pag 101. Nat centro O, intervallo OA describatur semicirculus AQB rectæ LP so opus est productæ iccureus in Q, jungantur SQ, OQ, quarum OQ producta occurrat arcui EFG in F, et in candem OQ demittatur per pendiculum SR. Area APS Iam area APS est ut area AQS, id est, ut differentia inter sectorem OQA et triangulum OQS, sive ut differentia rectangulorum 12OQ, × AQ et 12OQ × SR, hoc est, ob datam 12OQ, ut differentia inter arcum AQ et rectam SR, adio (ob a qualitatem datarum rationum SR ad sinum areus AQ OS ad OA, OA ad OG, AQ ad GF, et divisim AQ − SR ad GF − sin. arc. AQ) ut GR − sin. arc. AQ.

AQ, 12OQ − 12St, 12OQ = Symbol (rectangle) in textAQS = temp = st, {st}\=/ AQ − St.

qx = ST. qT.qO :: zx. A=qr=

Rad − sin SOT − 12qr × SOR.R :: zx. qr accuratius.

R − SOR×{illeg}cosin {illeg}qA − 12qr. R :: zx . qr.

R2SO − cosin qA − 12qr . R2SO :: zx . qr.

R. cs: O :: SO.OT.     R.{ST}sin: 0 :: SO.ST=qx

qz − qx = zx. // qr.zx :: R2SO . R2SO − cosin qA − 12qr.

{illeg} Mr {sic} Oadham \The Memorialist/ represents that the Act of 2 Hen. VI
|12| wch saith yt the Assaymaster ought to be a person indifferent between the Mr {&}|o|f ye Mint & ye Merchant, is for him makes for him\Oadham/ \is in Oadhams favour/ & yet at the same time \Oadhams/ a|A|cts like a person very much biassed\set/ against the Officers of the Mint, & the Officers of the Mint \under whom he is to act/ have no opinion of him.

|1.| He \The Memorialist/ saith that the A|Q|ueens Assaymaster is a che upon the Officers of ye Mint, whereas/{illeg} not knowing that on the\ on the contrary the\the Comptroller is a che upon the whole Mint & all the Officers of the Mint\three first/ |three first|/ Officers of the Mint are a che upon the Queens Assaymaster. For he preforms his assays \by their trial pieces &/ in their presence & wthout their approbation his assays are of no force. {illeg} Here \In overseeing his Assays/ the Warden & Comptroller act in behalf of the Queen & her people & the Master acts for himself. And the Assaymaster is to act wth skill & sincerity to ye satisfaction of the |Officers of both| both parties. For its easy for an Assayer to give a turn to ye assay of a qter of a grain or an halfpenny wt or above \for or against the Master/. And if any such thin{illeg}|g| be suspected the \Assayer/ must repeat his Assay till the Officers of ye Mint \(espectially the Comptrollers)/ are satisfied of his candor acting wth skill & candor.

|2.| It was right therefore \for the Lord H. Trearer/ to referr the \four/ Petitioners to a trial before the Officers of the Mint as the proper judges of their qualifications \in point of skill/. |[|Amd it was wrong for Mr Oadham \after he had {the} tried/ to app{illeg}|e|ale from the Officers of the Mint to other {illeg} the judgment of other persons.|]|

When he \Mr Oadham/ was tried, some of his assays d|t|aken from the same piece of gold differed from others a quarter of a grain, & on of them erred two grains which is a Guinea in a p{illeg}|o|und weight, whereas all Mr Brattles \Gold/ assays agreed wth one another perfectly, except one wch differed from the rest {but}\only/ about the 12th part of a grain. And almost all the coinage is in gold.

Mr Oadham \has/ desired another trial. Had he ack acknowledged \the fairness of the former trial &/ that he had \since/ been learning to assay \better/ & was now grown \more/ skilful then before, I should\another triall/ |mig|{illeg}|h|{illeg}t have denyed been against another trial\granted him without reflexion upon ye Mint/. But he has {reduced}\reflected upon/ the Officers of the Mint & pretends to have learnt his skill {from} his Master\long ago {illeg}/ in his apprenticeship.|,| |& appeals from the former trial|.| to a new one wch is\cannot be granted without/ a reflexion upon the Officers of the Mint.|

|{2}| |T|H|h|e \Memorialist/ saith that the Mr Brattle being under the direction of the Officers of the Mint hath acted partially|.| whereas\Whereas//But this is\ The Warden & Comptroller act for the Queen {illeg} in behalf of the Mr Importer & do not want\under their direction the//do not\ the assistance of Assayer is {illeg} wch is {sic} to find fault wth the very constitution of the Mint. < insertion from f 98v > Whereas Mr Bratt\For the Master/ by the Indenture of the Mint {he} receives the money\is authorized to receive \the/ bullion/ by his own assays & for that end is allowed a triall piece & an Assaymaster of his own & all the assays of the bullion received\imported/ are the Masters assays & {it or} {illeg} \& the assayer in making them acts as his Deputy & is {under his direction}. {illeg}|A|nd/ as its the Masters \duty {&}/ interest to coin the money \by his|by his own| trial piece/ as exactly as he can so he hath given \Mr|Mr Cha| Brattel/ no other directions to the contrary, nor any other directions |yn| th{e}|o||se| by wch the money has been coyned being {in}\during/ the last two years of Mr Daniel Brattels life, & for wch the Master has been acquitted by a Iury, the money coined by those directions being found exactly of the {illeg} standard & that Trial piece. If any Importers\And now \after the the trial of the Pix/ upon entring upon the/a new\ coinage of a new parcel he has ordered the first parcel of money to be assayed by the Trial piece to see if it to see if any thing can be mended./ < text from f 98r resumes >


Mr Oadham to cheque the Master. If any Importer hath found\thinks/ himself agrieved he hath an appear to the \Wardens/ t|T|rial piece. If And without an Appeal, Mr Oadham would not be able himself tho he were the Queens Assayer would not be able to remedy the \pretended/ grievance. For ye Queens Assayer \by vertue of his office/ hath nothing to do with the business between the Mr & the Merchant unless in cases of appeal.

But if after the M the Importer at any time think himself aggrieved by the Masters assays, he hath an Appeal to an {illeg} Assay by the Wardens triel piece And wthout an appeal Mr Oadham himself the\if/ he were the >Mrs Deputy Queens Assay|r|master coul would not be able to remedy the pretended grievance. For the Queens Assayer hath nothing to do between the Master & the Merchant makes in cases of Appeal by vertue of his Office unless in cases of appeal.

To err within the remedy is no crime but only creates a debt\recconing{sic}/. If the money upon the trial be found too coarse it may put the Master in debt to her Maty & if it be fou afterwards found too fine it may put the Master in her Maty allowss the excess of fineness back to the Master without & if some part be \a little/ too fine & some part as much too coarse so that it be|in discharge of that| one part wth another it be standard th& if without treating him as a criminal. There is no crime in the case but only a recconing founded upon a contract between the Queen & the Master. |[|And \where the Question is only about me{illeg} & {illeg} a recconing/ the Importer makes no appeal, where the Warden & Controller who are cheques upon the Master in behalf of the Queen & her people find no fault where the Iury \has/ acquitted the Master, for p\for/ private persons, who have neither Importers nor have anything \{illeg}/ to do with the Mint|.| ought not have no right to f{illeg}\to find fault/ is to make the business of the Mint \difficult if not/ impracticable. If the Mr Oadham thinks that the Importers have been injured, why did he not advise them to appeale? why doth{illeg} he not now advise them to it {illeg} |[|ought not to molest him him & the other Officers of ye Mint. lest they make the business of the Mint in practicable|]| have not right to {illeg} molest him.|]| If the Master should \err/ by design provided it be within the remedy, the only punishment \before the trial of the Pix/ it|s| that he be at ye charge of recoining the money before delivery; but if he errs wthout design he is not obliged to be at that charge \unless the error exceed the remedy/. But If he gets by that error he is whether it be his\he is/ obliged upo ye triall of the Pix to refund his profit, if he loses by \it/ the Crown retuns {sic} his loss. Nor where the Question is only about a recconing, where the Importer b makes no appeal, where the Warden & Comptroller who are cheque upon ye Mr in behalf of the Queen & her people find no fault, where the Iury has acquitted the Master: he ought not to be molested by person at the suggestion by Mr Oadham or his friends who have nothing to do with the Mint.

|3| When Mr Oadham had a trial of his skill before the Officers of the Mint, some of his Assays taken from \one &/ the same piece of Gold differed from others a quarter of a grain & one of them erred two grains wch is the {illeg} |of a| Guinea in a pound weight, or three times the Remedy. Whereas all Mr Brattles Assays agreed perfectly wth one another except one wch differed from the rest only about the twelft part of a grain wch is but the eighth part of of {sic} the r|R|emedy. And almost all the coinage is in gold.

|4| Mr Oadham has\was offered a longer trial and\{&}/ did not then desire it but has since/ desired another trial. Had he acknowledged the fairness of the first trial, he & that he had since been learning to assay better & was now grown more skilfull then before, there might his Petition \his request/ might have been granted him without a reflexion upon the Mint: but he pretends to have learnt his skill long ago when he was an Apprentice in his Apprenticeship, & \has/ appealed from the former trial to a new one.\Report of the Officers of the Mint./ upon the {illeg} trial \made/ before the And now in opposition to that Report produces <99r> certificate of his skill. Th skill in all the parts of Assaying signed by Merchants & Goldmsiths.\Plate workers & shopkeeping Goldsmiths who trust the Assays of the Hall./ He should have brought a certificate of persons noted for skills in assaying & who had seen him make a competent number of successive Assays whereby they could judge of his skill{.} Importers are \not/ judges not {sic} of his skill of\in/ Assaying, but\They are judges only/ whether they will trust him wth their Gold & Silver. |For the credit of the Mint for encouraging the coinage is {here} to be considered.| Among those that have signed his \Mr Oadhams/ certicate {sic} there are\I meet with only/ six persons who have with|in| these three years have imported {illeg}bullion into forreign bullion into the Mint. One of them has imported Gold to ye value of 10 thten thousand pounds & \& he is the only importer of any note./ The other five have \all together/ imported only 4000li: whereas {illeg} \the Importers who signed/ a certificate of Mr Brattels a {illeg} (as I am credibly informed for I have not seen the certificate) have imported above three quarters of the 1100000li\eight or nine hundred thousand pounds within these three/ within these three years; & all the Importers so far as I can learn trust Mr Battle {sic} wthout any wth their bullion wthout any scruple. But Mr Oadhams credit is not yet established among them.
certificate of his skill in assaying signed by Merchants & Goldsmiths |but| wch if well considered destroys it self|.| for {it}\for it {sic}/ |Few of his subscribers have any business wth the Mint, & it| doth not appear that any of |t|hi|e|s subscribers are \are men of/ noted for skill in assaying, or ever met \together/ to see him make a competent number of Assays successive Assays whereby they might be able to judge of his skill. The Importers are not proper judges not of the skill of an Assayer but \of his credit or/ whether they will freely trust him with their bullion. Amongst his subscribers there are only six who have imported gold wthin these three years & the all of them together h{illeg}|a|ve imported only \to the value of/ about 14 thousand pounds: whereas the Importers who have signed a c|C|ertificate or Petition for Mr Brattle (as I am credibly informed, for I have not seen it) have imported to ye value of 8 or 9 hundered thousand pounds within that time. All the Importers trust Mr Brattle freely {illeg} wth their bullion, {by} but Mr Oadhams credit is not yet established among them. And the credit of the Mint for encouraging the coinage is not yet established among depends \in some measure/ upon the credit of\which/ the Assay mr among\hath with/ ye Importers.

|5| The Memorialist insinuates\suggests/ that Mr. Brattle being under the directions of y{e} Officers of ye Mint, hath acted partially, {He} Oa Mr Oadham is \last winter above a year ago was at efforts\projecting/ to be made supervisor & is {still}/ so fond of supervising |{in}| the Mint. \&/ checking the Officers & getting the Mint \management of the coinage |valuation of the| bullions & moneys/ into his power that he is \now/ attempting to throw out ye present Officers {illeg} rather then not succeed. But the Officers have the Verdict of a Iury on their side. The \assays of y{e}/ money & the trial piece of K. Iames |in that triall| agreed exactly at ye ballance. {B}{T} What directions have \been/ given \by the Officers/ the Lord H. Treasurer has been told \by the Master{sic}/. Those directions were followed by the \Queens/ late Assaym{a}|r| two years together before his death, & were no other then to coin by the trial piece of King Iames. The Assaymaster The Assaym Queens Assaymaster has no trial \piece/ of his own but by the constitution of the Mint is bound to follow the directions of the Officers in Assaying by their trial pieces. And after the Officers have been aquitted by a Iury To err within the remedy is no crime; it only creates a recconing between the Queen & the Master for what\so far as/ the Master may have got or lost by the error, & if the error be under a quarter of a grain it uses to be neglected & creates not so much as a recconing. I And after the money hath been found right by a Iury, the Officers have a legal right to be quiet & ought not to be molested by {illeg} Mr Oadham or his friends.

|6| The Memorialist commends Mr Oadham for {R} being skilled in the Refiners art. Why then did he not set up of his trade? What made him turn projector. |Refining &| Assaying gave {a} manual trades|.| & But th The Memorialist saith further that Mr Oadham is \well/ skilled also in ye business of the Mint & may be very service able upon the greatest occasions. Which is an {in}s{illeg}ction &\makes it suspicious/ that he designes not to set up\be content/ wth the Assaymasters business but is alredy projecting to make that Post {illeg}|a| step to something high{t}{illeg}|er|. Assaying & r|R|efining & assaying are manual trades & such trades are never closely followed by Projectors. At this \his {illeg}{ub}y projecting/ humour made him leave his Refiners trade so it will never suffer him to stay long in that of a|n| R Assayer. nor to act steadily while\quietly/ diligently & steadily while he is in it.


The Memorialist saith further that the statute of |2| H. 6, c. 12, wch saith that the Assaymaster ought to be a person indifferent between the Master of the Mint & the Merchant is in Mr Oadham's favour. And yet Mr Oadham {illeg} hath the approbation of neither part & acts like a per \but/ sets himself against the Officers of ye Mint |& endeavours to get the place by an interest forreign to both parties|. By that statute if any question should arise about the valuation of bullion wch cannot be decided wthout the Queens Assaymr the business of th coynage must stop till there be an Assaymr.

|8.| The Officers of the Mint have given their opinion in this matter & leave it entirely to her Maty to put in what Assaymr she thinks fit.

© 2019 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

Privacy Statement

  • University of Oxford
  • Arts and Humanities Research Council
  • JISC