter ενυ enyalius is the God of Thunder or wars Bacchus or Belus Martius, called Osiris by the Egyptians. Diodorus tells us that Belus himself led a colony thither \of Egyptians/ to Babylon & there instituted Priests exempt from taxes after the manner of Egypt, who observed the stars.

After Sabacon reigned Senechus, {illeg} Tirhakah & Merres or Ammeres \successively/. Senechus was seems to be that Sua or So king of Egypt wth whom Hoshea king of Israel conspired against the Assyrians in the 4th year of Hezekiah, three years before the captivity of the ten Tribes ( 2 King. 17.4.) And Tirhakah reigned over Ethiopia & Egypt in the 14th year of Hezekiah (2 King. 18 21, 24 & 19.9) & therefore suceeded Senechus between the 4th & 14th year of Hezekiah. And in the reign of his successor \Manasser/ the Assyr King of Assyria invaded & conquered \Iudea/ Egypt & Ethiopia.

| The Atlantides &| < insertion from f 123v > [148] The Atlantides {sic} related that Vranus was their first King & reduced them from a salvage course of life & caused them to dwell in towns & cities & to use & lay up the fruits of the earth & that he reigned over a great part of the world & by his wife Titæa had eighteen children among wch were Hyperion & Baselia the parents of Helio & Selene; that the brothers of Hyperion slew him & drowed {sic} his son Helio in the Nile, & divided his kingdom amongst themselves; & that the country bordering upon the ocean fell by lot to Atlas, from whom the people were called Atlantides. By Vranus, Hyperion{illeg} Basilea Helio & Selene I understand Ammon, Osiris, Isis, Orus & Bubaste; & by the sharing of the Kingdom of Hyperion among \his brothers/ the Titans I understand the division of the earth among the Gods mentioned in the poem of Solon.

< text from f 124r resumes >

For Solon having travelled into Egypt & conversed with the Priests of {Sais} about their antiquities, wrote a poem of what he had learnt, but did not finish it. This And this poem fell into the hands of Plato[149] who relates out of it that at the mouth of the straits neare Hercules pillars there was an island called Atlantis, the people of wch nine <125r> thousand years before the days of Solon, reigned over Libya as far as Egypt & over Europe as far as the Tyrrhene sea & all this force collected into one body invaded Egypt & {sic} Greece & what ever was conteined within the pillars of Hercules, but was resisted & stopt by the Athenians & other Greeks, & thereby the rest of the nations not yet conquered, were preserved. He saith also that in those days the Gods [having finished their conquests] divided the whole earth amongst themselves partly into larger & partly into smaller portions, & instituted Temples & sacred rites to themselves, & that the island Atlantis fell to the lot of Neptune, who made his eldest son Atlas king of the whole Island, a part of wch was called Gadir, & that in the history of the said wars mention was made of Cecrops, Erechtheus, Erecthonius, Erisichthon & others before Theseus, & also of ye weomen who warred with the men & of the habit & statue of Minerva, the study of war in those days being common to men & weomen. By all these circumstances it is manifest that these Gods \were the Dij magni majorum Gentium, that they &/ lived in the ages between Cecrops & Theseus & that the wars wch Sesostris made upon the nations by sea & land & the following invasion of Egypt by Neptune are here described; & how the Captains of Sesostris shared his conquests among themselves, as the captains of Alexander the great did his conquests long after; & instituting Temples & Priests & sacred rites to themselves caused the {sic} people \nations/ to worship them after death as Gods; & that the island Gadir or Gades \wth the dominions thereof over Libya as far as Ægypt/ fell to the lot of him who after death was deified by the name of Neptune. For in that island Homer places Calypso the daughter of Atlas presently after the Trojan \war/ when Vlysses being shipwrackt, escaped thither. Homer calls it the Ogygian island & places it 18 or 20 days sail westward from Pheacia or Corcyra. And so many days sail this island is from Gades is from Corcyra, recconing with the ancients a thousand stadia to a days sail. This island is by Homer described a small one destitute of shipping & cities & inhabited only by Calypso & her weomen who dwelt in a cave in the midst of a wood, there being no men in the island to assist Vlysses in building a new ship or to accompany him thence to Corcyra {sic}: wch description of the island agrees to Gades. And the time when ye Gods made war & shared the earth & caused themselves to be worshipped as Gods, is by Solon limited to the age of Neptune the father of Atlas & grandfather of Calypso, & so was but two generations before the destruction of Troy. This is that Neptune who with Apollo or Orus fortified Troy with a wall in the reign of Laomedon, & left many children in Greece some of wch were Argonauts & others were contemporary to ye Argonauts; & therefore he flourished one generation before the Argonautic expedition, or about 400 years before Solon went into Egypt. But the Priests of Egypt in those 400 years, had magnified the stories & antiquity of their Gods so exceedingly as to make them 900 nine thousand years older then Solon, & the island Atlantis bigger then all Afric & Asia together, & full of people. And because in the days of Solon this great island did not appear, they pretended that it was sunk into the sea with all its people. Thus great was the vanity of the Priests of Egypt in magnifying their antiquities.

The Cretans affirmed that Neptune was the first who set out a fleet, having obteined this prefecture of Saturn [the father of Iupiter <126r> Neptune & Pluto] whence posterity recconned things done in ye sea to be under his government, & mariners honoured him with sacrifices. \The invention of tall ships with sails is also ascribed to him/ He was first deified in Afric as {illeg} Herodotus affirms, & therefore reigned over that Province. ffor his eldest son Atlas who succeeded him was not only lord of the island Atlantis, but also reigned over a great part of Afric giving his name to the people called Atlantij, & to ye mountain Atlas & the Atlantic ocean. The outmost parts of the earth & promontories & whatever bordered upon the sea & was washed by it the Egyptians called Neptys & on the coasts of Marmonica & Cyrene Bochart & Arius Montanus place the Naphtuim a people sprung from Misraim, Gen. 10.13. And thence Neptune & his Wife Neptys might have their names, the words Neptune Neptys & Naphtuim singnifying the King Queen & people of the sea coasts. He & his son Atlas are celebrated in the ancient fables for making war upon the Gods of Egypt: as where Lucian saith that Corinth being full of fables tells the fight of Sol & Neptune, that is of Apollo & Python or Orus & Typhon; & when Agatharcides relates how the Gods of Egypt fled from the Giants till the Titans came in & saved them by putting Neptune to flight, & where Hyginus tells the war between the Gods of Egypt & the Titans commanded by Atlas. The Titans are the posterity of Titæa some of wch under Hercules assisted the Gods, others under Neptune & Atlas warred against them: for wch reason \(saith Plutarch)/ the Priests of Egypt abominated the sea & had Neptune in no honour. By Hercules I understand here the General of the forces of Egypt Thebais & Ethiopia whom the Gods of Egypt called to their assistance against the Giants after the death of Osiris. For Diodorus saith that when Osiris made his expedition over the world, he left his kinsman Hercules General of his forces over all his dominions & Antæus governour of Lybia & Ethiopia. Antæus reigned over all Afric to the Atlantic ocean & built Tingis or Tangiers Pindar tells us that he reigned at Irasa, a town of Libya where Cyrene was afterwards built. He \It appear {sic} that he/ invaded Egypt & Thebais: because \because for/ he was beaten by Hercules & the Egyptians neare Antæa or Antæopolis a town of Thebais: And Diodorus tells us that this town had its name from Antæus whom Hercules slew in the age of Osiris. Hercules overthrew him several times, & every time he grew stronger by recruits from Libya his mother earth. But Hercules at length intercepted his recruits & slew him & took the Libyan world from his successor Atlas & made Atlas pay tribute out of his golden orchard, the \western/ kingdom of Libya. Whence its probable yt Antæus was the proper name of Neptune the father of Atlas & Neptune the name by wch Antæus was deified ffor it was usual in those days to deify men by new names. So Sesak was deified by the name in several countries by the several names of Osiris, Bacchus, Dionysus, Belus, Mars & Hercules; Thoas Calycopis & Gingris by the names of Vulcan Venus & Adonis; Alcæus the son of Alcmena by the name of Hercules; Ino & her son Melicertes by the names of Lencothea & Palæmon; the son of Semele by the name of Bacchus, & Romulus by the name of Quirinus. Some tell us that Antæus was the son of Neptune: but in his age, dominion & <127r> actions he agrees wth Neptune himself \unless you will say that he governed Afric by land while Neptune commanded at sea/. The invasion of Egypt by Antæus Ovid has relation unto where he make Hercules say, ———— Sævoque alimenta parentis Antæo eripui. And thus much concerning the ancient state of Egypt Libya & Greece described by Solon.

|‡ Macrisi an Arabian historian| < insertion from f 127v > ‡ Macrisi an Arabian historian, cited by Vanslebius in his voyage into Ægypt, represents that Ischemun, Atrib, Sa, & Coptus, four sons of Misraim reigned over four equal parts of Egypt; Copt vizt Coptus over the upper part of Egypt from Isoan (or Syene) to the city Coptus, Ischemun over all the country below Coptus to the city Menuf or Memphis, Atrib over the lower Egypt now called Delta & Sa over Libya between Egypt & Barbary; & that Coptus overcame all his brethren {sic} & chose the city Menuf for his royal seat: & that from him the race of the ancient Egyptians have been ever since called Coptites & their country Egypt Αἰγύπτος \Ægypt/ the Greeks giving it that name by changing Κ into Γ: & that the Koptetes Coptus continue \the city/ Menuf continued the royal seat of the Kings of Egypt untill Nebuchadnezzar sackt it. If by the the four sons of Mizraim you understand not four single men but four nations sprung from Mizraim, which at first had kings in every city & at length grew into the four kingdoms above mentioned: there may be much of truth in this history. The people of Coptus might \conquer &/ reign over all the upper Egypt from Syene to Coptus \to Syene/ & afterwards \they might/ conquer the middle part of Egypt down to Memphys & then the lower Egypt expelling the Shepherds, & lastly the people of Libya Sais & Libya as far as the lesser Syrtes & the river Triton or {Cupys} And in the time of these wars the Cophtites might remove their royal seat first to Thebes \in or before the reign of Ammon/ & then to Memphys \in the region of Menes/ as above, & reign in Memphys till first the Ethiopians under Sabacon, then then Assyrians under Asserhadon & lastly the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar invaded them. A learned man derives the names of Ægypt & Æthiopia from the names of the cities Coptus & Thebes. Ægyptos being Αἰα Κοπτου the land of Coptus & {sic} Æthiopia Αἰα Θήβης the land of Thebes: \&/ those names being given while the cities were the royal seats of two kingdoms.

< text from f 127r resumes >

As the Gods or ancient Kings & Princes of Greece, Egypt[150] & Syria of Damascus have been made much ancienter then the truth, so have those of Chaldea & Assyria. Ctesias & the |For a[151] Diodorus tells us that when Alexander was in {illeg} Asia the Chaldeans recconed 470000 years since they first began to observe the motions of the stars. And Ctesias & ye| ancient Greek and Latin writers who copy from him, have made the Assyrian Empire as old as that Belus or Baal who was worshipped in all the east & Belus as old as Noah's flood within 60 or 70 years, & tell us the names of all the kings of Assyria down from his feigned son Ninus to Sardanapalus the last king of that Monarchy. But the names of his kings except one or two, have no affinity wth the names of the Assyrians mentioned in scripture. ffor the Assyrians were usually named after their Gods Bel or Pul, Chaddon, Haddon, Adon or Adonis, Melech or Moloch, \Alsur or/ Assur, Nebo, Nergal, Merodach, as in these names, Pul, Tiglath-pul-asser, Salmon-asser, Adra-melech, Shar-asser, Asser-haddon, Sardanapalus or Asser-adan-pul, Nabon-asser or Nabo-adon-asser, Bel-adan, Chiniladan, or Chen-el-adon, Nebo-pul-asser, Nebu-chadon-asser, Nebuzaradan or Nebo-assar-adon, Nergal-asser, Nergal-shar-asser, Labo-asser-dach, Shesheb-asser, Beltes-asser, Evil-meradach, Shamgar-nebo, Rabsaris or Rab-asser, Nebu-shasban, Mardocempad or Merodec-empad. Such were the Assyrian names but those in Ctesias the Canon of Ctesias are of another sort, except Sardanapalus whose name he had met with in Herodotus. He makes Semiramis as old as the first Belus, but Herodotus tells us that she was but five generations older then the mother of Labynitus. He represents that the city Ninus was founded by a man of the same name & Babylon by Semiramis, whereas \either/ Nimrod or Assur founded those & other cities without giving his own name to any of them. He makes the Assyrian empire continue about 1360 years whereas Herodotus tells us that it lasted but 500 years, & the numbers of Herodotus concerning those old times are all of them too long. He makes Nineveh destroyed by the Medes & Babylonians three hundred years before the reign of Astibares & Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed it, & sets down the names of seven or eight feigned kings of Media between the destruction of Nineveh & the reigns of Astibares & Nebuchadnezzar, as if the Empire of the Medes erected upon the ruins of the Assyrian Empire had lasted 300 years, whereas it lasted but 72. And the true Empire of the Assyrians described in scripture, whose kings were Pul Tiglathpulasser Salmonasser, Senacherib, Asserhaddon &c he mentions not, tho much nearer to his own times: which shews that he was ignorant of the antiquities of the Assyrians. Yet something of truth there is in the bottom of some of his stories as there uses to be in Romances; as that Nineveh was destroyed by the Medes & Babylonians, that Sardanapalus was the last king of Assyria, & that Astibares & Astyages were kings of the Medes: but he has made all things too ancient, & out of vain glory <128r> taken too great a liberty in feigning names & stories to please his reader.

When the Iews were newly returned from the Babylonian captivity, they confessed their sins in this manner Now therefore our God - - - - let not all the trouble seem little before thee wch hath come upon us, on our kings, on our Princes & on our Priests & on our Prophets & on our fathers & on all thy people since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day (Nehem. 9.32) that is since the time of the kingdom of Assyria or since the rise of that Empire. And therefore the Assyrian Empire arose when the kings of Assyria began to afflict the inhabitants of Palestine; which was in the days of Pul. He & his successors afflicted Israel & conquered the nations round about, & upon the ruin of many small & ancient kingdoms erected their Empire, conquering the Medes as well as other nations. But of these conquests Ctesias knew not a word, not not so much as the names of the conquerors, or that there was an Assyrian Empire now standing. ffor he supposes that the Medes reigned at this time & that the Assyrian Empire was at an end above 250 years before it began.

However we must allow that Nimrod founded a kingdom at Babylon & perhaps extended it into Assyria; but this kingdom was but of small extent if compared with the Empires wch rose up afterwards. And if it had been greater yet it was but of short continuance, it being the custome in those early ages for every father to divide his territories amongst his sons. So Cham was king of all Afric & Iaphet of all Asia minor & Europe, but they left not standing kingdoms. After the days of Nimrod we hear no more of the Assyrians or of Nineveh or Babylon till the days of Ionah. In the time of the Iudges of Israel & reign of David we find Syria & Mesopotamia subject to kings of other cities (Iud. 3.8. 2 Sam. 8 & 10.) The kingdoms of Israel, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Philistia, Sidon, Damascus, & Hamath the great continued subject to other Lords till the reign of Pul & his successors, & so did the house of Eden (Amos 1.5. 2 King. 19.12) & Haran or Carrhæ (Gen 12 2 King. 19.12) & Sepharraim in Mesopotamia & Calneh neare Bagdad (Gen 10.10 Isa 10.8. 2 King. 17.31.) Sesak & Memnon were great conquerors in the East, but in their histories there's not a word of an Assyrian Empire then standing to oppose them. On the contrary the Assyrians sometime between the reigns of Nimrod & Pul, went into captivity (Amos 9.7.) Homer mentions Bacchus & Memnon kings of Egypt & Persia but knew nothing of an Assyrian Empire. Ionah prophesied when Israel was in affliction under the king of Syria & this was in the latter part of the reign of Iehoahaz & first part of the reign of Ioas kings of Israel, & by consequence about 120 years before the captivity of the ten tribes. Nineveh was then a city of large extent, but full of pastures for cattel, so that it conteined but about 120000 persons. After its captivity it was not yet grown so great & potent as not to be terrified at the preaching of Ionah & to fear being invaded by its neighbours & ruined within forty days. Its king was not yet called king of Assyria but only a[152] king of Nineveh, & his Proclamation for a fast was not published in several nations nor in all Assyria but only in Nineveh & perhaps the villages thereof: but soon after when the dominion of Nineveh was established at home & exalted over all Assyria properly so <129r> called & this kingdom began to make war upon the neighbouring nations, its kings were no longer called kings of Assyria bu Nineveh but kings of Assyria.

Amos prophesied in the reign of Ieroboam the son of Ioas king of Israel soon after Ieroboam had subdued the kingdoms[153] of Damascus & Hamath, that is about 70 or 80 years before the captivity of the ten Tribes, & he thus reproves Israel for being lifted up by those conquests.[154] Ye wch rejoyce in a thing of nought, wch say, Have we not taken to us horns by our strength? Behold I will raise up against you a nation, o house of Israel saith the Lord, & they shall afflict you from the entring in of Hamath unto the river of the wilderness. God here threatens to raise up a nation against Israel, but what nation he names not. That he conceales till the Assyrians should appear & discover it. In the prophesies of Isaiah, Ieremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Micah {sic}, Nahum, Zephany & Zechary, wch were written after this Monarchy grew up, its openly named upon all occasions; but in this of Amos not once, tho the captivity of Syria & Israel be the subject of the prophesy & that of Israel be often threatened. He only saith in general that Syria should go into captivity unto Kir, & that Israel notwithstanding her present greatness should go into captivity beyond Damascus, & that God would raise up a nation to afflict them, meaning that he would raise up above them from a lower condition a nation whom they yet feared not. ffor so the Hebrew word חקם signifies when applied to men, as in Amos. 5.2. 1 Sam. 2.8. 2 Sam.12.11 Psal.113.7. Ier 10.20, & 50.32 Hab. 1.6. Zech. 11.16 Amos mentions the Assyrians but once, & it is only to tell us that they had been in captivity. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt, & the Philistims from Caphtor, & the Assyrians form Kir? Amos. 9.7. They were therefore returned from captivity, & at the writing of this prophesy made no great figure in the world, but were to be raised up against Israel & by consequence rose up against in the days of Pul & his successors. For after Ieroboam had conquered Damascus & Hamath, his successor Menahem destroyed Tipsah with its territories upon Euphrates because in his expedition against Shallum who usurped the crown, they opened not to him. And therefore Israel continued in its greatness till Pul (probably grown formidable by some victories) caused Menahem to buy his peace. Pul therefore reigning presently after the prophesy of Amos, & being the first upon record who began to fulfill it, may be justly recconed the first conqueror & founder of this empire.

I have hitherto taken a view of the times reputed fabulous by the Greeks & Latines, & shewed that before the reign of Pul & the beginning of the Olympiads there were no great empires in the world except that of Egypt founded by Ammon & Sesak wch was but of short continuance. Its impossible to give an exact account of th Towns began to be built in Europe not above two \an/ hundred \& eighty/ years before the Argonautick expedition, & the founder of every town was its first king. The first city that reigned over all Italy was Rome, & the <130r> first that reigned over all Greece was Macedon. Media was before the days of Dejoces was peopled by villages, & Ecbatane was the first city of the Medes wch reigned over all the rest as Herodotus relates. Nineveh was the first capital city of all Assyria \Babylon the first of all Chaldea/ Thebes the first of all Egypt, & Ierusalem the first of all Phenicia \extending/ from Egypt to Euphrates. Phenicia & Egypt & the regions upon Tigris were but thinly peopled in the days of the Patriarchs. Four kings from the regions coasts of Shinar & Elam invaded & spoiled the Rephaims & the old inhabitants of the countries of Moab Ammon Edom & Amaleck & the Ammorites & kings of Sodom, Gomorrha, Adma & Zeboim, & yet were b pursued & beaten by Abraham & three other kings of Canaan with an armed force of only 318 men. \The Patriarchs {fed} their flocks wherever they pleased the ground being not yet appropriated./ And Egypt was so thinly peopled that Pharaoh said of the Israelites Behold the people of the children of Israel are more & more & mightier then we, & to prevent their multiplying caused their male children to be drowned. All The chariots of iron \of all Egypt/ in the days of Moses were but 600 & the chariots of Iabin king of Hazor in the land of Canaan in the days of {illeg} Debarah & Barak were 900. The Canaanites The were spread {sic} & gave {sic} new names to places & built {sic} new cities all the days of the Patriarchs, & the cities continued each under its own king till the days of Ioshua {sic}, & the {sic} \Canaanites/ that fled from Ioshuah conquered the lower Egypt. And while the world was but thinly peopled & kingdoms were small & numerous & letters were not yet in use an exact account of particular kingdoms is not to be expected for want of sufficient records. It may suffice to have shewed in general that the antiquities of the Egyptians Syrians Assyrians Chaldeans & Greeks are made too great by ye heathens writers & to have given an idea of the dark ages more consistent with the course of nature & more consonant to the scriptures wch are by far the oldest records now extant. And having brought down this general account of the times to the beginning of the Olympiads & Æra of Nabonassar without undertaking to be exact in the histories of particular kingdoms, it remains now that I proceed to consider the great Empires wch have risen since the end of the fabulous ages; beginning with the Olympiads & Æra of Nabonasser.


Chap II.
\The Original/ Of the Kingdome of Egypt. and chronology of the first ages

Eygpt, called in scripture Misor Misraim & the land of Ham, is a long and broad valley or meadow on both sides the Nile between mountains and desarts, running north and south from Syene to the Mediterranean. It consisted of two regions, called Mizraim that is the two lands of Misor, into \probably the name was at first taken from ye union of two small kingdoms but now it comprehends/ the upper \Egypt/ lying on both sides the single stream of the Nile & the lower lying upon the mouths of the Nile in the form of a triangle about 3600 furlongs in compass. This lower was called Delta by the Greeks & Rahab by in scripture. The upper was again divided into two parts the the {sic} southern called Thebais & in scripture the land of Pathros & the northern called by the Greeks Heptanomis \& by the Romans Arcadia/. The Metropolis of Thebais was Thebes called in Scripture Ammon No (now corruptly Minis) that is the city of Ammon or Iupiter, or (as the seventy interpret) Diospolis. It stood on both sides the Nile at the distance of about 840 stadia below the less Catarract. Below it on the western side of the Nile was the city This. anciently the Metropolis of a kingdom wchat length came under the dominion of Thebes The Metropolis of Heptanomis was Noph Moph or Memphis a city on the western bank of the Nile just above the Delta & about 1000 stadi furlongs from the mediterraneū. Not far from Memphys were the fields where the Egyptians buried their dead & built Pyramids to their memory.

About half a mile or a mile below Memphys the Nile began to divide it self into several streams to water the Delta. The direct stream wch runs through the middle of the Delta is called the Thermusiac river or Sebennic Ostium. \main stream runs on the western side of the Delta & is called the Canobic Ostium./ The first stream wch parts from it runs on the eastern side of the Delta & is called the Bubastic river or Pelusiac ostium. The next stream wch parts from it runs on the western side \through the middle/ of the Delta & is called the Canobic ostium \Thermusiac River or Sebennic Ostium/. These are the three biggest streams & between them run several others.

In the way from Syria into Egypt at the entrance of Egypt about three miles from the sea & at some distance from the Pelusiac ostium of the Nile eastward stood Pelusium called also Sin Abaris & Sethron & Pithom, & westward \or southwest/ from it upon the \eastern/ bank of the same Pelusiac ostium stood Ramesses \& not far from Ramesses eastward was Pithom/. These were the two cities wch the Israelites built for Pharaoh & between them lay the land <132r> of Goshen where Israel dwelt was in bondage & on the other side of the river was the field & city of Zoan or Tanis & higher upon the eastern bank of the same stream not far below Memphys was Bubastis \or Phostast/ called in scripture Phibeseth. On the eastern border of Egypt about 1200 furlongs above Pelusium stood the city On Aven or Heliopolis whose Priest Poliphera married his daughter Assenath to Ioseph. The way between these two cities was through a desart over wch there was an open access from the east into Egypt till Sesostris fenced Egypt on that side \from the incursions of the Syrians and Arabians/ wth a great ditch of water carried from the Pelusium to Heliopolis. ‡ < insertion from f 131v > ‡ Sesostris & afterwards Paraoh Necoh & Darius Hystaspis endeavoured to cut a navigable ditch 100 cubits wide \& 62 miles long/ from the Nile to the red Sea, & the Greeks finished it. This ditch began about 12 miles below Memphys where Babylon or Phostat was afterwards built & {illeg} a little above Bubaste & {near} by the city about twelve miles below Memphys, & ran by the city Patumus {sic} to ye red Sea {sic} as Herodotus writes.[155] Others say it ran by Heropolis. The seventy (Gen 46 28) place Heropolis in the land of Ramesses say {sic} that Ioseph met his father Iacob at Heropolis & so place Heropolis in ye land of Ramesses & the Coptic version of ye seventy puts Pithom for Heropolis. Whence some {sic} probable \think/ that Heropolis Patumus & Pithom are ye same city. < text from f 132r resumes >

Between Egypt & the Red Sea were nations of Arabians called Troglodytæ, & in Scripture Sukkijm. And in Thebias between the Nile and the Red sea not far from Thebes[156] was Coptus a common city of the Egyptians & Arabians & the Metropolis of the Coptite Nome. This people gave the name of Coptites to all the Egyptians & thence the Greeks formed αἰα Copti |  Κοπτων, Ægyptæ & Probably the Coptites founded Thebes & thereby spread their name with their dominion. Yet Egypt is often \sometimes/ taken by writers for Delta & Heptanomis without Thebais & sometimes only for Delta.

\✝ Ammianus -/ < insertion from f 131v > ✝ Ammianus tells us:[157] Tres Provincias Ægyptus fertur habuisse temporibus priscis, Ægyptum ipsam & Thebaidem & Libyam: quibus duas adjecit posteritas, ab Ægypto Augustamnicam & Pentapolim a Libya sicciore disparatam. In Augustamnica he places the cities Lib Pelrasium & Rhinocorura & therefore it lay on the eastern side of the lower Egypt, as Libya did on the western. In Pentapolis he places the Gardens of the Hesperides & between this 7 the lower Egypt he places the drier part of Libya. < text from f 132r resumes >

About ten thousand furlongs above the mouths of the Nile in the northern latitude of about 14 or 15 degrees stood the city Meroe in a great Island or Peninsula of ye same name compassed by two arms of the Nile Astaboras & Astapus or Astusapes flowing from certain Lakes & meeting 700 furlongs below the City. Thence the Nile flowed northward 2000 furlongs \more and then bending backward ran southwest 3700 furlongs/ till it came almost over against Meroe. Then it ran again to the north with some inclination eastward 5300 furlongs to the great catarract & from thence northward 700 furlongs to the less catarract & from thence it ran northward in a right line through the middle of Eygpt 5000 furlongs to the Mediterranean Sea. These bendings of the Nile above the less catarract with the rivers wch there run into it, seem to be the rivers of Ethiopia mentioned in the Prophets Zephan. 3.16 & Isa. 18.1 # For < insertion from f 131v > # For the a[158] meadows on both sides the Nile above Egypt were very fertile after the manner of Egypt, & the inhabitants of those meadows & of the Islands of the Nile were Blacks flat-faced with curled hair & shrill voices. Beyond the meadows on both sides were barren regions & beyond those divers other Ethiopic Nations.

The b[159] ancients distinguished Africa from Asia by the river Nile & accordingly made two sorts of Ethiopians the eastern & the western. So Homer

Ἀιθ{illeg}ίοπας, τὸι διχθὰ δεδάιαται ἔσχατοι ἀνδρων

Οἱ μεν δυσομένου Υπερίονος, ὁι δ᾽ ἀνιόντος.

Partibus, hi qua Sol cadit & qua tollitur illi.

\In the time of the Monarchy of Egypt the eastern were under one government the western under \another// On the eastern or Arabic side of the Nile < text from f 132r resumes > On the \eastern or/ Arabic or eastern side of the Nile from the less cataract up to Meroe & beyond it were the Arabic Ethiopians called Megabars & Blemmijes {illeg} \These & the rest between the Nile & the red sea are called \{illeg}/ {Abexim} or Abassins &/ in Scripture Chus. Iuba e[160] makes them not Ethiopians but Arabians. \Iosephus d[161] saith that the Ethiopians even untill his days were called Chus both by themselves & by the neighbouring nations. Arius Montanus saith that they are still called {Cussi} \so/ by the Portugise Merchants of Portugal./ And Over against them on the other side the Nile \at some distance from Egypt were the Libyans & {parties} {illeg}/ were \& in the south of Libya were/ the Nubians or Abyssines \& other western Ethiopians wch seem in scripture to be/ called Lud. The Nubians were anciently <133r> divided into little kingdoms of their under kings of their own & fequently {sic} warred with the Arabian Ethiopians for one anothers territories. \The {sic} two sorts of \eastern & western/ Ethiopians the Ancients sometimes distinguished by f[162] calling them Ethiopians & Libyans. In scripture they seem to be distinguished by ye names of Chus & Lud./ The Megabar Ethiopians were next Egypt & used bucklers & lances {sic} & clubs knotted with iron & thereby differed from the other Ethiopians who used great bows & lances. These Ethiopians were sometimes subject to Egypt & sometimes reigned over it & accordingly the whole was called sometimes Egypt & sometimes Ethiopia. These are the Ethiopians mentioned by Ezekiel, I will make desolate the land of Egypt from Magdol to {illeg} Syene {illeg} even \&/ unto the border of Ethiopia Ezek.29.20 \10/. They seem to have extended from the Nile to ye Red sea, ffor the Topaz of \the Island/ Ophiusa Chitis or Topazium (an Island in the Red Sea \on ye coast of Egypt/ over against Coptus where excellent Topases were found in plenty) is called the Topaz of Ethiopia Iob 28.19 And again when God threatned the desolation of Eygpt by Nebuchadnezzar he adds, In that day shipps messengers shall go forth from me in ships to make the careless Ethiopians afraid (Ezek. 30.9) that is in ships upon the Red Sea. These are the Ethiopians wch warred under Egypt (2 Chron 12.3) & were captivated with the Egyptians by the Assyrians (Isa 20.4) being the strength of Thebes. Art thou (Nineveh) better then populous No. whose rampart was the [Red] Sea - Chus & Mizraim were her strength & it was infinite Put & Lubim were thy helpers yet she went into captivity Nahum 3.9. Chus here can be no other then the Ethiopian Arabians or Arabian Ethiopians bordering upon Thebais on one side as Egypt did on the other. And the same Ethiopia is meant in the book of Ester when Achsuerus is said to reign from India into {sic} Ethiopia \Chus/. Esth.1.1.

Next above the less cataract was Phylæ called in Scripture Phul, a city & region common to the Ethiopians & Egyptians & next below this cataract were Elephantis & Syene cities in the southern border of Egypt & in the mid way between Meroe & the Mediterranean Sea. Elephantis was in a little Island of the Nile three miles below the less cataract & Syene was a little lower & lay just under the Tropic of Cancer, that is in the north latitude of 2312 degrees.

Manetho an Egyptian Priest has given us the names of many kings of Egypt reigning in several parts of Egypt as at Elephantis, at Diospolis or Thebes, \at This,/ at Memphys, at Bubastis at Heracleapolis, at Tanis, at Sais, at Xois: & Eratosthenes has also given us a list of the kings of Thebes. Which confirms \makes it not improbable/ that there have been many kingdoms of Egypt at once as Palmenothes \Artaphanes/[163] & the Alexandrine Chronicle tell us there were. But a certain account of their rise magnitude duration & fall is not now to be had. Yet this is certain that before the reign of Sesac they \all the first kingdoms/ were all swallowed up by the kingdom of Thebes.


In the days of Iacob & Moses there was a kingdom in the lower Egypt of a considerable bigness whose kings resided at \{illeg} &/ Ramesses. For where Pharaoh & his court resided there Ioseph placed his father & brethren that they might be near him (Gen 45.10) not in the very city but in the territory adjoyning where their flocks & heards might have pasturage & this was in the land of Ramesses (Gen 47.11) in Goshen wch seems to be one of the villages of the city \being on ye same side of ye river so that a chariot could pass from the one to ye other/ (Gen 46.|28,| 29) so neare the city that Pharaohs daughter coming down to wash her self in the river & walking along the river wth her maids found Moses whom his mother had hid in the flaggs & sent for a nurse of the Hebrew weomen staying till the nurse came to receive the child Exod. 2.3, 5, 7, 9. In that city Moses did his wonders in the sight of Pharaoh Exod. 7.15, 20, & 9.29, 33. And when the first born were smitten, wch was at midnight, Pharaoh rose up in the night & called for Moses & Aaron & ordered them & the people of Israel to get them out of the land, & the same night the Egyptians lent the Israelites Iewels & rayment & urged them to be gone & the next morning Moses & Aaron led the children of Israel from Ramesses out of Egypt & they journied that day with their flocks & heards to Succoth a place in the wilderness bewteen Egypt & the Red Sea, Exod. 11.8 & 12.29, 30, 31, 37, 38, 41. Num 33.3, 5. Ramesses was therefore the royal seat of this kingdom: but of what extent this kingdome was is uncertain. I suspect it comprehended but a part of the Delta because in two days time the children of Israel were scattered throughout all the land thereof to gather straw (Exod 5. 12,14) |as because the King of this Kingdome said that the children of Israel were more & mightier then his people (Exod 1.9. Psal. 105.24.) & upon ✝| \as well for the reasons above written as because upon ✝/ < insertion from f 133v > ✝ notice that the children of Israel fled Pharaoh speedily took all ye Chariots of Egypt, being 600 in number, & pursued after them & overtook them at Pihahiroth their third encampment that is at ye end of the third day. This small number of chariots & quick pursuit by land makes it probable that Pharaohs kingdom lay only on ye eastern side of ye Bubastick river. Yet \after Ramesses was demolished &/ Zoan a city on the other side of that river becoming afterwards long after becoming \became/ the royal city of the lower Egypt (Isa. 19.11 & 30.4) Moses is said to have done his wonders in the feild or territory of that City \Zoan/ (Psal. 78.) the territory of this city now comprehending the territory of Ramesses.

< text from f 134r resumes >

The Kings of Ramesses are not mentioned by Manetho except Timaus the last king whom the Shepherds conquered. Nor did Manetho know any thing of the peregrination & servitude of Israel in Egypt but takes those victorious shepherds for the Israelites, wch makes me suspect that the kings in his dynasties are generally later then the days of Moses. ffor he being a Priest of Heliopolis wch was under the dominion of Ramesses, it may be presumed that he would be most diligent & particular in the antiquities of his own country & therefore would not have omitted the kings of Ramesses & servitude of Israel had his records reacht so high.

The first & second Dynasties of Manetho contein 17 kings of \{ye} city/ This, the first of wch is Menes accounted the founder of the kingdom, commemorated in \in memory of whom/ ye solemnity \& worship/ of the Ox Mnevis, was instituted \was instituted/. <135r> The sixteenth is Sesochris who reigned 48 years & [εἰχεν ὕχος ε πλάτος γ, read εἰχεν ὕχος πηχων ε πλαιστων γ] was five cubits & three palms high.

The 3rd 4th 6t 7th & 8th Dynaties contein the first 24 kings of Memphis enumerated by name & their successors without naming them. The eighteenth king of Memphys in these Dynasties is Sesochris who reigned 48 years & was five cubits & three palms high & is therefore the same Sesochris with the former, that is Sesach or Sesostris. ffor Sesostris was of a gigantic stature. Diodorus says that he was of the same height with his statues which were 4 cubits 4 palms high. Eusebius that he was 4 cubits 3 palms & 2 digits high. Which in royal or sacred cubits of a \common/ cubit & {illeg} a \royal/ palm to ye cubit, almost equal 5 common cubits & 3 palms.

The 5t Dynasty conteins eight kings of Elephantis whereof the 3d & 4th kings are Nerchepheres & Sisicris, or (as they are named by Syncellus) Nephercheres & Sisiris & these seem to be the same kings with Nephercheres & Sesochris the 15th and 16th kings of This & with Zebercheres & Sesochris the 16th and 18th kings of Memphys in the Dynasties above mentioned. T

The 9th and 10t h Dynasties mention kings of Heracleopolis but their names are not set down.

The 11th |12t| & 13th {sic} Dynasties contein the first 24 kings of Diospolis or Thebes enumerated by name & their successors without name. The 20th of these kings is Sesostris who reigned 48 years & in nine years subdued Asia & part of Europe & set up his statues wherever he went. By the length of his reign he is the same king with Sesochris in the former Dynasties.

Now according to the above mentioned Dynasties of Manetho, the 15 kings of This wch preceded him reigned 487 years. The 17 of Memphys who preceded him reigned 498 years and the 19 of Diospolis who preceded him Sesostris reigned 143 years. And therefore if Sesochris & Sesostris be Sesac, all these Dynasties began later then the servitude of the Israelites in Egypt. ffor the Israelites came out of Egypt 520 years before Sesac invaded Iudea.

The 14th Dynasty is of the kings of Χοις without name.

The 15th 16th & 17th Dynasty is of the Shepherds & they invaded Egypt after Moses had led the Israelites out of it as I shall shew hereafter. In the 10th year of Salatis the first king of the Shepherds {illeg} Africanus begins the reign of Menes the kings of Thebes.

The 18th 19th & 20th Dynasties contain another series of <136r> the kings of Diospolis the 17th of wch is Sethos. Iosephus reciting out of Manetho the kings of these Dynasties with their actions saith that Sethos (or as he calls him Sethosis) was Ægyptus the brother of Armais or Danaus & having forces by land & sea invaded Cyprus & Phœnicia & the cities of the east. He was therefore the same king with Sesostris or Sesac. The 16 kings wch preceeded him in these Dynasties preceded him reigned only 287 years, The 20 & therefore were all of them later then Moses.

The 21th & 23th Dynasties contain eleven kings of Tanis the second of wch is represented contemporary to David. I suspect these kings were Viceroys under the kings of Thebes. \But the king of Tanis began long after./ The 22th Dynasty conteins nine kings of Bubastis the first of wch is Sesonchis or Sesochis that is Sesac. And the rest of the Dynasties of Mantheo contein kings of a later date.

Eratosthenes has given us a series or Canon of 38 kings of Thebes beginning wth Menes & differing from the Canons of Manetho. In the title of the Canon according to the edition of Africanus, the first king Menes is said to begin his reign in the 10th year of the reign of the Phenician Shepherds in Egypt. The first nineteen kings in this canon reigned 574 years & the 20th 21th & 22th kings called Apappus Echeseos & Nitocris seem to be the same with Phiops Methesuphis & Nitocris the three last kings of Memphys in the sixt Dynasty of Manetho. ffor Apappus & Phiops ({illeg}) reigned each one hundred years & therefore are the one & the same king. Echeseos & Methusuphis reigned each one year & Nitocris was a Queen of the same name in both canons. Now before these three kings \two kings & one Queen/ of Memphys reigned {illeg} \20/ other kings of Memphys whose reign took up 586 years according to the 3d 4th & 6th Dynasties of Manetho, & therefore Menes the first king of Thebes in the canon of Eratosthenes began his reign later by 12 years then the first king of Memphys in the Dynasties of Manetho, that is at the same time with & \that is at the same time with/ Menes the first king of This. \For he/ began his reign eleven years later then the said first king of Memphys as above. & \Also/ both kings (Menes of Thebes & Menes of This) reigned above 60 years so that their reigns were contemporary & he of Thebes is in the Canon called Menes Thebennites [read Thinites] \that is/ Menes of This so that they were the same king.

From all which it seems to me that in the Dynasties of <137r> Manetho & Eratosthenes there is nothing so ancient as the coming of Israel out of Egypt. And yet the Egyptian Priests by summing up all the years of all the Dynasties together have made their kingdom much older then the creation of the world: which shews that they they knew not when their kings reigned. In these Dynasties the kings seem to be often set out of order \insomuch that its difficult to find above two or three together in due order of time/ & their names often se \are/ much corrupted & some of them were perhaps only |brothers or sisters of \Kings or Viceroys or Secretaries of State/| Viceroys {sic}, wch makes it difficult to conclude any thing of certainty from them further then that in the days of the Iudges of Israel there were several kingdoms in Egypt, all wch united into one Monarchy before the reign of Sesostris. |& the \same/ King is named several times, the Priests of Egypt affecting by naming many kings & adding Dynasty to Dynasty, to make their nation look ancient. According to these Dynasties set in order as above there were in the days of the Iudges of Israel many kingdoms in Egypt all wch united into one Monarchy before the reign of Sesostris. But whether those kingdoms were so ancient as the Dynasties make them may be doubted. For by further examining the order of the kings we shal find hereafter that several kings reigned after Sesostris who in the Dynasties are named before him|

Sometime after the departure of the Israelites out of Eygpt the Shepherds from the east invaded & conquered Timaus[164] king of the lower Egypt & burnt the cities & subverted the Temples of the Egyptians & reduced the people into servitude \& at length creating a king over them they fortified the city Abaris/ & reigning there a long time had various warrs with the kings of the higher Egypt parts of Eygpt. This invasion I place after the departure of Israel out of Egypt because during their stay in Eygpt there is no mention of Shepherds or Arabians or Canaanites there but Pharoah & all his people are \constantly/ spoken of as Eygptians. The Israelites had been in Egypt 215 \years/ & yet remained a distinct people so as not to be called Egyptians & the Shepherds \after they invaded Egypt/ remained also a distinct people because the Egyptians at length drove them out of Egypt.[165] The Egyptians abominated Shepherds & would not so much as eat with them & by way of distinction b[166] called the {sic} kings \of the Shepherds/ Hicsos, that is Shepherd kings. And they differed also in religion the Shepherds sacrificing men after the manner of the Canaanites & Arabian nations of Arabia (whence came the story of Busisis) but the Egyptians abolishing such sacrifices. But in the story of Moses the king of Egypt under whom Israel was in bondage was called Pharaoh like ye kings of the Egyptian royal line of the Egyptians, & he & his captains & army & all his people except the Israelites are considered as one nation & called Egyptians without distinction. Pharaoh sought the life of Moses for killing an Egyptian (Exod. 2.15) The Iews were in bondage under the Egyptians (Exod. 3.8, 9) The tenn plagues fell on the Egyptians & the Egyptians were drowned in the red sea. Not one word in all the story of any other people then Israelites & Egyptians & Israelites. And it is further to be observed that the worship of the calf wch Israel brought out of Egypt <138r> was not that of the Canaanites or Arabians but that which the genuine Egyptians paid to their Gods Osiris. And Pharaoh \feared/ least upon any incursion of forreigners Israel should help them & go with them out of the land. And as shepherds were an abomination to the Egyptians in the days of Iacob so the sacrifices of Shepherds were an abomination to the Egyptians in the days of Moses (Exod. 10.9) It was after this time therefore that Egypt came under the dominion of the shepherds. These Egyptians therefore were not the kingdom of Shepherds, but that kingdom either ceased before the days of Iacob or was set up after the days of Moses.

These shepherds, saith Manetho,[167] first seated themselves in Egypt without warr & then subjecting them gaining the Princes of the region where they were they invaded the cities of Egypt with great violence & reducing them into servitude at length made Salatis their King. He took Memphys and built & fortified Abaris or Pelusium with strongly with a wall & numerous garison. After him reigned sucessively Beon Apacnas, Apophis, Ianias or Staan, Assis or Arcles & many others. Their city Abaris the Egyptians accounted the city of Typhon calling it Sethron from Seth a name of Typhon, & the country about Abaris was long after the fall of this kingdom called Bucolica from because the Shepherds there fed their heards & flocks. Perhpas it was also from this city Abaris or Auaris that Ægpt was sometime called Aeria, & a Dynasty of the Gods Auritæ. These shepherds like the people of Phenicia & Arabia sacrificed men & in Busiris a city in the middle of the Delta the Egyptians long after the expultion of these Shep {sic}Shepherds continued to beat themselves in their worship[168] & some cut their foreheads after the manner of the Priests of Baal[169] the God of the Zidonians. At the Tomb \or Temple/ of Osiris they sacrificed red men because Typhon was red & few Eygptians being found of that colour they usually sacrificed strangers, whence came the story of Busiris. In Heliopolis they sacrificed three men daily till one of the kings of Egypt whom Manetho calls Amosis having taken that city from them abolished those sacrifices by substituting waxen images of men. At length \therefore/ Misphragmuthosis king of Thebais drave them out of almost all Eygpt & made them retire into the the city Abaris where they walled in tenn thousand Acres of land & shut themselves up, & his son & successor Tuthmosis or Thummosis \or (as Appian the Gramniunan \& others/ call {sic} him) Amosis/ beseiged them there & covenanted with them that they should leave Egypt & go whether they pleased & thereupon <139r> saith Manetho, they went out of Eygpt through the Desart into Syria.

Hence Manetho concludes that they were Phœnicians the Israelites. Others take them for Arabians. Africanus speaking of the first six kings saith they were Phenicians. Ησαν δὲ Φοίνικες ξενοι βασιλεις 5. Bochartus makes them a colony of Phenicians & interprets the names of the first six kings in the Phenician language. And Ierome saith of the language of Canaan, Inter Ægyptiam & Hebræam media est et Hebrææ magna ex parte confinis. Its {illeg} between the Egyptian & Hebrew & for the most part comes neare the Hebrew. \Which is a strong argument that the Canaanites were mixt of people who had conversed in Eygpt long be later then the Hebrews had done./ The Canaanites were shepherds & lay next Egypt & the main body of the Arabians lay at a greater distance from Egypt wth Edom between & so were less likely to invade it. ffor Edom lay before Egypt b[170] extending from Canaan to the Red Sea & the Edomites kept their seats.

Herodotus tells us that a region in Memphys round the temple of Proteus was inhabited by Tyrian Phenicians all which place was called the camp of the Tyrians. Probably these were the reliques of the Shepherds. He tells us also of a city in the Delta called Atarbechis in which was a temple of Venus. And by the name of the city this Venus seems to be the Venus of the Phœnicians {illeg} called Atargatis. The name is corruptly formed of Aster-dag, \& signifies a Queen of Shepherds heardsmen & marriners/ the word Aster, & in the plural number Asteroth signifying heards of cattel & flocks of sheep & the word dag a fish. As a Queen of Shepherds & heardsmen she wore upon her head the head of an Ox (that is a diadem so formed) & was called Astaroth, Astarte, Athara, & as a Queen of Mariners she was sometimes formed like a fish below & then called Atargatis, Derceto, {Aterbechis} & here in Herodotus Atarbechis. When any bulls died in Egypt it was the custome of the Egyptians to bury them neare their cities with one or two horns above ground for a signe & after a certain time when their bodies were rotted away the inhabitants of this city Atarbechis came to the cities of Egypt in ships, dug up the bones, carried them away to a common burying place & there buried them together. This service imposed by the Egyptians upon the inhabitants of this city implies that they were the remains of ancient heardsmen who had left a brood of cattel scattered over the land of Egypt, & their Goddess Atarbechis after whom according to the <140r> custome of the Egyptians \who named their cities from their Gods)/ the city seems to be named implies that they were Phenicians. So also the head of Osiris carried yearly out of Egypt to Biblos in Phœnicia & the Syrians lamenting Adonis after the manner that the Egyptians did Osiris are further arguments that the Phœnicians came from Egypt.

Lucian tells us[171] that the Phœnicians had a Temple which was not Assyrian but Ægyptian & came into Phœnicia from Heliopolis & was large & very ancient. He tells us also that at Biblais they had another large Temple dedicated to Venus where in which they worshipped Adonis & every year beat themselves & lamented his death throughout the whole region & then performed to him a sacrifice of the dead & shaved their heads after the manner of the Egyptians when their Apis was dead. And some of Biblus affirmed that under the name of Adonis the Egyptian Osiris was worshipped & all this mourning performed to him, & that he was buried at Biblus, & \they/ confirmed their opinion by this ceremony that the head of Osiris was every year brought out of Egypt to Biblos in a ship, &, saith Lucian I saw this head formed of the Egyptian papyr. This custome it seems they took to be in remembrance of the bringing of the true head of Osiris out of Egypt to be buried at Biblus & upon that opinion grownded their worship. So then Adonis, Venus & the Boar are but other names of Osiris, Isis & Typhon, & the worship of Adonis & his Venus is Egyptian. All which are further arguments that the Phœnicians came out of Egypt. And its probable also that they brought their Hercules from thence.

It seems to me therefore that as when David invaded Edom & Nebuchadnezzar invaded Iudea the invaded people retired into Eygpt, so when Ioshua invaded Canaan & drave out the inhabitants they retired in great numbers into Egypt & drave out the inhabitants & seated themselves about Abaris where they found pasturage for their cattel, & Manetho saith they came in without warr & thence its probable that they were fugitives but when they found themselves numerous & strong enough they made warr upon Timaus king of the Egyptians (whom perhaps Ezekiel calls Tammuz) & overthrew the kingdom of Ramesses & staying long in Eygpt used themselves to navigation upon the river Nile & when they were shut up in Abaris applied themselves to the sea more then before for want of room & still more when they were obliged to leave Egypt using \driven out of Egypt retired into the land of Canaan & mixing with the Phœnicians used navigation on/ driven out of Egypt retired into Phœnicia, & \mixing with the Phœnicians some of them/ applied themselves to sea-affairs.


Polemo in the first book of his Greek histories saith expresly that in the time of Apis the son of Phoroneus part of the Egyptian army withdrew it self from Egypt & seated it self on Palestine not far from Arabia. Africanus in citing this passage[172] thinks that Polemo understood the Israelites led out of Egypt by Moses. And Manetho tells us that when the shepherds were expelled Egypt they went through the wilderness into Syria & built a city in the land wch is now called Iudea wch might suffice for so many people & called it Ierusalem. He confounds the Shepherds with the Israelites as if the Israelites were the Shepherds expelled by Misphragmuthosis & upon their coming out of Egypt seated themselves in Palestine & built Ierusalem whereas ye Israelites came out of Egypt before the shepherds went into it. But however he lets us understand that when the shepherds were expelled Egypt they returned into Phenicia their original country, & there seated themselves, & that this was done a little before the seventh year of David. For David reigned seven years in Hebron & then smote the Iebusites & took from them Iebus wch is Ierusalem & reigned there 33 years more & built Ierusalem round about.

Diodorus in his 40th Book[173] saith that in Egypt there were formerly multitudes of strangers of several nations who used forreign rites and ceremonies in worshipping the Gods for wch they were expelled Egypt & under Danaus Cadmus & other skilfull commanders after great hardships came into Greece & other places but the greatest part of them came into Iudea not far from Egypt a country then uninhabited & desart being conducted thither by one Moses a wise & valiant man; who after he had possest himself of the country among other cities built Ierusalem & the Temple. Diodorus here mistakes ye original of the Israelites as Manetho had done before, but thereby lets us know that the shepherds were expelled Egypt just \a little/ before the building of Ierusalem & the Temple & after several hardships some of them came into Greece & other places under the conduct of Cadmus & other captains, but the most of them setled in Phœnicia next Eygpt. We may reccon therefore that the wars between the Egyptians \King of Thebais/ & the shepherds were the occasion that in those days so many men came with Colonies out of Egypt & Phenicia into Greece as Cecrops, Selex, \Inachus,/ Cadmus, Erectheus, Peteos, Danaus; & that these things happened in the reign of Saul \Eli, Samuel &/ David, Solomon & Rehobeam, Cadmus being contemporary to David as was shewed above.

When the Israelites came out of Egypt God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistims although that was near, for God said, Least peradventure the people repent when they see war <142r> and they return into Egypt, but God led the people about through the way of the wilderness of ye Red sea Exod. 13.7. And therefore the shepherds upon leaving Egypt were to expect war with the Philistims unles they took care to prevent it by a treaty.

Manetho tells us that Thummosis besieged ye shepherds in Abaris untill he despaired of forcing them & then covenanted with them that if they would leave Egypt quietly they should go safely whether they pleased & thereupon they went out of Egypt through the Desart into Syria with all their possessions & families to ye number of 240000. They were not beaten out of Egypt but retired quietly with their heards & flocks & wives & childred upon a compact that they should not be pursued or hurt in their retiring. And since they did not retire till they had taken care of a safe retreat, it may be presumed that they did not retire till they had taken care of a place into wch they might safely retreat, & for that end had treated with the Philistims the nation which lay next Egypt in their way to Syria towards Syria.

The Philistims in those days reigned long over Israel so as to give the name of Palestine to the whole land of Canaan. From the days of Sampson to the days of Samuel 20th year of Samuel they they reigned 40 years over Israel. Then Samuel by one single victory shook off their dominion & took from them the cities wch they had taken from Israel from Ekron even unto Goth & put a full end to that war so that the Philistims came no more into the coasts of Israel 1 Sam. 7. But afterwards they became again Lords over the coasts Israel before Saul was chosen King (1 Sam. 9.16) & then put Garrisons in ye land & suffered not a Smith to be in the land of Israel least the Israelites should make themselves swords and spears, but the Israelites went to the Artificers of the Philistims to sharpen their shares & coulters & axes & mattocks. And in the second year of Saul when Ionathan smote a Garrison of the Philistims the Philistims came against Saul with an army of thirty thousand chariots & six thousand horsmen & foot as the sand on the sea shore in multitude so that the people of Israel were in a strait & hid themselves for fear 1 Sam.13. And there was thence forward sore war against the Philistims all the days of Saul, & when Saul saw any strong or valiant man he took him unto him (1 Sam. 14.52) nor could the Philistims be subdued any more till David had beaten them in many battels. Now the very great numbers of the Philistims in the <143r> beginning of their war with Saul & David & the greatness of their power in this war above what it was in the war war with Samuel implies an access of forces & seems no way to be so well accounted for as by supposing that when the Philistims being beaten by Samuel found themselves too weak for the Hebrews & the shepherds being besieged by in Abaris found themselves too weak for the Egyptians, the Philistims & Shepherds agreed to assist one another & the Philistims thereupon received the shepherds into their territories & joyntly with them made war upon & subdued the Hebrews till Saul revolted & he & David by a tedious & difficult war recovered the liberty of the Hebrews.

And all this is the more probable because if the Shepherds went out of Egypt into Palestine just before Saul revolted from ye Philistims, it was easy for Manetho & Diodorus to take the revolting Israelites for the Shepherds & so to ascribe the building of Ierusalem & the Temple to them as if the wars wch Saul & David made upon the Philistims were those by wch the shepherds seated themselves in Palestine. For the heathen historians knew that the Israelites came out of Egypt but how & when they came out they did not know, nor that more nations then one came out of Egypt & invaded Palestine successively; & therefore they took the two nations of the Israelites & Shepherds to be one & the same nation, & some historians hearing that Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt took him to be the captain of the shepherds.

About the time that Saul reigned when the Philistims strengthened by the access of the shepherds were in their greatest power they besieged & took Zidon & thereby gave occasion to the building of Tyre as Trogus in his 18th Book thus mentions. A rege Ascaloniorum expugnati Sidonij navibus appulsi Tyrum urbem ante annum Trojanæ cladis condiderunt. Sidon being sackt by the King of Ascalon the Sidonians fled in Ships to Tyre & built that city before the year of the destruction of Troy. And hence Isaiah calls Tyre the daughter of Zidon, the inhabitants of the Isle whom the merchants of Zidon have replenished. This original of Tyre I understand not of the first building of the town wch Iosephus saith was 240 years before the building of Solomons Temple but of the making it a populous trading City like that of Zidon & building it accordingly. For the Zidonians built it for that purpose. And this seems to have been in the days of Hiram & his father Abibalus the two first Kings of Tyre named in history. For Iosephus tells us[174] out of Menander <144r> & Dius that Hiram king of Tyre succeeding his father Abibalus added a large region to the Island eastward by heaping up earth & built the city greater & the Temple of Iupiter Olympus wch was in an Island he joyned to the city by a ridge of earth thrown between them & adorned the Temple with guifts of gold & demolishing the old Temples built new ones & dedicated the Temples of Hercules and Astartes. Kings upon founding or much enlarging their kingdoms usually build their cities more sumptuous as David & Solomon did Ierusalem & the Temple, Sesostris the cities & temples of Eygpt, Nebuchadnezzar the city Babylon, Deioces Ecbatane & Augustus Rome, & accordingly the building of Tire by Hiram argues a new dominion of the Tyrians. Now that this was the building of Tyre mentioned by Trogus may be concluded from hence that Solomon in the beginning of his reign called the servants of Hiram Zidonians. My servants, saith he, shall be with thy servants & unto thee will I give hire for thy servants according to all that thou desirest, for thou knowest that there is not amongst us any that can skill to hew timber like unto the Zidonians1 King. 5.6. The new inhabitants of Tire had not yet lost the name of Zidonians nor had the old inhabitants (if there were any considerable number of them) gained the reputation of the new ones for skill in hewing of timber as they would have done had shipping been long in use at Tyre. We may reccon therefore that ye king of Ascalon (one of the five Lords of ye Philistims) took Zidon in the beginning of the reign of David or not long before. For then were the Philisitims most potent & active in invading their neighbours & propagating their dominion. And from the hostility between the Philistims & Sidonians it seems to have happened that David had friendship with the king of Tyre while he made war upon ye Philistims. So then Ierusalem & Tyre were built about the same time as head cities of new kingdoms & thence forward continued in a flourishing condition till Nebuchadnezzar beseiged & took them.

The red sea being very shallow & for that reason calmer then the Mediterranean, was navigable in smaller vessels such as men could make in the beginning. And the short voiages between the many Islands wth wch that sea abounded were an invitation to try that sea first. There navigation had its rise & was propagated thence to the Mediterranean. For Pliny tells us:[175] Nave primus in Greciam ex <145r> Ægypto Danaus advenit; ante ratibus navigabatur inventis in mari rubro inter insulas a rege Erythra. King Erythra is the king of Edom usually supposed to be Edo Esau. ffor Esau, Edom & Erythra are words of the same signification & signify red.[176] Whence that sea was called mare Eyrthræum the red sea or sea of Edom. From these Edomites the Phenicians seem to have had their rise: for the Phenicians traded first upon the Red sea & went thence from thence to the Mediterranean, as they themselves & the Persians related to Herodotus.[177] And so Pliny:[178] Tyrij orti ab Erythræo mari ferebantur, & solinus, Tyrij a mari rubro profecti. Hence Dionysius Afer[179] calls the Phenicians Erythreans & his old Interpreter thinks the name taken from the Red Sea. And Strabo tells us[180] that some report that the Phœnicians and Sidonians were colonies of the inhabitants of the Ocean & that they were called Phenicians [Punici] because the sea is red.

How and when the Phenicians came from the red sea may be gathered from the history of David. For when David smote Edom, Ioab stayed there with all Israel six months untill he had smitten every male in Edom. 1 King. 11.15, 16. This made Hadad the young King of Edom fly into Egypt with certain Edomites his fathers servants, and as many of the Edomites as could escape fled to the Philistims & to Sidon & other places where they could be protected. For Stephanus in Azot tells us τάυτην ἔκτισαν εἱς των ἐπανελθόντων ἀπ᾽ Ερυθρας θαλάσσης φευγάδ{illeg}ων. A fugitive or Exul from the Red sea built Azot or Ashdod. That is, a fugitive Prince of Edom fortified it against the Israelites. By this victory over the Edomites, Ezion Gebar & Eloth (sea ports of the Edomites on the Red Sea) came into the hands of David & his successors untill the reign of Ioram, that is for 150 years or above. And Solomon[181] built a Navy in Ezion Gebar & sent it on the Red sea with the fleet of Hiram king of Tyre to Tarshish & Ophir for gold & silver & ivory & Peacocks [or Parrots] & Apes & pretious stones & Almug trees; by which means the Queen of Sheba or Sabæa in Arabia Felix heard of Solomon's glory; and Hiram sent with Solomons servants in Solomon's navy his own servants shipmen who had knowledge of the sea. Solomon's servants were therefore novices in sea affairs & Hiram's servants were experienced mariners well aquainted wth \shipmen who had knowledge of/ those seas by former voyages, for Hiram had also a navy on the Red sea1 King. 10.11, 22. Thus the trade of the Edomites on the Red sea came into the hands of Solomon & Hiram |until the Egyptians invaded that sea & left only the Mediterranean to the Tyrians.|

In what year the Edomites were vanquished is uncertain. If Solomon may be supposed about 22 or 23 years old at the birth of his eldest son Rehoboam, since Rehoboam was 41 years old at the death of Solomon, the birth of Solomon <146r> will be about the 17th year of Davids reign. And since Solomon was David's second son by Bathsheba, the seige of Rabbah when David first lay with Bathsheba will begin at least two years before & in two years before that David had two great victories over the Ammonites & Syrians so that the war against them began in the 13th year of David's reign, & the first 12 years of his reign were spent in wars with the house of Saul & with the Philistims and Amalekites & Edomites & Moabites In the two first years of his reign he warred with the house of Saul & with the Philistims & Amalekites & Edomites & Moabites. In the two first years of his reign he warred with the house of Saul & his next wars were with the Philistims. Then he took Ierusalem & came & dwelt there in the eighth year of his reign, & the wars against Edom & Moab seem to be in the next four years: so yt the error cannot be great if we place the flight of the Edomites in upon the tenth year of David's reign.

When the Edomites were driven from their seats it may be presumed that they sent out some colonies upon ye Mediterranean & of this there are footsteps. ffor \Herodotus tells us that among the colonies of Cadmus there were Erythræans &/ Stephanus (in Ερυθράι) tells us yt Erythra was the name of a city in Ionia, of another in Lybia, of another in Locris, of another in Bœotia & of another in Cyprus. Erythræ in Ionia was a seaport town & a colony of forreigners. The inhabitants said that they came from Crete[182] under the conduct of Erythrus the some of Rhadamanthus. but {sic} their God was Phenician;[183] for they worshipped the statue of Hercules brought from Tyre & in memory of its comeing from thence they kept it standing upon the wood of the ship wch brought it. By their God you may know that they were Phœnicians, & by their name that they came from the Erythrean sea.

Herodotus tells us[184] that the Phenicians were the authors of Dissentions, who coming from the red sea to the Mediterranean & seating themselves on the sea coasts of Syria, quickly undertook long voyages & in carrying of Egyptian & Assyrian wares passed over to other coasts and chiefly to Argos: ffor Argos was then the chief city of Greece. That the Phenicians coming hither exposed their merchandise & after 5 or 6 days, when they had sold almost all certain weomen came to the sea[185] amongst {sic} whom was Io the daughter of Inachus. And whilst they bought what they liked, the Phenicians set upon them & seizing Io & some others, carried them into their ship & sailed into Egypt, & this was the beginning of injuries. That in requital of this injury, some Greeks of the Island Crete afterwards <147r> coming to Tyre carried away Europa, and a while after the Greeks committed also a second injury in carrying away Medea from Colchos. And when the king of Colchos sent an Embassadour to demand his daughter back & that the raptors might be punished, the Greeks answered that as they (to wit the Egyptians of whom the kingdom of Colchos was a colony) had not punished the raptors of Io, so neither would the Greeks punish those of Medea. In the next age Paris stole Helena & these things occasioned the ruin of Troy. From these passages of Herodotus it appears that the navigation of the Phenician Merchants to Greece began upon their coming from the Red Sea, & by consequence that the rapture of Io and Europa was not ancienter then the reign of David. The Sidonians might have ships before, \& sail as far as Eygpt,/ but it doth not appear that they traded wth Greece before they fled from the Philistims & the Philistims fled from David & the merchants of Edom were driven by David from their trade upon the red Sea & deprived of their estates & country & thereby necessitated to seek out a new trade upon the mediterranean for getting a livelyhood. In such vessels as were used upon the Red sea they sailed as far by the shoar of the Mediterranean till they came as far as Greece. These vessels were round & continued in use till the Egyptians invented long ships in one of wch with fifty oars Danaus came into Greece. |&| In imitation of this ship the Greeks built the ship Argo.[186] Then \At that time/ masts & sails \were also/ invented by \Isis & Neptune & used by Theseus &/ Dædalus came into use, & navigation still improving the Phœnicians soon after the Trojan war (as Strabo relates)[187] sailed to the middle of the coast of Afric where they built cities & went out beyond the Pillars of Hercules into the Atlantic sea. The Phœnicians seem to be chiefly Zidonians: ffor the Edomites fled to the enemies of Israel & in those days the Zidonians grew famous among the Greeks while Tyre was scarce known to them: Homer often mentions Zidon & Zidonians but makes no mention of Tyre.

The expulsion of the Shepherds out of Eygpt Polemo places in the time \of Apis the son of/ of Phoroneus as above, but this Apis was a little later being supposed by the Greeks to be the Egyptian Osiris who was Sesostris as we shal shew hereafter. Iustin Martyr in Martyr a[188] tells us that Moses lived in the days of Ogyges & Inachus, & that Apion the son of Possidonius in his commentary against the Iews & in his fourth book of Histories saith that when Inachus reigned at Argos the Iews under the conduct of Moses departed from Amasis king of Egypt, and that the same thing is reported by Ptolomy <148r> the Mendesian an Egyptian Priest who wrote the affairs of Egypt, & by Hellanicus & Philocorus who wrote the Acts of the Athenians & by Castor & Thallus & Alexander Polyhistor. So also Tatian b[189] & Clemens c[190] out of ancient authors make Inachus contemporary to Moses & Thallus his son Phoroneus to Ogyges under whom happened {sic} the first flood. The Shepherds were therefore expelled Egypt & the monarchy of Egypt erected in the days of Inachus the father of Phoroneus & Io, & therefore Inachus reigned in the days of Saul & a little before & after. For the shepherds came out of Egypt a little before & the rapture of Io was a little after. Phoroneus is reported the first who made laws & erected courts of justice at Argos & reduced the people from a rude & salvage way of living to a civil one & erected an altar to Iuno & these things the Greeks learnt of the Egyptians & Phenicians & therefore Phoroneus reigned about the time that the Phœnicians began to sail into Greece or presently after, by consequence after the expulsion of the shepherds & Edomites so that his reign fell in with part of Davids. He was contemporary d[191] to Ægialeus the first king of the Sicyonij, being e[192] his brother, & is accounted the first man & the father of mankind, that is after the flood of Ogyges, & therefore since Greece f[193] knew nothing ancienter then Inachus, Ægialeus & this flood, we may reccon that there is no memory of any thing done in Europe ancienter then the days of Samuel \& Eli/. Before the use of letters brought in by Cadmus, nothing could be long remembred.

Since the Phenicians who stole Io carried her into Æygpt, it is evident that they then traded between Eygpt & Greece. Now the principal trafic with Egypt has in all ages been for corn. This was a commodity with wch Æygpt always abounded & wch \the new colonies in/ Greece then wanted. ffor plowing & sowing was not yet in use among the Greeks. When Solomon desired Hiram king of Tyre to send him timber for his buildings,[194] he gave Hiram for the timber, twenty thousand measures of wheat & twenty thousand measures of barly & twenty thousand baths of wine & twenty thousand baths of oyle. Whence it seemes that the people of Tyre were numerous in proportion to the soile so as to want corn & wine & oyle & therefore Egypt being neare them they would be apt to send Merchants thither for what corn they wanted; & this might occasion a trafic between Egypt & Phœnicia some time <149r> before the Phœnicians began to sail as for as Greece. For when the Philistims took Sidon, some of Sidon made their escape by sea to Tyre, wch without shipping they could not have done. When therefore the Phœnicians {sic} began to sail as far as Greece & to set on foot a trade between Greece and Eygpt, it may justly be presumed that the principal commodity wth wch they supplied the new colonies in Greece was corn. And this was first done in the a little before the reign of Erechtheus king of Athens & in the days of Myles the son of Lelex king of Laconia.

Erechtheus a[195] had several sons Cecrops, Pandion, Metion, Thespis, Orneus, & daughters Orythyia, Procris, Creusa, \Merope/. Xuthus upon the death of his father Hellen king of Thessaly, b[196] being expelled Thessaly by his elder brothers Æolus & Dorus, fled to Athens & married Creusa \the daughter of Erechtheus/ by whom he had two sons Achæus and Ion. Ion married Helice the daughter {sic} of Selinus king of Ægianus & succeeded Selinus in the kingdom. Æchæus by the help of the Athenians & Ægialeans recovered his fathers kingdom in Thessaly & his sons Archander & Archilites married the daughters of Danaus; & therefore the daughters of Danaus were three short generations or about 70 or 80 years younger then Erechtheus. In a war between the Athenians & Eleusinians, the Athenians made Ion their captain & in that war Erechtheus was slain \in battel/. Vpon his death his sons falling out about their fathers kingdom, Xuthus adjudged it to Cecrops the eldest son, & thereupon \but/ Cecrops after he had by the assistance of Ion reigned a while, was expelled the kingdom by his brothers & Pandion succeeded. He was c[197] the father of Ægeus the father of Theseus who in the time of the Argonautic expedition was about 45 years old. Metion or Eumetion was d[198] the father of Eupalamus the father of Dædalus who flourished in the reign of Oedipus & built the Labyrinth in Crete when Theseus was a child. \Diodorus saith that Hymetion was the father of Dædalus, Plutarch that Merope was his mother./ Thespis had 50 daughters who e[199] lay wth Hercules in his youth. Orneus f[200] was the father of Peteus the father of Menestheus who warred at Troy. Orithyia by Boreas g[201] had Calais & Zete who were in the Argonautic expedition & Procris h[202] converst wth Minos king of Crete. ffrom all wch compared together I gather that Erechtheus was about twenty or twenty five years younger then David, & therefore reigned in the latter part of Davids reign & in the beginning of Solomon's: & that Danaus being about two generations younger was contemporary to Rehoboam & Abia. Certainly the daughters of Danaus flourished in the times {illeg} next before Argonautic {sic} expedition: ffor Nauplius the son of Amymone the daughter of Danaus was one of the Argonauts, |& Argus the Son of Danaus was the master builder of the ship.|

Erechtheus a[203] was the son of Pandion the son of Erechthonius & I take Erechthonius to be an Egyptian. For he first of any <150r> man taught the Greeks to draw a chariot with horses wch invention came from Libya & Eygpt. And as Cecrops to denote him a forreigner of unknown parents was called ἀυτόχθων the son of the earth & to signify that he was of two nations & languages the Egyptian & the Greek was represented of two natures, a man above & a serpent below, so was Erechthonius. The Greeks not knowing his parents derived him from forreigners by a miraculous birth of the earth & the Egyptians recconed his grandson Erechtheus to be b[204] an Egyptian by his family. Now Erechthonius being two generation or about 50 or 60 years older then Erechtheus may be recconed contemporary to Samuel & Saul: but I do not take him or his son Pandion to have been king of Athens. For Erechtheus in a time of famin procured a great quantity of corn from Egypt,[205] & for this benefaction the people of Athens made him their king & therefore he did not inherit his fathers kingdom but succeeded some other king, suppose Amphictyon, by right of Election. Cranaus the father of Celeus predecessor of Amphictyon was the father of Rharus the father of Celeus & therefore contemporary to Erechthonius: for Celeus was contemporary to Erechtheus. Whence its probable that Cecrops the Predecessor of Cranaus began his reign in the days of Eli. Cecrops is therefore justly \He is/ recconed one of the first Egyptians who led Colonies into Greece. He was the first that civilised the people of Attica & gathered them into cities.[206] He joyned one man & one woman & first called Iupiter God & set up an altar at Athens & after him came in the whole genealogy of the Gods of Greece. In sailing from Egypt he came He came from the province of Sais wch lies upon the Canobic ostium of the Nile & in sailing from thence he came by the sea coasts {illeg} of Phenicia & Cyprus & th to Greece, & seems to be one of the shepherds because e[207] a colony wch he left in Cyprus sacrificed yearly a man to his daughter Agraulis, an impiety wch the genuine Egyptians were free from. By the like colonies the sacrificing of men came also into Greece. For Erechtheus f[208] sacrificed his daughter & therefore his family was also of the race of the shepherds. But circumsision, the religion of the genuine Egyptians was no where introduced in Greece by any of these colonies. When Cecrops came first into Greece, the Cares sailed between the Islands of the Cyclades, & infested the sea costs of Attica. And this navigation made way for a trade between Greece & Phenicia, & for the rapture of Io & Europa.


When the Phenicians began their trade & brought corn from Eygpt into Greece, they would be apt to bring weomen out of Eygpt to instruct and assist the Greeks in the making of bread for promoting the merchandise of the corn, especially when they brought a great quantity of corn out of Eygpt for Erechtheus.[209] ffor at that time Ceres is said to have come to Athens. She pretended to come in quest of her daughter who perhpas had been carried away by Merchants & under that pretence travelled from Athens to Eleusis a city of Attica, & being there entertained by the daughters of Celeus king of Eleusis, she nursed up & instructed his young son Triptolemus & taught him how to sow corn. He sowed it in Eleusine in a field called Rharia from Rharus the father of Celeus, & as the corn increased he dispersed it over the cities of Greece; & this was the original of sowing corn in Greece.[210] Afterwards Bacchus coming into Greece taught them how to till the grownd with Oxen, for at first they tilled it with their hand labour.

Ceres a[211] lay with Iasion the brother of Harmonia the wife of Cadmus, & Triptolemus lived till \Bacchus/ Osiris or Sesostris came into Greece: & therefore Ceres came into Greece in the days of Cadmus & taught the sowing of corn in the latter part of David's reign. After her death Celeus Eumolpus & others b[212] in memory of these things instituted the Eleusinia sacra with ceremonies brought from Eygpt. And soon after was the war between the Athenians & Eleusinians in wch Erechtheus on one side & Immaradus the son of Eumolpus on the other side were slain. This war therefore putting an end to the reign of Erechtheus seems to have been about the middle of Solomons reign, for Erechtheus reigned long. Then reigned his sons Cecrops & Pandion in the days of Solomon & grandson Ægeus in the days of Rehoboam. Pandion c[213] had war with Labdacus the grandson of Cadmus.

[214] Arcas the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon the son of Pelasgus received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people to sow & make bread of it & therefore Arcas may be recconed contemporary to Solomon & Pelasgus to Samuel. Triptolemus also conveyed corn to Eumelus[215] the first king of Achaia & taught him & his son Agriculture & how to build a city & Eumelus named the city Aroas from the tillage of the earth

[216] In the reign of Car the son of Phoroneus, Temples were first erected to Ceres in Megara, & Car erected a <152r> Temple to her there & therefore Car was contemporary to Solomon & Phoroneus to David as above.

Perseus was the father of Alcæus the father of Amphitruo the father of Iphicles. He was also the father of Electryo the father of Alcmena the mother of Hercules & the father of Sthenelus the father of Eurystheus: And Iphicles Hercules & Eurystheus {sic} were born at the same time. And therefore Perseus was three short generations & two long ones older then Hercules or about 70 years older then Hercules, & by consequence at the death of Solomon he was about 50 or 55 years old. And this is confirmed by his being the father of Gorgophone who was the Grandmother {sic} \of the Argonauts Lynceus & Idas &/ of Castor, Pollux, Clytemnestra and Hellena & of Phœbe & Ilaira the wives of Castor & Pollux & of Penelope the wife of Vlysses. All these flourished between the Argonautic expedition & destruction of Troy & Perseus was three generation older.

Gorgophone had two husbands Perieres & Oebalus, & Oebalus a[217] was the son of Perieres the son of Cynortes the son of Amyclas the brother of Eurydice the wife of Acrisius; & Perseus was the son of Danae the daughter of Acrisius & Eurydice; & therefore Acrisuis was two generation older then Perseus, & so may be recconed of the same age with David & Amphictyon king of Athens. ffor he assisted in erecting the Amphictyonick Council. Amyclas & Eurydice were the children of \Laudemon by/ b[218] Sparte the daughter of Eurotas the son \or brother/ of Myles the son of Lelex & therefore Lelex was \five or/ six generations older then Perseus & so might be contemporary to Eli. He was c[219] an Egyptian & his son Myles d[220] first of any man set up a hand Mill in Greece in a place thence called Alesia that is the Mill or Quern & taught his people how to grind corn.

So then the Shepherds in Egypt being prest by the wars of the king of Thebais began to fly to send colonies abroad in the days of Eli. At that time they sent some Colonies into Greece under the conduct of Cecrops Erechthonius & Lelex & perhpas Pelasgus & some others but the main body shut themselves up in Abaris. These colonies lived for a while without any having any commerce with Phenicia & Egypt & only endeavored to reduce the Greeks from a salvage way of life & teach them to live in towns: but in the next generation a trade was opened for supplying them with corn & what other things they wanted from Egypt. And then the shepherds who were shut up in Abaris going thence into Phenicia, & the Phenicians & Edomites being prest by the wars of Saul & David, they <153r> sent out new colonies from Phenicia. Cadmus led a Colony {int} into Bœotia, & b[221] left another in Rhodes & c[222] left another under his brother Thasus in the Island Thasus neare Thrace & his {illeg} companion Proteus d[223] led another into Bisaltia in Thrace & Cilix at ye same time e[224] led another into Cilicia & Membliarius f[225] another into the Island Thera neare Crete

Cadmus pretending to be sent in quest of his sister Europa {sic} & coming into Phocis a[226] followed an Ox wch he had bought of the heardsmen of Pelagon & wch was marked in both sides wth a white spot resembling the full moon. This was in imitation of the Ox Apis & shews that he was of the religion of the Egyptians who worshipped that Ox. And thence its probable that as the Israelites in the time of Moses, & Ieroboam in the time of Solomon by staying in Egypt learnt the worship of the calf, so did the ancestors of Cadmus in the reign of the Shepherds. Strabo b[227] lets us know that the people wch accompanied Cadmus into Europe were mixt of Phenicians & Arabians: wch Arabians I take to be such as fled from ye red sea & other places to Zidon in the wars of David. Conon in his 32th Narration saith that when Cadmus was sent to seek Europa he was accompanied with Proteus who fearing the tyranny of Busiris fled came with Cadmus out of Egypt, & married Chrysonome the daughter of Clytus king of a region in Thrace & by the assistance of Clytus expelled the Bisaltes & became king of their country. Cadmus therefore came out of Egypt wth the shepherds.

Herodotus tells us[228] that the Gephyreans, as they themselves reported, were originally from Egypt Erythræa. But, saith he, by inquiring, I find that they were Phenicians who came with Cadmus into Bœotia & dwelt in the Tanagrian country & being expelled thence first by the Argives & then by the Bœotians they retired to Athens where they built temples wch had nothing common with other temples but were distinct. He adds that the Phenicians who came with Cadmus of whom the Gephyreans were a part, brought many doctrines into Greece, & particularly letters, & that the Iones learnt letters of the of the Phenicians & called them Phenician letters. Since these Gephyreans were originally Erythreans, its probable that the city Erythra in Bœotia was built by Erythreans who came wth Cadmus.

Some think that the letters wch Cadmus brought from Phenicia were originally from Egypt, wch is improbable because Cecrops Erichthonius {sic} & Lelex came from Egypt before without letters. Navigation & merchandise occasioned the invention of Astronomy & Arithmetick, & Letters were as necessary to a Merchant, & therefore its reasonable to ascribe the invention of all these things to the Phenicians, or if you please, to the inhabitants of the red sea who were the first mer <154r> chants. There Moses might learn them when he dwelt in the land of Midian & from thence the Erythreans might bring them into Phenicia.

Cadmus came from Phœnicia with his family ffor he was accompanied with his a[229] brothers Cilix & Thasus & b[230] wife Hermione & mother Telephassa c[231] who was buried in the Island Thasus. Polydorus the son of Cadmus d[232] married Nicteis the daughter of Nicteus & dying left his yo kingdom & young son Labdacus under the administration & tuition of Nicteus. Then Epopeus king of Ægialus (afterwards called Sicyon) stole Antiopa the daughter of Nicteus & thereupon Nicteus made war upon him & in a battel \wherein Epopeus overcame/ both were wounded & died soon after. Nicteus left the tuition of Labdacus & administration of the kingdom to his brother Lycus & Epopeus \or (as Hyginus calls him) Epaphus[233] / left his kingdom to Lamedon who presently ended the war by sending home Antiopa & she in returrning home brought forth Amphion & Zethus. Labdacus being grown up f[234] received the kingdom of Lycus & afterwards dying left it again to his administration. \About/ When Amphion & Zethus were about 20 years old, at the instigation of their mother Antiopa they killed Lycus, made Laius the young sone of Labdacus fly to Pelops, & seized the city Thebes, & compassed it with a wall & from their kinswoman Thebe called it Thebes, & then Amphion married Niobe the sister of Pelops & by her had several children amongst whom was Chloris the mother of Periclymenus who was one of the Argonauts. Whence I gather that Amphion killed Lycus and married Chlo Niobe about two generations before the Argonautic expedition & as much after the coming of Cadmus into Europe that is about the 25t year of Solomon & that Amphion & Zethus were born & Epopeus & Nicteus slain about 20 years before & that Pelops was of about the same age with Amphion & Zethus. Amphion with almost all his family perished by the plague & Zethus soon after dying the Thebans called back Laius & made him their king. He married Iocasta the sister of Creon & by her had Oedipus who ignorantly slew his father & married his mother. Between the death of Laius & reign of Oedipus Creon administerd the kingdom for Iocasta & k[235] in the {sic} reign \of Creon &/ Hercules was born at Thebes. Whence I gather that Oedipus was about 20 or 25 years older then Hercules, & his sons Eteocles & Polynices whom he had by a former wife named Eurygenea, were of about the same age with Hercules. Polynices the younger brother in the reign of his father Oedipus fled to Argos & there married the daughter of Adrastus king of Argos & upon the death <155r> of Oedipus returned to Thebes. But falling out with Eteocles about the kingdom returned back to Adrastus. And thence ensued the war of the seven captains against Thebes in wch Eteocles & Polynices slew one another Laodamas the son of Eteocles succeeded his father at Thebes, & during his minority Creon administered the kingdom. When Laodamas was grown up there ensued another war between him & Thersander the son of Polynices. This war was ten years after the former and Thersander overcame & was made king of Thebes & soon after was slain in going to the war at Troy, leaving Tisamenus a son under age to succeed him.

After Lamedon had reigned some years at Ægyale a[236] he made war upon Archander & Architeles the sons of Achæus the grandson of Erechtheus & in that war was assisted by Sicyon the son of Metion the son of Erechtheus & dying left his kingdom to Sicyon, & from whome the city Ægyale was called Sicyon & the kingdom Sicyonia. The kings of Sicyon were therefore Ægyalus, Europs, Telchin, Apis or Epopeus, Lamedon, Sicyon, Polybus. And Sicyon was succeeded by his grandson Polybus who was contemporary to Adrastus king of Argos & by consequence to ye Argonautic expedition & war of the seven captains. The kings of Sicyon were therefore[237] Ægyalus, Europs, Telchin, Apis or Epopeus, \Epaphus or Epopeus/ Lamedon, Sicyon, Polybus &c. Between Apis & \Epaphus or/ Epopeus Chronologers reccon many other kings, for whom there is no room. None of those kings gave their name to any cities regions or people as was the custome in those days. None of them had wars with any nation. Epopeus[238] was the first king of Ægyale who made war; & without war kingdoms do not use to continue long. Apis is recconed by some[239] the son or grandson of Phoroneus, & by others the grandson of Ægyaleus the brother of Phoroneus, & therefore since Phoroneus was contemporary to David, Apis must be contemporary to Solomon or Rehoboam & so could not reign before Epopeus. Apis is Epaphus & Epaphus is Epopeus. The Greeks feign that A \Herodotus tells us[240] that Apis in the Greek tongue is Epaphus & we shewed above that Epaphus & Epopeus are the same king. The Greeks feign that/ this king went into Egypt & there became the great god whom the Egyptians call Apis Epaphus Serapis & Osiris. & that Ceres was the goddess Isis. And hence I learn that in the opinion of the ancient Greeks Osiris & Isis reigned in Egypt when Apis & Ceres flourished in Greece or presently after, that is, in the days of Solomon or Rehoboam.

Between Phoroneus & Acrisius Chronologers reccon up many kings of Argos, namely Apis, Argus, Criasus, \Pirasus or/ Phorbas, Triopas, |Iasus| Crotopus, Iasus, Sthenelus, Danaus, Lynceus &c. And yet for so many intermediate successive kings there is no room. \Its more probable that they were kings of several cities wch afterwards united under Argos. For/ Some of them <156r> were contemporary to Inachus & Phoroneus & others were later then Aerisus. ffor Polycaon the younger son of Lelex a[241] married Messene the daughter of Tropas the son of Phorbas. & therefore was brother in law to Crotopus \& therefore \Phorbos/ was as old as Lelex & by consequence older than then Inachus. He led a/ Io the daughter of Inachus is sometimes called the daughter of Iasus, wch makes it suspected that Iasus is corruptly written for Inachus. Danaus & his son Lynceus \& daughters/ were younger then Perseus the grandson of Aerisius as has been shown above, & therefore Sthenelus whom Danaus succeeded could be no other then that Sthenelus who was the son of Perseus & older then the Argonauts as has been shewed above & therefore flourished in the reign of Rehoam {sic}, & in the same age flourished Ægyptus the brother of Danaus whom Manetho calls Sethosis.

And since the Greeks in the room of the Egyptian Bacchus substituted the son of Semele it argues that the Egyptian Bacchus in the opinion of the ancient Greeks was contemporary to ye son of Semele & by consequence to Solomon & Rehoboam. He was a[242] contemporary to Perseus & Perseus flourished in the reign of those two kings.

So then these three kings of Egypt Osiris, Bacchus, & Sethosis lived in one & the same age, & being all of them very great conquerors, its probable that they were but several names of one & the same king.

Conon in his 37th Narration tells us that when Cadmus was sent by the king of the Phenicians to seek Europa, & the Phenicians were very potent & having conquered a great part of Asia placed their royal seat at the Egyptian Thebes. It seems the Phenicians gloried in their descent from Egypt, & \being conquered by the Egyptians & become the subjects of Egypt they/ affected to be accounted Egyptians, & for that end derived their great men from the royal blood family reigning at Thebes. For they \/ < insertion from f 155v > ✝ accounted Belus to be a Phenician. So IDorotheus the Sidonian an old Poet as he is cited by Iulius Firmicus

Vrbs Babylon vetus a Tyrio quæ condita Belo est.

And so Dido in Virgil

Implevitqꝫ mero pateram, quam Belus & omnes

A Belo soliti. i.e. A Belo primo rege Assyriorum: Servius.

Also they represented Agenor

And upon these words ofVirgil Servius has this note

[cælataqꝫ in auro

ffortia facto patrum, series longissima rerum,

Per tot ducta viros,antiquæ ab origine gentis.]

Servius has this Note

A Belo primo rege Assyriorum: ut, Ab antiquo durantia cinnama Belo

Ab eo usqꝫ ad Belum patrem Didonis; qui et ipse Assyrius fuit: hinc est,

Quam Belus et omnes a Belo soliti;

cum inter patrem et filiam medius nullus existat.

Also the Phenicians represented Agenor the – – – < text from f 156r resumes > represented Agenor the father of Cadmus to be a[243] the brother of Belus, & Cepheus & Phineus to be his sons: wch Belus was the father of Ægyptus & Danaus & reigned at Thebes. Belus in the language of the Egyptians & Libyans is Ammon or as the Greeks & Latines call him, Iupiter Ammon & his wife b[244] Iuno Ammonia. And therefore Ammon was the father of Ægyptus, Danaus, & Cepheus \& Phineus/ and brother of Agenor according to ye Phenicians, so that in his reign happened the story of Agenor & Cadmus & in the next reign the storys of Ægyptus, Danaus, Cepheus & Phineus. Now Cepheus & his daughter Andromeda were contemporary to Perseus & therefore flourished in the reign of Solomon. By reason of his being reputed the son of Belus he {sic} is called an Ethiopian, that is an Egyptian of <157r> Thebais, but I take him to be one of the Egyptian shepherds residing at Ioppa in Phenicia. For Conon in his 40th Narration saith that Cepheus the father of Andromeda reigned from the Mediterranean to \the/ Red Sea & that his kingdom was called Ioppa from the city Ioppa upon the Mediterranean. And Stephanus in Ιόπη tells us that this city was built by Cepheus. And Solinus c. 47 that they there shewed the rock to wch Andromeda was chained.

Manetho tells us[245] that Ægyptus & Danaus were Sethosis & Armais & that Sethosis having forces by sea & land left the government of Æygpt to his brother Armais while he invaded & conquered Cyprus Phœnicia, Media, Persia & other nations. Others ascribe these victori conquests to Sesostris: for Sethosis & Sesostris are but two names of the same king. The Greeks have transmitted to posterity many things concerning Sesostris all wch had been forgotten had those things been done before the use of letters brought into Europe by Cadmus. And therefore Sesostris reigned after the rapture of Europa & by consequence after the days of Saul David & Solomon. For Herodotus saw some of Sesostris his {pillars} pillars erected in Palestine in memory of his conquering that country, & such a conquest cannot agree either to the warlike & victorious reigns of Saul & David or to ye peaceable & flourishing reign of Solomon; nor is there any mention of an invasion of Iudea by the Egyptians in ye days of the Iudges or at any time before the fift year of Rehoboam. And on the other hand all antiquity reccon Sesostris older then the Trojan war & something older then the Argonautic expedition. The \ship Argo was the first long ship built by the Greeks & the/ Greeks built the ship Argo |it| after the pattern of the long ship in wch Danaus upon the return of Ægyptus or Sethosis into Egypt, sailed with his fifty daughters to Greece,[246] & Argus the son of Danaus was the master builder. Sethosis therefore returned into Egypt before the Argonautic expedition & not above one generation before, & by consequence invaded the nations in the reign of Rehoboam, & so can be no other king then Sesak.

The same thing is confirmed by Iosephus[247] who affirms that Herodotus ascribes to Sesostris the actions of Sesak, \mentioning his expedition against Ierusalem & conquest of Palestine & other nations &/ erring only in the name of the king. Which is all one as to say yt Sesak was that conquerer whom Herodotus calls Sesostris. The old Scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius[248] \out of Dicæarchus/ calls him Sesonchosis saying that Sesonchosis who was king of all Egypt & reigned after Orus the son of Osiris & Isis, conquered all Asia & a great part of Europe & erected pillars of his conquests, <158r> and made laws & found out horsmanship & left a colony at Æa with laws writ in Tables & with Geographical Tables of his conquests by land & sea & that Theopompus calls him Sesostris. Now Sesonchosis or as others call him Sesonchis is the same name with Sesak much after the manner that Memphis is the same name with Moph, or that the Susanchites (Ezra 4) are the people of Susa or Shushan called Sheshach by Ieremiah chap. 25 &51.

Ægypt was conquered successively by the Ethiopians, Assyrians, Babylonians & Persians & by those conquests their antiquities were & Records were at length from time to time impaired & at length destroyed & carried away upon the conquest of Egypt by Artaxerxes Ochus king of Persia, & from that time the Greeks left off travelling into Egypt for knowledge. Herodotus travelled into Manetho & Eratosthenes {trea} wrote long after that conquest wch makes their accounts of the kings of Egypt very confused. Herodotus travelled into Egypt almost an hundred years before that conquest & in giving an account of the ancient state of Egypt he tells us[249] that the Priests of Egypt affirming Menes to be their first king, read to him out of a book the names of 330 following kings of Egypt who all reigned before Sesostris & among whom were eighteen Ethiopians & a forreign woman named Nitocris who aquired the kingdom by a memorable revenge of her brothers death, & that the Priests affirmed nothing done by any of the rest except one who was the last of them & was called Mœris. But Menes & Mœris reigned at Memphis & together with some other kings of Memphjs built there the most magnificent Temple of Vulcan. & therefore were later then Sesostris as we shall \further/ shew hereafter, & so was Nitocris later if she reigned over both Egypt & Ethiopia as Iosephus mentions, & built the third Pyramid at Memphis as is affirmed by Manetho. Herodotus therefore justly passes over in a few words all the ages of Egypt before Sesostris as obscure & containing nothing memorable & begins his history of the kings of Egypt with this king, the former kings, except two or three of his immediate predecessors, reigning not over all Egypt successively but divers of them at once in several parts of Egypt, wch renders them the less memorable. In the time of the Monarchy of Egypt, Herodotus who has given us the best account of this kingdom, sets down their kings in the <159r> following order if Menes Mœris & Nitocris be duly inserted. Sesostris, Pheron, Menes, Proteus, Rhampsinitus Mœris, Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Nitocris, Asychis, Anysis, Sabachon the Ethiopian, Anysis again, Sethon Priest of Vulcan, Twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus, Necho, Psammis, Apries, Amasis, Psammenitus. Before Sesostris is to be placed {illeg} his father {illeg} Belus or Ammon & before Ammon may be set Tethmosis, Thomosis or Amosis the successor of Misphragmuthosis & founder of the Egyptian Monarchy. Menes is the first of the kings who reigned at Memphis. The kings defore him reigned at Thebes. These were deified & became the Gods of Egypt & next after the Gods reigned Menes. The history of the deified kings is full of obscurity, but seems to be as follows.

[1] Gen. 10. 32.

[2] In Canone Chronico lib. 1. Sec. 1.

[3] 2 Sam. 8 & 10

[4] Thucyd. l. 2 p. 110. |vid Chro 475|

[5] Dionys. Halicarn. 1.2.

[6] Herod. l. 1. c. 96, 97.

[7] Iustin. l. 1, in principio.

[8] Bochart. \in/ Phaleg. lib. 4. cap. 3 & seq.

[9] l 2. c 5

[10] a lib. 7. c. 56.

[11] b lib. 15. p. 735.

[12] c Homer ιλ. 9.

[13] Strabo l. 17 p 815 \a, c, d,/ & l. 16 p. 781. c.

[14] Ioseph. Antiqu.l. 8. c. 4

[15] Diod. l. 1.

[16] Chron. pag. 71

[17] Gen 1 14 & 8.2{2} Censorinus c. 19 & 2{illeg} Cicero in Verren{illeg} Geminus c. 6. p.{illeg}

[18] ✝ Cicero in Ver{illeg}

[19] ✝ Cicero in Ver{illeg}

[20] 75

[21] 76

[22] {Apu}d Theodor. {illeg}am de {illeg} {m}ensibus.

[23] 77

[24] 77

[25] 79

[26] Strabo l. 17 p. 816. c Diodor. l. 1. p. 32 d.

[27] Plutarch de Osinde & Iside

[28] Diodor. l. 1. c. 4.

[29] 80

[30] a Vide Censor c. 18, et Herod{illeg}

[31] ✝ Apud Athenæū l. 14

[32] a Apud At{illeg}æum . l. {illeg}

[33] 81

[34] 82

[35] 83

[36] ✝ Stronc. 1. p. 306, 332

[37] ‡ Laeritus Proæm. l. 1.

[38] 85

[39] Suidas in Α᾽ναγαλλός

[40] Apollodor. l. 1. c. 9. sec. 25

[41] 92

[42] 93

[43] 95

[44] 45

[45] ✝ Apud Diog. Laert {sic}. in Solon p. 10

[46] ‡ Nat. Hist. l. 7. c. 56.

[47] ‡ Nat Hist. l. 5 c. 29.

[48] ✝ Ioseph.cont. Ap. l. 1. & Suidas in

[49] ✝ Dionys. l. 1. initio

[50] a Diodorus Sic. lib. 16. p. 550. ed. Steph.

[51] e Polyb. p. 379.b

[52] 48

[53] a in vita Lycurgi sub initio

[54] b {illeg} in Solone prope finem

[55] 49

[56]Plarch {sic} in Romulo & Numa.

[57] ‡ in Æneid VII v. 678.

[58] 50

[59] Symbol (inverted obelus) in text Lib. 1. in Proæmia

[60] ✝ in Lucurgo sub initio.

[61] 51

[62] 54

[63] C. 118 -

[64] Herod. l. 8. S

[65] Herod. l. 8.

[66] Pausan, l. 2 sub finem

[67] Herod. l. 6.

[68] Herod. l. 6. c. 125, 126.

[69] Ch. 122

[70] Strabo l. 8. p. 355

[71] Pausan. l. 6. c. 22.

[72] Pausan. l. 5. c. 9.

[73] {7}

[74] Plato in Minoe

[75] Thucyd. l. 1. p. 13

[76] Athen. l. 14. p. 625.

[77] Pausan l. 5. c. 8

[78] Pausan. l. 6. c. 19

[79] 60

[80] 61

[81] Pausan. l. 5. c. 4

[82] 63

[83] Chr. 61

[84] 130

[85] 101

[86] Chr. 132

[87] 134

[88] 172

[89] 174

[90] 192

[91] 191

[92] 192

[93] a

[94] b

[95] c Diodor. l. 1 p. 7

[96] 193-4

[97] a Apud Diodor. lib.3 p. 130

[98] 194

[99] b

[100] c

[101] d Apud Scholiasten Apollonij, lib. 2.

[102] e. Lib. 23.

[103] f. Lib. 2

[104] 196

[105] Diodor. l. 1. c. {3} p. 9.

[106] Stephanus in Αμμονία

[107] 197

[108] 197

[109] D. Augustin

[110] a Procop. De bell. Vandal. l. 2

[111] a Procop. De bell. Vandal. l. 2

[112] b Chron. l. 1. p. 11

[113] c. Ad Tit. Shebijth, cap. 6.

[114] 201

[115] e Diodor. l. 3 p. 101.

[116] ✝ Vide κορυνητης in Iliad.

[117] a Fab. 275

[118] 221

[119] b 1 Sam. 8.10 1 King. 11.

[120] c Antiq. l. 9. c. 2

[121] Iustin. l. 36.

[122] 222

[123] Diodor. l. 5 c. ult. p. 238.

[124] Homer. Odyss. l. 8. v. 268 & seq. Et Hymn. 1 & 2 in Venerem. Et Hesiod Theogon. v. 192.

[125] Clemens Admonit. ad Gent. p. 10./ Apollodor. l. 3. c. 13 Pindar Pyth. Ode 2 Hesych. in Κινυράδαε

[126] a Baal-Canaan.

[127] Clemens Alexandr. Admonit. ad Gent. p. 21. Plin. l. 7. c. 56.

[128] 225

[129] 158

[130] Arnob. adv. Gentes. l. 6. p. 191

[131] a Diodor. l. 1. p. 36

[132] Diodor. l. 1 p. 8.

[133] a De Dea Syria {illeg} Syra {OB}

[134] Apud Photius in Bibl.

[135] a Steph. in Αμμωνία

[136] Lucan ch. 9.

[137] 208

[138] Plutarch. de Iside. p. 355 d. Diodorus L. 1. p. 9. a.

[139] Lucan. l. 1.

[140] Diodor.lib. 1 p. 39

[141] ✝ Diodorus. l.1. p. 8

[142] ‡ Lucian De Dea Syria or Syra

[143] Plin. l. 6. c. 29.

[144] Herod. l. 2. c. 110

[145] 236

[146] 237

[147] Isa. 19

[148] Diodor. l. 3. c. 4

[149] Plato in Timæo etc Critia.

[150] 263

[151] a Diodor. l. 2. c. 3

[152] a Ionah 3.6, 7.

[153] 271

[154] Amos. 6.14

[155] Herod l. 2. Ptolomy Geog.

[156] Strabo l 17. p. 815 a, b, c

[157] Lib. 22.

[158] a Diodor. l. 3. c. 1.

[159] b Dionys. Perreg.

[160] e Iuba apud Plin l. 6. c. 29.

[161] d l. 1 Antiq. c. 7.

[162] f Strabo Geog. l. {illeg} p 822. B. Diodor. l. 9 c.1.

[163] Artaphan apud Euseb. Præp. l. 9. c. 27.

[164] Manetho \apud Ieseph {sic}/ cont Ap. l. 1. p 1039.

[165] Gen

[166] b Manetho apud Iosephū cont. Ap. l. 1. p 1040

[167] Apud Ioseph. cont. Ap. p. 1039.

[168] Herod. l. 2

[169] 1 King 18. 28

[170] b 1 King. 9.26.

[171] De Dea Syria p. 1058

[172] Apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 10 c. 10

[173] Apud Photium in Bibl.

[174] Antiq. l. 8. c. 2. p. 267, 268 & cont Apion <144r> l. 1. p. 1043

[175] Plin. l. 7. c. 56.

[176] Chro 108 {sic}

[177] Herod. l. 1. c. 1 & l. 7 c. 89.

[178] Plin.l. 4. c. 22.

[179] Dionys. de situ Orbis.

[180] Strabo l. 1. p. 42. d.

[181] 1 King. 9

[182] Pausan. l. 7. c. 3

[183] Pausan. l. 7. c. 5

[184] Herod. l. 1.

[185] 109

[186] Pausan. l. 7. c. 21. Hygin. Fab. 277.

[187] Strabo l. 1. p.48

[188] a In Cohortatione ad Gentem Græcos.

[189] b Orat. cont. Græcos

[190] c Strom. 1

[191] d Clemens Strom. 1. p. 321

[192] e Apollod. l. 2 initio

[193] f Plato in Timæo Syncel. p. 68. a.

[194] 2 Chron. 2.10

[195] a Apollodor. l. 3 c. 14.

[196] b Pausan. l. 7. c.1 & l. 1. c. 31 , 38.

[197] c Pausan. l. 1. c. 5

[198] d Apollodor. l. 3. c. 14. Pausan. l. 7. c. 4. & l. 9. c. 3. & l. 10 c. 17.

[199] e Diodor. l. 4 Pausan. l. 9. c. 29.

[200] f Pausan. l. 2. c. 25

[201] g Orphei Argonaut v. 216 Hygin. Fab. XIV

[202] h Apollodor. l. 3. c. 14

[203] a Pausan. l. 1. c. 5. Hygin. Fab. 48.

[204] b Diodor. l. 1. p. 17.

[205] c Diodor. ib.

[206] d Euseb. Præp. l. 10.c. 9.

[207] e Porphyr. περὶ ἀποχης l. 2 §54

[208] f Damaratus apud Clement. Admonit. ad Gent. p. 27. Hygin. Fab. 46.

[209] Diodor. l. 1. p. 17.

[210] Diodor. l. 3. p. 138

[211] a Homer. Odys. 5 Diodor. l. 5. p. 237.

[212] b Diodor. l. p. 17.

[213] c

[214] Pausan. l. 8. c. 4

[215] Pausan. l. {illeg} 7. c. 18

[216] Pausan. l. 1. c. 39, 40.

[217] a

[218] b Pausan. l. 3. c. 1. Apollodor. l. 3. c. 10.

[219] c Pausan. l. 1. c. \39,/ 44

[220] d Pausan. l. 3. c. 20

[221] b Diodor. l. 5. p. 227.

[222] c Pausan. l. 5. c. 25 {illeg} Conon Narrat. 37 Steph. in Θάσσος. Herod. l. 2. Apollodor. l. 3 c. 1.

[223] d Conon. Narrat. 32

[224] e Apollodor. l. 3. c. 1

[225] f Steph. in Θήρα. Pausan. l. 3. c. 1.

[226] a Pausan. l. 9. c. 12

[227] b Strabo l. 10. p. 447 & l. 9. p. 401

[228] Herod. l. 5

[229] a supra

[230] b Bochat. Geog. l. 1. c. 19

[231] c Steph in Θ

[232] d Pausan. l. 2. c. 6

[233] Hygin. Fab. 7 & 8

[234] f Pausan. l. 9. c. 5.

[235] k Hesiod in scuto Herculis.

[236] Pausan. l. 2. c. 6.

[237] Pausan. l. 2. c. 5, 6.

[238] Pausan

[239] Apollodor l 2. c. 1

[240] Herod. l. 2.

[241] a Pausan. l. 4. c. 1.

[242] a Pausan. l. 2. c. 20, 22, 23.

[243] a Apollodor.

[244] b Pausan. l. 5. c. 15

[245] Ioseph. cont. Ap. l. 1 p. 1041.

[246] Hygin. Fab.14. et Poet. Astronom. l. 2. c. 37. Schol. vet. Apollonij Argonaut. l. 1 initio.

[247] Antiq. l.8.c.4

[248] Schol.Apol. Argon nat. l. 4. v. 272.

[249] Herod. l. 2.

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