Browse texts by category: Religion

1.

'Tuba Quarta' ('The Fourth Trumpet')

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 1, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00001

2.

'Irenicum, or Ecclesiastical Polyty tending to Peace'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 3, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00003

3.

Notes from Petavius on the Nicene Council

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 4, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00004

4.

Two incomplete treatises on prophecy

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 5, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00005

5.

Seven Statements on Religion

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 6, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00006

6.

'A short Schem of the true Religion'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 7, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00007

7.

Twelve articles on religion

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 8, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00008

8.

Three paragraphs on religion, with drafts

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 9, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00009

9.

'Paradoxical Questions concerning the morals & actions of Athanasius & his followers'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 10, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00010

10.

Twenty-three queries about the word ὁμοούσιος

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 11, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00011

11.

Letter from Thomas Horne to Newton, with notes by Newton on Middle Eastern cities

Author: Thomas Horne

Source: Keynes Ms. 97a, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00012

12.

Letter from John Mill to Newton, 7 Nov. 1693

Author: John Mill

Source: Keynes Ms. 100, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00013

13.

Correspondence with Thomas Burnet

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 106, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00014

14.

'The Original of Monarchies'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Keynes Ms. 146, King's College, Cambridge, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00040

15.

'Introductio. Continens Apocalypseos rationem generalem.'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 3, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00046

16.

'The synchronisms of the three parts of the prophetick Interpretation'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 6, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00049

17.

'Proœmium' and first chapter of a treatise on Church history

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 11, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00054

18.

Treatise on Church history

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 12, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00055

19.

Miscellaneous notes and extracts on the Temple, the Fathers, prophecy, Church history, doctrinal issues, etc.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 14, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00057

20.

Fragment on the history of apostasy

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 18, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00061

21.

Treatise on Church history with particular reference to the Arian controversy

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 19, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00062

22.

Expanded Latin translation of the first part of 'Two Notable Corruptions'

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 20, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00063

23.

Exposition of 2 Kings 17:15-16

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 21, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00064

24.

Copies of second and third 'professions of faith' by early Church Councils

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: Yahuda Ms. 22, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00065

25.

Treatise on Revelation

Author: Unknown

Source: Yahuda Ms. 23, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Newton Catalogue ID: THEM00066

[1]

Part of a treatise on Revelation.

[2] 21 pp.

[3]

in Latin

[4] 'Tuba Quarta' ('The Fourth Trumpet') [Keynes Ms. 1]

[5]

Pagination is given as it appears on the manuscript, though this is somewhat misleading, as in some cases only the leaves are numbered and in others the individual sides. SL240 is described in the Sotheby catalogue as seven drafts, c. 10,000 words on 22 pp. folio and 1 p. sm. 4to. Discounting blank pages and considering the nine 'positions' as a draft of the 'irenicum', this is an accurate description of the present manuscript up to p. 34 (though the word-count, as so often, is on the low side); the remainder has presumably been added from another source.

[6]

pp. 21-25 (which seem to represent the fullest and most finished version) published (in a somewhat tidied-up format, as Brewster himself points out) in Brewster (1855), 2: 526-31. The nine 'positions' and twenty 'theses', along with various other fragments in what the editor claims is probably their intended sequence, published in McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 27-43. The second draft (pp. 5-7), the first sixteen of the 'Theses' (slightly abridged), and pp. 51-2 published in Goldish, Judaism, 167-71.

[7]

An important statement of Newton's religious views, in several complete and partial drafts.

pp. 1-3 'Irenicum'.

pp. 5-7 'Irenicum', another draft.

pp. 9-14 'Irenicum', another draft.

pp. 17-18 Nine 'positions'.

pp. 21-25 'Irenicum or Ecclesiastical Polyty tending to peace', consisting of twenty 'Theses' (the first fourteen originally headed 'Positions'), followed by revised versions of theses 8 and 9 and two variant draft paragraphs on fundamental and incidental articles of faith.

pp. 27-30 Another draft, untitled.

pp. 31-34 Another draft, untitled.

pp. 35-38 Variant drafts of several paragraphs of the 'Irenicum'.

pp. 39-44 Another draft, untitled.

pp. 47-49 Another draft, untitled.

pp. 50-52 'Chap. 1 Of the ancient form of Church Government'.

[8] 40 pp.

[9]

in English

[10]

54 sides, on 13 bifoliums and one half-folio sheet (pp. 25-6), unbound. Page numbers added consecutively on each side (including blank sides) in pencil by a modern hand.

pp. 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 26, 45, 46, 53 and 54 blank.

[11]

Notes on the First Nicene Council (325 AD), taken from the Church historian Denis Petau (Petavius).

[12]

See H1283-6 for Newton's collection of works by Petau, though these notes seem to predate any of the editions he owned.

[13] 52 pp.

[14]

in Latin

[15]

For dating see Westfall, Never at Rest, 349, n. 49, and (for the first section) Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 196. Early pages (ff. I-VI) have the same watermark (horn + HG/LL) as a manuscript page from the Opticks of the late 1680s or very early 1690s, and pp. 1-6 share a watermark with a manuscript portion of the Principia of 1687.

[16]

Despite the somewhat confusing pagination and apparently logical chapter sequence (both of which are presumably the result of misguided post-Newtonian re-ordering), it seems that ff. I-VI and pp. 1-6 constitute two drafts of one work written c. mid-1680s, while the rest of the document is a separate production of c. 1705-10 (see Westfall, Never at Rest, 349, n. 49). Text of 'Synopsis of the Prophetic Figures', together with all the subsequent chapter headings, printed in McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 119-26 (the whole manuscript being regarded as a single document).

[17]

a) 'The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets' (two drafts of Chapter One). On the front cover, in Thomas Pellet's hand: 'No. 8'. The initial series of 6 folios is written on both sides with the following headings:

f. I: 'Chap 1 A synopsis of the Prophetick ffigures'

f. VI: 'Chap 2 Of the world, Heaven & Earth \& Hell/, ascending to heaven & descending to earth, rising out of the earth or waters & falling into them \descending into Hell/, moving from place to place, earthquakes, shaking & passing away of heaven & earth, \& the/ beginning & end of the world.'

Chapter Two breaks off after one page. Then follows a second draft of Chapter One, pp. 1-6.

b) Chapters II-IX of another treatise on interpreting history in terms of the prophecies in Revelation:

p. 7 'Chap. II The dayly worship described.'

p. 11 'Chap. III The Prophesy of opening the sealed Book \and of sounding the Trumpets/ described.'

p. 19 'Chap. IV The Prophesy of the eaten Book described.'

p. 29 'Chap V Of the Kingdoms and Churches, wch are the subject of sacred Prophesy.'

p. 29 'Sect. I Of the Dragon & ten horned Beast.'

p. 34 'Sect. II Of the Woman & two-horned Beast.'

p. 37 'Sect. III Of the division of Empire & Church into two Empires & two Churches.'

p. 44 'Sect .IV A further account of the division of the Roman Empire.'

p. 50 'Sect. V Of the seven heads & ten horns of the Dragon and Beast'

p. 56A 'Chap. VI The Prophesy of the Epistles to the seven Churches explained.'

p. 57 'Sect. I \The first Temple wth its Candlesticks representing/ The Seven Churches of Asia.'

p. 64 'Chap. VII The Prophesy of opening the first six Seales explained.'

p. 64 'Sect. I The first seal opened.'

p. 64 'Sect. II The second seal opened.'

p. 65 'Sect. III The third Seal opened'

p. 67 'Sect. IV The fourth seal opened'

p. 68 'The Plague of the Beasts of the earth.'

p. 69 'The plague of the Sword.'

p. 70 'The plagues of ffamine & Pestilence.'

p. 71 'Sect. V The fift Seale opened.'

p. 72 'Sect. VI The sixt Seale opened.'

p. 75 'Sect. VII The holding of the four winds explained.'

p. 78 'Chap. VIII The Prophesy of opening the seventh Seal explained.'

p. 78 'The first trumpet'

p. 92 'The second Trumpet'

p. 98 'The third Trumpet.'

p. 111 'The fourth Trumpet.'

p. 122 'Chap. IX The Prophecy of the three Woes at the voices of the three last Trumpets explained'

p. 122 'Sect. I. The first Wo.'

p. 130 'Sect. II. The second Wo.'

p. 135 'The third Wo'

p. 137 'Sect III. The \latter times &/ time of the end.'

p. 137v 'Sect III The time of the end & Third Woe.'

[18] 157 pp.

[19]

in English with Latin citations

[20]

The first 12 pages, numbered I-VI and 1-6, are two drafts of a work written circa mid-1680s, while the rest of the document (despite the confusing post-Newtonian pagination) is another work probably written around 1705-10.

[21]

A draft of Statement Five occurs in the Mint Papers: Mint catalogue MINT00570 (V.33) on the reverse of a draft document of 1715, though it is not clear which side was written first.

[22]

Published in McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 58-9.

[23] 1 p.

[24]

in English

[25]

The manuscript breaks off after the beginning of the eighth statement

[26]

Extracts in Brewster (1855), 2: 347-8. Published complete in McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 48-53.

[27] 4 pp.

[28]

in English

[29]

Printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 349-50 and McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 56-7.

[30] 1 p.

[31]

in English

[32]

Third and largest draft of the first paragraph printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 354. All three paragraphs printed in McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 54-5.

[33]

Each paragraph has a separate heading: 'Our religion to God'; 'Our religion to Iesus Christ'; 'Our religion to the Church'. Followed by a shorter draft of the whole and two variant and expanded versions of the first paragraph, Latin notes on tides, and a list of editorial instructions in Latin, these last two relating to emendations to the first edition of the Principia.

Somewhat confusingly described in the Sotheby catalogue as being on '1 p. folio; with a shorter draft of the whole and 2 amplified versions' (p. 71).

[34] 5 pp.

[35]

in English with some Latin

[36]

For dating, see Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 196-7. ff. 1-26 contain watermark fleur de lys/CSH and ff. 27-32 contain fleur de lys/HD. The latter also appears on papers dated between June 1691 and July 1695, while watermarks of the earlier clusters are identical to those occuring on a letter to Locke of 3 May 1692, and also on some revisions to the Principia of the early 1690s and drafts of 'De quadratura curvarum' dating from autumn-winter 1691-2.

[37]

Later draft of Clark Library Ms. **N563M3 P222. Questions printed from this manuscript, with summaries of the answers, in Brewster (1855), 2: 342-6. Full text printed in McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 60-118.

[38]

Each question is followed by an answer discrediting the Athanasians.

f. 1r 'Quest. 1. Whether the ignominious death of Arius in a bog-house was not a \ feigned / story \feigned &/ put about by Athanasius above twenty years after his death.'

f. 5r 'Quest. 2. Whether the Meletians deserved that ill character wch Athanasius gave them.'

f. 5v 'Quest. III. Whether the Council of Tyre & Ierusalem was not an orthodox authentick Council bigger then that of Nice.'

f. 9r 'Quest IV. Whether it was a dead man's hand in a bag or the dead body of Arsenius wch was laid before ye Council of Tyre to prove that Arsenius was dead.'

'Quest V Whether it was Arsenius alive or only his letter wch Athanasius produced in ye Council of Tyre to prove that he was \not/ dead.'

'Quest. VI Whether the story of \producing/ the dead man's hand and the living Arsenius \in ye Council of Tyre/ was not feigned by Athanasius about five & twenty years after the time of the Council of Tyre.' [Questions 4 to 6 are addressed en bloc.]

f. 12r 'Quest. VII. Whether the Letter of Pinnes for proving Arsenius to be alive was not feigned by Athanasius at the same time wth the story of the dead man's hand.'

f. 13r 'Quest. VIII. Whether the Letter of Arsenius was not feigned by Athanasius before the convening of the Council of Tyre'

f. 14v 'Quest. IX. Whether the Letter of Ischyras was not feigned by Athanasius.'

f. 16v 'Quest. X. Whether the Recantation of Valens & Vrsatius was not feigned by the friends of Athanasius.'

f. 18r 'Quest. XI. Whether Athanasius was falsly accused or did falsly accuse Eusebius of adultery before the Council of Tyre.'

f. 18v 'Quest. XII. Whether Athanasius did sincerely acquit himself of the crime of breaking the communion cup of Ischyras.'

f. 19v 'Quest. XIII. Whether Athanasius was not made Bishop of Alexandria by sedition & violence against the Canons of that Church.'

f. 20v 'Quest. XIV. Whether Athanasius was not justly deposed by the Council of Tyre.'

f. 24r 'Quest XV [altered from 'XIV']. Whether Athanasius was not seditious.'

f. 28v 'Quest. XVI. Whether Constantius persecuted the Athanasians for religion or only punished them for immorality.'

[39] 61 pp. on 31 ff. + 1 f. blank.

[40]

in English

[41]

Wrongly described in the Sotheby catalogue as twenty-four queries.

[42]

Printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 532-4 (apart from Question 23, which is incomplete) and McLachlan, Theological Manuscripts, 44-7 (including what there is of Question 23).

[43] 3 pp. on 2 ff.

[44]

in English

[45]

The Ms. breaks off in mid-sentence

[46]

Printed in NC, 2: 86-8.

[47]

Original letter from Newton's pupil Thomas Horne concerning difficulties in the third book of Descartes' La Géometrie. Dated Hadly [Hadleigh], Suffolk, 22 Aug. (year unspecified).

On the address sheet in Newton's hand, a list of 59 towns in Asia Minor, Babylonia and Media, with their latitudes and longitudes in degrees and minutes (presumably drawn up in connection with his chronological studies).

[48] 1 p.

[49]

in English

[50]

Printed in Brewster (1855), 2: 472-3 and NC, 3: 289-90. Newton's reply is in the Library of Queen's College, Oxford (29 January 1693/4: Brewster (1855), 2: 473-4 and NC, 3: 303-4), and Mill's reply to that in the Royal Society (21 February 1693/4: NC, 3: 305-8). Cf. Yahuda Ms. 4 (a draft or copy of the collation in question).

[51]

Original letter dated St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, 7 Nov. 1693. A reminder of Newton's promise to send Mill his notes on the collation of ancient manuscripts of Revelation.

[52] 1 p.

[53]

in English

[54]

Burnet, fellow of Christ's College, communicated with Newton in relation to his forthcoming Sacred History of the Earth. Newton argued that Moses's account of Creation should be taken as true, despite the fact that Moses had to dumb down ('accommodate') his language to make it comprehensible to ordinary people. He also claimed that various mundane chemical phenomena can shed light on how God created order out of chaos.

[55]

Burnet's letter printed in NC, 2: 321-8; Newton's in Brewster (1855), 2, 447-54 and NC, 2: 329-35.

[56]

Holograph copy letter, Newton to Burnet, after 13 January 1680/81, in English, c. 2,750 words, 5 pp. States Newton's theory of the creation of the earth and its subsequent development, opposing a literalist interpretation of Genesis and insisting that Moses adapted his account to make it comprehensible to 'the gross conception of the vulgar'.

Original letter from Burnet to Newton (to which the above is a reply), 13 January 1680/81, in English, c. 3,000 words, 7 pp. In this letter Burnet acknowledges receipt of a letter from Newton dated 'Dec. 24th' (no longer extant).

[57]

in English

[58]

Dated from internal evidence though supported in Shapiro, 'Dating Game', 197.

[59]

Printed in Manuel, Newton, Historian, 199-221. Cf. also Yahuda Var. 1 Mss. 13.3, 17, 25.2, 33 and 41, and see Westfall, 'Newton's Theological Manuscripts', 136-9.

[60]

Highly significant chapter related to 'Theologiæ Gentilis Origines Philosophicæ' (cf. Yahuda Ms. 16).

[61] 30 pp.

[62]

in English

[63]

The unnumbered leaf (between f. 1 and f. 2) has the subheading 'De prophetia prima'. Incomplete: breaks off in mid-sentence, though SL230 is described as '21 pp., complete' in the Sotheby catalogue.

[64] 21 pp. on 20 ff. of which 2 blank and one unnumbered.

[65]

in Latin

[66] 'Introductio. Continens Apocalypseos rationem generalem.' [Yahuda Ms. 3]

[67]

Perhaps Newton's clearest account of his views on the Last Judgment and the thousand-year reign of Christ on earth. Misunderstanding of the Biblical texts concerning these events, he argues, is the source of the false doctrine of Purgatory. Contrary to 'received opinion', Judgment Day will not follow the Millennium but begin with it.

[68]

Folios 12r-19r published in Frank Manuel, The Religion of Isaac Newton (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974), pp. 126-136.

[69]

An incomplete treatise on Daniel and Revelation, dealing principally with the Day of Judgment and the Millennium. The first page appears to represent the beginning of a fair copy: an earlier and more complete draft begins on f. 2r under the heading 'The \main/ synchronisms of the three parts of the prophetick Interpretation', and f. 6r has the heading 'The subordinate synchronisms of the three parts of the prophetick interpretation'.

[70] 19 pp. on 20 ff. of which one blank.

[71]

in English

[72]

The beginnings of a major projected study, dealing chiefly with the rise of monasticism.

[73]

The 'Proœmium' occupies the first 7 folios; the remaining 40 are headed simply 'Lib. I cap. 1' and deal principally with the rise of monasticism.

[74] 47 ff.

[75]

in Latin

[76] 'Proœmium' and first chapter of a treatise on Church history [Yahuda Ms. 11]

[77]

Begins 'Fidei verò formula'. Principally concerned with the Arian controversy.

[78] 49 pp. on 36 ff. of which one blank.

[79]

in Latin

[80] Treatise on Church history [Yahuda Ms. 12]

[81]

f. 25r printed in Westfall, Never at Rest, 315-16. Oldenburg letter on ff. 42-3 printed in NC, 7: 387.

[82]

ff. 1r-8v 'Ezek 40 &c schematîs illustrata': Latin notes on the temple described in Ezekiel, with diagrams of it.

f. 9r 'Of Idolatry': highly significant early notes on instances of it in the Old Testament, in English, with extensive glosses by Newton.

f. 10 is blank, and followed by a page of notes not very obviously connected to anything.

f. 12r 'Ex Iustini Martyris Dialogo contra \cum/ Tryphonico adversus Iudæos.' Important notes in Latin with Newton's English glosses.

ff. 19v-24v (f. 23 is blank) Miscellaneous notes, mainly in English, on Church history and erroneous doctrines; f. 24 also contains Mint-related material.

f. 25r Centrally important statement of the Son's relation to the Father, in English.

ff. 26r-29r Early notes in Latin and English from Eusebius's Historia Ecclesiastica (H589-90). Headed 'No 31' in Thomas Pellet's hand.

f. 30r-v Latin and English notes on prophecies in the Old Testament and the Chaldee Paraphrast and their relation to subsequent historical events.

ff. 32r-33v Notes from Villalpandus on Solomon's Temple, mainly in Latin.

ff. 34r-43v Notes in English and Latin on Goths and other tribes, on early popes and introduction of 'superstitious' doctrines and practices such as indulgences, praying to the dead, Purgatory, relics, etc., and on prophecy. ff. 42r-43v are written around a draft letter [to Henry Oldenburg, Jan. 1674/5] accepting the offer to waive Newton's fees as Fellow of the Royal Society.

ff. 44r-46v Notes on the Turkish Empire, in Latin and English.

ff. 46v-47v Miscellaneous Latin excerpts from the Fathers.

ff. 48r-49r Prayers and lamentations of fourth-century Christian martyrs, in Latin verse.

ff. 52r-58v Latin notes from the Fathers, notably (f. 52r) from Petau on the tradition of the Trinity.

ff. 59r-60v Notes on events encompassed by the first trumpet and vial (AD 395-406), in English and Latin.

ff. 61r-64r 'Ex Ignatij Epistolis': Latin excerpts.

ff. 65r-68v Dates of key events in the fourth and fifth centuries.

ff. 69r-72r Notes from Pococke's Latin translation of Historia Dynastiarum Gregorij Abul-Pharajii, on Muslim history.

f. 72v Table of dates of the Arab empire.

f. 73r 'Reineras ordinis Prædicatorum contra Waldenses Bibl. Pater Tom. 13': notes on the Waldenses with important comments by Newton on the unreliability of the author, in Latin and English.

f. 75r 'Ex Eutychij Patriarchæ Alexandrini annalibus': Latin excerpts.

ff. 78r-79v Early Latin notes on the interpretation of prophecy.

[f. 80 blank.]

ff. 81r-v 'Ex Athenagoræ Athen. Christ. Philos. pro christianis Legatione sive Apologia, circa A.D. 178': Latin excerpts.

f. 82r 'Theophilus Patriarcha Antiochenum contra Christianæ religionis calumniatores': Latin extracts.

ff. 83r-84v Notes from Bishop Dionysius writing against Paul of Samosat, in Latin and English, with extremely significant notes by Newton on the nature of Christ.

f. 85r-v 'Testimonies of ye Millennium &c': notes in Latin and English on Eusebius's citations from Parias; also (at the bottom of the page) a reference to Mede and his references to Tertullian.

ff. 86r-103v Significant early notes on the key dates in the Athanasius controversy and general Church history, in Latin and English, and including (f. 100v) a map of the most important metropolises in the thirteenth-century Turkish Empire.

ff. 104r-111v 'Historia Arriani collecta ex Baronio': Latin notes on the history of the Arians, mainly from Baronius's Annals with Newton's occasional English glosses.

ff. 112r-115v Latin notes from various sources on the Roman Empire, its treatment of Christians, and the 'barbarian' invasions.

ff. 116r-117v 'Out of Ignatius Epistles': Greek excerpts with English glosses by Newton.

f. 118r Significant early notes on baptism, in English, with Newton's later revised comments.

f. 118v Latin notes on the Fathers.

ff. 119r-121r Early historical notes on Goths, Huns and Vandals, in English and Latin.

ff. 121v -131v Notes on fourth-century Church history, mainly in Latin with some English.

ff. 132r-134v Notes on the Fathers, mainly Origen and Celsus, mainly in Latin.

ff. 135r-138v Latin citations on the origins of monasticism and the supposed miracles of early monks and nuns, including (ff. 137r-138r) Latin excerpts and English paraphrases from 'Vita Antonij ex Athanasio, ad Monachos scripta'.

ff. 139r-142v Accounts of the wickedness of the Romans and the decline of their Empire, mostly in Latin.

f. 143r-v Notes from 'Cyprianus de mortalitate', mostly in Latin.

ff. 143v-145v Notes and extracts on the persecutions of early Christians, mostly in Latin.

f. 145r-v Dates of Muslim rulers.

ff 146r-148v 'E continuatione belli sacris per Iohannem Herold': Latin notes on thirteenth-century Muslim states.

f. 149r-v 'Ex historia Belli sacri, Authore Wilhelmo Tyrio Metropolitano Archiepiscopo ac regni Hierosolomitani Cancellario inter annos 11': further Latin notes on thirteenth-century Muslim states.

f. 150v Table of Muslim rulers in various nations 1057-1262.

ff. 151r-154v Historical notes from a wide range of Greek and Latin sources on the decline of the Roman Empire in the fifth century.

ff. 155r-156v 'Ex [illeg.]thoni Passagio Terræ sanctæ': Latin historical notes on Turks and Tartars in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries.

ff. 157r-158v 'Ex Elmacino': further Latin notes on Muslim history.

ff. 159r-162v Latin notes on Vandals and other tribes.

f. 163r-v Latin notes on the collapse of the Roman Empire.

f. 164r-v English notes on Theodosius (post-1700).

ff. 165r-170v Latin and English notes from various sources on incursions of assorted tribes into the Roman Empire, including (ff. 166-8) a Latin poem on the subject.

f. 171r. Latin excerpts 'Ex Arnobij adversus gentes libro primo. Scripto circa A.D. 300'; followed (ff. 171r-174r) by 'Ex Lactantij Institutionum Libris in extrema senectute conscriptis A.D. 316 circiter'. Important early notes on the relationship between the Father and the Son with striking English glosses by Newton.

ff. 175r-182r Key dates in third to sixth-century history.

ff. 183r-186v Latin notes on the (supposed) celibacy of priests and the nature of the Trinity.

ff. 187r-190r List of dates in fourth and fifth-century Church history, succession of Roman emperors and incursions of tribes on the Empire, all in Latin.

ff. 191r-194r Important early notes from a wide range of Fathers on the nature of Christ, in Latin.

ff. 195r-198v Latin historical notes on the early Church and Roman Empire.

f. 199r-v Latin excerpts 'Ex Hernæ visionibus' and 'Ex Hernæ Pastore', the latter consisting of twelve injunctions for leading a religious life.

[f. 200 blank.]

ff. 201r-202v Highly significant notes on the nature of God and Christ and the text of 1 John 5:7, in Latin and Greek, referring to a work (Caryophilus's 'Catenæ Græcorum Patrum') published 1673. Discusses early printed editions of the Greek New Testament and their variant readings, also referring to Walton's Polyglot Bible [1655-7: H216].

ff. 203r-206r (f. 205 blank) Latin extracts on the Arian controversy.

ff. 206v-207r 'Ex Philostorgio'; 'Ex Greg Nazianzen Orat 21 in Laudem Athanasij': early Latin notes with English glosses by Newton.

ff. 208r-211v Excerpts from numerous Fathers, mainly about martyrdom, in Latin with some Greek.

f. 212r-v 'Ex disputatione Vigilij Episcop. Tridentini de Trinitate.' Latin excerpts.

[f. 213 blank.]

ff. 214r-217v Latin excerpts from various Fathers on martyrdom and continence.

f. 218r-v 'Ex Hilario': Latin notes on the nature of Christ.

f. 219v Extract from Cassian, in Latin.

f. 220r-v Latin notes on the Arian controversy.

[83] 220 ff.

[84]

in Latin and English with some Greek

[85]

In Newton's eyes, the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity in the fourth century CE was - paradoxically - probably the worst thing that had ever happened to the Christian faith. So long as the true religion had been persecuted, only sincere believers had been prepared to risk their lives by claiming allegiance to it. But as soon as it became the Empire's official religion, it was adopted by hypocrites and time-servers who saw it only as a means of gaining social or political advantage. As he explains in this document, Newton regarded this development as a fulfilment of St Paul's prophecy of the 'mystery of iniquity' (2 Thessalonians 2:7).

[86]

Includes variant drafts of passages in Yahuda Ms. 1.6 and the Clark Library document.

[87] 7 pp. on 5 ff. of which one blank

[88]

in English

[89]

Beginning missing. f. 13r has the heading 'De Origine schismatico Ecclesiæ Papisticæ bicornis' and f. 15r the heading 'Historia Ecclesiastica'.

[90] 166 ff.

[91]

in Latin with some citations in Greek

[92]

In the hand of Hopton Haynes, Newton's protégé at the Mint.

[93]

f. 1 Title page: 'Sancti Iohannis Apostoli Vindiciæ contra Novatores et Falsarios.'

Subsidiary title page: 'Corruptelæ Duorum Celebrium in Sacris Literis Locorum Historica Narratio. Sive Dissertatio Critica et Historica de Ceberrimis [sic] duobus N T. Locis a priscis tam Græci quam Latini Nominis Scriptoribus attentatis olim, et corruptis. Vizt 1. Ep. Ioh. 5 etc., 1. Ep. Tim 3.16. In Epistola ad virum Nobilissimum Eruditissimumque perscripta.'

The text in fact deals only with 1 John 5:7. A note on this verse, in an unidentified hand (wrongly described as Newton's in the Sotheby catalogue), is loosely inserted after f. 1.

[94] 98 pp. on 54 ff. plus a loose sheet.

[95]

in Latin

[96]

Same watermark as letters to Oldenburg of 18 August, 26 August and 24 October 1676.

[97]

The text is complete but was originally accompanied by a shorter version which is no longer present: this now constitutes Harry Ransom Research Center Ms. 130 and possibly Babson Ms. 437 (though this yields a total page count of 30, two higher than that in the Sotheby catalogue).

[98] 18 pp. on 15 ff.

[99]

in English

[100] Part of an exposition of 2 Kings, 17:15-16 [Ms. 437] Exposition of 2 Kings 17:15-16 [Ms. 130]

[101]

There appear to be pages missing between ff. 4-5 and ff. 12-13.

[102]

In Humphrey Newton's hand.

[103]

f. 1r 'Secunda Professio fidei'

f. 3r 'Tertia professio fidei, post ordinationem'

f. 5r Three paragraphs under the headings 'Titulus IX', 'Indiculum Pontificis', 'Professio Pontificia'.

[104] 8 pp. on 6 ff. of which one blank

[105]

in Latin

[106]

Not by Newton and certainly not in his hand (though described as 'autograph' in the Sotheby catalogue): according to Westfall ('Newton's Theological Manuscripts', 142) it is in that of John Wickins, his Cambridge room-mate from some time after 1663 to 1683, in which case the document presumably dates from that period (but it may of course be a copy of an older work). The piece is strongly anti-Roman Catholic in tone and reads the prophecy as foretelling the downfall of the Papacy in c. 60 years.

[107] 6 pp. on 3 ff.

[108]

in English

© 2020 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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