<1r>

A brief Discourse shewinge the causes of the Contrauersies growen betwene the warden and mer worker of the mynte

First the nowe warden and mer were bothe suters for thoffice of mer & worker /

Eche of them offred a price for {ferminge} of the mynte /

The wardens first offer was to allowe to her matie for coynage xxch for gold and viijd for siluer the pounde wght and he to saue the whole remedies wherby is plaine that somuche of the remedies as was not speciallie reserued to her matie was euer the memaninge of the suter in all his sutes and offers to be to him yt sholde haue the office and that at the same tyme the warden thought it no matter againste conscience or the com̄on weale or her heighnessse due proffitt to haue him self the whole remedies /

This was then thoughte so large an offer as no other man wolde reache unto /

The mer offred the same price it was accepted & her matie pleased that he sholde haue the office before any other /

The warden tolorablie offred a greater price wch he saide he mente but uppon suche conditons as he wolde haue sett doune yf the Auditores had not willed the contrarie wherwth the L: Treasurer was offended /

The mer ꝑteininge that greater offer to procede of mallice & to be a demise to driue him from the bargaine agreed to giue what soeuer the warden offred bicause of her gracious benivolence her matie willed that Lonyson geuinge as an other wolde sholde haue the prefermente /

Here the mer humblie priaeth due consideration of yt wch followeth

First the forme of the wardens sute & offer & his meaninge to haue had not onelie the whole remedies where the nowe mer hathe but the one half but also diuerse other speciall proffitte wch he mente by secret meanes to reape to his oune use as in preferringe him self alwaies to the first paiemente & in {oftene} retornes of his owne bullion then other Subiecte sholde haue had by wch & other meanes he might easelie haue brought the whole trade of bullion into his owne hands as herafter us shewed /

Secondlie the wardens conscience wch is speciallie to be noted that if he might haue had thoffice colde quietlie haue taken all these & other proffitte of thoffice to him self wch nowe he supposeth in his concience re due to her matie /

Thirdlie the Auditores {priuise} to the wardens sute and seuerall offers and what moued him to winke at so greate a discomoditie as the warden therin offred to her matie for it is probable that if the warden might haue had thoffice at his first offer it had ben to him C £ yearlie more proffitable then it is nowe to the master /

But all their deuices and pruposes were presented by her maties grantinge the office to the mer /

The wardens furder practices for his speciall proffitte /

The warden beinge still desirouse to atteine ye saide speciall proffitte & ꝑtely to execute his mallice againste the mer practised diuerse waies to bringe one of these two thinge to passe viz either to procure the office from the mer \to/ him self or to enter into suche pacte and compositons wth the mer as might yeilde him those extraordinarie proffitte aswell as if thoffice had ben in his oune hands /

After her maties first grante of the office to the mer & before the full ꝑfiting therof the warden agreed wth the mer yf he tolde yett thoffice allowinge for coynage ijs vjd golde and xch siuer to change offices and to make upp the mers fee C poundes yearlie /

After obteyninge of the office for the same allowance the mer offred the warden to accepte the saide bargaine of exchange The warden then refused it bicause there was allowed to thoffice the proffitte of the whole remedies wch still maketh it plaine that the wardens concience wch the Auditoers good favoure <1v> colde haue allowed to him self the whole remedies wthoute grudginge who since for zele and conscience haue denied to the mer the half remedies althoughe they knewe it was euer the meaninge of bothe theire sutes and of the masters contracte wth her matie

Afterwards when the warden had thus gon from his owne agremente wth ye mer and yet neuerthelesse had used diuerse policies and vehemente ꝑsuasions to obteinte the office to him self and faylinge of all these meanes to get his purpose he fell to other practices for his proffitt /

He charged the mer that he prosmised him to make upp his fee C£ a yere wch althoughe indede he did not yet bicause he might wronge him diuerse waies he was contented for a tyme so longe as he thought good to graunte it and paied him accordinelie for a whole yere xliiij £ vijs vjd howe beit the warden was not therwth satisfied but from tyme to tyme urged the mer to things inconveniente /

At a nother tyme he wolde haue had the mer to receiue his Spanishe moneyes unmolte at the full price and to stande to all waste & meltings and other losses wheunto yf the mer wolde haue agreed the warden wolde haue siffred him to receiuw and melte Spanishe moneyes as it alwaies hathe ben accustomed wthoute first meltinge it for takinge thassaies onelie wch nowe he denieth the mer pretendinge it to be for her matie and subiecte proffitt in truthe can be no proffitt to her matie at all but a doble charge & losse to the mer and a greate hindrance to the subiecte /

Also he requested for his owne bullion brought into the mynte to haue had his moneyes deliuered him againe by wght payinge the mer onelie iijd uppon the pounde wght & in consideraton therof he offred to discharge the mer of the foresaide xliiij£ vijs vjd a yere and so if he might haue had the benefitt of the wght {als} the shew to him self wch nowe he pretendeth to be her maties there had neuer any other tryall ben procured or moned as nowe there is cont contrarye to the forme of the Indenture /

Also he wolde haue had his owne bullion deliuered & paimente to be made of his moneyes before other men sayinge bicause he was the hed officer he oought to haue fauore and that it had alwaies ben so used and tolde no waye be preiudicial to the mer the mer answered that such delings caused Stanleye to be complained of and therfore he must deale wth all men indifferentelie neither myght he doe it in equitie soe that the Couen\a/nte of his Indenture were to the contrarie wheruppon the warden semed to be offended /

Then he wolde haue growne to a nother compositon that if the mer wolde haue paied him his moneye presentelie uppon euery coynage he the warden wolde haue clered all other mens bills at xiiij dayes eande yf there were not moneyes coyned of there owne sufficiente by wch means he sholde haue had two or thre retornes for other mens one and so wthin short tyme haue had the whole trade in his owne hands To this after longe debatinge the mer answered that if the warden colde gett the {comitells} warant for the mers discharge and the consente of them that used to bringe bullion into the mynte he wolde doe it and not otherwise wherwth the warden was offended and from thenceforthe he and the Auditor sought wrongefullye to molleste the mer for wch cause he surseased the paimente of the forefaide anuitie of {illeg} xliiij£ vijs vjd /

The warden beinge dismissed therof and ꝑceivinge no likelihod to obteine his other desires then followed such tones of open mallice as hath ensued                                                                            viz

First he exhibited to the L: Treasurere a bill of speciall articles wherin he supposeth that by the tenore of the Indenture he is to take upp all ꝑffitts to her heighenesse upe other then onelye xviijd for euery pounde wght of golde and viijd for siluer wch he saithe the mer is to haue for makinge the moneyes and beringe all waste and expence wherin he sheweth what conscience he bereth towards the mer for he knoweth or safelie maye knowe that this allowance is not aboue C iiijxx £ a yere at the most and that the mers waste and expence is C C £ a yere at the leaste

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Then he complaineth againste the mer for challenginge the proffitte risinge by the meltings for puttinge allaie to the bullion wthoute sufferinge the warden to see it for puttinge his oune siluer to meltinge wthoute assaie taken therof and for not sifferinge the Teller to tell the moneyes concluding that he taketh all these to be contraye to theffecte of the saide Indenture and that many other matters were nedefull to be ordred by of these he praieth his Lordeshipps prefect order /

To these Articles the mer ꝑticularlie answered referringe him self therin to be indyed by the tenore of his Indenture prayinge to enioye ye benefit of her maties graunte accordinge to righte as by his saide answers appereth /

Shortelie after the warden wth thaduice of the Auditor diuded ye mers patente & Indenture into xlij Articles settinge doune obiections againste ye mer almoste uppon euery Article wherin are also Iterated ye former Articles /

And at the foote therof the warden draweth the whole patente & Indenture in to thre princepall pointts or questions / viz /

The first is that where by former Indentures all maner proffitte haue ben reserued to the printe whether any thinge be comprised in the saide patent and Indenture to take the same from the Quene nowe and what and howe muche it is that is taken awaie /

Secondlie whether her matie notwthstandinge the trialle mentoned in the Indenture maye not make any other triall that she will beinge iuste and trewe tryalle / &c /

Lastelie whether ye mer wthoute ye Quenes warant maye ꝑhibit or hinder suche tryall /

All wch obiections princepall pointts and questions the mer at alrge hathe answered and suffitientelie disproued at the foote of euery obiection in suche wise as nothinge hathe ben therunto replied

These foresaide matters beinge answered and put to silence a newe deuice was framed againste the mer to make a shewe of those greate proffitts wch the warden and Auditor had then sofore enformed the L: Treaserer to growe indirectelie to the mer wheruppon his honor willed the Auditor to sett donne a reconinge howe those proffitte grewe and and theruppon the Auditor drue his deuice and reconinge in effecte as followeth /

First he saieth an example of a pounde wght of xjoz fine siluer and one ounce of Allaie deliuered by M. D: to the mer wherof the Auditor supposeth the mer beringe ye waste maketh}Lxs. v d
And that those ⟐Lxs vd wth vjd ob paide by M. D: to ye mer for ijd wght of fine siluer wantinge of the full standerd is togethers in the mers hande}Lxs. xjd. ob
Whereof he paieth to M. D: but Lxs.
And so supposeth that M. D: moneyes lacketh and the mer hathe of the same pounde wght and vis ob aforesaide the waste borne as a foresaide}xjd. ob.
wch afterwarde in the distance is saide to bexijd. ob.
Whereof due to her matievjd. 
And to the mer for his half remediesixd. 
To this the mer answereth and proueth by plaine example that the saide xijd ob supposed to be lackinge in M. D: moneyes made of his pounde wght and vjd ob a fore saide is no more but}ixd. 

Hereunto the Auditor replieth and the mer {rewyneth} as by their seuerall bookes apprereth

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Uppon this the ꝑties ioyned Issue and by comanndemente of the L: Treasurer and iointte consente of the ꝑties artesmen were appointed and sworne on bothe sides to trye the truthe and finde the error in this controuersie and to gelde upp their seuerall oppinions to mer Osborne and mer Humfrey who were also appointed to reporte those sworne mens doinge to his Lordeship and by full consente and agremente of bothe parties M. D: pounde wght of xjoz fine siluer and xxd wght of allaie charged to the pott and the fire was admytted to reforme from the fyre xjoz jd wght fine and in wght but xjoz xixd wght /

The sworne men theruppon {trauailed} to acquit theire charge in that behalf & Examynininge the whole matter in controuersie uppon the false obiectionings or reconinge they reduced the same into two questions the one uppon the wght onelie and the other uppon the finesse onelie wch after they had thorowly considered and digested they gaue upp their seuerall verdicte as followeth /

The verdicte of Robert Broune & Andrew Palmer sworne one the Auditorrs side /

And so we finde of thexample aforesaide that M. D: lacketh of his pounde wght and of the vjd ob in moneye wch \he/ deliuered the mer as mer Auditor hathe trulie saide}xijd ob

wch we are ꝑswaded that we can proue to be trewe for any thinge yt can be trulie alledged to the contrarye /

The verdicte of Richard Rogers and Thomas Kelinge sworne on the mers side /

And so we finde that M. D: lacketh of his pounde wght of xjoz fyne and vjd obdeliuered to the mer as afore saide but}ixd. a.

And so accordinge to thexample abovesaide admytted by mer Auditor & mer Lonyson M. D lacketh of his pounde wght deluered but ixd a as mer Lonyson saithe and not xijd ob as mer Auditor hathe saide /

These seuerall verdicte beinge thus deliuered to mer Osborne the xxth of Auguste 1574 / the matter hathe euersince bene suspended an no Indyemente geuen on the one side nor on thother since wch tyme the mers Indenture beinge newlie deuided into Lxij Articles he was com̄anded to sett downe his oppinion and construction uppon euery Article wch he hathe ꝑformed accordingly and hathe deluered the same to the L: Treasurer expectinge to here what wilbe saide to the contrarie /

And whiles the mer hathe ben continually occupied to answer their querilous deuices his aduersaries at the mynte namelye the warden and Assier haue not forgotten any Iniurye that from the beginge myght be offred to ye mer /

Thassaier for his ꝑte missereportinge diuerse assaies to the mers greate hindrance and beinge taken wth the mauer and warned therof hathe neuerthelesse continued his abbuse /

The warden for his ꝑte suffringe and allowinge the same and procuringe warrante some to couer his defaulte some to intrude into the mers office contrary to her maties grannte \and Indenture/ and contrarye to antient order and custome /

The coynage hathe ben diuerse tymes staied by the warden wilfulnesse especiallie of late by the space of seuen weke togethers / her matie Loseth for euery month wherin no coynage is at the least}Cx£.

The merchants are therby occasioned to transeporte their bullion or to conuerte it to other uses wherby the state is verry muche hindred /

The mer by his meanes is greatelie sclaundered & the faulte laide onely in him /

Wherfore he moste humblie besecheth that Iustice maye be spedelie don yt plaine truthe maye be preferred before subtill practices /

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The first complainte of the warden exhibited againste the mer      And the mers answers to the same /

|Warden /|First it appereth to the saide warden by the tenor of thindenture that ye mer worker is to haue for the makinge of the moneyes of golde onelye xvijd |onlie i8d for gold & 8d for siluer for working waste & ꝑuisyon|for euery pounde wght and viijd for euery pounde wght of the siluer moneyes and he to beare all waste and expence and that all other proffitte are to be taken by the saide warden to her maties use /

|Master / {Art. ꝫ.}|To this the mer answereth that this worde (onelye) is of the wardens owne additon onelye and not incerted in any plate of theindenture where the mers allowance |(onlye) {he in lendenter: (met ꝑoll ensert}|for coynage is mentoned for althoughe the xviijd for golde & the viijd for siluer be allowed to the mer for his charge of workemanshipp and waste &c / yet it followeth |(for) working his waste & {entend} (towards) qer {reserue}

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|not that therfore he is not to haue any other com̄oditie growinge to him by reason of his office for then he sholde lose by the excersise therof wellnere M £ yerelye bicause that the saide allowance of xviijd and viijd is not aboue M iiijxx £ a yere at the most and his waste and expence C C £ a yere at |
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the leaste / neither dothe it appere by any article of the Indenture that the warden is to take upp all other proffitte to her heighnesse use but the plaine worde of theindenture be that the warden shall take upp all proffitt belonginge to her matie And therfore other then suche proffitte as are refered to her matie by thexpresse worde of the Indenture the warden is not to take upp |
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nowe, more more {sic} then other wardens heretofore haue don wch haue had the like authoritye by the like worde in other mers Indentures: For if it had ben mente that her matie sholde haue had generallye all ꝑffite sauinge ye saide xviijd and viijd as the warden supposeth the same other ꝑffite wold generallie haue ben reserued to her heighnesse by the Indenture but they be not nor it was neuer mente that her matie sholde haue generallie all other proffitte and therfore those wch were mente her matiesholde haue were expreselie reserued by the Indenture and those onelye the warden is to take upp to her heighenesse use and none other nor otherwise /

Item the warden and assaie mer are charged by the Indenture to kepe |Warden /| a lieger booke of the meltinge of all bullion of golde & siluer put to |leger booke of melting| meltinge wth a reporte of the wght price and finesse therof that her matie might more dulie haue ye proffitte of ye same as ye saide warden taketh it /

|Master /|That the warden and thassaie mer are charged by thindenture to kepe one lieger |booke of wght price & fynesse of bullion brought to ye mint| booke of the meltinge that is not so for the Lieger booke is to conteine the wght price and finesse of all maner bullion brought to the mynte wherin the meltinge are not once mentoned And her matie by thindenture is not to haue any proffitte of meltinge other then those that rise by the pott assaie nelie For the due gaininge of wch proffitte the warden is to kepe a melting |{ils st agarder} untill melting| booke and not the saie mer as the warden mistaketh it /

|Warden /| Contraye to the saide two Articles the saide mer challengeth to him self the proffitte arisinge by the meltinge And wheras he useth to put |

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shall b ꝑfire del melting| an allaye of copꝑ or otherwise at his pleasure to the bullion assaied at the full standred yett he wull not in any wise suffer the warden to see or be priveye to the saide allaye neither to haue to doe or to haue any ouersight aboute the meltinge So neother the saide Lieger booke can be trewlie made nor the proffitte wch her matie ought to haue by ye meltinge dulie required by the directed meane /

|Master /| The proffitte of the meltinge are ꝑcell of those proffitte wch are due to the mer for the causes mentoned in his answer to the first article / And |

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b wch shall b ꝑcell del mers ꝑfite| touchinge the priuetie and ouersight wch the warden wolde haue of thallaie and meltinge the mer saithe that no suche thinge is appointed to the warden by the Indenture / But the meltinge and meltinge howses is onelye ye mers charge and office bicause he onelie is to beare all waste and Losses that maye happen by the meltinge / Neither is the true makinge or kepinge of the Lieger booke nor the due requiringe of her maties proffitte hindred therby For all things that \wch/ the Lieger booke is to conteine ought alwaies to be entred before the bulion be deliuered to the meltinge / And her maties ꝑffitts by the meltinges wch is her half remedie in finesse is to be required and safelie to be knowen by and accordinge to the pott assaie after the bullion is molten and not before nor otherwise /

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|Warden Spanishe mon melt wthout assay.| Item the saide mer useth also useth often tymes to put his owne siluer to meltinge wthoute assaie taken therof and will haue ye finesse therof entred uppon his owne exporte onlye /

|master /|The mer useth not to put any of his owne siluer to meltinge wthoute assaie taken therof excepte Spanishe moneyes onelie & spanishe moneyes haue alwaies ben accustomed to be recoined into the munte for standred siluer |the fynesse knowen & allowed|wthoute first meltinge them for takinge thassaies wch custome being ꝑhibited wilbe greate damage aswell to her matie as to the merchannte For yf the mer (onelye for takinge thassaies) shalbe forced to melte the Spanishe moneyes brought to the mynte to be solde the waste and charge that groweth by the |the wght the warden entrythe| same meltinge must be abated in the price geuen to the merchante for that the mer by reason of the same meltinge cannot geue so greate a price as otherwise he might doe / yf the mers reservinge or buyinge Spanishe moneyes |yf they may not be allowed wthout meltinge the merch must haue the {illeg} if the merch can not sell them at so gppd price at the mint he will sell to the goldsmythe or be discoraged to bring {ym}| shalbe forced to melte them for takinge the assaies the merchannts before he deliuer them to the mynte must also be forced to melte them for takinge like assaies / yf the merchannts maye not deliuer them to the mynte wthoute suche meltinge then for takinge the assaies (wherof he hathe no skill) it wilbe a meane to driue him from the mynte and enfore him to sell them ell where better cheape rather then to melte them to at suche charge / And so the mer by metlinge them shalbe put from his trade of buyinge for the wch he mvst haue C C £ in stocke and the merchannte by meltinge them shall also be put from his gretest gaine wherby he is moste incouraged to trafficke for bullion and bringe them to the mynte Therefore this meltinge of Spanishe moneyes onelye for takinge thassaies is bit a deuice of the warden to driue the mer from buyinge Spanishe moneyes of the merchannte when he wolde sell them to the mer for redie moneye at the beste price and also to driue the merchante from deliueringe them at the mynte when he wolde be contente to farrye the tyme of coynage for his moste avanntage / And thus by color of gaine pretended to her matie by meltinge the Spanishe moneyes onelye for takinge thassaies the whole trade shalbe driuen from the mynte to the goldesmithe who maye also conuerte them into place the moste gaine whereof shall come to ye warens purse bicause he buyeth more spanishe moneyes then all the reste of the goldesmithes / And so there shall not so muche moneyes be coyned as otherwise there wolde be wherby her maties reuenewe shalbe greatelie diminished and the merchannte thereby verry muche hundred / And where the warden saithe that the mer will haue the fynesse entred uppon his oune reporte onelye that is not so for the warden seeth and knoweth the wght of all the Spanishe moneyes brought to the mynte entreth the same into his Lieger booke accordingelie as he dothe all other bullion and the price and finesse of Spanishe moneyes hathe alwaies ben vallued at a certaine rate wch is knowen aswell the to the warden as to the mer / Againe the warden alwaies hathe jad the Lieger booke in his owne custodie wherin he hathe & maye enter the wght price and finesse of all maner of bullion (not as the mer will) but at his owne pleasure / Therfore thoughe the mer wolde yett he cannot haue ye finesse entred uppon his owne reporte onelye wthoute the wardens consente and agremente /

|Warden /| Item where her maties seller ought to sell the moneyes for ye directer answeringe of the proffitte of the shere to her heighnesse use the |for telling of moneyes for better answering the shere| mer will not suffer that but dothe it by his owne men affirming the proffitte therof to be his and not her maties all wch the saide warden taketh to be contrarie to theffecte of the saide Indenture /

|Master| And where the warden saithe that the Tekker ought to tell the moneyes for |the ꝑfite of ye shere answered {illeg} & not by telling no mention of a teller in thendenter.| the directer answeringe of the proffitte of the shere (that is not so) for there is no menton made of the teller to tell the moneyes in thindenture / But contrarelie it appereth by the Scedull annexed to thindenture that ye tellers office beinge amongste many other office expreselie appointed in ye Tresurers Indentures is nowe to cease and it is leste oute of this mers Indenture as an |by the scedule his office to cesse| office suꝑfluous and not nedefull to be used Therfore althoughe the mer appoints his oune seruannte to thell the moneyes and will not suffer the teller to tell the same he dothe thering nothinge contrarie to the effecte of his Indenture as the warden mistaketh it / And as for her maties proffite of the shere wch is her half remedie in wght it is not to be answered by tellinge the moneyes at the tower but accordinge as it shall fall oute upon the truall of the pixe before her maties comitell as it is Lymitted in the saide Indenture/

<4r>

|Warden| And althoughe there be many other matters nedefull to be ordred when as any establishemente shalbe made for all things yett in the meane tyme the saide warden moste humblye praieth your LOrdeshipps order in theis matters as moste nedefull to be had presentelie for asmuche as othersie her maties good seruice maye be gretely hindred in the {premisse} /

|Master /| And where the warden saithe that there be many other matters nedefull to be ordred &tc The mer {illeg}steth it shall appere to your honores that by his default there be not many matters nedefull to be ordred neither that the good seruice by him is hindred Besechinge also yoer honores order that by cauvelle and quarrelle he be no longer letted from doinge suche seruice as he ought to doe but that he maye viuye the bennefit of her heighenesse grannte accordinge to her mers good intente and meaninge wthoute any furder troble by these or any other there deuices under pretence of good seruice where there is indede no suche good seruice by them mente to be don /



A brief discourse shewinge at what rate the Subiecte deluereth his bullion of Siluer to the mer what he receiveth againe for the same what remeineth to her matie and to the mer by {resen} at therof and howe the same remainder is deuided and disposed & what inconneuience maye growe by makinge the moneyes full standerd /

The Subiecte deliuered to the mer euery pound wght of his bullion at xjoz ijd wght fine wch is the standerd & also he paieth for coynage of euery suche pounde wght}xviijd
The Subiecte receiveth againe of the mer for ye saide £ wght deliuered and the xviijd paied}Lxs
Yf those Lxs wage a full pounde wght & be of xjoz ijd wght fyne then the subiecte lacketh of the pounde wght he deliuered and the xviijd he paied to the mer for euery pounde wght coined but onelie the saide}xviijd
Of wch xviijd her matie receiveth xd and the master receiveth viijd and so is paide the saide}sviijd
The saide xd the warden receiueth to her maties vse wch yf xxxM £ wght be yerelye coyned amounteth to xijC. L. £ a yeare whereof the paeieth for fees diett &c. CCCL.£ and so remaineth declare to her matie}iv.C £. a yere /

Here it is conveniente to sett doune what the mers charge onelye aboute the coynage of the saide moneyes amounte to yerelye and haue the same maye be answered and allowed /

The mers charge of waste and expences &c onelie aboute the coynage of the moneyes ouer and before the vijd ob. paide to the moneyers is yerelye DCCLxxviij£ vjs viijd wherof receivinge onelye the saide ob wch is but \the/ Lxij£ xs aforesaide he is in surplusage of charge yerelye }DCCxv.£ xvjs. viijd

wch surplussage of charge mvst nede be dorne & allowed to ye mer either by her matie the subiecte or the moneyes /

<4v>
Yf her matie shall beare it her saide yerely reuenewe wch wch is nowe DCCCC£ a yere declare as is aforesaide mvst then be abated the saide DCCxv£. xvjs viijd and so shall remaine so her matie but}Ciiijxx.v£.xvj.s.viijd

Yf the Subiectes shall bere it they mvst geve somuche more for coynage /

Yf neither her matie nor the subiectes shall bere it, it mvst of necessetie {be}taken from the moneyes /

Yf if be taken from the moneyes theire stricte standerd of wght ā finesse mvst nedes be abated wch hathe ben and maye be done as followeth / viz /

Yf Lxs maye but xjoz xixd wght & of xjoz jd wght fine then the subiecte lacketh the saide xviijd wch he paied for coynage and also the moneyes Lacke jd wght in wght & jd wght in fynesse in vallue vjd a wch wth the saide xviijd is}ijs. a
Of wch ijs.a. her matie receiveth the saide xd and the mer viijd as a fore saide to gethers xviijd and also the mer receiueth the saide jd wght in wght and jd wght in finesse in vallue vjd a wch vjd a wth the viijd a foresaide is to gethers xiiijd . receiued by the mer for euery pounde wght coyned wherof he paieth to the workemen vijd ob and then remaineth wth the mer towarde his charge vjd ob a wch vjd.ob. yf. xxx.M wght a yere be coyned amounteth to for the merDCCCLiij£. xvs A yere /

A nother reckoninge of Lxs wayinge xjoz. xviijd wght & of xjoz fyne the subiecte payinge xviijd for coynage /

Yf Lxs maye but xjoz xviijd wght and of xjoz fyne then the subiecte lacketh the saide xviijd wch he paied for coynage and the moneyes lacke ijd wght in wght and ijd wght in finesse in vallue xijd ob wch xijd ob wth the saide xviijd is}ijs. vjd ob.
Of wch ijs vjd ob her matie receiveth xd and the mer vijd as aforesaide and also the mer receiueth ijd wght in wght & ijd wght ob wth xijd ob wth the viijd aforesaide is xxob receiued by the mer wherof is to be answered to her matie for her half remedyes xjd a and to the workemen vijd ob.a wch vjd ob a is xxxC wght a yere be coyned amounteth to}DCCCx|j|liij£. xvs a yere
Here it is to be noted that her maties half remedies beinge vjd.. is wth the xd aforesaide xvjd.. for euery pounde wght coyned wch yf xxxC £ wght be yerelye coyned amounteth for fees diette &tc CCCL.£ and then remaineth to her matie declare}Mvj.Ciiijxx j.£ vs
whereof /
If the moneyes sholde be made at full standerd there mvst be abated not onelye her half remedies wch amounteth yerelye to DCCiiijxx. j£. xvs but also the mers surplusage of charge aforesaide viz. DCCxlviij£. vjs. viijd wch to gether is xv.Cxxx£ xxd wch beinge deducted oute of the saide xvjC Lxxxj£ Vs then remaineth there to her matie of all the Reuenewe of the mynte but}CLj£. iijs. iijd      a yere /
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Nowe it followeth howe when and in what maner is to be answered the foresaide vjd. . ꝑcell of the foresaide xijd ob for her half remedies in wch and finesse when it is not in the moneyes

As concerninge the ijh wght in wght & ijh wght in finesse lackinge in the moneyes wch is the whole remedies limited by the Indenture viz the xijh ob remayninge in ye mers charge as afore saide in the last reconinge when ye bullion molte is founde at the potte assaie but xjoz fine then the mer is to answer her matie by accompte for her eī remedie in fynesse lackinge in euery pounde wght of the same bullion iijd a And when the moneyes in the pixe are founde by thassaie made before the comitell that euery lvs doe waye but xjoz xviijd wght in wght then the mer is to answer her matie by accompte for her half remedie in wght lacking in euery pounde wght of the saide moneyes iijd wch is to gether vjd. . ANd for the other vjd. . the mer is not to be accomptable nor to be charged but may receiue the the {sic} same towarde his charge aforesaide & is answered the saide}xijd. ob.

And her maties eī remedies is not otherwise to be answered bicause the Indenture saithe Article / 20. E. 33. that if it be founde by the saide assaies viz of the pott &tc and of the boxe &c that the pounde wght throughely tryed answer not the full standerd by that it shall passe thone half of ye saide remedies Lymitted in either of the saide standerds the Lacke therof shalbe entred of recorde and a theme accompte shal therof be made o somuche of the saide lacke as shall passe the saide one half the saide remedie &c and the same fully wholye to be answered &c wthoute any com̄oditie to growe to any other ꝑsone for the saide &tc /

And further the saide Indenture saithe Article. 21. e. 34. sauinge alwaies &c that if by the saide assaies it shalbe founde &c that they doe passe &c the one halfe of the saide remedie lymitted &c that then it be entred of recorde and golde plate wth the saide mer in the charge wch he shall haue when any lacke shalbe founde &c

Here it is to be noted therfore that if by the tryalle afore saide it shalbe founde that in the bullion or moneyes there be nothinge lackinge of her maties eī remedies in wght or finesse then her matie is to be answered no proffitt of the remedies / Bicause that somuche of the saide wght or fynesse as shalbe founde by the saide assaies to be in the bullion or moneies shall not be answered to her matie by accompte / As yf the pott assaie shalbe founde to be xjoz ob wght fine wherby the moitie of her matiesremedie in finesse is in the moneyes then the mer is to answer her matie by accompte but onelye the other. ob. wght / Yf lxs be founde by thassaie of the pixe to waye xjoz xviijd wght eī whereby the moitie of her maties eī remedie in wght is in the moneyes then the mer is to answer her matie by accompte but onelye thother ob wght viz jd ob in moneyes So that ye mer is not to be charged for any more but so muche as shall lacke of her maties eī remedies in wght and finesse of the bullion or moneyes accordinge to ye forme prescribed in thindenture /

And it is also to be noted that if by the saide tryalls it shalbe founde that there be in the bullion or moneyes any more then her maties eī remedies in wght or finesse the same shall holde place viz it shall answer the lacke of her maties like eī remedies wch shalbe founde by the saide tryalle of the same moneyes at any other tyme wherby it appereth that notwthstanding thexpresse Limitation of the certaine standred wthoute the wch no moneyes or bullion can be orderlie made that yett it was euer mente in the mers bargaine yt the moneyes wthoute offence might be made lesse then full standered by the whole remedies the mer answeringe the half remedies to her matie in forme a foresaide / And also that it was euer the meaninge of the bargaine that the mer sholde alwaies haue the full bennefitt of thother half remedies by waye of deteines when no ꝑte therof was in the moneyes and by waye of holdinge plate or defaltacon when any ꝑte therof is in the moneyes wch the mer thinketh will not be denyed /

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What Inconuenience maye growe by makinge the moneyes                at the full standerd

First consideringe that all the moneyes heretofore made aswell in the tymes of kinge Edwarde the vjth kinge Philip and quene Mary as also in the tyme of the Quenes matie that nowe is wch were lymitted and appointted to be made at the full standred viz xjoz ijd wght fine as one neuer thelesse for the moste ꝑte made under there fullestricte standrerd yf therfore the moneyes from henceforthe sholde be made at their full standerd it is to be loked for that they will from tyme to tyme be culled hourded upp and transeported in Lieu therof we shall receive and haue the continuall use onelie or chefelye of the saide Lighter & baser moneyes /

Secondelie if the moneyes be made at full standerd the price of bullion must nedes be abated wherby ye trade of bringinge bullion into this realme will decaye and so consequentelye her maties revenew will diminishe/

Thirdelie the moneyes beinge made at the full standerd are the redice not onelye to be culled and transeported as before is saide but also to be conuersed into other uses wherby onelye the merchante and strangers maye be inriched to the henerall preiudice of the com̄on weale /

In tymes paste diuerse holsome lawes were ordered ꝑhibitinge aswell the meltinge as also the transeporteinge of suche moneyes as for their wght and finesse were like to be transeported or conuerted to other uses but howe those Lawes haue ben obserued oer presente scarcetie of those richest moneyes dothe verry well declare /

Moreouer it is neither nedefull nor com̄odious to oer publique weale to haue the moneyes made at the saide full standered so fareforthe as they be made wthin the remedies lymitted by thindenture & respected onelye for their curantie for wch cause moneyes are chefelie made and not for the priuate com̄oditie that otherwise maye be gotten by transeportinge or conuertinge them to any other use /

The Subiecte wth Lcs wayinge but xjoz xviijd wght and beinge but xjoz fyne maye buye here in this realme as musthe & as good com̄ditie (bullion) onelye excepted as he can doe wth Lxs wayinge xijoz of xjoz ijd wght fyne /

Therfore in respecte of there currauncie whethere Lxs waye xijoz of xjoz ijd wght fine or but xjoz xviijd wght ofxjoz fine it is all one to ye Subiecte but in respecte of the charge that must growe for the makinge of those moneyes wch if her matie will not beare the Subiecte must beare as before is saide that wolde be to the Subiecte a greate inconvenience for then he muste paye the vallue of the remedies more for the coynage of Lxs beinge of the full standerd then for Lxs wantinge the remedies of the full standerd and yet as before is saide in respecte of currauncie the one Lxs to him is no better then the other /

Again yf euery Lxs sholde wante the full remedies viz ijd wght in wght and ijd wght in fynesse of there full standerd yett to the subiecte it is in discomoditie bicause so longe as they remaine moneyes he loseth nothinge therby and to her matie it is a comoditie bicause the one half of those remedies helpeth to bere the mers charge aforesaide and thother half or so muche therof as is not in the moneyes is answered to her matie accordine to thindenture for thencrease of her reuenew in maner & forme as is before declared /

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The mers answer to the wardens Informacon exhibited t the right honorable the Lords of her maties privey Councell Comissioners appointed to here & determyn mynt causes

Right honorable the moste & greatest matters exhibited against the mer in ye wardens Infromacon are alreddy sufficyently anwered and disproued and the residue are frivilous, yet that the untruthe aswell of his Informacon as of his Estemate maye the more euidently appere, the mer hathe thought good to compare the reconninge of them to gether, and briefely to collecte the chef & principall pointe that may seeme to haue moued the warden exhibit the same / First in his Estemate he saithe that the mer unlawfully ympayreth the moneyes: Secondly in his Informacon he saithe that the mer changeth the matter of the Standerd: Thirdly that the mer iniuriousely & wrongfully taketh the Subiecte goode from them, And fouerthely that the ymbeseleth the golde & siluer from the coyne, & so wrongfully & unlawfully taketh & conuerteth to his owne use a number of thousande, as in the same Estemate & Informacon is expressed: And under collore herof all the cauells haue ben supported, wherof yf any one had ben true, it were sufficyent to conuince the mer: But ye warden to make the mers proffite seeme hge, and these pretended causes seeme the greater and more odious, hathe gon so farre from the truthe, as he apparantly discouereth his mallice, & manyfestly disproueth hiim self in his owne reconynge, as followeth /                                                             For

The wardens Informacon is lesse then his Estemate by M iiijx.iiijxx. Viij£ ijs vd. ob.{In his Estemate he reconeth that the mer in ꝑfitte & by unlawfull ympayringe the moneyes, hathe taken declared in two yeares}MlMlMlMl C.C.C.C.x£. xixs. ob
In his Informaco he saithe, the Subiecte payeth xjs & more for coynage of the pounde wght of golde, & ijs vjd for Siluer: By wch reconynge, (yf it were true) yea though the mer take the whole remedyes, yet it amounteth to in two yeares \declare/ butMlMl DC.C.C.C.xxij£. xvjs. vijd

But that bothe these reconynge are manyfestly untrue, it is evidente, for thone retheth aboue the whole remedyes, and thorther reacheth to the whole remedyes, at neither of wch rates moneyes can be made, wthoute certaintye of fyne & rannsome / And the moneyes them selves Disproue both: For they appere to be made verry neere the halfe remedyes: Againe yf all the moneyes geuerally were made at the whole remedyes, it colde not be chosen, but that the tryalls wherby her matie is to be answered, wolde fall owte accordingly: And then. her matie must haue the moitye thereof, So that the mer cannot in any wise haue the whole remedyes: All wch proueth euery waye, that neither of both the wardens reconynge can be true /

Seinge then that yf the moneyes were made at the whole remedyes, the mers proffite amounteth but to MlMl.ixC xxij£ xvjs vijd, and that her maties half remedyes must be deducted, wch is MlMl.xxiij£ ijs vjd: And also deducting DCxix£ ijs ixd, wch the warden in his Estemat reconeth to little for the mers waste & charge then it followeth by true accompte, that there remayneth to the mer in two yeares, (thoughe somuche be coyned as the warden saith) but}CCiiijxx.£ xjs. iiijd.

There appereth aswell the untruthe of the wardens Estemate as of his Informacon, wch beinge so manydestly disporued, the mer hopeth that these & the rest of his cauells shall haue credit accordingly: And that the mers reconynge is true, wthin little more or less, he is reddye to depose uppon his othe, yf the warden will likewise sweare that his reconninge be true, wherfore the mer moste humbly prayeth, that yor honorb will forbid the warden, thus continually to preferre {nue} informacons of purpose to molleste the mer, by settinge newe collors uppon olde quarrells, or ells that the mer be not compelled to answer any more the wardens Informacons, excepte suche as he shall exhibit uppon his othe And the mer accorindge to his bounden entye, sgall daily praye for yor ꝑsperous & honorable estates, linge to continewe /

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Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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