<iii>

MEMOIRS
OF THE
THE LIFE, WRITINGS, AND DISCOVERIES
OF
SIR ISAAC NEWTON.
BY
SIR DAVID BREWSTER, K. H.,
A.M., D.C.L., F.R.S., VICE-PRES. R.S., EDINBURGH, AND M.R.I.A.,
{illeg} OF THE EIGHT ASSOCIATES OF THE IMPERIAL INSTITUTE OF FRANCE — HONORARY OR CORRESPONDING
MEMBER OF THE ACADEMIES OF ST. PETERSBURGH, VIENNA, BERLIN, COPENHAGEN, STOCKHOLM,
MUNICH, GöTTINGEN, BRUSSELS, HAERLEM, ERLANGEN, CANTON DE VAUD, MODENA,
WASHINGTON, NEW YORK, BOSTON, QUEBEC, CAPE TOWN, ETC., ETC. —
CHEVALIER OF THE PRUSSIAN ORDER OF MERIT OF FREDERICK
THE GREAT, AND PRINCIPAL OF THE UNITED COLLEGES OF
ST. SALVATOR AND ST. LEONARD'S, ST. ANDREWS.

Ergo vivida vis animi pervicit, et extra

Processit longe flammantia mœnia mundi;

Atque omne immensum peragravit mente animoque.

LUCRETIUS, Lib. i. {l} 73.

VOL. II.

EDINBURGH: THOMAS CONSTABLE, AND CO.
HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO., LONDON.
MDCCCLV.

(THE AUTHOR RESERVES THE RIGHT OF TRANSLATION.)

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CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.

CHAPTER XIV.

History of the Infinitesimal Calculus — Archimedes — Pappus — Nappier — Edward Wright — Kepler's Treatise on Stereometry — Cavalieri's Geometria Indivisibilium — Roberval — Toricelli — Fermat — Walli's Arithmetica Infinitorum — Hudde — Gregory — Slusius — Newton's Discovery of Fluxions in 1655 — General Account of the Method, and of its Applications — His Analysis per Equationes, &c. — His Discoveries communicated to English and Foreign Mathematicians — The Method of Fluxions and Quadratures — Account of his other Mathematical writings — He solves the Problems proposed by Bernoulli and Leibnits — Leibnitz visits London, and corresponds with the English Mathematicians, and with Newton through Oldenburg — He discovers the Differential Calculus, and communicates it to Newton — Notice of Oldenburg — Celebrated Scholium respecting Fluxions in the Principia — Account of the changes upon it — Leibnitz's Manuscripts in Hanover,                                          1 — 35

CHAPTER XV.

Nicolas Facio de Duillier attacks Leibnitz — Leibnitz appeals to Newton — He reviews Newton's "Quadrature of Curves," and accuses him of Plagiarism — Newton's opinion of the Review — Dr. Keill defends Newton as the true inventor of Fluxions, and apparently retorts the charge of Plagiarism on Leibnitz, who complains to the Rojal Society — Keill explains his defence — The Royal Society approves of his explanation — Leibnitz calls Keill an upstart, and begs the Royal Society to silence him — the Society appoints a Committee to inquire into the Claims of Leibnitz and Newton — The Committee report to the Society, who publish the result in the "Commercium Epistolicum" — Instigated by Leibnitz, John Bernoulli attacks the Report, and asserts, in a private Letter to Leibnitz, that he was the first inventor of the new Calculus — Leibnitz circulates this Letter in a Charta Volans, and gives up Bernoulli as the author of it — Keill replies to this Letter, and attacks Bernoulli as its author, who solemnly <vi> denies it to Newton — Leibnitz attacks Newton in a Letter to the Abbé Conti — Newton replies to it — The Controversy excites great interest — Leibnitz urges Bernoulli to make a public declaration in his favour — Bernoulli sends to Leibnitz the celebrated Letter "Pro Eminente Mathematico," on condition of his name being kept secret — Leibnitz and Wolf alter this Letter improperly, and publish it in such a form that Bernoulli is proved to be its author — Bernoulli is annoyed by the discovery, and endeavours, by improper means, to evade the truth — The Abbé Varignon reconciles Newton and Bernoulli — Death of Leibnitz — Newton writes a History of the Calculus — General view of the Controversy, and of the conduct of the parties,                                                 36 — 83

CHAPTER XVI.

Newton declines taking Orders — His Rooms in Trinity College — John Wickins his chamber-fellow — Letter from Mr. Nicolas Wickins, his Son — Dr. Humphrey Newton his Amanuensis from 1684-1689 — His two Letters to Conduitt — Newton's Speculations on the Theory of the Earth — James II. attacks the rights of the Charter-House, and sends an illegal Mandamus to the University of Cambridge — Newton one of the Delegates to resist this encroachment on its privileges — The Vice-Chancellor deposed — the object of the Deputation gained — Neglect of the Scottish Universities — Newton elected Member for Cambridge to the Convention Parliament — His habits of business — His letters to Dr. Covel — His acquaintance with Locke — His Theological inquiries — Locke exerts himself to procure for him some permanent appointment in King's College, the Charter-House, and the Mint — Failure of that attempt — Newton's disappointment — Ingratitude of his Country — Death of his Mother at Stamford — Writes an Account of Fluxions and Fluents for Wallis — His letter to Locke on multiplying Gold — Boyle's Recipes and Belief in Alchemy,              84 — 122

CHAPTER XVII.

Newton's health impaired — The Boyle Lectures by Bentley, who requests Newton's assistance — Newton's first Letter to Bentley on the Formation of the Sun and Planets — His second Letter — Rotation of the Planets the result of Divine power — His third Letter — Hypothesis of Matter evenly diffused — Letter of Bentley to Newton — Reply to it by Newton in a fourth Letter — Opinion of Plato examined — Supposed mental Illness of Newton ascribed to the burning of his MSS. — Referred to in the Letters of Huygens and Leibnitz — Made public by M. Biot — Mentioned in the Diary of Mr. De la Pryme — The story referred to disproved — Newton's Papers burnt before 1684 — Newton's Letter to Mr. Pepys — Letter of Mr. Pepys to Mr. Millington — Mr. Millington's reply — Mr. Pepys' second Letter to Mr. Millington — Newton solves a Problem in Chances — His Letter to Locke — Reply of Locke — Newton's Answer, explaining the cause of his Illness — His Critical Letter to Dr. Mill — His Mind never in a state of derangement, but fitted for the highest intellectual efforts,       123 — 156

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CHAPTER XVIII.

Newton occupied with the Lunar Theory — His Correspondence with Flamsteed, the Astronomer-Royal — Newton's Letters to Flamsteed, published by Mr. Baily — Controversy which they occasioned — Flamsteed's Letter to Newton discovered recently — Character of Flamsteed, in reference to this Controversy — of Newton, and of Halley — all of them engaged, with different objects, in studying the Lunar Theory — Newton applies to Flamsteed for Observations on the Moon — and on the Refraction of the Atmosphere, which Flamsteed transmits to him — Analysis of their Correspondence — Flamsteed's bitterness against Halley — Differences between Newton and Flamsteed — Flamsteed's ill health interferes with his supplying Newton with Observations — Newton's impatience and expostulation with Flamsteed — Justification of Flamsteed — Biot ascribes Newton's Letter to mental illness — Refutation of this view of the subject — Newton never aflicted with any mental disorder,                                    157 — 186

CHAPTER XIX.

No mark of Natioual Gratitude conferred upon Newton — Friendship between him and Charles Montague, afterwards Earl of Halifax — Montague appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 — He resolves upon a Recoinage — His Letter nominating Newton Warden of the Mint in 1696 — Newton appointed Master of the Mint when Montague was First Lord of the Treasury — His Report on the Coinage — Anecdote of his integrity when offered a bribe — He obtains for Halley the Deputy-Comptrollership of the Mint at Chester — Quarrels among the Officers there — Disturbances in the London Mint — New misunderstanding with Flamsteed — Remarkable Letter to him from Newton — Newton's conduct defended — The French Academy of Sciences remodelled — Newton elected one of the eight Foreign Associates — M. Geoffroy describes to Dr. Sloane the change in the Academy — Newton resigns his Professorship and Fellowship at Cambridge — Whiston appointed his Successor — Newton elected Member for the University in 1701, and President of the Royal Society in 1703 — Queen Anne confers upon him the honour of Knighthood in 1705 — Love-letter to Lady Norris — His Letter to his niece, Miss C. Barton — Account of Sir William and Lady Norris — Letters of Newton about standing for the University in 1705 — Letters of Halifax to Newton on that occasion — Newton and Godolphin defeated,                                        187 — 218

CHAPTER XX.

Sir Isaac is anxious to have the Greenwich Observations published — Flamsteed agrees, provided his expenses are paid — Prince George offers to pay the expense of publishing them — He appoints Sir Isaac and others Referees to manage the matter — Articles agreed upon between Flamsteed and the Referees — Differences arise, and delays in printing — The Prince <viii> offers to publish Tycho's Observations along with Flamsteed's — Newton writes to Olaus Roemer about Tycho's manuscripts — To prevent delay the Referees propose to appoint another Corrector of the Press — Flamsteed opposes this in a Letter to Sir C. Wren — Prince George dies — The Work is stopped for three years — Flamsteed's Charges against Newton — Sanctioned by Mr. Baily — Defence of Newton — Flamsteed inserts in his Autobiography a false copy of his Letter to Wren — The Queen appoints a Board of Visitors to superintend the Observatory — Flamsteed's Correspondence with Dr. Arbuthnot — A Scene between Newton and Flamsteed — Halley publishes the Observations printed at the expense of the Prince and the Public — Flamsteed publishes at his own expense the Historia Celestis — Observations on the Controversy,                             219 — 242

CHAPTER XXI.

Dissensions in the Royal Society — Dr. Sloane and Dr. Woodward — Letter to Newton on the subject — Dr. Woodward removed from the Council — Second edition of the Principia — Dr. Bentley's Letter to Newton about it — Delay of the work — Bentley's second Letter — Newton's Residences in London — Bentley announces to Newton the completion of the Second Edition — The Duke D'Aumont elected F.R.S. — Deslandes' account of a Dinner Party at Newton's — Origin of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich — Prince Menzikoff elected F.R.S. — Petition to Parliament for a Bill to promote the Discovery of the Longitude — Evidence of Newton — His Conduct misrepresented by Whiston and Biot — The Bill passes both Houses of Parliament — Dissensions in the Government — Offer of a Pension to Newton — Death of Queen Anne — Accession of George I. — Earl of Halifax Prime Minister — Death of Halifax — His Will — His affection for Miss Catherine Barton, Newton's Niece — Her intimacy with Swift — Her Character defended,                                                243 — 281

CHAPTER XXII.

Leibnitz attacks Newton's Philosophy — Newton's Reply — Leibnitz attacks the English philosophy as irreligious, in Letters to the Princess of Wales — The King requests Newton to defend himself — He claims the invention of Fluxions — Dr. Clarke defends the English philosophy — The dispute carried on through the Princess of Wales — Insincerity of Leibnitz — His Death — His Eloge by Fontenelle, who apologizes to Chamberlayne for a mistake adverse to Newton — Newton's Observations on the Eloge — Varignon reconciles Newton and John Bernoulli — Newton's Correspondence with Varignon, whose views are favourable to Leibnitz — Newton asks Varignon's Opinion on the Commercium — His Criticisms upon it — His Death — Correspondence between Newton and John Bernoulli — Montmort's Views on the Fluxionary Controversy — Nicolas Bernoulli's Letter to Newton — Letters of Dr. Smith, Dr. Derham, and Fontenelle, referred to,                                                          282 — 300

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CHAPTER XXIII.

The Princess of Wales obtains from Newton a manuscript Abstract of his System of Chronology — The Abbé Conti, at her request, is allowed to take a copy of it under promise of secrecy — He gives a copy to M. Freret of the French Academy, who writes a Refutation of it, and gives it to a Bookseller, who asks Newton's permission to print it — Newton neglects to answer two Letters on the subject — The Abstract and the Refutation of it printed — Newton reprobates the conduct of Conti, and defends his System — It is attacked by Father Souciet, and is defended by Halley — Sir Isaac's larger work on Chronology published after his death, and dedicated to the Queen by Mr. Conduitt — Pope assists in writing the Dedication — Opinions respecting the Chronology — Sir Isaac's Paper on the Form of the most Ancient Year — His unpublished Papers on the Julian Year, and the Reformation of the Calendar,                      301 — 312

CHAPTEK XXIV.

Theological Writings of Newton — Their importance to Christianity — Motives to which they have been ascribed — Biot's opinion disproved — The date of Newton's theological writings fixed — His Letters to Locke on these subjects — History of his account of two corruptions of the Scriptures — His Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel, and on the Apocalypse — Abstract of his Historical Account of two corruptions of Scripture — His views adopted by the ablest Biblical Critics of modern times — His unpublished theological writings — Paradoxical Questions concerning Athanasius — His Irenicum or Ecclesiastical Polity tending to Peace — His Views on points of Trinitarian Doctrine — His Articles of Faith — His Plan for correcting the Romish tendencies of the Church of England— Coincidence of his Opinions with those of Locke — His Views on the Future Residence of the Blest — Opinions of Voltaire and Others — Napier, Boyle, Milton, and Locke, Students of the Scriptures — Analogy between the Book of Nature and that of Revelation — Letter of Dr. Morland to Newton                                                    313 — 359

CHAPTER XXV.

Sir Isaac's early study of Chemistry — And of Alchemy, as shown in his Letter to Mr. Aston — His Experiments on the Metal for Reflecting Telescopes — His Chemical Pursuits between 1683 and 1687 — His Researches on the Quantities and Degrees of Heat, written after his illness in 1693 — His Experiments on the Rarefaction of Air, Water, and Linseed Oil — His Paper on the nature of Acids — The Results of his Chemical Researches, published among his Queries in his Optics — His Opinion on Fire and Flame — On Elective Attractions — Manuscript Works on Alchemy left among Sir Isaac's Papers — A belief in Alchemy prevalent in Newton's time — Boyle, Locke, and Newton studied Alchemy as a Science, others for fraudulent purposes,                                                 360 — 376

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CHAPTER XXVI.

Newton's first attack of ill health, and his recovery — History of his acquaintance with Dr. Pemberton, who superintends the third edition of the Principia — Their Correspondence — Improvements in the third edition — Change in the celebrated Scholium — And in the Scholium on the Motion of the Moon's Nodes— Demonstration of Machin and Pemberton — Publication of the third edition — Newton attacked with the Stone — Conduitt acts for him in the Mint — His Letter recommending Colin Maclaurin as Assistant to Gregory — His Liberality on this occasion — Maclaurin's Letter to Newton — Visit of the Abbé Alari to Newton — His acquaintance with Samuel Crell — He presides at the Royal Socieity on the 2d March — His last illness — And death on the 20th March 1717 — His Body lies in State — His Burial and Monument in Westminster Abbey — Statues and Pictures of him — His Property — His Descendants,                               377 — 397

CHAPTER XXVII.

Permanence of Newton's Reputation — Character of his Genius — His manner of investigation similar to that used by Galileo — Error in ascribing his Discoveries to the use of the Methods recommended by Lord Bacon — The Pretensions of the Baconian Philosophy examined — Sir Isaac Newton's Social Character — His great Modety — The Simplicity of his Character — His Religious and Moral Character — His Hospitality and Mode of Life — His Generosity and Charity — His Personal Appearance — Statues and Pictures of him — Memorials and Recollections of him — His Manuscripts and Papers,                                                     398 — 422

APPENDIX TO VOLUME II.

No. I.—Draught Copies of the Scholium to Lemma ii. Book ii.425 — 426
II.—Letters from Wallis to Newton427 — 430
III.—1. Letter from the Abbé Conti to Brook Taylor431 — 433
2. Letter from the Abbé Conti to Sir Isaac Newton434-435
IV.—Letter from John Bernoulli to M. Remond de Montmort436-439
V.—Letters from A. B., [James Wilson, M.D.,] to Sir Isaac Newton440-446
VI.—Letter from Sir Isaac Newton to Dr. Thomas Burnet447-454
VII.—Part of a Letter from Sir Isaac Newton on Flamsteed's Speculations respecting the Sun, the Action of Heated Magnets, and the Motion of Comets455-458
VIII.—Letter from Sir Isaac Newton to Dr. Covel459-460
IX.—Letter from John Locke to Mr. Newton461-462
X.—Letter from Dr. Bentley to Sir Isaac Newton463-470
XI.—Letter from Samuel Pepys to Mr. Newton471
XII.—1. Letter from Dr. John Mill to Mr. Newton472-473
2. Letter from Mr. Newton to Dr. John Mill473-474
XIII.—Table of Refractions sent by Flamsteed to Newton475
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No. XIV.—Letter from Mr. Flamsteed to Mr. Newton476-479
XV.—Articles of Agreement between Churchill, Flamsteed, and the Referees480-484
XVI.—Cancelled and substituted paragraphs in a Letter of Flamsteed's485-486
XVII.—Account of the Expenses incurred by the Prince's Referees, and also of those incurred by the Government in completing the Historia Cælestis, as edited by Halley487-488
XVIII.—Letter from Sir Isaac Newton to Mr. Flamsteed489-490
XIX.—Letter from M. Montmort to Brook Taylor491
XX.—Extracts from Swift's Letters to Stella, in which Mrs. Barton and Lord Halifax are mentioned492-495
XXI.—1. Letter from Varignon to Newton496-497
2. Letter from Newton to Varignon497-501
XXII.—Letter from John Bernoulli to Newton502-508
XXIII.—1. Letter from Brook Taylor to Sir Isaac Newton509-510
2, 3. Letters from M. Montmort to Brook Taylor511-515
XXIV.—Letter from James Stirling to Sir Isaac Newton516-517
XXV.—Letter from Fontenelle to Sir Isaac Newton518
XXVI.—Letter from Dr. Derham to Sir Isaac Newton519-520
XXVII.—Letter from Pope to Mr. Conduitt521-522
XXVIII.—Letters from Dr. Burgess, Bishop of Salisbury, to Sir David Brewster, on Newton's Religious Opinions523-525
XXIX.—Irenicum; or Ecclesiastical Polity tending to Peace526-531
XXX.— Quæries regarding the Word όμούσιος532-534
XXXI.—De Metallo ad Conficiendum Speculum Componendo et Fundendo535-536
XXXII.—Observations on the Family of Sir Isaac Newton537-545
XXXIII.—Letter from Sir Isaac Newton to a Friend546-548
XXXIV.—Alterations and Additions made in the Third Edition of the Principia549-556
INDEX557-564

© 2018 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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