<1r>

The Iulian year now in use is very irregular, February has but 28 days & the other months 30 & 31 days without any regular order or reason for the irregularity.

The best form of the solar year is to divide it by the 4 cardinal periods of the Equinoxes & Solstices into 4 quarters, so that the quarters of the yeare may begin at the Equinoxes & Solstices as they ought to do, & then to divide every quarter into 3 equal months which will be done by making the six winter months to consist of 30 days each & the six summer months of 31 days each excepting one of them (suppose the last) which in the leap year shall have 31 days in the other thre years only 30 days. / At the end of every hundred years omit the intercalary day in the leap year excepting at the end of every five hundred years. For this rule is exacter then the Gregorian of omitting it at the end of every hundred years excepting at the end of every 400 years. And this recconing by five hundreds & thousands of years is rounder then the other by four, eight & twelve hundreds. And this I take to be the simplest & in all respects the best form of the civil year that can be thought of.

And this is all the reformation of the year which need be made at first

As for the Ecclesiastical year if the fixt Feasts be still placed on the same days of the months of this New Year as in the Iulian year, they will come nearer to the truth then they do at present. For they are now become about 14 days later then they were in the first century in respect of summer & winter whereas in this new year they will be only eight or 9 days sooner. So that the Calendar will be amended almost half in half by this new year without translating the fixt feasts to other days of the months.

But if it may be allowed to translate them to other days of the months so as to bring them nearer to the places where they were in the first Century in respect of Summer and Winter the Calendar may be still amended as follows.

1. Let Lady day (the first day of the Ecclesiastical year) be removed from the 25t of March to the first of Aprill & the Ecclesiastical year will begin at the Equinox & on the first day of the month as it ought to do, whereas in the present Iulian year it begins neither at the Equinox nor on the first day of the month but on the 25t of March & 16 days after the Equinox.

2. Let Michaelmas be removed from the 29 of September to the 1st of October & the two principal days of payment will fall on the Equinoxes & on the first days of the months which begin the spring & autumnal quarters of the year which is very proper & ready for recconing, & also more just for contracts. For the summer half year is eleven days longer then the winter half year in the vulgar Calendar but in this new one the difference will be but 5 days.

3 In like manner To regulate the days of quarterly payments let St Iohn Baptists {day} be removed from the 24th of Iune to the 1st of Iuly & Christmas day from the 25t of December to the 1st of Ianuary or perhaps to the 2d that it may be distinguished from New years day.

Thus will the year become fitter for civil uses & the festivals reduced within a day or two to the places where they were in the first Century in respect of summer & winter: whereas they now err 14 days from those places. And the like correction may be made <1v> {to} all the other unmoveable Festivals, by setting them 7 or 8 days later.

Easter is determined by making it the first Sunday after the first full Moon after the first of April. And the rest of the moveable Feasts are determined by their distance from Easter as in the Vulgar Calendar.

The old Rule for finding Easter by the Prime & Dominical Letter is to be corrected at the end of every hundred or two hundred years by Ecclesiastical authority & so is the Rule for finding the new Moon by the Epact in the margin of the Calendar, & with such correction both Rules may be retained for ever.

[Editorial Note 1] <2v>

Ianuary

19New years d.
210
311Christmas
412St Stephen
513St Iohn
614St Innocents
715
816
917
1018Circumcision
1119
1220
1321Twelft d.
1422
1523
1624
1725
1826
1927
2028
2129
2230
2331
241Ian
252
263
274
285
296
307

February

18
28
310
411Convers S. Paul
512
613
714
815
916
1017
1118
1219Candlemas
1320
1421
1522
1623
1724
1825
1926
2027
2128
2229
2330
2431
251Feb
262
273
284
295
306

March

17
28
39
410S. Matthias
511
612
713
814
915
1016
1117
1218
1319
1420
1521
1622
1723
1824
1925
2026
2127
2228
231March
242
253
264
275
286
297
308

April

19
210
311Lady day
412
513
614
715
816
917
1018
1119
1220
1321
1422
1523
1624
1725
1826
1927
2028
2129
2230
2331
241Apr
252
263
274
285
296
307
318

May

19
210
311S. Mark
412
513
614
715
816
917Phil. & Iac.
1018
1119
1220
1321
1422
1523
1624
1725
1826
1927
2028
2129
2230
231May
242
253
264
275
286
297
308
319

Iune

110
211
312
413
514
615
716
817
918
1019
1120
1221
1322
1423
1524
1625
1726
1827
1928S Barnabas
2029
2130.
2231
231Iune
242
253
264
275
286
297
308
319
<2r>

Iuly

110Iune. Iohn Bapt
211
312
413
514
615Pet & Paul
716
817
918
1019
1120
1221
1322
1423
1524
1625
1726
1827
1928
2029
2130
22 1Iuly
232
243
254
265Dog days beg.
276
287
298
309
3110

August

111S Iames
212
313
414
515
616
717
818
919Lammas
1020
1121
1222
1323
1424
1525
1626
1727
1828
1929
2030
2131
221Aug
232
243
254
265
276
287
298
309
3110S. Bartholo.

Septemb.

111
212
313
414
515
616
717
818
919
1020
1121
1222
1323
1424
1525
1626
1727
1828
1929
2030
2131
221Sept
232
243
254
265
276
287S. Matthew
298
309
*

Octob.

110
211
312
413
514
615S. Mich.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
2029
2130
221Octob
232
243
254S. Luke
265
276
287
298
309

Novemb.

110Oct
211
312
413
514St Iude
615
716
817
918All Saints
1019
1120
1221
1322Pouder Treason
1423
1524
1625
1726
1827
1928
2029
2130
2231
231Novemb.
242
253
264
275
286
297
308

Decemb

19
210
311
412
513
614
715
816S. Andrew
917
1018
1119
1220
1321
1422
1523
1624
1725
1826
1927
2028
2129
2230
231Dec
242
253
264
275
286
297S. Thomas
308
[Editorial Note 2] <3v>

Make Ian 1 1701 the 2d day of the first month of the second cycle

Or make Decem 31 1700 the first day of the first month of the second cycle.

Or if the 1st & last cycle have 17 months & the middlemost 15, make Decemb 31 1700 the first day of the great cycle of 49 months.

NB. Anno 1780 Mar 20 st. n. hor. 16 48′ post mediam noctem Luna media fuit plena et hora 1034 circiter Luna apparens fuit plena. Lit. Domin B. A. Epact 29 Aur. num. 14 Pascha Mar 26 juxta cal Greg. Rectius Luna plena Apr. 19. 5h post med. noct Pasch Apr 23 st. n.

Item anno 1867. Aur num 6. Epact 1. Luna media plena Mar 20. 14h 49′ et iterum Apr 19. 3h. 33′. Litera Dominica F. Pascha Ap. 21. Had the Dominical letter been D the Pascha would have been on the new moon Apr 19.

<4r>

The only feasts in the beginning till the reign of Trajan were the Lords day, Easter & Whitsonday. See Origen l 8 cont. Cels. Christmas began to be celebrated in divers places about the year 190 (Theophilus Cæsariensis in epist. paschal.

The Martyrs began to be commemorated on their passion days about the year 170 & these days at length were celebrated as Feasts. by the institution of Constantine the great Euseb. in vit. Const. l. 4 who also instituted the observation of friday. Euseb. ib. The heathen Feasts turned into the Christian Theodoret l 8 de martyribus & Greg. M. l 9 cap 71 citante Hospin. De Origin. Christ. Fest. p 15.

The Greeks celebrated the Epiphany or baptism of Christ on the same day with his birth, the latines on Ian 6 Hospin ad Ian 6.

Timothy martyred on Ian 24. Pauli Conversio Ian 25. The burning of lights on Candlemas day Feb 2 taken from the sacra of Ceres seeking her daughter Proserpina with lighted torches. Feb 1 The Bacchinal rights turned into Christian carnivals in the 3 first days of the Quinquagesima or week before Lent. Matthias Feb. 24. Festum annunciationis Mariæ Mart. 25. St Mark martyred Apr. 25. The Greeks celebrated to all the Apostles the feast of Peter & Paul Iun 29 the Latines that of Philip & Iames May 1. At length the day is left Phil. & Iames alone. Quadratus May 26. Nativity of Iohn Baptist Iune 24. Peter & Paul on Iune 29 on which day the Heathens celebrated the feast of Hercules & the Muses. Iuly 25 St Iames. Aug. 24 St Bartholomew Sept 21 St Matthew. Sept 25 Cleopas. Sept 25 St Michael & all angels. Octob 18 St Luke. Octob 28 Simon & Iude. Novemb. 28 Adventus Domini. Nov. 30 St Andrew

[Editorial Note 3] <5v>


Guns
Soleil Roial Count Tourville 104 120 106
L'Ambitieux Chevalier de Villette Vice Admiral of the Navy 104 96
L'Admirable Monsieur Beaujeu 90 64 90
La Magnifique Mr Cottologon Rere Ad. of the blue 76 76
Le Sr Philippe Mr Infreville 76 80 84
Le Conquerant Du Magnon 76 66 84
Le Triomphant Mr Bellemont 74 76
Le Tonnant Mr De Septime 80 70
Le Terrible mr Septvilla 80 72 76
L'Amiable Mr Du Rale 68 50 68
Le Fier Mr Larsethois 68 70 76
Le Glorieux Le Ch. de Chateaumorant 60 66 64
Le Serieux Mr Bernier 60 64
Le Trident Mr Monteaud 56 52
Le Prince Mr Bagneux 60 50 60
Le Sanspareil Mr Fierille 60 70 60


Arrogant

Invincible

Strong

[Editorial Note 1] Folio 2 is written upside down and runs backwards from f. 2v to f. 2r.

[Editorial Note 2] A series of very rough draft tables and calculations, occupying f. 3r and part of f. 3v, is here omitted from the transcript.

[Editorial Note 3] Folios 4v and 5r are blank.

© 2017 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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