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An Account of the Empires of the Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Greeks, and Romans,
according to the descriptions given of them by Daniel.



Sect 1
Of the prophetic language.

For understanding these descriptions we are in the first place to acquaint our selves with the figurative language of the Prophets. And this language is taken from the analogy between the world natural & an Empire or Kingdom considered as a world politique.

Accordingly the whole world natural consisting of heaven & earth signifies the whole world politique consisting of thrones & people, or so much of it as is considered in the prophesy: & the things in that world signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens & the things therein signify thrones & dignities & those that enjoy them; & the earth with the things therein the inferior people, & the lowest parts of the earth called Hades or Hell the lowest or most miserable part of the people. Whence ascending towards heaven & descending to the earth are put for rising & falling in honour & power. Rising out of the earth or waters & falling into them for the rising up to any dignity or dominion out of the inferior state of the people, or falling down from the same into that inferior state. Descending into the lower parts of the earth for descending to a very low & unhappy estate. Speaking with a faint voice out of the dust for being in a weak & low condition. Moving from one place to another for translation from one office dignity or dominion to another. Great earthquakes & the shaking of heaven & earth for the shaking of kingdoms so as to distract or overthrow them. The creating a new heaven & earth & the passing away of an old one, or the beginning & end of the world, for the rise & ruin of the body politique signified thereby.

In the heavens the Sun & Moon are by interpreters of dreams put for the persons of Kings & Queens, but in sacred prophesy which regards not single persons, the sun is put for the whole species & race of kings in the kingdom or kingdoms of the world polytick shining with regal power & glory: the Moon for the body of the common people considered as the kings wife: the starrs for subordinate Princes & great men, or for Bishops & Rulers of the people of God when the Sun is Christ. Light for the glory truth & knowledge wherewith great & good men shine & illuminate others. Darkness for obscurity of condition, & for error blindness & ignorance. Darkning, smiting, or setting of the Sun Moon & starrs for the ceasing of a kingdom, or for the desolation thereof proportional to the darkness. Darkning the Sun, turning the Moon into blood & falling of the starrs, for the same. New Moons for the return of a dispersed people into a body politique or ecclesiastick.

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Fire & Meteors refer to both heaven & earth & signify as follows. Burning any thing by fire is put for the consumption [1] thereof by war. A conflagration of the earth or turning a country into a Lake of fire, for the consumption of a kingdom by war. The being in a furnace for the being in slavery under another nation. The ascending up of the smoak of any burning thing for ever & ever for the continuation of a conquered people under the misery of perpetual subjection & slavery. The scorching heat of the Sun for vexatious warrs persecutions & troubles inflicted by the king. Clouds whether in heaven or on earth for multitudes of men. Riding on the clouds for reigning over much people. Covering the Sun with a cloud or with smoak, for oppression of the king by the armies of an enemy. Tempestuous winds (that is the motion of clouds) for warrs. Thunder (that is, the voice of a cloud) for the voice of a multitude. A storm of thunder lightning hail & overflowing rain for a tempest of war descending from the heavens & clouds politique on the heads of their enemies. Rain if not immoderate, & dew, & living water, for the graces & doctrines of the spirit. And the defect of rain for spiritual barrenness.

In the earth the dry land & congregated waters (as a Sea, a River, a Flood) are put for the peoples of several regions nations & dominions. Embittering of waters for great affliction of the people by war & persecution. Turning them to blood for the mystical death of bodies politique, that is, for their dissolution. The overflowing of a sea or river for the invasion of the earth politique by the people of the waters. Drying up of waters for the conquest of their regions by the earth. Fountains of waters for cities the permanent heads of rivers politique. Mountains & Islands for the cities of the earth & sea politique with the territories & dominions belonging to those cities. Dens & Rocks of mountains for the Temples of cities. The hiding of men in those Dens & Rocks for the shutting up of Idols in their Temples. Houses & Ships, for families assemblies & towns in the earth & sea politique. And a navy of war-ships for an army of the kingdom signified by the sea.

Also animals & vegetables are put for people of several regions & conditions, & particularly Trees hearbs & land animals for the people of the earth politique. Flaggs Reeds & Fishes for those of the waters politique. And Birds & Insects for those of the politique heaven & earth. A forest for a kingdom. Paradise for a flourishing & peaceable kingdom. And a wilderness for a desolate & thin people.

If the world politique consisted in prophesy consists of many kingdoms, they are represented by as many parts of the world naturall. As the noblest by the celestial frame; & then the Moon & clouds are put for the common people. The less noble by the earth sea & rivers, & by the animals or vegetables or buildings therein; & then the greater & more powerfull animals & taller trees are put for Kings Princes & Nobles. And because the whole kingdom is the body politique of the king, therefore the Sun, or a Tree, or a Beast or Bird or a Man whereby the King is represented, is put in a large signification for the whole kingdom; & several animals, as Lion, a Beare, a Leopard a Goat, according to their qualities, are put for several kingdoms & bodies politique; & sacrificing of Beasts for slaughtering & conquering of kingdoms; & friendship between Beasts for peace between kingdoms. Yet sometimes Vegetables & Animals are by certain epithites or circumstances extended to other <3r> significations; as a Tree when called the tree of life or of knowledge, & a Beast when called the Old Serpent or worshipped.

When a Beast or Man is put for a kingdom his parts & qualities are put for the analogous parts & qualities of the kingdom. As the head of a Beast for the great men who precede & govern. The Tail for the inferior people who follow & are governed. The heads if more then one for the number of capital parts dynasties or dominions in the kingdom whether collateral or successive with respect to the civil government. The horns on any head for the number of kingdoms in that head with respect to military power. Seeing for understanding, & the eyes for men of understanding & policy & in matters of religion for Ε᾽πισκοποι Bishops. Speaking for making laws. The mouth for a lawgiver whether civil or sacred. The loudness of the voice for might & power. The faintness thereof for weakness. Eating & drinking for acquiring what is signified by the things eaten & drunken. The hairs of a Beast or Man & the feathers of a Bird for people. The wings for the branches of a people spread abroad by conquest over other nations. The arm of a man for his power or for any people wherein his strength & power consists. His feet for the lowest of the people, or for the latter end of the kingdom. The feet nails & teeth of a Beast of prey for armies & squadrons of armies. The bones for strength & fortified places. The flesh for riches & possessions. And the days of their continuing or acting for years. And when a tree is put for a kingdom, its branches leaves & fruit signify as do the wings feathers & food of a Bird or Beast.

When a Man is taken in a mystical sense his qualities are often signified by his actions & by the circumstances of things about him. So a Ruler is signified by his riding on a Beast. A Warrior & Conqueror by his having a sword & bow. A potent man by his gigantic stature. A Iudge by weights & measures. A sentence of absolution or condemnation by a white or black stone. A new dignity by a new name. Moral or civil qualifications by garments. Honour & glory by splendid apparel. Royal dignity by purple or scarlet or by a crown. Righteousness by white & clean robes. Wickedness by spotted & filthy garments. Affliction, mourning & humiliation by cloathing in sackcloth. Dishonour shame & want of good works by nakedness. Error & misery by drinking a cup of his or her wine who causeth it. Propagating any religion for gain by exercising trafick & merchandise with that people whose religion it is. Worshipping or serving the fals Gods of any nation by committing adultery with their Princes or by worshipping them & their image & blaspheming God; or by receiving their mark or name or the number thereof in the hand or forehead in token of servitude. Overthrow in war by a wound of man or beast. A durable plague of war by a sore or pain. The affliction or persecution which a people suffers in labouring to bring forth a new kingdom by pain in travel of a manchild. The birth of a new kingdom by the birth of a Manchild. The dissolution of a body politick or ecclesiastick by the death or man or beast & the revival of a dissolved dominion by the resurrection of the dead.

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CHAP. VII.
An Account of the Empires of the Babylonians, Medes Persians Greeks & Romans according to the descriptions given of them by Daniel.[2] Printed. Ch 2d.



Sect. 1. Of the prophetic language.

For understanding these descriptions we are in the first place to acquaint our selves with the figurative language of the Prophets. And this language is taken from the analogy between the world natural & an Empire or Kingdom considered as a world politique.

Accordingly the whole world natural consisting of heaven & earth signifies the whole world politique consisting of thrones & people, or so much of it as is considered in the Prophesy: & the things in that world, signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens with the things therein signify thrones & dignities & those that enjoy them, & the earth with the things therein the inferiour people, & the lowest parts of the earth called Hades or Hell the lowest or most miserable part of the people. Whence ascending towards heaven & descending to the earth are put for rising & falling in honour & power. Rising out of the earth or waters & falling into them, for the rising up to any dominion or dignity out of the inferior state of the people, or falling down from the same into that inferior state. Descending into the lower parts of the earth called Hades or Hell, for descending to a very low & unhappy state. Speaking with a faint voice out of the dust for being in a weak & low condition. Moving from one place to another for translation from one office dignity or dominion to another. Great earthquakes & the shaking of heaven & earth, for the shaking of kingdoms so as to imbroile or overthrow them. The creating a new heaven & earth & their passing away, or which is all one, the beginning & end of the world, for the rise & ruin of the body politique signified thereby.

In the heavens, the Sun & Moon are by interpreters of dreams put for the persons of Kings & Queens, but in sacred Prophesy which regards not single persons, the Sun is put for the whole species & race of kings in the kingdom or kingdoms of the world polytick shining with regal power & glory: the Moon for the body of the common people considered as the Kings wife: the starrs for subordinate Princes & great men, or for Bishops & Rulers of the people of God when the Sun is Christ. Light for the glory truth & knowledge wherewith great & good men shine & illuminate others. Darkness for obscurity of condition & for error blindness & ignorance. Darkning smiting or setting of the Sun Moon & starrs, for the ceasing of a kingdom, or for the desolation thereof proportional to the darkness . Darkning the Sun, turning the Moon into blood & falling of the starrs, for the same. New Moons for the return of a dispersed people into a body politique or ecclesiastick.

Fire & Meteors refer to both heaven & earth & signify as follows. Burning any thing by fire is put for the consumption thereof by war. A conflagration of the earth or turning a country into a Lake of fire, for the consumption <5r> of a kingdom by war. The being in a furnace for the being in slavery under another nation. The ascending up of the smoak of any burning thing for ever & ever, for the continuation of a conquered people under the misery of perpetual subjection & slavery. The scorching heat of the Sun for vexatious warrs persecutions & troubles inflicted by the king. Clouds whether in heaven or on earth for multitudes of men. Riding on the clouds for reigning over much people. Covering the Sun with a cloud or with smoak, for oppression of the king by the armies of an enemy. Tempestuous winds, (that is, the motion of clouds) for warrs. Thunder (that is, the voice of a cloud) for the voice of a multitude. A storm of thunder lightning, hail, & overflowing rain for a tempest of war descending from the heavens & clouds politique on the heads of their enemies. Rain if not immoderate, & dew; & living water, for the graces & doctrines of the spirit. And the defect of rain for spiritual barrenness.

In the Earth, the dry land & congregated waters (as a Sea, a River, a Flood) are put for the peoples of several regions, nations, & dominions. Embittering of waters for great affliction of the people by war & persecution. Turning them to blood, for the mystical death of bodies politique, that is, for their dissolution. The overflowing of a sea or river for the invasion of the earth politique by the people of the waters. Drying up of waters, for the conquest of their regions by the earth. Fountains of water for cities the permanent heads of rivers politique. Mountains & Islands for the cities of the earth & sea politique with their territories & dominions. Dens & Rocks of mountains for the Temples of cities. The hiding of men in those Dens & Rocks for the shutting up of Idols in their Temples. Houses & ships, for families assemblies & towns in the earth & sea politique. And a Navy of war-ships, for an army of the kingdom signified by the sea.

Also Animals & Vegetables are put for people of several regions & conditions; & particularly Trees hearbs & land animals for the people of the earth politique. Flaggs Reeds & Fishes for those of the waters politique. And Birds & Insects for those of the politique heaven & earth. A forest for a kingdom. Paradise for a flourishing & peaceable kingdom. And a wilderness for a desolate & thin people.

If the world politique considered in Prophesy consists of many kingdoms, they are represented by as many parts of the world naturall: as the noblest by the celestial frame; & then the Moon & clouds are put for the common people. The less noble by the earth sea & rivers & by the animals or vegetables or buildings therein; & then the greater & more powerfull animals & taller trees are put for Kings Princes & Nobles. And because the whole kingdom is the body politique of the king, therefore the Sun, or a Tree or a Beast or Bird or Man whereby the King is represented, is put in a large signification for the whole Kingdom; & several animals (as a Lyon, a Beare, a Leopard a Goat) according to their qualities, are put for several kingdoms & bodies politique; & sacrificing of beasts, for slaughtering & conquering of kingdoms, & friendship between Beasts for peace between kingdoms. Yet sometimes Vegetables & Animals are by certain epithites or circumstances extended <6r> to other significations; as a Tree when called the tree of life or of knowledge, & a Beast when called the Old Serpent, or worshipped.

When a Beast or Man is put for a kingdome his parts & qualities are put for the analogous parts & qualities of the kingdome: as the head of a Beast for the great men who precede & govern. The Tail for the inferior people who follow & are governed. The heads, if more then one for the number of capital parts or dynasties or dominions in the kingdom whether collateral or successive with respect to the civil government. The horns on any head for the number of kingdoms in that head with respect to military power. Seeing for understanding, & the eyes for men of understanding & policy & in matters of religion for Ε᾽πισκοποι Bishops. Speaking for making laws. The mouth for a lawgiver whether civil or sacred. The loudness of the voice for might & power. The faintness thereof for weakness. Eating & drinking for acquiring what is signified by the things eaten & drunken. The hairs of a Beast or Man & the feathers of a Bird for people. The wings for the branches of a people spread abroad by conquest over other nations.[3] The arm of a Man for his power, or for any people wherein his strength & power consists. His feet, for the lowest of the people, or for the latter end of the kingdom. The feet nails & teeth of Beasts of prey for armies & squadrons of armies. The bones for strength & fortified places. The flesh for riches & possessions. And the days of their continuing or acting, for years. And when a Tree is put for a kingdom, its branches leaves & fruit signify as do the wings feathers & food of a Bird or Beast.

When a Man is taken in a mystical sense, his qualities are often signified by his actions & by the circumstances of things about him. So a Ruler is signified by his riding on a Beast: a Warrior & Conqueror by his having a sword & bow: a potent man by his gigantic stature: a Iudge by weights & measures: a sentence of absolution or condemnation by a white or black stone: a new dignity by a new name: moral or civil qualifications by garments: honour & glory by splendid apparel: royal dignity by purple or scarlet or by a crown: righteousness by white & clean robes: wickedness by spotted & filthy garments: affliction mourning & humiliation by cloathing in sackcloth: dishonour shame & want of good works by nakedness: error & misery by drinking a cup of his or her wine who causeth it: propagating any religion for gain by exercising trafick & merchandise with that people whose religion it is: worshipping or serving the fals Gods of any nation by committing adultery with their Princes, or by worshipping them ✝[4] & their image & by blaspheming God, or by receiving their Mark or Name or the number thereof in the hand or forehead in token of servitude): overthrow in war by a wound of man or beast; a durable plague of war by a sore or pain; <7r> the affliction or persecution which a people suffers in labouring to bring forth a new kingdom, by ✝[5] pain in travail of a man child: the birth of a new kingdom by the birth of a manchild: the dissolution of a body politick or ecclesiastick by the death of man or beast: & the revival of a dissolved dominion by the resurrection of the dead.

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Sect. II.
[6]Of the kingdoms represented in Daniel by the four Beasts, & of the ten horns of the fourth Beast.

Now according to this language the Lion, Beare, Leopard & terrible Beast with ten horns in Daniels Prophesy of the four Beasts which arose successively out of the great sea in four great winds, will signify four kingdoms which arose successively in four great warrs. The Lion had Eagles wings to denote the Provinces of Babylon & Assyria, of which the first of the four kingdoms (the kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar then in being,) from the time of the fall of the Assyrian Empire, was composed. For in a parallel vision of the statue of four metalls, Daniel told Nebuchadnezzar Thou art this head of Gold; & after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee; & another third kingdom of brass which shall bear rule over all the earth: & the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron. The second Beast was therefore the kingdom which arose next after the Babylonian, & this was the kingdom of the Medes & Persians, Dan. V.28. This Beast was like a Bear & raised it self up on one side, the Medes rising up first. And it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it. to signify the kingdoms of Sardes Babylon & Egypt which were conquered by it but did not belong to its proper body. And it devoured much flesh, the riches of those three kingdoms. The third Beast was the kingdom which succeeded the Persian, & this was the Empire of the Greeks, Dan. VIII.6, 7, 20, 21. It was like a Leopard to signify its fierceness, & had four heads.[7] & four wings to signify that it should be divided into four kingdoms. For it continued in a monarchical form during the reign of Alexander the great & his young sons Alexander & Hercules, & then brake into four kingdoms by the Governours of Provinces putting Crowns on their own heads & reigning over their Provinces. Cassander reigned over Macedon Greece & Epire, Lysimachus over Thrace, Antigonus over Syria & the lesser Asia, & Ptolomy over Egypt Libya & Ethiopia. And these are all the nations belonging to the body of the third Beast. These kingdoms underwent various changes, but none of them became equal in dominion to that of Alexander the great, & therefore the fourth Beast which was exceeding dreadfull & terrible & had great iron teeth & devoured & brake in pieces and stamped the residue with his feet, could be none of them, but must be the Roman Empire which conquered & succeeded them. It conquered the kingdom of Macedon with Illyricum & Epire in the eight year of Antiochus Epiphanes, An. Nabonass 580, it inherited that of Pergamus An. Nabonass. 615, & conquered that of Syria An. Nabonass 679, & that of Egypt An. Nabonass. 718; & by these conquests became greater & more terrible then any of the three former Beasts. And that the fourth Beast relates to the Roman Empire is confirmed by the Apostle Iohn who names Daniels three first Beasts & puts the Apocalyptic ten-horned Beast in the room of the fourth, saying: And the Beast which I saw was like unto a Leopard & his feet were as the feet of a Bear & his mouth as the mouth of a Lion. This Empire continues in its greatness till the reign of Theodosius the great & then brake into ten kingdoms & continued in a broken form till the Ancient of days sat in a throne like fiery flame, & the judgment was set, & the books were opened & the Beast was slain & his body given to the burning flames, & one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven, & was brought before the ancient of days, & received dominion over all nations, & judgment was given to the saints of the most high, & the time came that they possessed the kingdom. And in the like manner the Beast in the Apocalyps <9r> continues till the Word of God the King of Kings & Lord of Lords comes in heaven with an army upon white horses, & the Beast is taken & cast alive into the lake of fire, & judgment is given to the saints raised from the dead, & they reign with Christ. The two Beasts (that in Daniel & that in Iohn) continue each of them to the day of judgment & then perish alike & therefore are the same & signify the Roman western Empire still divided into many kingdoms.

I beheld, saith Daniel, till the Beast was slain & his body destroyed & given to the burning flames. As concerning the rest of the Beasts they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season & a time. And therefore all the four Beasts are still alive, tho the dominion of the three first be taken away. The nations of Chaldea & Assyria are still the first Beast. Those of Media & Persia are still the second Beast. Those of Egypt Syria & Asia minor, Macedon Greece & Thrace are still the third, & those of Europe on this side Greece are still the fourth. Seeing therefore that the body of the third Beast is confined to the nations on this side the river Euphrates, & that the body of the fourth Beast is confined to the nations on this side Greece: we are to look for all the four heads of the third Beast among the nations on this side of the river Euphrates, & for all the eleven horns of the fourth Beast among the nations on this side of Greece. And therefore at the breaking of the Greek Empire into four kingdoms of the Greeks, we reccon not the kingdom of Seleucus among the four because the Chaldeans Medes & Persians over whom he reigned, belonged to the bodies of the two first Beasts. Nor do we reccon the Greek Empire seated at Constantinople among the horns of the fourth Beast, because it belonged to the body of the third.

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Now the ten horns of the fourth Beast arose in the following manner.

Dacia was a large country bounded on the south by the Danube, on the east by the Euxine sea, on the north by the river Neister & the mountain Crapac, & on the west by the river Tibesis or Teys which runs southward into the Danube a little above Belgrade. It comprehended the countries now called Transylvania, Moldavia, & Wallachia, & the eastern part of the upper Hungary. Its ancient inhabitants were called Getæ by the Greeks, Daci by the Latines & Goths by themselves. Alexander the great attaqued them, & Trajan conquered them & reduced their country into a Province of the Roman Empire: & thereby the propagation of the Gospel among them was much promoted. They were composed of several Gothic nations called Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals Gepides, Lombards, Burgundians, Alans, &c: all which agreed in their manners & spake the same language as Procopius represents. While they lived under the Romans, the Goths or Ostrogoths were seated in the eastern parts of Dacia, the Vandals in the western part upon the river Teys where the rivers Maresh & Keresh run into it. The Visigoths were between them. The Gepides according to Iornandes were upon the Vistula. The Burgundians (a Vandalick nation) were between the Vistula & the southern fountain of the Boristhenes at some distance from the mountain Crapac northwards where Ptolomy places them by the names of Phrugundiones & Burgiones. The Alans (another a[8] Gothic nation) were between the northern fountain of the Boristhenes & the mouth of the river Tanais where Ptolomy places the mountain Alanus. The Roxolani were on the southern coast of the Alans, & western side of the Palus Mæotis.

These nations continued under the dominion of the Romans till the second year of the Emperor Philip, & then for want of their pay began to revolt; & the Ostrogoths set up a kingdom which under their kings Ostrogotha, Cniva, Araric, Geberic, & Hermaneric increased till the year 376; & then by an incursion of the Huns from beyond the Tanais & the death of Hermaneric, brake into several smaller kingdoms. Hunnimund the son of Hermaneric became king over the Ostrogoths; Fridigern over the Visigoths; Winithar or Vinithar over a part of the Goths called Gruthungi by Ammian, Gothunni by Claudian, & Sarmatæ & Scythians by others; Athanaric over another part of the Goths in Dacia called Thervingi; & Box over the Antes in Sarmatia. And the Gepides had also their king. The Vandals fled over the Danube from Geberic in the latter end of the reign of Constantine the great, & had seats granted to them <11r> in Pannonia by that Emperor, & there lived quietly forty years, vizt till the year 377 when several Gothic nations flying from the Hunns came over the Danube & had seats granted them in Mœsia & Thrace by the Emperor Valens, but the next year (A.C. 378) revolted, called in some Goths Alans & Hunns from beyond the Danube, routed the Roman army, slew the Emperor Valens, & spread themselves into Greece & Pannonia as far as to the Alps. But in the years 379 & 380 they were checkt by the arms of the Emperors Gratian & Theodosius, & made a submissive peace, & the Visigoths & Thervingi returned to their seats in Mœsia & Thrace, the Hunns returned over the Danube, & the Alans & Gruthungi obteined seats in Pannonia.

About the year 373 or 374, the Burgundians rose from their seats upon the Vistula with an army of eighty thousand men to invade Gallia; & being opposed seated themselves upon the northern side of the Rhene over against Mentz And in the year 358 a body of the Salian Franks with their king coming from the river Sala were received into the Empire by the Emperor Iulian & seated in Gallia between Brabant & the Rhene. And their King Mellobaudes was made Comes Domesticorum by the Emperor Gratian. And Richomer another noble Salian Franck was made Comes Domesticorum & Magister utriusque Militiæ by Theodosius, & A.C. 384 was Consul with Clearchus. He was a great Favorite of Theodosius, & accompanied him in his warrs against Eugenius, but died in the expedition, & left a son called Theudemir, who afterwards became king of the Salian Franks in Brabant. In the time of this war some Franks from beyond the Rhene invaded Gallia under the conduct of Genobald, Marcomir & Suno, but were repulsed by Stilico, & Marcomir being slain was succeeded in Germany by his son Pharamund.

While these nations remained quiet within the Empire subject to the Romans, many others continued beyond the Danube till the death of the Emperor Theodosius, & then rose up in arms. For Paulus Diaconus in his Historia Miscella, Lib. XIV, speaking of the times next after the death of this Emperor, tells us: Eodem tempore erant Gothi et aliæ gentes maximæ trans Danubium habitantes: ex quibus rationabiliores quatuor sunt Gothi scilicet, Huisogothi, Gepides & Vandali, et nomen tantum et nihil aliud mutantes. Omnes autem fidei erant Arianæ malignitatis. Isti sub Arcadio et Honorio Danubium transeuntes locati sunt in terra Romanorum: et Gepides quidem (ex quibus postea divisa sunt Langobardi et Avares) villas quæ sunt circa Singidonum & Sirmium habitavere. And Procopius in the beginning of his Historia Vandalica writes to the same purpose. Hitherto the western Empire continued entire but now by new commotions it brake into ten kingdoms.

Theodosius died A.C. 395, & then the Visigoths under the conduct of Alaric the successor of Fridigern, rose from their seats in Thrace, & wasted Macedon, Thessaly, Achaia, Peloponnesus & Epire with fire & sword five years together, & then turning westward, invaded Dalmatia, Illyricum & Pannonia, & from thence went into Italy A.C. 402, & the next year were so beaten at Pollentia & Verona by Stilico the commander of the forces of the western Empire, that Claudian calls the remainder of the forces of Alaric tanta ex gente reliquias breves, & Prudentius Gentem deletam. Thereupon Alaric made peace with the Emperor, being so far humbled <12r> that Orosius saith he did pro pace optima & quibuscunque sedibus suppliciter & simpliciter orare. This peace was ratified by mutual hostages & Ætius was sent hostage to Alaric, & therefore Alaric continued a free Prince in the seats now granted to him.

When Alaric took up arms the nations beyond the Danube began to be in motion, & the next winter (the winter between A.C. 395 & A.C. 396) a great body of Hunns, Alans, Ostrogoths, Gepides & other northern nations came over the frozen Danube, being invited by Ruffin: & their brethren also who had obteined seats within the Empire, took up arms. Ierome calls all this great multitude Hunns, Alans, Vandals, Goths, Sarmatans, Quades & Marcomans; & saith that they invaded all places between Constantinople & the Iulian Alps, wasting Scythia, Thrace, Macedon, Dardania, Dacia, Thessaly, Achaia, Epire, Dalmatia, & all Pannonia. And the Suevians also invaded Rhætia. For when Alaric ravaged Pannonia, the Romans were defending Rhætia, which gave Alaric an opportunity of invading Italy as Claudian thus mentions,

Non nisi perfidia nacti penetarbile tempus

Irrupere Getæ, nostras dum Rhætia vires

Occupat, atque alio desudant Marte cohortes.

And when Alaric went from those parts into Italy, some other barbarous nations invaded Noricum & Vindelicia, as the same Poet Claudian thus mentions,

Iam fædera gentes

Exuerant, Latijque audita clade feroces

Vendelicos saltus et Norica rura tenebant.

This was in the years 402 & 403. And among these nations I reccon the Suevians Quades & Marcomans. For they were all in arms at this time & the Quades & Marcomans were Suevian nations, & they & the Suevians came originally from Bohemia & the river Suevus or Sprahe in Lusatia, & were now unified under one common king called Ermeric, who soon after led them into Gallia. The Vandals & Alans might also about this time extend themselves into Noricum. Also Vldin with a great body of Hunns passed the Danube about the time of Chrysostom's banishment, that is, A.C. 404, & wasted Thrace & Mœsia. And Radagaisus king of the Gruthunni & successor of Winithar, inviting over more barbarians from beyond the Danube, invaded Italy with an army of above two hundred thousand Goths, & the next year (A.C. 405 or 406) was overcome by Stilico, & perished with his army. In this war Stilico was assisted by a great body of Hunns & Ostrogoths under the conduct of Vldin & Sarus. They were hired by the Emperor Honorius. And in all this confusion it was necessary for the Lombards in Pannonia to arm themselves in their own defense & assert their liberty, the Romans being no longer able to protect them.

And now Stilico purposing to make himself Emperor procured a military Præfecture for Alaric, & sent him into the east in service of Honorius the western Emperor, committing some Roman troops to his conduct to strengthen his army of Goths, & promising to follow soon after with his own army. His pretense was to recover some regions of Illyricum <13r> which the eastern Emperor was accused to detein injuriously from the western: but his secret designe was to make himself Emperor by the assistance of the Vandals & their allys. For he himself was a Vandal. And for facilitating this design he invited a great body of the barbarous nations to invade the western Empire while he & Alaric invaded the eastern. And these nations under their several kings, the Vandals under Godegisilus the Alans in two bodies, the one under Goar the other under Resplendial, & the Suevians Quades & Marcomans under Ermeric, marched through Rhetia to the side of the Rhene, leaving their seats in Pannonia to the Hunns & Ostrogoths, & joyned the Burgundians under Gundicar, & ruffled the Franks in their further march, & on the last day of December A.C. 406 passed the Rhene at Mentz & diffused themselves into Germania prima & the adjacent regions, & amongst other actions the Vandals took Trevirs. Then they advanced into Belgium & began to ruffle that country. Whereupon the Salian Franks look up arms & under the conduct of Theudemir the son of Ricimer or Richomer above mentioned made so stout a resistance that they slew almost twenty thousand of the Vandals with their king Godegisilus in battel, the rest escaping only by a part of Resplendials Alans which came timely to their assistance.

Then the British soldiers allarmed by the rumour of these things, revolted & set up Tyrants there; first Marcus whom they slew presently, then Gratian whom they slew within four months, & lastly Constantine under whom they invaded Gallia A.C. 408, being favoured by Goar & Gundicar. And Constantine having possessed a good part of Gallia, created his son Constans Cæsar & sent him into Spain to order his affairs there, A.C. 409.

In the mean time Resplendial seeing the aforesaid disaster of the Vandals, & that Goar was gone over to the Romans, led his army from the Rhene, & together with the Suevians & residue of the Vandals went towards Spain, the Franks in the mean time prosecuting their victory so far as to retake Trevirs, which, after they had plundered it, they left to the Romans. The barbarians were at first stopt by the Pyrenean mountains, which made them diffuse themselves into Aquitain: but the next year they had the passage betrayed to them by some soldiers of Constans, & entring Spain 4 Kal. Octob. A.C. 409, every one Conquered what he could, & at length (A.C. 411) they divided their conquests by lot, & the Vandals obteined Bœtica & part of Gallæcia, the Suevians the rest of Gallæcia & the Alans Lusitania & the Carthaginensian Province, the Emperor for the sake of peace confirming them in those seats by grant A.C. 413.

Also the Roman Franks above mentioned having made Theudemir their king, began streight after their conquest of the Vandals to invade their neighbours. The first they set upon were the ✝[9] Galls of Brabant; but meeting with notable resistance they desired their alliance. And so those Galls fell off from the Romans, & made an intimate league with the Franks to be as one people, marrying with one another & conforming to one anothers manners till they became one without distinction. Thus by the access of these Galls, & of the forreign Franks also who afterwards came over the Rhene, the Salian kingdom soon grew very great & powerfull.

Stilico's expedition against the Greek Emperor was stopt by the order of Honorius, & then Alaric came out of Epire into Noricum, & requested a summ of money for his service. The Senate were inclined to deny him, but by Stilico's mediation granted it. But after a while Stilico being accused of a traiterous conspiracy with Alaric & slain 10 Kal Sept. A.C. 408, & Alaric thereby disappointed of his <14r> money, & reputed an enemy to the Empire, brake streight into Italy with his army which he brought out of Epire, & sent to his brother Adolphus to follow him with what other forces he had in Pannonia, which were not great but yet not to be despised. Thereupon Honorius fearing to be shut up in Rome, retired to Ravenna in October A.C. 408, & from that time Ravenna continued to be the seat of the western Emperors. In those days the Hunns also invaded Pannonia, & seizing the deserted seats of the Vandals Alans & Goths, founded a new kingdom there. And Alaric advancing to Rome beseiged it, & 9 Kal. Sept. A.C. 410, took it: & afterwards attempting to pass into Afric was shipwrackt. After which Honorius made peace with him, & got up an army to send against the Tyrant Constantine.

At the same time Gerontius one of Constantines Captains, revolted from him, & set up Maximus Emperor in Spain. Whereupon Constantine sent Edobec, another of his Captains to draw to his assistance, beside the barbarians under Goar & Gundicar in Gallia, supplies of Franks & Alemans from beyond the Rhene; & committed the custody of Vienna in Narbonne to his son Constans. Gerontius advancing first slew Constans at Vienna & then began to besiege Constantine at Arles. But Honorius at the same time sending Constantius with an army on the same errand, Gerontius fled, & Constantius continued the siege, being strengthened by the access of the greatest part of the soldiers of Gerontius. After four months seige, Edobec having procured succours, the barbarian kings at Ments, Goar & Gundicar, constitute Iovinus Emperor, & together with him set forward to relieve Arles. At their approach Constantius retired, they pursued & he beat them by surprize; but not prosecuting his victory the Barbarians soon recovered themselves, yet not so as to hinder the fall of the Tyrants Constantine Iovinus & Maximus. But Britain could not be recovered to the Empire, but remained ever after a distinct kingdom.

The next year (A.C. 412) the Visigoths being beaten in Italy, had Aquitain granted them to retire into, & they invaded it with much violence, causing the Alans & Burgundians to retreat who were then depopulating it. At the same time the Burgundians were brought to peace, & the Emperor granted them for inheritance a region upon the Rhene which they had invaded. And the same I presume he did with the Alans. But the Franks not long after retaking & burning Trevirs, Castinus A.C. 415, was sent against them with an army, & routed them & slew Theudemir their king. This was the second taking of Trevirs by the Franks. And Merovæus about the year 448 took it again & destroyed it. It was therefore taken four times, once by the Vandals & thrice by the Franks. Theudemir was succeeded by Pharamund a Prince of the Salian Franks in Germany. From thence he brought new forces, reigned over the whole & had seats granted to his people within the Empire neare the Rhene.

And now the Barbarians were all quieted & setled in several kingdoms within the Empire, not only by conquest but also by the grants of the Emperor Honorius. For Rutilius in his Itinerary written in Autumn Anno Vrbis 1169, that is (according to Varro's computation then in use) A.C. 416, thus laments the wasted fields

Illa quidem longis nimium deformia bellis; & then adds

Iam tempus laceris post longa incendia fundis

Vel pastorales ædificare casas. And a little after

Æternum tibi Rhenus aret.

And Orosius in the end of his History which was finished A.C. 417, represents now a general pacification of the barbarous nations by the words comprimere, coangustare, addicere gentes immanissimas, terming them imperio addictas because they had obteined seats in the Empire by league & compact, & coangustatas because they did no longer invade all regions at pleasure, but by the same compact remained quiet within the seats granted them.

Now by the wars above described, the western Empire was broken into the following kingdoms

1 The kingdom of the Vandals & Alans in Spain & Afric.

2 The kingdom of the Suevians.

3 The kingdoms of the Visigoths.

<15r>

4 The kingdom of the Alans in Gallia

5 The kingdom of the Burgundians

6 The kingdom of the Franks.

7 The kingdom of the Britains.

8 The kingdom of the Hunns.

9 The kingdom of the Lombards.

10 The kingdom of Ravenna.

Seven of these kingdoms are thus mentioned by Sigonius. 1 Honorio regnate, in Pannoniam 2 Hunni, in Hispaniam 3 Vandali, 4 Alani 5 Suevi et 6 Gothi, in Galliam 4 Alani 7 Burgundiones & 6Gothi certis sedibus permissis accepti. In the same reign the Britains & Franks revolted from the Romans, & the Lombards came into the Empire with the Gepides. But let us view them severally.

1. The kings of the Vandals were A.C. 406 Godegisilus, 407 Gunderic, 426 Geiseric, 477 Huneric, 484 Gundemund, 496 Thrasamund, 523 Geiseric, 530 Gelimer. Godegisilus led them into Gallia A.C. 406, Gunderic into Spain A.C. 409, Geiseric into Afric A.C. 427, & Gelimer was conquered by Belisarius A.C. 533. Their kingdom stood in Gallia Spain & Afric together 126 years, & in Afric they were very potent. The Alans had only two kings ✝ < insertion from f 14v > ✝The Alans in Spain had two kings of their own Resplendial & Ataces, Vtacus or Othacar. Vnder Resplendial they went into France A.C. 407 & into Spain A.C. 409 And Ataces was slain with almost all his army by Vallia king of the Visigoths A.C. 419. And then the remainder of these Alans subjected themselves to Gunderic king of the Vandals in Bœtica, & went afterwards with them into Afric as I learn out of Procopius. And thence the kings of the Vandals stiled themselves kings of the Vandals & Alans, as may be seen in the Edict of Hunneric recited by Victor in his history of the Vandalic persecution. In conjunction with the Catthi these Alans gave the name of Cathalaunia (or Catth-Alania) to the Province which is still so called. These Alans had also Gepides among them, & therefore the Gepides came into Pannonia before the Alans left it. There they became subject to the Hunns till the death of Attila A.C. 454, & at length were conquered by the Ostrogoths.

< text from f 15r resumes >

2 The kings of the Suevians were A.C. 406 Ermeric, 438 Rechila, 448 Rechiarius, 458 Maldra, 460 Frumarius, 463 Remismundus. And after some other kings whose names are unknown, reigned A.C. 558 Theodemir, 568 Miro, 582 Euboricus, & 583 Andeca. This kingdom after it had been once seated in Spain remained always in Gallæcia & Lusitania. Ermeric after the fall of the Alan kingdom, enlarged it into all Gallicia forcing the Vandals to retire into Bœtica & the Carthaginensian Province. This kingdom lasted 177 years according to Isidorus, & then was subdued by Leovigildus king of the Visigoths & made a Province of his kingdom A.C. 585.

3. The kings of the Visigoths were A.C. 400 Alaric, 410 Athaulphus, 415 Sergeric & Vallia, 419 Theoderic 451 Thorismund, 452 Theoderic, 465 Euric, 482 Alaric, 505 Gensalaric, 526 Amalaric, 531 Theudius, 548 Theudisclus &c. I date this kingdom from the time that Alaric left Thrace & Greece to invade the western Empire. In the end of the reign of Athaulphus the Goths were humbled by the Romans, & attempted to pass out of France into Spain. Sergeric reigned but a few days. In the beginning of Vallias reign they assaulted the Romans afresh, but were again repulsed & then made peace on this condition that they should on the behalf of the Empire invade the barbarian kingdoms in Spain. And this they did together with the Romans in the years 417 & 418 overthrowing the Alans & part of the Vandals. And then they received Aquitain of the Emperor by a full donation, leaving their conquests in Spain to the Emperor. And thereby the seats of the conquered Alans came into the hands of the Romans. In the year 455 Theoderic (assisted by the Burgundians) invaded Spain, which was then almost all subject to the Suevians, & took a part of it from them. A.C. 506 the Goths were driven out of Gallia by the Franks. A.C. 585 they conquered the Suevian kingdom & became Lords of all Spain. A.C. 713 the Saracens invaded them, but in time they recovered their dominions & have reigned in Spain ever since.

4. The kings of the Alans in Gallia were Goar, Sambida, Eocharic, Sangibanus, Beurgus, &c. Vnder Goar they invaded Gallia A.C. 407, & had seats given them neare the Rhene A.C. 412. Vnder Sambida (whom Bucher puts the successor if not the son of Goar) they had the territories of Valence given them by Ætius the <16r> Emperor's Generall A.C. 440. Vnder Eocharic they conquered a region of the rebelling Galli Arborici given them by Ætius. This region was from them named Alenconium quasi Alanorum conventus. Vnder Sangibanus they were invaded & their regal city Orleans beseiged by Attila king of the Hunns with a vast army of 500000. And Ætius & the barbarian kings of Gallia came to raise the siege & beat the Hunns in a very memorable battel A.C. 451 in campis Catalaunicis so called from these Alans mixt with the Chatti. The region is now contractly called Campain. In that battel were slain on both sides 162000. A year or two after, Attila returned with an immense army to conquer this kingdom, but was again beaten by them & the Visigoths together in a battel of three days continuance, with a slaughter almost as great as the former. Vnder Beurgus or Biorgor they infested Gallia round about till the reign of Maximus the Emperor, & then they past the Alps in winter & came into Liguria but were there beaten & Beurgus slain by Ricimer commander of the Emperors forces A.C. 464. Afterwards they were again beaten by the joynt force of Odoacer king of Italy & Childeric king of the Francks about the year 480, & again by Theudebert king of the Austrian Francks about the year 511.

5. The kings of the Burgundians were A.C. 407 Gundicar 436 Gundioc, 467 Bilimer, 473 Gundobaldus with his brothers, 510 Sigismund, 517 Godomarus. Vnder Gundicar they invaded Gallia A.C. 407, & had seats given them by the Emperor neare the Rhene in Gallia Belgica A.C. 412. They had Saxons among them, & were now so potent that Orosius A.C. 417 wrote of them: Burgundionum esse prævalidam et perniciosam manum, Galliæ hodieque testes sunt, in quibus præsumpta possessione consistunt. About the year 435 they received great overthrows by Ætius, & soon after by the Hunns, but five years after had Savoy granted them to be shared with the inhabitants, & from that time became again a potent kingdom, being bounded by the river Rhodanus, but afterwards extending much further into the heart of Gallia. Gundobald conquered the regions about the rivers Araris & Rhodanus with the territories of Marseille, & invaded Italy in the times of the Emperor Glycerius, & conquered all his brethren. Godomarus made Orleans his royal seat. Whence the kingdom was called regnum Aurelianorum. He was conquered by Clotharius & Childebert kings of the Franks A.C. 526. And from thence forward this kingdom was sometimes united to the kingdom of the Franks & sometimes divided from it till the reign of Charles the great who made his son Carolottus king of Burgundy; from which time for above 300 years together, it enjoyed its proper kings, & was then broken into the Dukedom of Burgundy & County of Burgundy & County of Savoy; & afterwards those were broken into other lesser Counties.

6. The kings of the Franks were A.C. 407 Theudemir, 417 Pharamund, 428 Clodio, 448 Merovæus, 456 Childeric, 482 Clodovæus, &c. Windeline & Bucher, two of the most diligent searchers into the originals of this kingdom, make it begin the same year with the Barbarian invasions of Gallia, that is, A.C. 407. Of the first kings there is in Labbee's Bibliotheca M.S. this record.

Historica quædam excerpta ex veteri stemmate Genealogico
Regum Franciæ

Genobaldus, Marcomerus, Suno, Theodemeris. Isti duces vel Reguli extiterunt a principio gentis Francorum diversis temporibus. Sed incertum relinquunt historici quali sibi procreationis linea successerunt.

Pharamundus: sub hoc rege suo primo Franci legibus se subdunt, quas Primores eorum tulerunt Wisogastus, Atrogastus, Salegastus.

Chlochilo. Iste transito Rheno Romanos in Carbonaria sylva devicit, Camaracum cœpit & obtinuit, annis 20 regnavit. Sub hoc rege <17r> Franci usque Sumam progressi sunt.

Merovechus: Sub hoc rege Franci Trevirim destruunt Metim succendunt, usque Aurelianum perveniunt.

Now for Genobaldus Marcomer & Suno, they were captains of the transrhenane Franks in the reign of Theodosius & concern us not. We are to begin with Theudemer the first king of the rebelling Salij, called Didio by Ivo Carnotensis, & Thiedo & Theudemerus by Rhenanus. His face is extant in a coin of gold found with this inscription THEVDEMER REX published by Petavius & still or lately extant as Windeline testifies: which shews that he was a king, & that in Gallia seeing rude Germany understood not then the coining of money, nor used either Latin words or letters. He was the son of Richemer or Richomer the favorite of the Emperor Theodosius, & so being a Roman Franck & of the Salian royal blood, they therefore upon the rebellion made him king. The whole time of his reign you have stated in Excerptis Gregorij Turonensis e Fredigario, cap. 5, 6, 7, 8, where the making him king, the tyranny of Iovinus, the slaughter of the associates of Iovinus, the second taking of Trevirs by the Franks, & their war with Castinus in which this king was slain, are as a series of successive things thus set down in order. Extinctis ducibus in Francis denuo Reges creantur ex eædem stirpe quo prius fuerant. Eodem tempore Iovinus ornatus regios assumpsit. Constantinus fugam versus Italiam dirigit: missis a Iovino Principe percussoribus super Mentio flumine capite truncatur. Multi nobilium jusse Iovini apud Avernis capti, & a ducibus Honorij crudeliter interempti sunt. Trevirorum civitas factione unius ex senatoribus, nomine Lucij, a Francis capta et incensa est.Castinus Domesticorum Comes expeditionem accipit contra Francos &c. Then returning to speak of Theudemer he adds: Franci electum a se regem Sicut prius fuerat crinitum inquirentes diligenter ex genere. Priami Frigi et Francionis super se crearunt, nomine Theudemerum, filium Richimeris, qui in hoc prælio quod supra memini, a Romanis interfectus est, that is, in the battel with Castin's army. Of his death Gregory Turonensis makes this further mention. In consularibus legimus Theodemerem regem Francorum filium Ricimeris quondam et Ascilam matrem ejus, gladio interfectos.

Vpon this victory of the Romans the Franks & rebelling Galls, who in the time of Theudemer were in war with one another, united to strengthen themselves, as Ordericus Vitalis thus mentions:[10] Cum Galli prius contra Romanos rebellassent, Franci ijs sociati sunt, et pariter juncti Ferramundum Sunonis Ducis filium sibi regem præfecerunt. Prosper sets down the time. Anno 25 Honorij, Pharamundus regnat in Francia. This Bucher well referrs to the end of the year 416 or the beginning of the next year, dating the years of Honorius from the death of Valentinian & argues well that at this time Pharamund was not only king by constitution of the Franks but crowned also by the consent of Honorius, & had a part of Gallia assigned to him by covenant. And this I suppose might be the cause that Roman writers recconed him the first king. Which some not understanding have reputed him the founder of this kingdom by an army of the transrhenane Franks. And he might come with such an army, but he succeeded Theudemer by right of blood & consent of the people. For the above cited passage of Fredegarius, Extinctis ducibus, in Francis denuo Reges creantur ex eadem stirpe quæ prius, implies that the kingdom continued to the new elected family during the reign of more kings then one. If you date the years of Honorius from the death of his father, the reign of Pharamund might begin two years later then is assigned by Bucher. The Salique laws made in his reign which are yet extant, shew by their name that it was the kingdom of the Salij over which he reigned, & by the pecuniary mulcts in them that the place where he reigned abounded very much with money, & consequently was within the Empire, rude Germany not knowing the use of money <18r> till they mixed with the Romans. Also in the Preface to the Salique Laws (written & prefixed to them soon after the conversion of the Franks to the Christian religion, that is, in the end of the reign of Merovæus or soon after,) the original of this kingdom is thus described. Hæc enim gens quæ fortis dum esset et robore valida Romanorum jugum durissimum de suis cervicibus excussit pugnando &c This kingdom therefore was erected not by invasion but by rebellion as was described above. Prosper in regestring their kings in order tells us, Pharamundus regnat in Francia; Clodio regnat in Francia; Merovæus regnat in Francia: & who can imagin but that in all these places he meant one & the same Francia? & yet it's certain that the Francia of Merovæus was in Gallia.

Yet the father of Pharamund being king of a body of Franks in Germany in the reign of the Emperor Theodosius, as above, Pharamund might reign over the same Franks in Germany before he succeeded Theudemer in the kingdom of the Salians within the Empire, & even before Theudemer began his reign; suppose in the first year of Honorius when those Franks being repulsed by Stilico lost their kings Marcomir & Suno, one of which was the father of Pharamund. And the Roman Franks after the death of Theudemir, might invite Pharamund with his people from beyond the Rhene. But we are not here to regard the reign of Pharamund in Germany. We are to date this kingdom from its rise within the Empire, & to look upon it as only strengthened by the access of other Franks coming from beyond the Rhene whether in the reign of this king of in that of his successor Clodio. For in the last year of Pharamund's reign Ætius took from him a part of his possession in Gallia: but his successor Clodio (whom Fredagarius represents the son of Theudemer, & some call Clogio, Cloio & Claudius) inviting from beyond the Rhene a great body of Franks, recovered all, & carried on their conquests as far as the river Some. And then those Franks dividing conquests with him, erected certain new kingdoms at Colen & Cambray & some other cities: all which were afterwards conquered by Clodovæus who also drave the Goths out of Gallia, & placed his seat at Paris where it has continued ever since. And this was the originall of the present kingdom of France.

7. The kings of Britain were A.C. 407 or 408 Marcus Gratian & Constantine successively. A.C. 425 Vortigern, 466 Aurelius Ambrosius, 498 Vther Pendraco, 508 Arthur, 542 Constantinus, 545 Aurelius Cunanus, 578 Vortiporeus, 581 Malgo, 586 Careticus, 613 Cadwan, 635 Calwalin, 676 Cadwalader. The three first were Tyrants who revolted from the Empire. Orosius Prosper & Zosimus connect their revolt with the irruption of the barbarians into Gallia as consequent thereunto. And Prosper (with whom Zosimus agrees) puts it in the year which began the day after the irruption. The just time I thus collect. Marcus reigned not many days, Gratian four months, & Constantine three years. He was slain the year after the sacking of Rome, that is A.C. 411; 14 Cal. Octob. Whence the revolt was in Spring A.C. 408. Sozomen joins Constantines expedition into Gallia with Arcadius's death or the times a little after, & Arcadius died A.C. 408 May the 1st. Now tho the reign of these Tyrants was but short yet they gave a beginning to the kingdom of Britain, & so may be recconed the three first kings, especially since the posterity of Constantine (vizt his sons Aurelius Ambrosius & Vther Pendraco & grandson Arthur) reigned afterwards. For from the time of the revolt of these Tyrants Britain continued in a distinct kingdom absolved from subjection to the Empire, the Emperor not being able to spare soldiers to be sent thither to recover & keep the Island, & therefore neglecting it; as we learn by unquestionable records. For Prosper tells us, A.C. 410 Variane Coss. Hac tempestate præ valetudine Romanorum vires funditus attenuatæ Britannorum vires attenuatæ, & substrahunt se a Romanorum dominatione. And Zosimus lib. 6: The transrhenane Barbarians invading all places, reduc't the inhabitants of the island of Britain & also certain Celtic nations to that pass that they fell off from the Roman Empire, & being no longer obedient to the Roman laws κατ᾽ <19r> ἑαυτὸν βιατεύειν, they lived in separate bodies after their own pleasure. Therefore the Britains taking up arms, & hazzarding themselves for their own safety, they freed their cities from the imminent Barbarians. In like manner all Brabant & some other Provinces of the Galls imitating the Britains, freed themselves after the same manner, ejecting the Roman Presidents & forming a certain Common wealth according to their own pleasure. This rebellion of Britain & the Celtic nations happened when Constantine usurped the kingdom. So also Procopius (lib. 1 Vand.) speaking of the same Constantine saith Constantine being overcome in battel was slain with his children: Βρηταννίαν μέν τοι Ρωμᾶῖοι ἀνασώσασθαι ὀυκέτι ἔχον ἀλλ᾽ ὀυσα ὐπὸ τυραννος ἀπ᾽ ἀυτοῦ ἔμενε: Yet the Romans could not recover Britain any more, but from that time it remained under Tyrants. And Beda (l. 1. c. 11) Fracta est Roma a Gothis anno 1164 suæ conditionis ex quo tempore Romani in Britannia regnare cessaverunt. And Ethelwerdus: A tempore Romæ a Gothis expugnatæ, cessavit imperium Romanorum a Britannia insula, et ab alijs quas sub jugo servitutis tenebant multis terris. And Theodoret (Serm. 9 de Curand. Græc. affect.) about the year 424 reccons the Britains among the nations which were not then in subjection to the Roman Empire. And so Sigonius (ad annum 411) Imperium Romanorum post excessum Constantini in Brittania nullum fuit.

Between the death of Constantine & reign of Vortigern was an interregnum of about 14 years, in which the Britains had warrs with the Picts & Scots, & twice obteined the assistance of a Roman Legion, which drave out the enemy; but told them positively at their departure that they would come no more. Of Vortigerns beginning to reign there is this record in an old Chronicle in Nennius quoted by Cambden & others. Guortigernus tenuit imperium in Britannia Theodosio et Valentiniano Coss. [vizt A.C. 425] & in quarto anno regni sui Saxones ad Britanniam venerunt Fælice & Tauro Coss [vizt A.C. 428.] This coming of the Saxons Sigebert referrs to the 4th year of Valentinian, which falls in with the year 428 assigned by this Chronicle: & two years after, the Saxons together with the Picts were beaten by the Britains. Afterwards in the reign of Martian the Emperor, that is, between the years 450 & 456, the Saxons under Hengist were called in by the Britains, but six years after revolted from them, & made war upon them with various success, & by degrees succeeded them. Yet the Britains continued a flourishing Kingdom till the reign of Careticus, & the war between the two nations a[11] continued till the reign of Pope Sergius A.C. 688.

8. The kings of the Hunns were A.C. 406 Octar & Rugila, 433 Bleda & Attila. Octar & Rugila were the brothers of Munzuc king of the Hunns in Gothia beyond the Danube, & Bleda & Attila were his sons & Munzuc was the son of Balamir. The two first Iornandes tells us were kings of the Hunns but not of them all, & had the two last for their successors. I date the reign of the Hunns in Pannonia from the time that the Vandals & Alans relinquished Pannonia to them A.C. 406: Sigonius from the time that the Visigoths relinquished Pannonia A.C. 408. Constat, saith he, quod Gothis ex Illyrico profectis, Hunni successerunt, atque imprimis Pannoniam tenuerunt. Neque enim Honorius, viribus ad resistendum in tantis difficultatibus destitutus, prorsus eos prohibere potuit, sed meliore consilio, animo ad pacem converso, fœdus cum eis, datis acceptisque obsidibus fecit, ex quibus qui dati sunt, Ætius, qui etiam Alarico tributus fuerat, præcipue memoratur. How Ætius was hostage to the Goths & Hunns is related by Frigeridus who when he had mentioned that Theodosius Emperor of the East had sent grievous commands to Iohn who after the death of Honorius had usurped the crown of the western Empire, he subjoyns. Iis permotus Iohannes Ætium id temporis coram palatij gerentem cum ingenti auri pondere ad Chunnos transmisit notos sibi obsidiatûs sui tempore & familiari amieitia devinctos – And a little after: Ætius tribus annis Alarici obses, dehinc Chunnorum, posthæc Carpilionis gener ex Comite domesticorum <20r> et Iohannis Cura palatij. Now Bucher shews that Ætius was hostage to Alaric till the year 410 when Alaric died, & to the Hunns between the years 411 & 415, & son in law to Carpilio about the year 417 or 418, & Curopalates to Iohn about the end of the year 423. Whence its probable that he became hostage to the Hunns about the year 412 or 413 when Honorius made leagues with almost all the barbarous nations & granted them seats. But I had rather say with Sigonius that Ætius became hostage to Alaric A.C. 403. Its further manifest out of Prosper that the Hunns were in quiet possession of Pannonia in the year 432. For in the first Book of Eusebius's Chronicle Prosper writes: Anno decimo post obitum Honorij cum ad Chunnorum gentem cui tunc Rugúla præerat, post prœlium cum Bonifacio se Ætius contulisset, impetrato auxilio ad Romanorum solúm regreditur. And in the second book: Ætio & Valerio Coss: Ætius deposita potestate profugus ad Hunnos in Pannonia pervenit, quorum amicitia auxilioque usus pacem principum interpellatæ potestatis obtinuit. Hereby it appears that at this time Rugila (or, as Maximus calls him, Rechilla) reigned over the Hunns in Pannonia; & that Pannonia was not now so much as accounted within the soile of the Empire, being formerly granted away to the Hunns, & that these were the very same Hunns with which Ætius had, in the time of his being an hostage, contracted friendship: by vertue of which as he sollicited them before to the aid of Iohn the Tyrant A.C. 424, so now he procured their intercession for himself with the Emperor. Octar died A.C. 430, for Socrates tells us that about that time the Burgundians having been newly vext by the Hunns, upon intelligence of Octar's death, seing them without a leader, set upon them suddenly with so much success that 3000 Burgundians slew 10000 Hunns. Of Rugila's being now king in Pannonia you have heard already. He died A.C. 433, & was succeeded by Bleda, as Prosper & Maximus inform us. This Bleda with his brother Attila were before this time kings of the Hunns beyond the Danube, their father Munzuc's kingdom being divided between them, & now they united the kingdom of Pannonia to their own. When Paulus Diaconus saith they did Regnum intra Pannoniam Daciamque gerere. In the year 441 they began to invade the Empire a fresh, adding to the Pannonian forces new & great armies from Scythia. But this war was presently composed. And then Attila seeing Bleda inclined to peace slew him A.C. 444, inherited his dominions, & invaded the Empire afresh. At length after various great warrs with the Romans, Attila perished A.C. 454, & his sons quarrelling about his dominions gave occasion to the Gepides, Ostrogoths, & other nations who were their subjects, to rebell & make war upon them. And the same year the Ostrogoths had seats granted to them in Pannonia by the Emperors Marcian & Valentinian, & with the Romans ejected the Hunns out of Pannonia soon after the death of Attila, as all historians agree. This ejection was in the reign of Avitus as is mentioned in the Chronicum Boiorum & in Sidonius Carm. 7 in Avitum which speaks thus of that Emperor

Cujus solum amissas post sæcula multa

Pannonias revocavit iter, jam credere promptum est

Quid faciet bellis.

The Poet means that by the coming of Avitus the Hunns yeilded more easily to the Goths. This was written by Sidonius in the beginning of the reign of Avitus. And his reign began in the end of the year 455, & lasted not one full year.

Iornandes tells us: Duodecimo anno regni Waliæ post pene <21r> quinquaginta annos invasa Pannonia, Hunni a Romanis & Gothis pulsi sunt. And Marcelline: Hierio et Ardaburio Coss. Pannoniæ quæ per quinquaginta annos ab Hunnis retinebantur, a Romanis receptæ sunt. Whence it should seem that the Hunns invaded & held Pannonia from the year 378 or 379 to the year 427, & then were driven out of it. But this is a plane mistake. For it is certain that the Emperor Theodosius left the Empire entire. And we have shewed out of Prosper that the Hunns were in quiet possession of Pannonia in the year 432. The Visigoths in those days had nothing to do with Pannonia, & the Ostrogoths continued subject to the Hunns till the death of Attalus A.C. 454, & Wallia king of the Visigoths did not reign twelve years. He began his reign in the end of the year 415, reigned three years & was slain A.C. 419, as Idacius, Isidorus & the Spanish manuscript Chronicles seem by Grotius, testify. And Olympiodorus, who produces his history only to the year 425, sets down therein the death of Valia king of the Visigoths, & conjoyns it with that of Constantius which happened A.C. 420. Wherefore the Valia of Iornandes who reigned at least twelve years, is some other king. And I suspect that this name has been put by mistake for Valamir king of the Ostrogoths. For the action recorded was of the Romans & Ostrogoths driving the Hunns out of Pannonia after the death of Attila. And it is not likely that the historian would referr the history of the Ostrogoths to the years of the Visigothic kings. This action happened in the end of the year 455, which I take to be the twelft year of Valamir in Pannonia, and which was almost fifty years after the year 406 in which the Hunns succeeded the Vandals & Alans in Pannonia. Vpon the ceasing of the line of Hunnimund the son of Hermaneric, the Ostrogoths lived without kings of their own nation about 40 years together, being subject to the Hunns. And when Alaric began to make war upon the Romans, which was in the year 444, he made Valamir with his brothers Theodemir & Videmer the grandsons of Vinithar, captains or Kings of these Ostrogoths under him. And in the twelft year of Valamir's reign dated from thence the Hunns were driven out of Pannonia.

Yet the Hunns were not so ejected but that they had further contests with the Romans will the head of Denfix the son of Attila, A.C. 468 (in the Consulship of Zeno & Marcian as Marcelline relates) was carried to Constantinople. Nor were they yet totaly ejected the Empire. For besides their reliques in Pannonia, Sigonius tells us that when the Emperors Marcian & Valentinian granted Pannonia to the Goths (which was in the year 454) they granted some part of Illyricum to some of the Hunns & Sarmatans. And in the year 526, when the Lombards removing into Pannonia made war there upon the Gepides, the Avares (a part of the Hunns who had now taken the name of Avares from one of their kings) assisted the Lombards in that war, & the Lombards afterwards, when they went into Italy, left their seats in Pannonia to the Avares in recompence of their friendship. And from that time the Hunns grew again very powerfull, their kings (whom they called Chagan) troubling the Empire very much in the reigns of the Emperors Mauritius, Phocas & Heraclius. And this is the original of the present kingdom of Hungary, which from these Avares & other Hunns mixed together took the name of Hun-Avaria, & by contraction Hungary.

9. The Lombards before they came over the Danube were commanded by two Captains Ibor & Ayon: after whose death they had Kings, Agilmundus, Lamisso, Lechu, Hildehoc, Gudehoc, Claffo, Tato, Wacho, Walter, Audoin, Alboin, Cleophis, &c. Agilmundus was the son of Ayon & became their king (according to Prosper) in the Consulship of Honorius & Theodosius A.C. 389, <22r> and reigned 33 years according to Paulus Warnefridus & was slain in battel by the Bulgars. Prosper places his death in the Consulship of Marinianus & Asclepiadorus A.C. 423. Lamisso routed the Bulgars & reigned three years & Lechu almost forty. Gudehoc was contemporary to Odoacer king of the Heruli in Italy & led his people from Pannonia into Rugia a country on the north side of Noricum next beyond the Danube, from whence Odoacer then carried his people into Italy. Tato overthrew the kingdom of the Heruli beyond the Danube & Wacho conquered the Suevians a kingdom then bounded on the east by Bavaria, on the west by France & on the south by the Burgundians. Audoin returned into Pannonia A.C. 526, & there overcame the Gepides. Alboin A.C. 551 overthrew the kingdom of the Gepides & slew their king Chunnimundus, & A.C. 563 assisted the Greek Emperor against Totila king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, & A.C. 568 led his people out of Pannonia into Lombardy where they reigned till the year 774.

According to Paulus Diaconus the Lombards with many other Gothic nations came into the Empire from beyond the Danube in the reign of Honorius & Arcadius, that is between the years 395 & 408. But they might come in a little earlier. For we are told that the Lombards under their captains Ibor & Ayon beat the Vandals in battel, & Prosper places this victory in the Consulship of Ausonius & Olybrius, that is, A.C. 379. Before this war the Vandals had remained quiet forty years in their seats granted to them in Pannonia by Constantine the great. And therefore if these were the same Vandals, this war was in Pannonia & might be occasioned by the coming of the Lombards over the Danube into Pannonia a year or two before the battel, & put an end to that quiet which had lasted 40 years. And after Gratian & Theodosius had quieted the barbarians, they might either retire over the Danube or continue quiet under the Romans till after the death of Theodosius, & then either invade the Empire anew of throw off all subjection to it. By their warrs first with the Vandals & then with the Bulgars, a Scythian nation so called from the river Volga from whence they came; it appears that even in those days they were a kingdom not contemptible.

10 These nine kingdoms being rent away we are next to consider the residue of the western Empire. While this Empire continued entire it was the Beast himself: but the residue thereof is but a part of him. And if this part be considered as a horn, the reign of this horn may be dated from the translation of the Imperial seat from Rome to Ravenna, which was in October A.C. 408. For then the Emperor Honorius fearing that Alaric would beseige him in Rome if he staid there, retired to Millain & thence to Ravenna: & the ensuing siege & sacking of Rome confirmed his residence there, so that he & his successors ever after made it their home. And accordingly Machiavel in his Florentine history writes that Valentinian having left Rome translated the seat of the Empire to Ravenna.

Rhætia belonged to the western Emperors so long as that Empire stood, & then it descended with Italy & the Roman Senate to Odoacer king of the Heruli in Italy, & after him to Theoderic king of the Ostrogoths & his successors by the grant of the Greek Emperors. Vpon the death of Valentinian the second, the Alemans & Suevians invaded Rhætia A.C. 455. But I do not find that they erected any standing kingdom there. For in the year 457, while they were yet depopulating Rhætia, they were attaqued & beaten by Burto the Master of the horse to the Emperor Majoranus, & I hear nothing more of their invading Rhætia. Clodovæus king of France in or about the year 496 conquered a kingdom of the Alemans & Suevians & slew <23r> their last king Ermeric. But this kingdom was seated in Germany & only bordered upon Rhætia. For its people fled from Clodovœus into the neighbouring kingdom of the Ostrogoths under Theoderic. And Theoderic received them as friends, & wrote a friendly Letter to Clodovæus in their behalf. And by this means they became inhabitants of Rhætia as subjects under the dominion of the Ostrogoths.

When the Greek Emperor conquered the Ostrogoths he succeeded them in the kingdom of Ravenna not only by right of conquest but also by right of inheritance, the Roman Senate still going along with this kingdome. And therefore we may reccon that this kingdome continued in the Exarchate of Ravenna & Senate of Rome. For the Remainder of the Western Empire went along with the Senate of Rome, by reason of the right which this Senate still retained & at length exerted, of chusing a new western Emperor.

I have now enumerated the kingdoms into which the Western Empire became divided at its first breaking. Some of these at length fell & new ones arose: but whatever was their number afterwards; they are still called the ten kings from their first number.

<24r>

Sect. III.
Of the eleventh horn of Daniel's fourth Beast.

Now Daniel considered the horn & behold there came up among them another little horn before whom three of the first horns were pluckt up by the roots, & behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man & a mouth speaking great things, & its look was more stout then its fellows, & it made war with the saints & prevailed against them. And one that stood by & made Daniel know the interpretation of these things told him that the ten horns were ten kings that should arise & another [king] should arise after them & be divers from the first [ten kings] & subdue three kings, & speak great words against the most High, & wear out the saints, & think to change times & laws, & that they should be given into his hands for a time times & half a time. Kings are put for kingdoms as above, & therefore the little horn is a little kingdom. It was a horn of the fourth Beast & rooted up three of the first horns, & therefore we are to look for it among the nations of the Latine Empire after the rise of the ten horns. But it was a kingdom of a different kind from the other ten kingdoms, having a life or soul peculiar to it self with eyes & a mouth. But its eyes it was a seer, & by its mouth speaking great things & changing times & laws it was a Prophet as well as a King. And such a Seer a Prophet & a King was the Church of Rome.

A Seer, Ε᾽πίσκοπος, is a Bishop in the litteral sense of the word; & this Church claims the universal Bishopric.

With his mouth he gives laws to kings & nations as an Oracle & pretends to infallibility, & that his dictates are binding to the whole world; which is to be a Prophet in the highest degree.

In the eighth century by rooting up & subduing the Exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of the Lombards, & the Senate & Dukedome of Rome, he acquired Peters Patrimony out of their Dominions, & thereby rose up as a temporal Prince or king or horn of the fourth Beast.

In a small book printed at Paris A.C. 1689 & entituled: An historical Dissertation upon some coins of Charles the great Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius, & their successors stamped at Rome: it is recorded, that in the days of Pope Leo X, there was remaining in the Vatican, & till those days exposed to public view, an Inscription in honour of Pipin the father of Charles the great, in these words: Pipinum pium primum fuisse qui amplificandæ Ecclesiæ Romanæ viam apperuerit, Exarchatu Ravennate, & plurimis alijs oblatis; that Pipin the Pious was the first who opened a way to the grandeur of the Church of Rome, conferring upon her the Exarchate of Ravenna & many other oblations. In & before the reign of the Emperors Gratian & Theodosius the Bishop of Rome lived splendidly, but this was by the oblations of the Roman Ladies as Ammianus describes. After those reigns Italy was invaded by forreign nations, & did not get rid of her troubles before the fall of the kingdom of Lombardy. it was certainly by the victorys of the Sea of Rome over the Greek Emperor the King of Lombardy & the Senate of Rome that she acquired Peters patrimony, & rose up to her greatness. The Donation of Constantine <27r> the great is a fiction, & so is the donation of the Alpes Cottiæ to the Pope by Aripert king of the Lombards. For the Alpes Cottiæ were a part of the Exarchate, & in the days of Aripert belonged to the Greek Emperor.

The invocation of the dead & veneration of their Images being gradually introduced in the 4th, 5th, 6t, & 7th Centuries, the Greek Emperor Philippicus declared against the latter A.C. 711 or 712. And the Emperor Leo Isaurus to put a stop to it called a meeting of Councellours & Bishops in his Palace A.C. 726,[12] & by their advice put out an Edict against that worship, & wrote to Pope Gregory the second that a general Council might by called. But the Pope thereupon called a Council at Rome, confirmed the worship of Images, excommunicated the Greek Emperor, absolved the people from their allegiance, & forbad them to pay tribute or otherwise to be obedient to him. And the people of Rome, Campania, Ravenna & Pentapolis, with the cities under them, revolted & laid violent hands upon their Magistrates killing the Exarch Paul at Ravenna, & laying aside Peter Duke of Rome who was become blind. And when Exhileratus Duke of Campania incited the people against the Pope, the Romans invaded Campania & slew him with his son Hadrian. Then a new Exarch Eutychius coming to Naples, sent some secretly to take away the lives of the Pope & the Nobles of Rome: but the Plot being discovered, the Romans revolted absolutely from the Greek Emperor & took an oath to preserve the life of the Pope, & to defend their state[13] & be obedient to their authority in all things. Thus Rome with its Dutchy including part of Tuscia & part of Campania revolted in the year 726, & became a free state under the government of the Senate of this city, & the authority of the Senate in civil affairs was henceforward absolute, the authority of the Pope extending hitherto no farther then to the affairs of the Church.

[14]At that time the Lombards also being zealous for the worship of Images, & pretending to favour the cause of the Pope, invaded the cities of the Exarchate: & at length (vizt A.C. 752) they took Ravenna & put an end to the Exarchate. And this was the first of the three kingdoms which fell before the little Horn.

[15]In the year 751 Pope Zechary deposed Childeric a sloathful & useless king of France, & the last of the race of Merovæus, & absolving his subjects from their oath of allegiance, gave the kingdom to Pipin the Maior of the Palace, & thereby made a new & potent friend.[16] And his successor Pope Stephen III, knowing better how to deal with the Greek Emperor then with the Lombards, went the next year to the king of the Lombards to persuade him to return the Exarchate to the Emperor. But this not succeeding, he went into France & persuaded Pipin to take the Exarchate & Pentapolis from the Lombards & give it to Saint Peter. And accordingly Pipin A.C. 754 came with an army into Italy, & made Aistulphus king of the Lombards promise the surrender. But the next year Aistulphus on the contrary, to revenge himself on the Pope, beseiged the city of Rome. Whereupon the Pope sent Letters to Pipin, wherein he told him that if he came not speedily against the Lombards, pro data sibi potentiam alienandum fore a regno Dei et vita æterna, he should be excommunicated. Pipin therefore fearing a revolt of his new subjects, & being indebted to the Church of Rome, came speedily with an army into Italy, raised the seige, beseiged the Lombards in Papia & forced them to surrender the Exarchate & <28r> region of Pentapolis to the Pope for a perpetual possession. Thus the Pope became Lord of Ravenna & the Exarchate, some few cities excepted; & the Keys were sent to Rome, & laid upon the Confession of Saint Peter, that is, upon his Tomb at the High Altar, in signum veri perpetuique dominij, sed pietate Regis gratuita, as the inscription of a coin of Pipin hath it. This was in the year of Christ 755. And henceforward the Popes being temporal Princes left off in their Epistles & Bulls to note the years of the Greek Emperors as they had hitherto done.

[17]After this the Lombards invading the Popes countries, Pope Adrian sent to Charles the great the son & successor of Pipin to come to his assistance. And accordingly Charles entred Italy with an army, invaded the Lombards, overthrew their kingdom, became master of their countries, & restored to the Pope, not only what they had taken from him, but also the rest of the Exarchate which they had promised Pipin to surrender to him but had hitherto detained, & also gave him some cities of the Lombards, & was mutually made Patricius by the Romans, & had the authority of confirming the elections of the Popes conferred upon him. These things were done in the year 773 & 774. And this was the second kingdom which fell before the little horn. But Rome which was to be the seat of his kingdom, was not yet his own.

[18]In the year 796 Leo III being made Pope, notified his election to Charles the great by his Legates, sending to him for a present, the golden keys of the Confession of Peter, & the Banner of the city of Rome: the first as an acknowledgement of the Popes holding the cities of the exarchate & Lombards by the grant of Charles; the other as a signification that Charles should come & subdue the Senate & people of Rome, as he had done the Exarchate & the kingdome of the Lombards. For the Pope at the same time desired Charles to send some of his Princes to Rome who might subject the Roman people to him & bind them by oath in fide & subjectione, in fealty & subjection, as his words are recited by Sigonius. An anonymous Poet published by Boeclerus at Strasburgh, expresses it thus.

Admonuitque pijs precibus, qui mittere vellet

Ex proprijs aliquos primoribus, ac sibi plebem

Subdere Romanam, servandaque fœdera cogens

Hanc fidei sacramentis promittere magnis.

Hence arose a misunderstanding between the Pope & the city. And the Romans about two or three years after, by assistance of some of the Clergy, raised so great tumults against him as gave occasion to a new state of things in all the west. For two of the Clergy accused him of certain crimes, & by an armed force of the Romans seized him stript him of his sacerdotal habit & imprisoned him in a Monastery. But by assistance of his friends he made his escape & fled into Germany to Charles the great, & complained of the Romans for acting against him out of a designe of throwing off all authority of the Church & recovering their ancient freedome. And in his absence his accusers with an armed force ravaged the possessions of the Church & send the accusations to Charles. And before the end of the year Charles sent the Pope back to Rome with a large retinue. And the Nobles & Bishops of France who accompanied him examined the chief of his accusers at Rome & sent them into France in custody. This was in the year 799. And the next year Charles himself went to Rome, & upon a day appointed presided in a Council of Italian & French Bishops to hear both parties. But when the Popes adversaries expected to be heard, the Council declared[19] that he who was the supreme Iudge of all men, <29r> was above being judged by any other then himself. And thereupon the Pope made a solemn declaration of his innocence before all the people, & by doing so was looked upon as acquitted.

A few days after when Christmas day was arrived, the people of Rome who had hitherto elected their Bishop & recconed that they & their Senate inherited the rights of the ancient Senate & people of Rome, voted Charles their Emperor & subjected themselves unto him in such manner as the old Roman Empire & their Senate were subject to the old Roman Emperors. And the Pope crowned him, & annointed him with holy oyle, & worshipped him on his knees after the manner of adoring the old Roman Emperors, as the aforesaid Poet thus mentions.

Post laudes igitur dictus et summus eundem

Præsul adoravit, sicut mos debitus olim

Principibus fuit antiquis.

And the Emperor mutually took the following oath to the Pope In nomine Christi spondeo atque polliceor Ego Carolus Imperator coram Deo et beato Petro Apostolo me protectorem ac defensorem fore hujus Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ in omnibus utilitatibus quatenus divino fultus fuero adjutorio prout sciero poteroque. The Emperor was also made Consul of Rome & his son Pipin was crowned King of Italy. And henceforward the Emperor stiled himself: Carolus serenissimus Augustus, a Deo coronatus, magnus, pacificus, Romæ gubernans Imperium, or Imperator Romanorum; & was prayed for in the Churches of Rome; & his image was henceforward put upon the coins of Rome: & the enemies of the Pope to the number of three hundred Romans, & two or three of the Clergy, were sentenced to death, & the 300 Romans were beheaded in one day in the Lateran fields, but the Clergy men at the intercession of the Pope were pardoned & banished into France. And thus the right of Roman Emperors which had hitherto been in the Greek Emperors was by this Act transferred in the west to the Kings of France.

[20]After these things Charles gave the city & Dutchy of Rome to the Pope subordinately to himself as Emperor of the Romans; spent the winter in ordering the affairs of Rome & those of the Apostolick sea & of all Italy both civil & ecclesiastical & in making new laws for them; & returned the next summer into France; leaving the City under its Senate & both under the Pope & himself. And hearing that his new laws were not observed by the Iudges in dictating the law, nor by the people in hearing it; & that the great men took servants from free men, & from the Churches & Monasteries, to labour in their vineyards, fields, pastures & houses, & continued to exact cattel & wine of them, & to oppress those that served the Churches: he wrote to his son Pipin to remedy these abuses, take care of the church, & see that his laws be executed.

Now the Senate & people & Principality of Rome I take to be the third King whom the little horn overcame & even the chief of the three. For this people elected the Pope & the Emperor, & by Electing the Emperor & making him Consul was acknowledged to retain the authority of the old Roman Senate & people. This city was the Metropolis of the old Roman Empire represented in Daniel by the fourth Beast, & by subduing the Senate & people & Dutchy it became the Metropolis of the little horn of that Beast, & completed Peter's Patrimony which was <30r> the kingdom of that horn. And this victory was attended with greater consequences then those over the other two kings. For it set up the western Empire which continues to this day. It set up the Pope above the judicature of the Roman Senate & Council of Italy & even above all humane judicature, & gave him the supremacy over the western Churches & their Councils in a high degree. It gave him a look more stout then his fellows so that at length when this new religion began to be established in the minds of men, he grappled not only with kings, but even with the western Emperor himself. It is observable also that the custome of kissing the Popes feet, an honour superior to that of kings & Emperors, began about this time. There are some instances of it in the ninth Century. Platina tells us that the feet of Pope Leo IV were kissed according to ancient custome by all that came to him, & some say that Leo III began this custome, pretending that his hand was infected by the kiss of a woman. The Popes began also about this time to canonize Saints & grant Indulgences & Pardons: & some represent that Leo III was the first author of all these things. And it is further observable that Charles the great between the years 775 & 796 conquered all Germany from the Rhene & Danube northward to the Baltic sea & eastward to the river Teys, & extended his conquests also into Spain as far as to the river Eber, & by these conquests he laid the foundation of the new Empire; & at the same time he propagated the Roman Catholick religion into all his conquests, obliging the Saxons & Hunns who were heathens, to receive the Roman faith, & distributing his northern conquests into Bishopricks, & granting tyths to the Clergy & Peterpence to the Pope: by all which the Church of Rome was highly enlarged enriched exalted & established.

In a small book printed at Paris 1689, & entituled: [21] An historical dissertation upon some coins of Charles the great, Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius & their successors stamped at Rome there is a draught of a piece of Mosaic work which Pope Leo III caused to be made in his Palace neare the Church of Iohn Lateran, in memory of his sending the standard or banner of the city of Rome curiously wrought, to Charles the great, & which still remained there at the publishing of the said Book. In the Mosaic work there appeared Peter with three keys in his lap, reaching the Pallium to the Pope with his right hand & the banner of the city to Charles the great with his left. By the Pope is this inscription, SCISSIMVS D.N. LEO PP, by the King this D.N. CARVLO REGI; & under the feet of Peter this, BEATE PETRE DONA VITAM LEONI PP, & VICTORIAM CARVLO REGI DONA. This Monument gives the title of King to Charles & therefore was erected before he was Emperor. It was erected when Peter was reaching the Pallium to the Pope & the Pope was sending the Banner of the city to Charles, that is, A.C. 796. The words above vizt Sanctissimus Dominus noster Leo Papa Domino nostro Carulo Regi relate to the message, & the words below, vizt Beate Petre dona vitam Leoni Papæ, & victoriam Carulo Regi dona, are a prayer that in this undertaking God would preserve the life of the Pope & give victory to the king over the Romans. The three keys in the lap of Peter signify the keys of the three parts of his patrimony, vizt that of Rome with its Dutchy which he was conquering, & those of Ravenna with the Exarchate, & of the territories taken from the Lombards both which he had newly conquered. These were the three dominions whose keys were in the lap of Peter & whose Crowns are now worn by the Pope, & by the conquest of which he <31r> became the little horn of the fourth Beast. By Peters giving the Pallium to the Pope with his right hand & the Banner of the city to the king with his left, & by naming the Pope before the king in the inscription, may be understood that the Pope was then recconed superior in dignity to the kings of the earth.

After the death of Charles the great, his son & successor Ludovicus Pius, at the request of the Pope a[22] confirmed the donations of his Grandfather & Father to the sea of Rome. And in this confirmation he names first Rome with its Dutchy extending into Tuscia & Campania, & then the Exarchate of Ravenna with Pentapolis, & in the third place the territories taken from the Lombards. These are his three conquests, & he was to hold them of the Emperor for the use of the Church sub integritate entirely without the Emperors medling therewith or with the jurisdiction or power of the Pope therein unless called thereunto in certain cases. This ratification the Emperor Ludovicus made under an oath. And as the king of the Ostrogoths for acknowledging that he held his kingdom of Italy of the Greek Emperor, stamped the effigies of the Emperor on one side of his coins & his own on the Reverse: so the Pope made the like acknowledgement to the western Emperor. For the Pope began now to coin money, & the coins of Rome are henceforward found with the head of the Emperors (Charles, Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius, & their successors) on the one side, & the Popes inscription on the reverse for many years.

<25r>

Chap. III.
Of the eleventh Kingdom signified by the little horn which arose after the tenn.

The little horn agrees in all things with the woman upon Iohn's beast. It had eyes & a mouth & therefore was a different animal from the Beast & had a different soul & so had the woman. It is called a King divers from the ten, has a look more stout then they, & has such dominion over the people of the Beast as to change times & laws: & so the woman is deckt in royall apparel & sitts on the beast, that is, reigns over him. & is called a Queen & the great city Babylon which reigns over the Kings of the earth. The little horn rises after the ten & so the womans reign begins after theirs. For the Beast first rises with his horns crowned without the woman & then appears with the woman upon his back. The little horn to denote him a Seer & a Prophet has eyes & a mouth & speaks great things against the most high: & the woman is called the Prophetess Iezabel & teaches to commit spiritual fornication, that is in the language of the Prophets to blaspheme or speak against God. The little horn wears out the saints & has times & laws given into his hand to change them & the woman is drunken with the blood of saints & deceives all nations by her sorceries & corrupts the earth with her fornication. The horn reigns a time times & half a time & so does the woman For after she has deserted the remnant of her seed who keep the commandments of God & is arrived to her place in the wilderness they feed her there a time & times & half a time, that is after she is arrived to her dignity of Queen in the wilderness the merchants of the earth enrich her so long, & therefore her Beast is said in speaking great <25v> things & blasphemies to act or continue 42 months, suppose in conjunction with the woman. The horn & woman agree in all things & there is nothing else in Daniel which answers to the woman nor in Iohn which answers to the horn. This horn therefore being the woman must reign in the seven hilled City Rome & by consequence be the Popedome. The Popedome has a territory with a standing army & so is truly a horn & it is not likely that Daniel in describing all the horns of the Beast would omit this which is more considerable then all the rest tho but a little one. Tis a dominion both temporal & ecclesiastical, that is both masculine & feminine & so is fitly recconned by Daniel a King & by Iohn a Queen. Its temporal dominion is but small & therefore tis but a little horn: its ecclesiastical is universal & therefore as a Queen it reigns over the whole Beast. As a woman or church it has continued from the beginning being at first pure & afterwards corrupt: as a horn or temporal kingdom it rose up after the ten horns. Tis of a different kind from all the rest & in all the western Empire there is no other little Kingdom of any note of a different kind from the rest. It spake great things against the most High & had times & laws given into its hand during all its reign to change them & so great an authority in matters of religion is assumd only by the Pope. It ware out the saints of the most High & the Papacy is the grand author of persecuting to death all in all kingdoms of a different religion from himself. Tho it was but a little horn the least of the eleven yet its look was more stout then it's fellows: & such is that of the Papacy. It was to reign a long time even 1260 years & the Papacy had already continued a horn above 900 of those years. In its rise it was to root up three of the former horns & so did the Papacy which is a very signal character. The history thereof is as follows.

In the year 607 the Pope by the grant of the Emperor Phocas became universal Bishop, but had neither temporal dominion nor military power & so was not yet a horn in the sense of Daniel. For this horn arose by the ruin of other which were temporal.. Pictures & Images began before this time to be set up in the Churches but their worship was not yet <26r> decreed. At length the Greek Emperor Philippicus a Monothelite A.C. 712 caused the picture of the sixt general Council called against the Monothelites to be abolished. And thereupon Pope Constantine calling a Synod at Rome anathematized the Emperor, forbad the setting up of his Images, set up in Saint Peters Church the picture of the six general Councils, & (as Sigonius relates added another decree wherby omnes qui sanctis imaginibus venerationem constitutam ab Ecclesia denegarent damnati sunt, all who denied to the holy Images the veneration which was appointed to them by the Church are damned. This was the first decree for the veneration of images. For hitherto they had been allowed both in the eastern & western Churches only for instructing the people in history. The Emperor Leo Isaurus about 10 years after called a meeting of Counsellours & Bishops in his Palace for putting a stop to the spreading of this worship & by their advice put out an Edict against it & wrote to Pope Gregory the 2nd that a general Council might be called. But the the Pope thereupon calling a Council at Rome confirmed the worship of Images excommunicated the Greek Emperor, absolved his subjects in Italy from their obedience & forbad them to pay tribute to him & thereby caused a great past of the Exarchate to revolt & kill Paul the Exarch. And the Lombards also being zelous for the worship of images & pretending to favour the cause of the Pope invaded the Cities of the Exarchate. At length Pope Zachary fearing the power of the Lombards deposed Childeric a sloathful & useless King of France, & the last of the race of Merovæus & absolving his subjects from their oath of allegiance gave the Kingdom to Pipin King of Austrasia for ever. And thus by the conjunction of these two Kingdoms did one of the ten horns fall before the little horn. This was done in the beginning of the year 752. The same year in March this Pope died & Stephen succeeded & before the end of the year the Lombards tooke Ravenna & put an end to the exarchate. And this is the second of the three Kingdoms that fell. Then Pope Stephen knowing better how to deale with the Greek Emperor then with the Lombards went the next year to their King to persuade him to return the Exarchate to the Emperor, but without temporal success. Whereupon the Pope went into France & perswaded Pipin to take the Exarchate & Pentapolis from the Lombards & give it to Saint Peter. And accordingly Pipin A.C. 754 came with an Army into Italy & made Aistulphus King of the Lombards <26v> promise the surrender. But the next year Aistulphus on the contrary to revenge himself on the Pope beseiged the City of Rome. Whereupon Pope Stephen sent letters to Pipin wherein he told him that if he came not speedily against the Lombards pro data sibi potentia alienandum fore a regno Dei et vita æterna, he would excommunicate him as he had done the Greek Emperor. Pipin therefore being devoted to the Church of Rome came speedily with an army into Italy, raised the seige, beseiged the Lombards in Papia & forced them to surrender the Exarchate & region of Pentapolis to the Pope for a perpetual possession. And now Ravenna & the rest were surrendered some few cities excepted & the Keys sent to Rome & laid upon the Confession of S. Peter, that is upon his Tomb at the High Altar in signum veri perpetiuique Dominij sed pietate regis gratuita as the inscription of a coin of Pipin has it. And hence forward the Popes left of in their Epistles & Bulls to note the years of the Greek Emperors as they had hitherto done. And now by this gift the pope became a temporal Prince & the Papacy a true horn of the Beast. This was in the year 755. Afterwards the Lombards invading the Popes countries, Pope Adrian sent to Charles the great the son of Pipin to come to his assistance & accordingly Charles entred Italy with an army invaded the Lombards overthrew their kingdom took Desiderius their King prisoner became master of their countries, & restored to the Pope not only what they had taken from him, but also the rest of the Exarchate which they had promised Pipin to restore to the Pope but had hitherto detained These things were done in the years 773 & 774 And now the Pope being arrived to his full temporal greatness & freed from the fear of his enemies did henceforward reigne prosperously with the Keys of the Cities in his hand in lieu of a scepter, & a triple crown upon his head.

These Crowns I take to be in memory that he acquired his countries by the ruin of two Kings & the guift of a third to whom he had mutually given the Kingdom of France. Hincmarus & Anastasius tell us that Clodovæus King of France being converted to the Roman faith sent Pope Hormisda a golden Crown adorned with Iewels A.C. 514. This crown seems to be episcopal & the Popes might well wear it also as a temporal one in memory of what afterwards past between them & the Kings of France & add to it two others in respect of the Exarchate & Kingdom of the Lombards by whose ruin < insertion from the left margin of f 26v > they acquired all their temporal Dominions. Thus did three of the first Kings fall at once before this horn. By their fall he grew up, & became a temporal King & in token thereof still wears a tripple crown.

< text from f 26v resumes >

[1] consuming

[2] Horeby V. p. 306

[3] ✝ number of Kingdoms represented by the beasts

[4] a council of a kingdom by its image, Idolatry by blasphemy

[5] ✝ the pain of a woman in labour to bring forth a manchild

[6] An {entirely} new Chapter of the vision of the Image of the 4 metals is added before this

[7] n

[8] a Procop. l. 1 de Bello Vandal.

[9] ✝ Galli Arborici. Whence the region was named Arboric-bant, & contractly Brabant.

[10] Apud Bucherum l. 14, c. 9 n. 8.

[11] a Rolevine's Antiqua Saxon. l. 1. c. 6.

[12] Sigonius de Regno Italiæ ad Ann. 726.

[13] Senate

[14] Sigon. de Regn. Italiæ ad Ann. 726, 752.

[15] Sigon. ib. Ann. 750

[16] Sigon. ib. An. 753, 754, 755.

[17] Sigon. ib. an. 773.

[18] Sigon. de Regn. Ital. ad Ann. 796/

[19] Vide Anastasium.

[20] Sigon. de Regn Italiæ

[21] Vide Actorum Erudit. Suppl. Tom. 2. Sect. 1. pag. 37, 38.

[22] a Confirmationem recitat Sigonius Lib. 4 de Regno Italiæ ad Ann. 817.

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Professor Rob Iliffe
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