Alchemical texts sorted by date

Newton’s alchemical works are being transcribed by our sister project, The Chymistry of Isaac Newton at the University of Indiana. Links to the material already available on the Chymistry site are provided below. A full listing of the source material it will make available can be found in the Alchemical Papers section of the Newton Project’s online catalogue.

1.

Two alchemical treatises (one incomplete; after 1686) and a collection of short extracts from various alchemical sources.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 48, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00037

2.

Short extracts from an assortment of alchemical writers (early to mid-1670s).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 25, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00014

3.

Notes on the preparation of 'philosophical mercury' by fermentation and 'ye mediation of Diana's Doves', on the preparation of 'menstrua', etc.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 34, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00023

4.

Notebook (early 1690s), containing alchemical notes from a wide range of sources.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 38, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00027

5.

Notebook containing little but headings ('De Sale'; 'Solutio'; 'Conjunctio et Liquefactio'; 'Imbibitio & Calcinatio', etc.), with gaps for entries left blank apart from a few perfunctory notes in Latin.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Ms. Var. 260, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00064

6.

'Tabula Smaragdina' and 'Hieroglyphica Planetarum'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 60, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00049

7.

'Thesaurus Thesaurorum sive Medicina Aurea'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 61, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00050

8.

'Manna': transcript (1675?) of an anonymous alchemical treatise, in another hand with additions and notes by Newton.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 33, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00022

9.

'The Three Fires'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 46, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00035

10.

'Several Questions concerning the Ph[ilosoph]ers St[one]'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 44, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00033

11.

Two sets of notes.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 12, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00001

12.

Notes on various (al)chemical processes (separations, processions, sublimations, distillations, etc.).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 57, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00046

13.

'Anno 1656. Serenissimi Principis Frederici Ducis Holsatiæ et Sleswici &c. communicatione sequens epistola me sibi vendicat, inaudita memorans. Veni et vide'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 24, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00013

14.

'Ripley expounded', 12 pp.; and 'Notes upon Ripley,' in English, c. 1,500 words, 7 pp.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 54, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00043

15.

Transcripts from two published alchemical tracts.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 43, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00032

16.

'Basil Valentine Currus Triumphalis Antimonij': notes and abstracts (c. 1667-8).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 64, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00053

17.

'Causæ et initia naturalium' (notes on Jan Baptista van Helmont's Ortus medicinae (1667)).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 16, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00005

18.

Draft alchemical treatise or compilation.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: NMAHRB Ms. 1070 A, Dibner Library, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00084

19.

Notes on Sendivogius (c. 1685-90).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 55, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00044

20.

Chemical notes, partly in another hand.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: NMAHRB Ms. 1007 B, Dibner Library, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00077

21.

Notebook containing abstracts and notes drawn from various alchemical works.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: NMAHRB Ms. 1023 B, Dibner Library, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00078

22.

'The method of ye work': a commentary on [A.T. Limojon, Sieur de] Didier's 'Six Keys' (early 1690s?).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 21, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00010

23.

Notes on various alchemical texts (early 1680s?).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 35, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00024

24.

Two accounts of alchemical operations (1690s?).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: NMAHRB Ms. 1041 B, Dibner Library, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00083

25.

'The Regimen' (early 1680s).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 49, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: ALCH00038

[1]

See H554, 838, 1034, 1296, 1407, 1478, 1553 and 1644 (Newton's 'Philalethes' collection), H168-9 (Trevisanus), H1044-1052 (Maier), H127-130 (Basil Valentine). See also Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 158-9.

[2]

Foliation is continuous through the three sections.

a) Begins with two pages of rough notes in Latin and English. Then comes an incomplete tract in Latin, consisting largely of extracts from other writers but woven into a continuous text, with the following sub-headings:

f. 2r 'Lapidis Compositio'

f. 6r 'Elementorum Conversio Conjunctio et Decoctio in Opere secundo vel utroq[ue]'

f. 10r 'Regimen Ignis'

b) Excerpts, mostly in Latin but with some English:

f. 15v 'Ex Tractatus quinto Rosarij abbreviati'

f. 16r Main heading: 'Materia'. Followed by extracts on the subject 'Ex Philalethi' (f. 16r), 'Ex Trevisano' (f. 18r), 'Ex Grassæ' (f. 19r), 'Ex Epistolo Anonymi in Th. Ch. vol 6 p. 474' (f. 21v), 'Ex Maiero' (also f. 21v), 'Ex Basilio Valentino' (f. 22v), 'Ex Snydero' (f. 23v), 'Iterum ex Basilio Valentino' (f. 24r), 'Ex Rosario Magno' (f. 24v).

c) 'Decoctio': a self-contained treatise or chapter on the 'regimens', in English with some Latin, consisting like a) of interwoven extracts from a huge range of sources. The headings are drawn (in order) from chapters 24-30 of 'Philalethes'' Secrets Reveal'd, as follows:

f. 26r 'Regimen Mercurij'

f. 32r 'Regimen Saturni'

f. 37r 'Regimen Iovis'

f. 45r 'Regimen Lunæ'

f. 51r 'Regimen Veneris Martis et Solis'

Followed (f. 54r to the end) by an earlier partial draft also headed 'Decoctio'.

The whole is enclosed in a wrapper covered with notes and rough drawings of stills, retorts, etc., on which Thomas Pellet has written 'No 13'.

[3] 76 pp. on 62 ff.

[4]

in Latin and English

[5]

Same watermark (with countermark AI) as Mellon Ms. 79 (probably mid-1670s), the essay 'De ære et æthere' (date uncertain but definitely not before 1673), part of the 'Hypothesis' sent to the Royal Society in December 1675, and a letter to Hooke of the same month: see Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 195-6.

[6]

See Dobbs, Foundations, 132 for discussion of the sources and dating of this manuscript. Apart from the first two items, Newton could have taken all this from Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum. The first five are all based on works of 'Philalethes'. Cf. also Keynes Mss. 14, 29, 36 and Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.

[7]

f. 1r 'Out of Flammel./ The ffirst agent [not 'Angel' as stated in the Sotheby catalogue] painted in Abraham ye Iews 4 Hieroglyphicks', in English. From the same source as Keynes Ms. 14.

f. 1v 'Out of ye Comment[ary] on Ripleys Epistle to K. Edward' [i.e. 'Sir George Ripley's Epistle to King Edward Unfolded' by 'Eirenæus Philalethes'], in English.

f. 2r 'Ex libro de Metallorum Metamorphosi', in Latin.

f. 2v 'Ex Brevi Manuductione ad Rubinum cælestem', in Latin.

'Ex Fonte Chemicæ Philosophiæ', in Latin.

f. 3v 'Iterum ex Comment[ario] in Ripl[æi] Epist[ola] ad Reg[em] Edw[ardum]', in English with one sentence of Latin.

'Ex Epistola Com[itis] Trevisani ad Thom[am] Bonon[iam]', in Latin.

f. 4r 'Ex Artephio', in Latin.

'Ex Turba [i.e. 'Turba Philosophorum']', in Latin.

[8] 7 pp. on 4 ff.

[9]

in English and Latin

[10]

Abstracted (with copious page references) from various works of 'Eirenæus Philalethes'.

[11] 6 pp. on 3 ff.

[12]

in English

[13]

'Sententiæ notabiles' published with notes and a brief commentary in Sherwood Taylor, 'Alchemical work'.

[14]

Arranged under the headings 'Notanda Chemica' (in Latin, 3 pp.) and 'Sententiæ notabiles' (in Latin and English, 22 pp.). Preceded by the heading 'Index Chemicus', under which is a single entry ('Ablutio') in Latin, and followed by 76 blank leaves.

[15]

in English and Latin

[16] 15 ff.

[17]

See also Keynes Ms. 27.

[18]

f. 1r 'Tabula Smaragdina': another copy of the Latin excerpt from 'Hermes Trismegistus' reproduced in Keynes Ms. 28, with the [correct] page reference 'Theatr. Chym. Vol. 1 pag 362', followed by other excerpts on transmutation from Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum.

f. 2r 'Hieroglyphica Planetarum': notes, principally from Lull, Maier and Flammel, on astronomico-alchemical symbolism.

[19] 4 pp. on 3 ff. of which one blank.

[20]

in Latin

[21]

Transcribed from an unpublished manuscript (see Dobbs, Janus Faces, 123). Begins with a defence of alchemical writings which, despite their apparent obscurity, do contain real truths, and proceeds to a detailed recipe for producing a red 'elixir' to transmute all metals into gold.

[22] 5 pp. on 3 ff.

[23]

in English (apart from the title and the concluding remark 'Laus Deo')

[24]

'Mr F' may be Ezekiel Foxcroft, Fellow of King's College and translator of J.V. Andreæ's Chymische Hochzeit: see Dobbs, Foundations, 111-12 (though the suggestion is disputed by Figala, 'Newton as Alchemist', 103). There is another reference to 'Mr. F.', unequivocally meaning Foxcroft, in 'De Scriptoribus Chemicis', Stanford University Library Ms.: see Figala et al., 'De Scriptoribus', 146-7. Newton's notes clearly date from no earlier than 1675 (the year in which the manuscript was communicated to him), and the handwriting suggests not much later: the preceding text could of course be earlier.

[25]

See Figala, 'Exakte Alchemie', 161, including a partial transcript of Newton's comments. A similar version of the text, but without Newton's additions and commentaries, was published by William Cooper in the anthology Aurifontana Chymica (London, 1680: H103).

[26]

A disquisition on the nature of alchemy, stressing that making gold is the most trivial of its aims. Followed by recipes 'To make all pretious stones better then the Natural', 'To make a Diamant', etc. On f. 5r, in Newton's hand, two further recipes under the headings 'Praxis Lapidis' and 'Multiplication', and then a series of notes on the foregoing text headed 'Here follow several notes & different readings collected out of a M.S. communicated to Mr F. by W.S. in 1670, & by Mr F. to me 1675'. Finally (f. 6r), 'An epitome of the practise of the work', also in Newton's hand.

[27] 11 pp. on 6 ff.

[28]

in English

[29]

See Dobbs, Janus Faces, 124, and cf. SL78 (whereabouts unknown).

[30]

Notes interpreting various pieces of alchemical symbolism. This appears to be Newton's own work, though as usual in his alchemical writing he leans heavily on a range of authorities.

[31] 3 pp. on 2 ff.

[32]

in English

[33]

A dialogue between a novice and an adept, each 'Question' being followed by an answer. Transcript or translation of an anonymous unpublished work.

f. 1r 'Quest. 1. Of what kind is the true & only one Philosophical matter'

f. 1v 'Quest. 2. But how ought ye reduction into the first matter to be done.'

f. 2r 'Quest. 3. What is the signe of a perfect fixation and where by can it be known.'

f. 2v 'Quest. 4. But if it should ascend in the said operation what must be done.'

'Quest. 5. What is to be done when the tincture has obteined its perfection.'

f. 3r 'Quest. 6. What ought to be done wth this golden powder'

'Quest. 7. What hereafter'

f. 3v 'Quest. 8. How must the silver be proceeded with'

'Quest. 9. What fire is used in this work'

f. 4r 'Quest. 10. What do you think of the colours of Bernardus.'

'Quest. 11. Is the labour of this work troublesome'

'Quest. 12. Are there no more lyes of the Sophisters.'

[34] 7 pp. on 4 ff.

[35]

in English

[36]

For highly divergent theories about the dating, see Figala, 'Exakte Alchemie', 177 and Dobbs, Foundations, 133.

[37]

A 'Propositions': alchemical notes in Latin, c. 400 words, 3 pp. Apparently Newton's own formulations.

B Miscellaneous notes on multiplication by solution and coagulation, mostly in Latin with some English, c. 2,000 words, 4 pp. Drawn from various (acknowledged) sources including Aristotle, Nicholas Flamel and Michael Maier [Mayer].

[38] 7 pp.

[39]

mainly in Latin

[40]

Includes references to 'Raymundus' [Ramón Lull], Ferrar, Avicenna, Sendivogius, Flamel, Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum, 'Philalethes' and others.

[41] 17 pp. on 10 ff.

[42]

mainly in Latin with some English

[43]

Transcript of an anonymous alchemical manuscript, an English version of which appeared in Aurifontina chymica, published by William Cooper in 1680 (see Westfall, 'Newton's Index Chemicus', 176, n. 9).

[44] 7 pp.

[45]

in Latin

[46]

The 'Notes upon Ripley' represent, in Dobbs's words, 'Newton's study of Philalethes' comments on Ripley' (Janus Faces, 122, n. 1). See also Keynes Mss. 17, 51, 52, 53.

[47]

The first section is another commentary on Ripley's 'Gates', similar in construction to Keynes Mss. 51 and 53 but quite different in content, and this time covering all twelve 'gates': in addition to the six mentioned above under Keynes Ms. 51 there are cibation, sublimation, fermentation, exaltation, multiplication and projection.

[48]

in English

[49]

See H1238-H1243 for Newton's Paracelsus collection, and H128 for references to Maier's emblems in Newton's annotations to his copy of Basil Valentine's Last Will and Testament.

[50]

f. 1r 'Regulæ seu canones aliquot Philosophici de Lapie [sic: leg. 'Lapide'] Philosophico Authore docto quodam Anonymo. Impress in fine Curationum Paracelsi'. List of alchemical rules in Latin, c. 2,500 words.

f. 4r 'Mayer's ffigures præfixed to Basil Valentine's Keys'. Description of ten alchemical symbols, in English, c. 500 words.

[51] 8 pp. on 4 ff.

[52]

in Latin and English

[53]

See Dobbs (who suggests the date), Foundations, 191, and H129 (a heavily dog-eared English translation of the work, though these notes were obvious based on a Latin edition).

[54]

Includes (in square brackets) a very few explicatory notes by Newton.

[55] 8 pp. on 4 ff.

[56]

in Latin

[57]

See H751 for Newton's copy of van Helmont's work.

[58] 7 pp.

[59]

in Latin

[60]

See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 107; also H994-1001 for Newton's Lull collection. Bernoulli's letter printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 437-8.

[61]

Largely drawn, with page references, from various other works, principally those of Lull and 'Philalethes' but also Ripley, Snyders, Flamel, Sendivogius, Fabré, Arnoldus de Villanova, Van Helmont and others. Clearly represents an attempt to establish a sequence of operations: 'Opus primum', 'Opus secundum', etc. (cf. Keynes Mss. 40, 41 and Babson Ms. 421); the operations covered here are numbered 1-2 and 6-9). Very rough, heavily reworked draft, several sections incomplete.

Also includes three scraps of unrelated correspondence (1700, 1718, n.d.) and a transcript (in another hand, annotated by Newton) of Bernoulli's letter of 8 April 1717 to Montmort, in French, concerning Newton and Leibniz. These are unmentioned in the rather cursory Sotheby catalogue description of SL66, which gives the total page count as 43 pp.; some or all of the letters are presumably a later addition, though why they have been catalogued together with the foregoing treatise is a mystery.

[62] 42 pp. + 4 pp. of unrelated material.

[63]

in Latin with odd passages in English

[64]

Earlier copies (not in Newton's hand) of ff. 1-12 in BL Sloane Mss. 3630.6 (ff. 102-12) and 3778.1 (ff. 2-18). Sloane Ms. 3630 belonged to Richard Dee in 1648, so this section is undoubtedly not by Newton. Figala ('Exakte Alchemie, 183) identifies it as an extract from a lost work ascribed to 'Philalethes', though she doubts whether in this case this means George Starkey. See also Keynes Ms. 19, Yahuda Ms. Var. 259.4, Babson Ms. 925, Dibner Institute, and H1192 and 1485.

[65]

f. 1r 'Sendivogius Explained': notes on Treatises 1-7 and 9-12 [of Sendivogius's A New Light of Alchymie (English translation London, 1650)], with precise page and line numbers for each reference.

f. 13r 'The Preface to ye Philosophick Riddle'

'The Philosophick Riddle'

f. 15v Very brief notes on 'The Dialogue between Mercury the Alchymist & Nature'; 'The 3 principles of all things'; 'Of Sulphur' (ff. 15v-16r).

f. 17r-21r 'Sendivogius explained': another set of notes on Sendivogius, in Latin.

[66] 37 pp. on 21 ff.

[67]

in English and Latin

[68]

The first sheet contains a brief alchemical recipe in another hand, copied out again in Newton's. The second has a Latin extract from Basil Valentine on distillation, followed by a related recipe in English, all in Newton's hand.

[69] 2 pp. on 2 ff.

[70]

in English and Latin

[71]

See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 107. This manuscript (minus the putative index) is also reproduced on R19 of the Chadwyck-Healey microfilm, between Keynes Mss. 64 and 65 (this has perhaps come from a photostat of the notebook held at Keynes Ms. 221). This would appear to be a mistake, since there is no reference to its presence there in the Chadwyck-Healey catalogue.

[72]

On the flyleaf in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'Sep. 25 1727/ Not fit to be printed/ Tho. Pellet'. Main text preceded by 5 unnumbered pages prepared as an index but containing only columns of alphabetical headings (eg. 'Suo/ Suu/ Ta/ Taa/ Tae') and one blank page. The main text has the following sub-headings, though besides the sources given by these there are references on pp. 48-9 to 'Laurent. Ventura' and Ramón Lull's 'Theorica', and on pp. 50-51 to 'Anonym[us] de Arte Chim[ica] in Arte Aurif[era]'.

p. 1 'Ex Rosarij abbreviati tract. quinq[ue]' [This is not, as stated in the Sotheby catalogue, taken from the Rosarius Philosophorum of Arnoldus de Villanova, but from an anonymous tract entitled 'Rosarium Abbreviatum', which appeared in vol. 3 of Zetzner's Theatrum Chemicum as part of 'Justus a Balbian. Tractatus septem de Lapide Philosophico' (first pub.1599, though Newton is extremely unlikely to have seen that edition), Balbian being the editor rather than the author of the collection: see Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 2: 287 and 437.]

p. 15 'Ex Petri Boni Lombardi Ferrariensis Margarita Pretiosa'

p. 24 'Ex Dionysij Zacharij Opusculo'

p. 31 'Out of Philaletha's works concerning the extraction of [sulphur] out of [mercury]', in Latin and English

p. 51 'Ex Clangore Buccinæ'

[73] 61 pp. + 208 pp. blank.

[74]

mainly in Latin with some English

[75]

Keynes Ms. 23 is a Latin translation of the French original of Didier's work. See Dobbs, Janus Faces, 180-81, and Westfall, Never at Rest, 529. Westfall argues that this manuscript and Keynes Ms. 53 represent the first steps, taken in the early 1690s, that led ultimately to the major essay 'Praxis' (Babson Ms. 420).

[76] 35 pp.

[77]

in English with Latin citations

[78]

Sections (e) and (f) are wrongly described in the Sotheby catalogue as 5 and 4 pp. respectively.

[79]

a) 'Cap 1.', text beginning 'Quomodo metalla generantur', in Latin, c. 1,200 words, 3 pp.

b) 'Cap 3 De radice semine spermate et corpore mineralium', in Latin, c. 1,200 words, 3 pp.

c) 'Cap 3 De Mineralibus ex quibus lapis desumitur', in Latin but including an English verse extract from Thomas Norton, c. 3,500 words, 11 pp.

d) Untitled notes on mercury, lead, tin, sulphur and iron, in Latin and English, citing a very wide range of authors, c. 4,500 words, 14 pp.

e) 'De Mercurio duplato', in Latin, 4 pp., with the sub-headings: 'Ex Turba', 'Ex Artephio', 'Ex Bernardo Trevisano', 'Ex Flamelli Annotationibus'; followed by an earlier draft also headed 'De [mercurio] duplato' (1 p.) and notes out of Dionysius Zacharias (1 p.); in all c. 1,600 words.

f) 'De conjunctione in hora nativitatis', in Latin and English, c. 2,500 words, 8 pp.

Originally enclosed in a wrapper bearing a list of contents, which has somehow found its way into Keynes Ms. 30 (f. 1).

[80] 45 pp. on 30 ff. of which 3 blank.

[81]

mainly in Latin but with several sections in English

[82]

See Dobbs, 'Newton Manuscripts at the Smithsonian', 106.

[83]

1) 'Separatio Elementorum' (2 pp.). On the distillation of elements in a 20 gallon vat, with references to 'Philalethes' and Albertus Magnus. The large number of corrections and relatively small number of references to other writers may indicate that this is at least partly Newton's own composition.

2) 'Reductio et Sublimatio' (5 pp.). Excerpts and abstracts, principally from Lull, on an imperfect transmutation of white sulphur into silver and red sulphur into gold.

[84] 7 pp.

[85]

in Latin

[86]

The seven 'aphorisms' are printed in Dobbs, 'Newton's Copy of "Secrets Reveal'd"', 158 and Westfall, Never at Rest, 357-8.

[87]

A series of seven 'aphorisms', in English, relating to the stages of transmutation, followed by supporting 'Annotations upon ye foregoing Aphorisms', mostly in Latin but with some English and consisting mainly of notes from various authors. It seems likely that the 'aphorisms' are Newton's own summation of his alchemical reading: he notes, 'This Process I take to be ye work of the best Authors, Hermes, Turba, Morien, Artephius, Abraham ye Iew & Flammel, Scala, Ripley, Maier, the great Rosary, Charnock, Trevisan. Philaletha. Despagnet'.

[88] 7 pp. on 4 ff.

[89]

in English and Latin

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Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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