Notes and drafts relating to 'The Philosophical Origins of Pagan Theology


Moses came out of Egypt in the reign of Amosis[Editorial Note 1] the Egyptian & Inachus of Argus. The flood of Ogiges happened in the time of Phoroneus the son of Inachus & so did the kingdom of Sicyon under Ægialeus, & the kingdom of Cres in crete Clem. Strom. bk. 1 p 321.[Editorial Note 2]

The year of Cadmus consisted of eight years. Apollodor bk. 3 ch. 4.[Editorial Note 3]

Ericthonius the son of Vulcan born in the days of Pandrosos the daughter of Cecrops

In the reign of Pandion, Ceres & Bacchus came into Attica Apollod bk. 3 ch. 13. 57[Editorial Note 4]. Pandion warred with Labdacus, ib

Menelaus returns home in the eighth year after the capture of Troy. Higyn fab 118[Editorial Note 5]

Hercules gave the kingdom of Troy to the infant Podarces. Hygyn fab. 89.

Laius son of Labdacus stole away Chrysippus, the bastard son of Pelops, at the Nemean games. Hygin. Fab. 85.

Liber lay with Althea and from her Deianira was born Hygin. Fab 129.

Prometheus bound for 30 years on Mt. Caucasus Hyg. Fab 54 & 144.

Minerva gave Erichthonius to be preserved in a chest to Aglauros Pandrosos & Herse, daughters of Cecrops. Fab. 167.

Midas contemporary with father Liber. Fab 191.

Orpheus said that Liber was torn apart by giants. Servius on Virgil Geor. 1. p 67.

Tithonus the brother of Laomedon was the one whom Aurora fell in love with as he was engaged in battle and carried him away Servius on Geor 3. p 121. & Æn 1. p 214[Editorial Note 6]

Io daughter of Inachus turned into Isis. Serv. Geor. 3. & Æn. 7 p. 492.

Memnon used the arms of Vulcan. Serv. on Æn. 1. p 233.

Æneas came to Africa in the seventh year after Troy was stormed Æn. 1. p 231.

Atlas’s three sons. Maurus the eldest, Italicus father of Electra, from whom Dardanus was born, and Arcadicus father of Maia. Serv Æn. 8

Saturn was the king of Crete whom his son Jupiter expelled in war. Fleeing, he was welcomed by Janus. Serv. Æn 8.

Venus was the wife of Vulcan before she lay with Anchises. Serv. Æn 8 p 514.

The Caræ were island people notorious for piracy, conquered by Minos. Serv Æn 9 p 535.

Cephalus husband of Procris. Procris daughter of Erectheus.

[1]When Iason sailed to Colchos, Hypsipyle the daughter of Thoas the son of Bacchus & Ariadne was Queen of Lemnos

[2]When Menelaus enterteined Paris, Atreus died, & Menelaus sailed to Crete to divide his goods & left Paris at home.

Jupiter author of wars. Homer in Justin Martyr.

Æschylus says that the Areopagus (the hill of Mars) was so-called because when the Amazons were fortifying the citadel in the reign of Theseus, they established their camp there and sacrificed to Mars; Eustathius & the author of the Etymologicum[Editorial Note 9] say that they were daughters of Mars and placed their camp there. The Notes to the Chron marm[Editorial Note 10] p. 108 On this hill was an Altar of Minerva Aria[Editorial Note 11] consecrated by Orestes, son of Agamemnon. Pausan. in Att.[Editorial Note 12] In this court in the reign of Erechtheus Cephalus was condemned for the murder of his wife Procris, and in the reign of Aegeus Daedalus was condemned for the killing of Talus. Apollodor bk. 3. Scholiast. Eurip. ad Orestem.[Editorial Note 13]

Cranaus by his wife Pedias, had a son Rharus (who was either the father or grandfather of Triptolemus, and who reigned at Eleusis and gave his name to the Rharian plain) and two daughters Cranae & Cranecme, one of whom he gave to be the wife of Amphictyon the son of Deucalion, & he was driven out of his kingdom by him after he had reigned for nine years. Notæ in marm. p 116. A daughter of Amphictyon was married to Rharus and became the mother of Triptolemus p. 121.

Dædalus was in his vigor when Oedipus reigned at Thebes Pausan. bk. 10. ch. 18

Ion the son of Xuthus lived in Attica, and in the war against the Eleusinians he was the Leader of the Athenians. Pausan. bk. 1. ch. 31 & bk. 2. ch. 14 In that war fell Erectheus on the one side, and Immaradus, the son of Eumolpus, on the other. ib

Amazons Pausan. Att. p. 100, 188, 356

Lelex Pausan. Att. p 95, 106, 260, 280

Phoroneus compelled men who previously lived in dispersed fahion to gather in a single community &c Pausan bk. 2. ch. 16, p. 145[Editorial Note 14]

They say that the head of the Gorgon Medusa was buried near the forum in Argos. She was the daughter of Phorcus, and on the death of her father, she received from him and held the kingship over those peoples who dwell near the Tritonian marsh. Pausan bk. 2 ch. 21, p 159, 160.

Ardalus, son of Vulcan, invented the reed-pipe & built a sanctuary of the Muses in which Pittheus taught the art of speaking. Pausan bk. 2, p 184

Minerva Aria and her temples

Oebalus Arene Idas
Perseus – Gorgophone Aphareus Lynceus the keen-sighted killed by Pollux
Perieres Leucippus.

Pausan p 283, 284 Perseus contemporary to Æolus & Gorgophone to Cretheus. ii[Editorial Note 15].

Æolus by cult title Neptunus Pausan. p. 283.

Æthlius – Endymion – Epeus
Eurycida – Eleus – Augeas contemporary with Hercules. Pausan p 376.

Polyxenus at the time of the Trojan war – Amphimachus born to Polyxenus when he returned from Troy, – Eleus. Oxylus was contemporary with Eleus the son of Hæmon son of Thoas who took part in the Trojan war. From Oxylus descends Iphitus who restored the Olympic Games & was contemporary with Lycurgus the Legislator p. 378, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.

The Libyan gods Ammonia Juno and Parammon or mercury ib. p 416

Achilles & Memnon at Troy. ib 424 in a painting of Eumelus Corinthius an exceeding old Painter. See p. 287

Memnon at Troy in a painting of Lycius the son of Myro p 435.

The statue of Jupiter Mechaneus[Editorial Note 16] (i.e. Vulcan) ib p 161.

The Thasians a colony of the Phœnicians ib p 445.

Both the people of Erythrae in Ionia and the Tyrians erected temples to Hercules Idaeus[Editorial Note 17] Pausan p 763

Dædalus of the same period as Oedipus reigned in Thebes Pausan p 837.

[Editorial Note 18]

Cyniras[Editorial Note 19], the father of Adonis – in Hesiod Phœnix was the father, in Panysis[Editorial Note 20] it was Thoas King of the Assyrians, Apollodor bk. 3. ch. 13[Editorial Note 21], in Antoninus Liberalis[Editorial Note 22] it was Theias son of Belus (ch. 33)[Editorial Note 23] – was born in Cilicia & thence migrated to Cyprus & founded Paphus, Apollodor bk. 3 ch. 13. His daughter Smyrna the mother of Adonis was born in Libanus (Anton. Lib. ib) & therefore he was a Phœnician.

Proteus an Egyptian prophet at the time of the Trojan war. Conon Narrat. 8[Editorial Note 24].

Before Paris carried off Helen. he had a son Corythus by his previous wife Oenone, and he attempted to seduce Helen, Conon narrat 23. Hector had two sons grow up &c Conon Narrat. 45. Proteus came with Cadmus out of Egypt fearing the tyranny of Busiris & married Chrysonone the daughter of Clytus king of a region in Thrace & together with Clitus made war upon the Bilsaltes[Editorial Note 25] & expelling them reigned over their country. Conon Narrat. 32.

Cecrops son of Earth. Anton. Lib. ch. 6.


Acrisius founded Larissa, so called from Larissa daughter of Pelasgus. Hellanicus[Editorial Note 26]

Phalaris son of Alcon son of Erectheus. Calliope sister of Phalaris

Hellen, Æolus, Cretheus Æson Iason
Amythæon Melampus
Procris Cleopatra wife of Phineus
Erectheus – Orithuia Zethe[Editorial Note 27]
Boreas Calais

Delus called Ortygia from the Sister of Latona.

Asia so called from Asia mother of Prometheus and Atlantis

The Pelasgians from Pelasgus son of Inachus.

The Lemnians were the first men to make weapons of war

Electra daughter of Atlas bore Dardanus, Eëtion or Iarion[Editorial Note 28] & Harmonia wife of Cadmus. From Electra the gates of Thebes were called Electricæ

Venus being loved by Bacchus lay with him & when he went into India she lay with Adonis & in his return met him with a crown.

The twelve Gods Jupiter, Juno Neptune, Ceres, Mercury, Vulcan, Apollo Diana Vesta Mars Venus Minerva

Deucalion son of Prometheus built an altar to the twelve Gods (Hellanicus); he ruled in Thessalia

Neptunus – Agenor Phœnix
Belus – Damno Isæa ~ Ægyptus
Melia ~ Danaus
Nilus – Argiope Cadmus

Some say that Endymion discovered the periods & stages of the Moon. Hence the Arcadians were called Proselenes[Editorial Note 29]. For Arcas was Endymion. But some said by Typho while Xenagoras said by Atlas.

Thessaly was formerly called Pelasgia from its ruler Pelasgus.

Sesonchosis king of all Egypt after Orus son of Isis et Osiris, conquered the whole of Asia & a great part of Europe. He is called Sesostris by Theopompus. He made a law that no one should abandon his father’s trade.

Antæus and Busiris sons of Neptune.

Eurypylus son of Neptune and Celæno daughter of Atlas, king of Cyrene, brother of Lycaon

Ædipus[Editorial Note 30] – Polynices – Thersander – Tesamenus – Autesion – Theras. He gave his name to the island of Thera. Some Lemnians who had been driven out of Lemnos by the Tyrrhenians followed him to the island of Thera.

The Argo was the first long ship (i.e. the first constructed by Greeks). For Danaus when he was driven out by his brother Ægyptus built the first one, whence it was called Danais.

Dipolis is a Lemnian who had Hephaestia and Myrina so called from Myrina daughter of Cretheus wife of Thoas.

Oenomaus, son of Mars and Harpin{a}[Editorial Note 31] daughter of Æsopus or Eurythoe daughter of Danaus, had a daughter Hippodamia wife of Pelops. Myrtilus was son of Mercury & Phaethusa daughter of Danaus or Myrte an Amazon.

Bacchus and Jupiter Cabyrian Gods

The Idæan Dactyli were Phrygians and were the first to discover the arts of Vulcan in iron. So called from Ida & Dicte, two mountains in Crete.

Ægæon, who is the same as Briareus, overcome by Neptune, lived in the sea and fought against the Titans

Chalybes a Scythian people where iron originated

Phineus a prophet, son of Phoenix (son of Cadmus) and of Cassiopæa daughter of Arabus, had brothers Cilix and Dorylus. His sons by Cleopatra were Oruithus and Crambos.[Editorial Note 32]

Phryxus had children by Chalciope daughter of Æetes.

Dionysius (bk. 2)[Editorial Note 33] says that the Amazons who live in Asia formerly lived in Libya, but they made their way by warfare all the way to the Europae and captured many cities; he also says that they were of the race of Mars, and the Atlantii were subject to them.

Titan – Hyperion Sol
Theia Luna

The river Nile is so called from Nilus son of Cyclops, son of Tantalus; he was king there, as Hermippus says.

Apollonius says that Æa has remained intact from the times of Sesonchosis, and that the posterity of those who were descended from Sesonch{os}is[Editorial Note 34] lived there. For the Chochi were colonists from Egypt.

Chiron the centaur was an Astronomer.

Acrisius begat Danae mother of Perseus by Euridice daughter of Lacedæmon.

The Serpent who guarded the gardens of the Hesperides had a hundred heads and all kinds of voices.

Minerva received the head of Medusa from Perseus & set it in her shield.


The race of Hunters and Farmers who descend from Ager and Agricola are either Arabs or Egyptians. The first Father of the latter is honoured under the name of Agricola[Editorial Note 35]; the first Father of the former is honoured under the name of Ager or nomadic Hunter. Both intended their first father to be like themselves, and the Egyptians indeed truly. For Noah was truly a Farmer[Editorial Note 36] and the father of all Farmers. Furthermore from the description of Agricola as the leading God, from his position in the genealogies as tenth from the creation of the world, from his son Amynus, i.e. Amon or Ham and his grandson Misor i.e. Masor or Misraim, it is clear that he is Noah. And the connection with Mercury confirms that Amynus is Jupiter Ammon, and Misor is Osiris. Ager therefore, who is presented as a contemporary of Agricola, is also Noah, and his son Magus is Cham, and the Easterners gave him that name because he was the father of Philosophers. Sydyc the son of Magus will be Chus (the founder of the Chaldaean Empire as I shall show later), and Chus will be the Jupiter of the Chaldaeans, for his sons are here called Dioscuri, Διὸς κοῦροι, sons of Jupiter. Xenophon revealed the reason for this in his Aequivoca[Editorial Note 37]. – – – – – – are called Saturns[Editorial Note 38], he says, and Chus would be used for Jupiter[Editorial Note 39] and thus Neptune Pluto and Venus, as children of Cham, would be said to be born of Saturn, and his grandchildren Mercury Apollo Diana would be said to be born of Jupiter, if all the Gods were transposed to the Arabic Family tree. And among the Assyrians, since Belus was Jupiter, Chus was Saturn and Cham was Coelus, and Noah was Hypsuranius. And although this third belief is more recent than the others, it was still disseminated very widely throughout the East with the worship of Jupiter Belus. Sanchoniatho explains the same thing later, as will be told in the following.

Therefore even though Apollo, Diana and Mercury are children of Osiris, nothing prevents them from being called sons of Jupiter by the Chaldaeans and those who follow them. That Apollo and Diana are Orus and Bubaste and that these were children of Osiris and Isis is amply confirmed by Herodotus, Diodorus and Plutarch. It is not very likely that Mercury was son of Cham and his niece Maia. Sanchoniatho tells us, on the basis of Egyptian records, that he was born of Misraim. And he tells us that Anubis, who is the same as Mercury, was born of Misraim and the wife of Typho.            It is more likely that he was a child of Misraim and Maia the eldest daughter of Typho. For Typho is Maia’s father Atlas, as will be shown in what follows, whereas it is evident that Mercury is Anubis. Both of them illegitimately born of an Egyptian father and an African Mother, they were attached to Osiris and Isis. Anubis is portrayed always with a dog’s head, and the dog is sacred to him, and the dog by the evidence

The Arabs were shepherds, and therefore they say that credit is given to Magus for raising flocks. Therefore Belus’s father Chus is Sydyc the son of Magus and the Jupiter of the Chaldaeans. For his children are here called Dioscuri Διὸς κοῦροι sons of Jupiter


– younger. For Saturn {illeg} younger is no. And I believe that the {pi}llars had been erected when the Babylonians were ruling there, and that is why Cham was called Saturn, the youngest-born. Further Diodorus bk. 1[Editorial Note 40] writes that Osiris was the son of Jupiter who reigned in Egypt and whom they call Ammon. And Sanchoniatho (by far the most ancient writer and a careful investigator of historical origins) tells us that Isiris (the inventor of the three letters)[Editorial Note 41] is the brother of that Χνᾶ Chna who first – – – Χνάος.

The word Chanaan just like the word Hamon is supplied with a grammatical termination. The basic word is Chana humble (q.d.[Editorial Note 42] servant of servants Gen. 9)[Editorial Note 43] and in contracted form Chna. Therefore Osiris is the brother of Chanaan and therefore son of Cham. And that is what had to shown.

We will further confirm from Sanchoniatho what we have said so far. Surveying the generations of the Gods from the beginning of the world and assigning two Gods to each generation, he sets Ager and Agricola in the place of Xisuthus or Noah who is the tenth for the Chaldaeans and for Moses, and says that in the books of the ancients Agricola is called the greatest of the Gods – an altogether extraordinary statement – and that the race of Farmers and Hunters sprang from these two. And that they left sons Amynus and Magus – – – – they named.

All this has been taken partly from Egyptian partly from Chaldaean records, and therefore we find two family lines described: the one Egyptian consisting of the Go{ds} Agricola, Amynus, Misor and Mercury, the other Chaldaean consisting of the Gods Ager, Magus, Sydyc, the Dioscuri


– But first the four ages need to be explained.

And Abydenus,[Editorial Note 44] who composed his history from the records of the Medes and Persians, after describing the construction and overthrow of the Tower of Babylon and the dispersal of mankind, adds: Men had had one and the same language down to that time, but spoke many conflicting tongues thereafter, and subsequently war broke out between Saturn and Titan. Hence it is clear that the memory of the earliest times was most lastingly preserved by the eastern Nations.

And Ovid describes the division of those times into ages as follows.


But first the {four} ages need to be explained.

Ovid[Editorial Note 45] describes[Editorial Note 46] them as follows

The golden age came first –

– The last one is of hard iron.

Virgil[Editorial Note 47] has similar things about the golden age

Before Jupiter – –

– – – bore

The golden age begins therefore with the human race.

Ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι θεοὶ etc.

How Gods and mortal men were born at the same time

The first race indeed was golden. Hesiod[Editorial Note 48].

The Silver race began with the division of the earth and the discovery of corn. In this age Hesiod described the wonderful longevity of human beings, such that a child was nourished by the mother for a hundred years before reaching adulthood. In the Bronze age wars were first fought, as Hesiod also sang:[Editorial Note 49]

And[Editorial Note 50] father Jupiter made a third, a bronze race of variously speaking men, altogether different from the silver, made from ash-trees, tempestuous and tough, whose passion was the grievous deeds of Mars and acts of violence.

This age was earlier than the Assyrian empire. For Africans and Egyptians, says Hyginus[Editorial Note 51], at first fought with clubs, later Belus son of Neptune made war with the sword. Virgil adds some more about this age.

Then[Editorial Note 52] the sailor gave numbers and names to the stars, the Pleiades, the Hyades and bright Arcton, daughter of Lycaon. Then men discovered how to catch wild creatures with traps and snare them with lime, and how to surround large coverts with hunting dogs. And now one man lashes the broad river with his casting net aiming for the deep water, while another trawls through the sea his dripping drag-net.

Then the rigid strength of iron. –

Therefore in this third age Mercury marked out the constellations and gave names to the Planets, and Nimrod and his Companions engaged in the hunting of wild beasts. Vulcan likewise invented boats and the fishing line and nets. And then at last wars fought with the {iron}[Editorial Note 53] sword gave rise to the fourth age.


The age of hard iron came last. Immediately every evil burst out in this age of baser ore … and violence and the cursed love of gain … And now destructive iron had arrived, and gold more destructive than iron. Then came war, which makes use of both to fight, and brandishes clashing weapons in its bloody hands. Men lived on plunder. Guest was not safe from host. … Astraea abandoned the earth, the last of the heavenly ones to go.

Astraea[Editorial Note 54] is Isis, a very just woman and Law-giver of the Egyptians. At the beginning of the kingdom of the Assyrians, she was seized with a kind of madness after the death of Orus and Bubastis,a[3] and is said to have suddenly vanished from the sight of men. Notice therefore that the ages are so distinguished from each other that a new age always begins with new kings and new governments. As long as all men lived under the government of Noah in Babylonia, the golden age endured. With the division of the earth and the government of Cham in Egypt, the silver age begins. When the sons of Cham subsequently departed for the different lands which were granted to them by their father and established new kingdoms separately, then began the age of bronze. In the fourth stage, Belus, the grandson of Cham, founded the government of the Assyrians by means of violence and bloodshed.

– the first who invented dreadful swords; savage and truly made of iron was that man. Tibullus, Elegies, 1.10.[Editorial Note 55]

All this confirms which Nations they declare to be from Saturn.

Therefore since the golden age is the first of the eras, Saturn who was king at that time must be Noah. Bochart has proved | explained this sufficiently at length | abundantly in his Geography. The same is also true of Janus. The Egyptians had a tradition that the most ancient of the Gods reigned for twelve hundred years and the later ones not less than three hundred years. Hence Saturn was made the God of time. He is also called in the Orphics παγΓενέτωρ – – – Oenotria. Furthermore Saturn is said to have provided by legislation that no one should observe the Gods naked, for the impiety of Cham; and that Saturn c[4] was so just that no one under him was a slave nor did anyone have anything for his own private property (hence in the Saturnalia all things were in common between Masters and slaves, there was equal dignity and honour for all,) and that d[5] he shifted the men of his time from a savage to a more civilized way of life, and for this he earned great honors; and he travelled through many parts of the world, and disposed all men to justice and simplicity of heart.

He gathered together the unruly race, scattered over the mountain heights, and gave them laws. Virgil, Aen. bk. 8[Editorial Note 58]

There was another Saturn, a man of infamous morals and a devourer of children, of whom more hereafter.[Editorial Note 59]

Since Jupiter who reigned in the silver age is the son of Saturn and held in the highest honour by the Egyptians, he will necessarily be their father Cham. Herodotus in Euterpe –[Editorial Note 60]

– Ammon


From the study of the stars these bodies first began to be known & honoured and in the end promulgated to the people under the name of Gods. And the Egyptians who were the most enthusiastically committed to this study composed a mythological chronicle in honour of the Art, a[6] determining, as Africanus says, periods and myriads of years in accordance with their astronomy. And they taught that b[7] the twelve Gods reigned first, then the demigods; thus they promulgated that the celestial bodies or Gods were to be adored under the name of Kings. Hence Herodotus[Editorial Note 62] says that the Egyptians were the first to have had in use the names of the twelve Gods [i.e. those great Gods who were called the Gods of the great nations], and that the Greeks borrowed them from them; they too were the first to set up altars and images and Shrines for the Gods. And a little later[Editorial Note 63]: Almost all the names of the gods, he says, have come to Greece from Egypt. I know that this is so, because I inquired about it from foreign peoples, and I think that they came in particular from Egypt. And it is inferred that this astronomical Theology flourished in Egypt, long before Greek records began, from the worship of the stars which became a paractice before the time of Moses. Guard your souls carefully, says Moses[Editorial Note 64] – lest perchance when your eyes are raised to the sky, you see the sun and the Moon and all the stars of heaven, and you are led into error and adore them and worship things which the Lord your God has created as an aid to all the nations under heaven. And again[Editorial Note 65]: When they transgress his covenant so that they go and serve alien Gods and adore them, the sun and the Moon and the whole host of heaven, etc. // Diodorus [8] is our Authority that Mercury, whose counsel Osiris most relied on, and to whom the Egyptians ascribed the invention of letters, organized worship and sacrifices, and was the first of all to observe the order of the stars. This is very likely, since the Egyptians in dividing the year into twelve months, named the first month Thoth after Mercury. For Thoth is the Egyptian name for Mercury. Marsham in his Canon[Editorial Note 67] stated that he was the second king of Egypt. All agree that Menes was the first king. Eratosthenes puts Athoth son of Menes second ὁ ερμηνεύεται ἑρμογενυὴς[Editorial Note 68], which is interpreted as born of Mercury, and Eusebius[9] confirms that Athoth is the same as Thoth whom the Greeks call Ηρμην Mercury. There is also another Mercury, successor of Moeris and the thirty fifth King of Egypt, who was also called Siphoas and Mercurius Trismegistus by Manetho. Eusebius places his son Tat at the time of the death of Joshua. And Manetho[Editorial Note 70] distinguishes the two Mercuries thus: From the pillars, he says, set up in the Seriadic land, which were inscribed, in the sacred dialect and hieroglyphic characters, by Thoth, the first Mercury, the Second Mercury, who was the son of Agathodæmon, father of Tat, transposed it in hieroglyphic characters from that sacred language to books which he deposited in the sanctuaries of the Temples of Egypt. This is what Manetho says about the translation of the books of the second Mercury in the work that he dedicated to Ptolemy Philadelphus. It is a fairly safe inference that these books had to do with the laws and worship of the Stars from the things which Clement of Alexandria records about them in the following manner:

The Egyptians practise a philosophy all their own[Editorial Note 71], etc.


The names of the Gods are evidence that originally knowledge of the Stars began along with Pagan religion in Egypt, and they spread together throughout the world. For Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, Luna, Diana, Sol, Apollo, Vulcan, father of Sol and Ceres or Isis (through whom the Dog-star was named) were the greater Gods and Goddesses of the Pagans who came from Egypt, and they were obviously related to Astronomy. On the basis of Egyptian tradition Diodorus tells us that the Chaldaeans in Babylon were Egyptian Colonists, and had achieved a reputation for Astrology because they had been thoroughly instructed by the Egyptian priests. The same thing is confirmed by the Chaldean year, which certainly had the same form as the Egyptian year.[10] So too Clement says that the Egyptians were the first to introduce astrology among men; so too the Chaldaeans.[11] And Ammianus says that the sciences reached the Persians from the Chaldaeans.[12] It is generally agreed that Astronomy passed to the Greeks from the Egyptians. So Plato:[13] Since, he says, we are further away from the clear skies of summer than Foreign peoples, we have been slower to understand the order of these deities (for so he calls the Planets). But whatever the Greeks have taken from the Foreign peoples, they have improved. And again: It was an ancient land that bred those who first observed these things because of the clarity of the summer season. Such were Egypt and Syria, where all the stars are always, so to speak, clearly visible. Herodotus [14] likewise records that the Egyptians were the first of all men to invent the year, dividing it into twelve monthly periods of time, and they ascertained this from the stars. Geometry too, which had its origin in this, passed to the Greeks. For the Greeks learned of the pole, he says, and the gnomon and the twelve parts of the Day from the Babylonians. By arguing in this manner Herodotus took it for granted that the mathematical sciences had earlier migrated from Egypt to the Babylonians. Lucian[15] περὶ ἀστρολογίης[Editorial Note 77] writes that the Ethiopians were the first to pay attention to celestial motions; later the study of celestial matters passed to the Egyptians, but that the Greeks received the discovery not from the Egyptians or Babylonians but from Orpheus the son of Oeagrus and Calliope, who first taught certain things in Greece, albeit in a confused fashion and wrapped in layers of fable and mystery. I have no difficulty in agreeing with Lucian about the Ethiopians, since the ancient Poets so highly praise this people and set the annual gathering and banquet of the Gods in Ethiopia as in their native land; and Herodotus writes that the Ethiopians were circumcised just like the Egyptians, and Diodorus writes that the two peoples agreed with each other in very many customs and, most importantly, the sacred letters of the Egyptians used by the priests alone were the common letters of the Ethiopians. Also Cepheus, the most ancient King of the Ethiopians, was translated to heaven with his wife and daughter because of his study of the stars. Again, the Fables depicted in the Constellations confirm that the Greeks learned Astronomy from Orpheus. For the Legend of the Argonauts whose author is said to be Orpheus[Editorial Note 78], is fully depicted in them. At the head of the twelve signs comes the Ram which they call Phryxeus anda[16] golden-fleeced, <6r> then the fire-breathing Bull with gilded horns, and the Twin Argonauts Castor and Pollux. Then there is the Hydra, and the Raven settling on his corpse denotes that he was killed; and the Cup of Medea by whose toxic drug. he was killed, and the ship Argo, and Chiron the centaur, Jason’s tutor. Also present is Hercules the Argonaut, and the Lyre of Orpheus, and if I am not mistaken, Orpheus himself. For the names of the constellations which are now called Hercules and Serpentarius had disappeared from men’s memories before Aratus’s time[Editorial Note 79], and the Serpentarius is more appropriate to Hercules, while the other Constellation with bent knees and hands raised above the shoulders like someone praying (as he was formerly depicted) is more congruent with Orpheus supplicating the Gods. For Orpheus is depicted in that legend as a man who is pious and a worshipper of the Gods more than all the other Argonauts. The Constellations of the Crab, the Lion, the arrow and the Vulture also belong to the story of Hercules. Hence it is clear that a very large part of the constellations derived from the school of Orpheus. For it is very likely also that Perseus was translated to the heavens at about the same time as the constellations concerned with his story. And meanwhile Lucian[Editorial Note 80] does not make a bad inference from the fact that Orpheus taught Astronomy, that the Greeks did not receive it from the Egyptians or Babylonians. For Diodorus assures us that Orpheus himself was educated in Egypt. Orpheus, he says, having gone to Egypt, learned many things there, to such an extent that he was the most outstanding of the Greeks as much in initations and Theology as in Poetry and Melody. [He took with him from there] a great many rites of the mysteries and Ceremonies of Bacchus as well as mythology about the underworld. For the beginnings of Osiris are the same as those of Bacchus, those of Isis are very close to those of Ceres, only the names being different. Orpheus therefore learned the doctrines of the Egyptians, and brought the study of the stars into Greece together with Pagan Theology. Herodotus writes [17] that the Egyptians were the first to have had in use the names of the twelve gods [i.e. those great gods who were called the Gods of the great Nations], and the Greeks borrowed them from them; likewise they were the first to establish altars and images and shrines to the gods. And a little later[Editorial Note 82]: Almost all, he says, of the names of the gods have come into Greece from Egypt. And I know that this is so because I learned it by inquiry from Foreign Peoples, and I think that they have particularly come from Egypt. This is what he says. And that these Gods were for the most part associated with the philosophy of the stars already before[Editorial Note 83]


which it is called in contracted form for Mesoraim is not much different. It is regarded as a constellation of cold, perhaps in memory of the slain Osiris. For Osiris (as we shall explain later) was originally Pluto. Chimah is perhaps said for Chamah by an intensified aspiration, and this Constellation brings delight exactly like the Star of Jupiter. Chusil perhaps is said for Chus-el Chus the Lord and is sometimes taken by interpreters as Arcturus and sometimes as Orion. Hash Job 9 or עיש Haish or Gaish (perhaps for עוש Gush) Job 38 seems related to Geuze, the Arabic name of Orion, or Algeuze. Chadar is the southern constellation of whirlwinds Job 37.9, and seems to allude to the father of the people of the Arabian desert whom the Hebrews called Cedar. But let those who are skilled in oriental languages deal with the names.

Names of Venus – Beltis, Melitta Astarte, and Anaitis – correspond to some of the names of Mars – Bel, Molech, Melicharte and Amamalech. Under these names Baal and Venus were worshipped as king and Queen through the whole of the east. From his consort Venus we see that Belus was Mars. The Arabs said Alitta for Melitta, since Ala signifies God or Goddess for the Arabs as Baal does for the Syrians and Chaldaeans. [The Hebrews said Asteroth for Astarte, and this, if I am not mistaken, is from Thuros or Thuroth the name of Mars. For just as the Latins said Venus for the Babylonian Goddess Benoth, so it is very likely that the Greeks and Latins wrote Thuros for Thuroth. And that Melitta and Astarte are Venus everyone agrees. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 7r > ‡ Concerning Astarte, Philo of Byblos on the basis of Sanchuniatho and Eusebius on the basis of Philo[Editorial Note 84] say: The Phoenicians declare that Astarte is Venus. Suidas[Editorial Note 85]: Astarte whom the Greeks call Venus. Procopius of Gaza tells us the same thing in relation to 1 Kings 7 and elsewhere[Editorial Note 86]. And concerning Melytta Artemidorus too, bk. 1 Oneirocrit. c. 9[Editorial Note 87], says: All eat fish except those of the Syrians who worship Astarte. For the fish is sacred to Venus. Herodotus bk. 1.[Editorial Note 88] < text from f 7r resumes > Herodotus bk. 1: The Assyrians, he says, call Venus Mylitta. and again: The Persians, he says, sacrifice to the sun and the Moon and the Earth, to Fire, Water and the Winds. They sacrificed to them right from the beginning. Later they learned to sacrifice also to Urania, as they were taught by both the Assyrians and the Arabs. And the Assyrians call Venus Mylitta, the Arabs Alitta, the Persians Mithras. The Persians also worshipped a Sun God under the name of Mithras the cult of Mars having been changed evidently to the worship of the Sun. For the Assyrians too had done that previously in the worship of Belus. So too under the name of Uranus and Urania the eastern nations worshipped twin deities, namely Mars and Venus, for whom they generally substitute the Sun and the Moon. Agathias bk. 2[Editorial Note 89] (on the authority of old writers) says that Coelus or Uran is Belus. Pausanias in Atticis:[Editorial Note 90] Not far away, he says, is the Shrine of Venus Urania, whom the Assyrians were the first of all men to worship; the Paphians in Cyprus received the sacred rites from them, and communicated them to the Phoenicians who live in the city of Ascalon, and the Phoenicians passed them on to the people of Cythera. And Aegeus brought that cult to Athens, etc. The worship of Venus therefore began in the Assyrian Empire together with the cult of her lover Belus. For Agathias bk.2 (on the authority of old writers                     {)} says that Coelus or Uranus is Belus. And Hesychius[Editorial Note 91]: Βῆλος, Οὐρανος καὶ Ζεὺς, Belus is Uranus and Jupiter. And the Persians (says Herodotus) call the whole circle of the sky Jupiter. And in the same sense in which Nimrod is Belus and Jupiter, so the wife of Belus was called Belie and Dione and Ηρα or Juno. For Sanchoniatho, after saying that Coelus was expelled from the kingship by Saturn, adds that his sisters Astarte and Dionia were secretly dispatched by their father Coelus to get rid of Saturn, but both fell in love with Saturn and married him,


Likewise Herodotus says[Editorial Note 92] that for the Egyptians Hercules is one of the twelve Gods. Hence in Diodorus too he is given command of the army of Osiris in Egypt. The star of Hercules. Nor does Mars appear as different from Hercules in that story. Furthermore it is clear from the names that Melicarte or Hercules of the Phoenicians is the same as Mars. For by removing the word for King from Melicartes we get Artes, whence in Greek Αρης, Mars, and in Latin fortis & Mavors Mavortis or Ma-artes Ma-artis & in contracted form Mars Martis. For the Phoenicians prefixed the particle Ma, as in Μαζευς Jupiter, and Hesychius says: Μαζεὺς[Editorial Note 93] ὁ Ζευς παρὰ Φρυξι. The Latins, being descended from the Phrygians, seem to have done the same in Mavors. Mars therefore is the same as Hercules or Melic-arte and for that reason is the same as Molec and Belus.

Adonis and Venus were worshipped by some as Osiris and Isis. But since Venus is not Isis, Adonis will not be Osiris.[Editorial Note 94] Adonis is the god of the Syrians, where Belus was particularly worshipped, and signifies the same as Belus. He was a hunter like Nimrod, and from his lover Venus he is recognised as Mars.

[Hesychius: Αρταῖοι, ὁι Ἥρωες παρὰ Πέρσαις; Artaei: Heroes among the Persians. Αρειοι is the same among the Greeks. What that word refers to] Diodorus bk. 2[Editorial Note 95] says that Ninus, the first king of the Assyrians, mustered a troop of very brave men and summoned as his ally in war Αριαῖος, Ariæus, king of Arabia, which at that period abounded in vigorous men, and with his help he founded an empire. Nimrod therefore is Ariaeus for the Greeks. He founded a kingdom in Babylonia. Then Assur or Ninus, relying upon his help, pushed through to Assyria, Gen[Editorial Note 96] and founded Nineveh,        and that is how it came about that many derive the kingdom of the Assyrians from Ninus. Nimrod therefore for the Greeks is Αριαῖος, i.e. Martius. For Αριαῖος and Ἀρήιος or Ἀρειοςdiffer only a little. Hence too comes the name Ἀρείων, Arion or Orion, which signifies a Hero braver than Mars himself, and thus it is very properly attributed to Nimrod, as one who surpassed in courage father Mars. Chronicon Alexandrinum[Editorial Note 97]: Chus begat the Giant Nimrod, the founder of Babylonia, whom the Persians say was translated to the Gods; and now that he is set among the stars they call him Orion. We read the same in the fasti Siculi[Editorial Note 98]. They say that Orion was born from Jupiter, Mercury and Neptune without a Mother because Belus mustered his forces a[18] both from their retinues and from his own. Hence b[19][Editorial Note 99] in Pausanias he is called an Egyptian, son of Libia. And they insist that he was born from an ox-hide in the house of Hircus[Editorial Note 100] because Belus sprang from a tribe of Shepherds.[20] It is agreed that he was a warrior with sword and club and with a star on his left shoulder which even now is called the warrior star[Editorial Note 102]. Hence too Astronomers call him Bold man, Wild-man, Giant, a very brave Warrior, and the Latins call him Iugula[Editorial Note 103]. The Dogs however and the Hare mark an outstanding hunter such as Nimrod was, and the brightness of the constellation points to the man who was the most famous of all throughout the early centuries and therefore to the founder of the Babylonian Empire. <8v> For since the star of Sirius or Osiris is already discerned in the mouth of Orion’s dog, it is obvious that the Constellation is not Egyptian but is taken from the Chaldaean globe. [For there is no doubt that the Chaldeans granted the most notable Constellation of all to the most notable King of all, whom the whole East worshipped as a God. The same thing is confirmed by the names of Orion. For in the book of Job he is called Ches-il, by the Arabs Geuze, El-geuze, i.e. (if I am not mistaken{)} Chus-El, Chus, and El-Chus. By the addition of the particle el which signifies lord or celebrated, the son seems to be distinguished from the Father. And I think it is the Father who is depicted in the Constellation of Boötes. For it is agreed that the constellations of Orion and Boötes had been celebrated from the earliest times, both from the book of Job ch. 9 and 38 and also from the time of the oldest poets, Homer and Hesiod. For when] And I infer from the Egyptian name of Hercules that Mars is designated in this constellation. For in interpreting the inscription on the larger Obelisk that Constantius brought to Rome, Herapion calls Vulcan the father of the Gods and thus follows the Egyptian Chronology of the Gods and Demigods which Eusebius has transcribed in his Chronicle from Eratosthenes. In this Chronicle Apollo is made the son of Hercules, but Herapion makes him the son of Ηρωνος, Heron, and therefore Heron or Hero was the Egyptian name of Hercules. And there is not much difference between Heron and Arion. He is the son of Hercules. I suspect it is the father who is depicted in Boötes. For the constellations of Orion and Boötes were very famous from the earliest times. This is evident from the book of Job and from the oldest poets, Homer and Hesiod. This is how it came about that when the Greeks made changes to nearly all the constellations, these were the least changed. It would have been a sin to expunge images of Gods whom virtually the whole world worshipped at that time. Even today both Constellations are pictured with a club[Editorial Note 104] and Hercules is recognised by his club. Pliny (Nat. Hist. bk. 18, ch. 28)[Editorial Note 105] says: There are two kinds of damage done by the heavens. One is what we call storms, by which we mean hail, gales and so on, and when they occur, it comes under the heading of irresistible force[Editorial Note 106]. These things come from the baneful stars, as we have often said, such as Arcturus, Orion, the Kids. He undoubtedly believed that the common people felt that the Philosophers who had established these symbols must be understood philosophically. Storms no more come from these constellations than from any others, but philosophers have taught that they do because of the storms of war that the men Arcturus, Orion and Auriga had instigated. For hail and gales in the holy scriptures stand for wars. Therefore it is warlike men that are delineated there, and they are from the race of Shepherds, as is clear from the kids and the name of Boötes. And Orion and Boötes even today are depicted with clubs and Hercules is recognised by his club. Belus was the first man to fight with the sword, and for this reason Orion is portrayed with a sword and a cudgel, Boötes with a cudgel without a sword. In the book of Job the five more memorable Constellations are mentioned: Chim Chesil Mazaroth Has and Chadar. Mazaroth (who is also Mazarim Job 37.9)


As Misraim was the king and father of the whole of Egypt, so Mercury under Osiris administered the affairs of the whole of Egypt, as we have already said from Sanchoniatho. Osiris and Isis too were worshipped with the highest degree of reverence as the common parents of the whole of Egypt by all Egyptians. Our evidence is Herodotus bk. 2[Editorial Note 107] The Egyptians, he says, do not all worship the same Gods alike except for Isis and Osiris. The cult of these names was as widely diffused as the posterity of Misraim and no further. Their tombs were religiously guarded, and the sites of their great deeds were shown. They passed on the tradition that the most ancient cities were founded by them. They always invoked Isis at the time of harvest in memory of the invention of crops and of the plough, and in the festival of Isis small containers of spelt and barley were carried around. Serapis also bore a measuring vessel of grain on his Head, and the Oxen by which the earth was cultivated were consecrated to both Isis and Osiris with great solemnity. And the evidence that such customs had been preserved very constantly for many years before is the agreement of the whole of Egypt in this cult. It also follows, since crops are said to have been invented in the silver age, that Osiris lived at that time, and by this reasoning he is Misraim himself, especially if after the death of its first parents Egypt split up and went off to various kingdoms in the manner of other of the oldest nations, as some believe. However we must note that Misraim is a dual name and signifies not so much the father of the people as the people itself, namely the two Egypts, one the lower Egypt where the Shepherds had reigned at one time, the other the upper one which is called Thebais. From the singular of the name the last Egyptian month was called Mesori, and Alexandria, the metropolis of the whole region, is to this day called Meser by the Saracens. The[Editorial Note 108] whole of Egypt also was once called both Masor 2 Kings 19.24, Isaiah 19.6, Mich 7.12 and Mizraim Gen 13.1, Exod 1.8, etc.            and its Metropolis, Alexandria, is called Mes{er} by the Saracens even to this day. And Masor or מצור signifies a protected or narrow place from the root צור, Sor, to constrict; whence צר, Sar, narrow, or narrow place. For Egypt was protected on all sides by cliffs and by the river Nile, and was very narrow in width. Hence the Egyptians used to say Sor or Sir instead of Masor, as in the words Bu-siris, Cala-siris, Pelo-siris, in a particular stretch of the Nile which was called Siris, in the Star Sirius, and in the God Sarapis. The Nile and the Star Sirius were sacred to Osiris, and were therefore, from his Egyptian name, called Siris and Sirius, which is Sir, if you remove the terminations added by the Greeks. Hence the Nile is called Sihor by the Hebrews (Jos. 13.3 and Jer. 2.18). And Serapis was the Ox sacred to Osiris, which they also called Apis, and by the compound name of Ser-Apis i.e., the ox of Osiris. The Image of Sarapis was also called by this name. The Egyptian name of Osiris therefore was Sar or Sor or Ser, for which the Greeks said Osiris (either because they prefixed the article ὁ or, more likely, from hearing, the solemn funeral lament of the Egyptians אוי צר, Oh Sar). For Plutarch in his Isis[Editorial Note 109] complains that the Name Osiris is not Egyptian but formulated by the Greeks, though he recognises the name Sarapis as Egyptian. But if the Egyptian Name of Osiris is Sar or Sor, and this name (as already shown) is the same as Masor, the name Osiris will be the same as Masor or Misraim. And we have this further confirmation that Osiris is Masor. Diodorus – – – of Cham. Again Diodorus bk. 1[Editorial Note 110] writes that on the pillars erected to Isis and Osiris in Egypt Saturn, the youngest-born, is said to be the father of Isis and Osiris, and Isis the mother of Orus. The youngest-born, Saturn, is Cham, being younger than his father and all his brothers. And I believe that the pillars were erected there on the orders of the Babylonians. Add to this that Sanchuniatho – – – they named. From the addition of Mercury it is clear that Amyn or Αμυν is written here for Amon or Ham and Misor or Masor for Osiris. I will show later how Masor is the father of Mercury. Finally Sanchuniatho[Editorial Note 111] writes that Isiris (the inventor of the three letters) is the brother of the Χνα Chna, who was later called Phoenix[Editorial Note 112]. The Septuagint translators substitute Phoenice for Canaan, and therefore Phoenice and the land of Canaan are words with the same meaning. Hence this first Phoenix or Phoenician is here called Chna, a contracted form. For the land of Canaan too, by a similar word contraction, was once called Chna, and the people Chnai. Stephanus of Byzantium in his book on Cities[Editorial Note 113]: Χνὰ, οὐτως ἡ Φοινίκη ἐκαλεῖτο and a bit later, τὸ ἐθνικὸν τάυτης Χνάος[Editorial Note 114]


Bochart[Editorial Note 115] has abundantly proved in his Sacred Geography[Editorial Note 116] that Saturn is Noah. The same is also to be understood of Janus, the most ancient God of the Italians. Saturn was the God of time – – – father. The Egyptians had a tradition d[21] that the most ancient of the Gods reigned for a space of one thousand two hundred years and the later ones not less than three hundred years. And such longevity only Noah with his sons and Grandsons achieved. Saturn and Rhea with the other Gods of that time are said by philosophers and poets to have sprung from Ocean. That is why the Egyptians also depicted their Gods in a boat on the waters. And a coin was struck in Italy at one time with the double face of Janus on one side and a ship on the other. These things clearly refer to the flood. As Noah was the first farmer, planted a vineyard and got drunk, so Saturn was the first to teach agriculture (hence he was equipped with a sickle) and was the patron of drunkenness (hence the Saturnalia); and Janus was also called Consivius from conserendo[Editorial Note 117] and he took his name from, יינ, jain, vinum[Editorial Note 118]. Hence too a part of Italy was called Oenotria[Editorial Note 119] (from the Greek colonies there, I think).

Xenophon de aequivocis[Editorial Note 120]: are called Saturns, he says – – – was Jupiter for the Assyrians.

All the Egyptians and only the Egyptians worshipped with the highest degree of reverence Osiris and Isis as the parents of the whole of Egypt. Herodotus, bk. 2[Editorial Note 121] says: The Egyptians as a whole do not all worship any Gods except Isis and Osiris.

When the world was divided between the sons of Saturn, Jupiter receives the kingdom of the sky and the silver age now begins. And just as the golden age lasted down to the division of the whole Earth among the sons of Saturn, so the silver age will last down to the division of the kingdom of Jupiter. Diodorus[Editorial Note 122] imperfectly describes this division as follows. When Osiris had settled the affairs of Egypt and placed the administration of the whole kingdom in the hands of his wife Isis, he gave her Mercury as counselor, because Mercury excelled all the rest in prudence. And he appointed Hercules commander of his empire; Hercules was closely related to him and admired by all men for his courage and physical strength. And he appointed Busiris as governor of the areas that lie toward Phoenicia and the maritime districts, and Antaeus as governor of Ethiopia and Libya. Then he himself made a journey, accompanied by his brother, whom the Greeks call Apollo, to the parts of Libya which had fallen to him. For Apollo (whom the Egyptians call Horus) was the son of Osiris, as Diodorus elsewhere and other writers tell us. And the government of Phoenicia and Libya belonged not to Osiris but to Cham. It is Sanchuniatho (in Euseb. Praep. Evang. bk.) who supplies the name of Cham in describing this division of territories; Diodorus says nothing about him. When Saturn, he says, had come into the South, he appointed Taautum King of the whole of Egypt. A little earlier he had mentioned two Saturns, father and son, and here he means the son who is Cham. And Taautus, or Thoth, was not so much appointed King as governor of the Kingdom under Isis. For Mercury was always held to be the minister of the Gods, and therefore he was called Camillus and Casmillus by the Etruscans and the Samothracians, that is, minister of the Gods, and the Poeni[Editorial Note 123] call him Sumes, i.e. slave. Hence in a Dialogue of Lucian in which the interlocutors are Mercury and Maia, he professes that he is driven to distraction by his many errands and is a slave to all the Gods, and he complains that he is in the same position as those who endure hard servitude on earth.[22] Hercules, therefore, <10v> Osiris, Antaeus and Busiris are the same as the four sons of Cham – Chus, Misraim, Put and Canaan, Gen. 10,[Editorial Note 125] and Osiris is Masor or Misraim, Busiris is Canaan, Antaeus is Phut & Hercules is Chus. For it is common knowledge that Egypt went to Misraim & Phoenicia to Canaan, and Bochart has shown at length that Phut had his seat in Africa and Chus in Arabia. Since a little later Hercules fought for Isis against Typho, he is already imagined as the General of the army of Osiris; nor is any region beyond the dominion of Osiris assigned to him. And since Cham is Jupiter, Hercules will be his son, and therefore the same as Chus. For everyone agrees that Hercules is the son of Jupiter. Xenophon in his De Aequivocis[Editorial Note 126]: The most serene of the kings of noble families who founded cities, are called Saturns. Their first-born are called Jupiters and Junos. Their bravest grandsons are called Hercules. The fathers of Saturns are called Coelus, their Wives are Rhea, and the Wives of the Coelus’s are called Vesta. There are therefore as many Coelus’s, Vestas, Rheas, Junos and Hercules’s as there are Saturns. Also the same person that is Hercules for some peoples is Jupiter for others. For Ninus who was Hercules for the Chaldaeans was Jupiter for the Assyrians. Therefore the Chaldaeans, while they regarded Ninus as Hercules, understood by Jupiter Chus, the father of Ninus, and by Saturn they understood Cham, the grandfather of Ninus, and therefore, in order not to leave out Noah, they provided Saturn, the first of the Egyptian Gods, with Coelus for father and Terra for mother. Hence it came about that in the East, wherever the philosophy of the Chaldaeans spread, Coelus was used for Noah and Saturn for Cham. This is also clear from Sanchuniatho. For since he was a Phoenician | Syrian, he everywhere describes the actions of Noah and Cham under the names of Coelus and Saturnus, always meaning Cham by Saturn, except when he is disc{ussing} the philosophy of the Egyptians. For he says that Saturn made war upon his father Coelus, and had as counselors Mercury and Minerva, and that (as we said just now) he put Mercury in charge of the whole of Egypt; and all of these things are to be understood of Noah, Coelus, Cham and Saturn. But for the Egyptians, who always understood Hammon by Jupiter, Hercules will be the son of Hammon, and therefore contemporaries of Hercules – Osiris, Busiris and Antaeus who were already appointed Lords of the Lands – will also be sons of Hammon.

Diodorus says that Saturn begat, as some tell, Osiris and Isis, but as most assert, Jupiter and Juno; and from them were born Osiris, Isis and Typho. Evidently for the Chaldaeans, who understand Hamon by Saturn, Osiris and Isis are children of Saturn; for others they are children of Jupiter, and therefore, all agree, children of Cham. Sanchuniatho (a writer more ancient than the Trojan war and a careful investigator of historical origins) says that credit is given to Amynus and [23]Magus for first establishing Farms and flocks. Their children were Misor and Sydyc; Misor had a son Taautus, the inventor of the first written alphabet, whom the Egyptians called Thoor, the Alexandrians Thoyth, and the Greeks Hermes. Misor therefore is Masor or Mizraim, and his father Amyn or Αμυν is Amon or Ham. Misraim is a dual name and signifies not so much the father of the people as the people itself: namely the two parts of Egypt, the lower part where the Shepherds once reigned and the upper part which is called Thebais. Maser is a singular name, and from it the final Egyptian month is called Mesori, and Egypt itself is called both Masor and (                     Misraim.                 Misor agrees well enough with the singular name, & the association with Mercury proves that Amyn is Amon or Cham, & therefore his son Misor or Masor is Osiris. Sanchuniatho confirms this elsewhere by saying that Isiris, the inventor of the three letters is the brother of that Χνᾶ Chna, who was the first later to be called a Phoenician. Since this Chna is the father of the Phoenicians, he is the same as /{.} The Canaanites, who in the wars of Joshua migrated from the whole land of Chanaan to Africa, called themselves Poeni[Editorial Note 127], i.e. Phoenicians.


Now[Editorial Note 128] if Jupiter is Ham, Saturn will be Noah. The ancient God of the Italians Janus (from whom comes the month January) was God a[24] of the year and of the passage of time, and is called by Septimius in Terentianus Maurus the Sower of things and the source of the Gods, but he was also depicted with two faces like the Egyptian Saturn; it is therefore clear that he is Saturn. Likewise the ancient name of Italy, Oenotria (which is undoubtedly derived from the founder of the nation), seems to indicate that Janus & Οινς, vinum[Editorial Note 130], or Οινη, vitis[Editorial Note 131], are from the same root. Wine in Hebrew is יינ, jain. And Janus has the epithet b[25] Consivius from conserendo[Editorial Note 133]. Others may determine whether these names were formed from Noe[Editorial Note 134] by a transposition of syllables. For he was the first to plant a vineyard. And critics have long observed that in the formation of names, letters were frequently transposed by the ancients.

From Jupiter and Juno were born a[26] Osiris, Isis and Typhon, and so they are to be sought among the children of Cham – Misraim, Put, Chus and Canaan. Osiris is honoured by the Egyptians above all others, and is made King of Egypt. He is reported to have founded Thebes and to have been buried at Abydos in the kingdom of the Thinitae, and therefore he will be Misraim. Herodotus says[Editorial Note 136], The whole people of the Egyptians do not all worship the same Gods, except for Osiris and Isis. The universal cult shows that they were the common parents of them all; especially since their names were rarely venerated elsewhere. He is said to have founded a[27] Thebes and to have been buried at b[28] Abydos in the kingdom of the Thinitae near their metropolis of Thin. Osiris and Misraim therefore correspond to each other. It is well established that Misraim was the common father of the Egyptians. From him Egypt is called Misraim (                ) & Masor (2 Kings 19.24, Isaiah 19.6, Micah 7.12    ). Misraim is a dual name and signifies the double kingdom of the Egyptians which flourished at the time of Moses, the one in the Thebaid, the other in lower Egypt around the mouths of the Nile. After those kingdoms were reduced to one, it was called Masor. The name of the last Egyptian month Mesori indicates that he had been translated to the Gods, and his name easily passes into Osiris (or Masor in Osir). It is very likely that Egypt’s river was named from the person from whom Egypt got its name. I mean that the Nile was famous throughout the world and was dedicated to Osiris. But its name Sior (Ies 23.3) & Siris (as a[29] by the Ethiopians and Egyptians) differs little from Osir or Osiris.


From Chus comes Chus-el, Chus the God and hence Chesil (Job 9.9           ) & the Syro-Chaldaean Month of Chaslu. And Chesil, according to the Septuagint (Job 38.32) & the Chaldaean Paraphrast and Jerome’s translation (Job 9.9 and Amos 5.8), is Orion. It is evident from Homer and Hesiod that this constellation was very well-known even in very ancient times. And who Orion was[Editorial Note 140]

<12r> < insertion from f 11v >

Mars is to be sought in a warlike nation. And of all the sons of Ham Chus begat the bravest and most turbulent na{tion}. Ammianus[Editorial Note 141] describes it as follows. The Saracens, he says, whom we never found desirable either as friends or as foes, ranged up and down the country, and in a brief space of time laid waste whatever they could find, resembling kites in their rapacious habits; for whenever kites catch sight of any prey from on high, they swoop down swiftly and seize it, or if they have seized it, they make off fast. All alike are warriors of equal rank, half-naked, clad in coarse coloured cloaks as far as the loins, ranging widely through all kinds of different terrain with the help of swift horses and slender camels in times of peace or of disorder. No one ever gets hold of a plough handle or grows a tree, no one seeks a living by tilling the soil; they rove continually over wide and extensive tracts, without a home, without fixed abodes or laws. < text from f 12r resumes > They all feed upon the flesh of wild animals and an abundance of milk, which is their main sustenance, on a variety of plants, as well as on such birds as they are able to catch by fowling; and I have seen large numbers of them who were wholly unacquainted with the use of grain and wine. So much for this dangerous tribe. Thus Ammianus, who had seen military service with the Romans against that people. Scaliger contends that they were called Saracens from their rapacious habits, since Saraca in their language signifies rapacious and robber. Such were the inhabitants of that region from the beginning, ever sharpening their boldness, strength and fortitude by a savage life and the capture of wild animals, as is evident from the history of Nimrod son of Chus. For since he had been a doughty hunter, he was the first of all men (after Orus) to make war upon his neighbours, and he founded a kingdom in Babylonia which was far the most famous of all for many centuries. And it stood a[30][Editorial Note 142] about a thousand three hundred years. Meanwhile his fellow Countrymen who had remained in Arabia b[31] also invaded Egypt and seized a great part of the territory and founded a kingdom there that lasted for more than 259 years. Manetho puts the whole period at 511 years. It was from such wars that the hatred of the Egyptians towards the Shepherds arose, Gen 46.34.[Editorial Note 144] For those Arabs were called shepherds by the Egyptians, and their Kings were called Hic-sos, i.e. (as Manetho explains) Shepherd-Kings. For they lived on milk and eschewed agriculture, as has already been said from Ammianus. Diodorus (bk. 2)[Editorial Note 145] thus briefly describes the later course of events. The Arab nation, he says, is perpetually liberty-loving, and they never accept a foreign leader. That is why neither the Kings of the Persians nor later of the Macedonians, however exceedingly powerful, attempted to subdue this nation. They also bravely resisted the Romans, and in the end they occupied a very substantial part of that Empire and founded a new Empire of their own, spreading their religion by force of arms over almost the whole of the world. # < insertion from f 11v > #

And now royal names were given to Nimrod when he was in power, such as Baal and in abbreviated form Bel, Melech or Molech, Melicartes, Adrimmelech, Milcom, Adonis, Hercules, Arion, Bacchus and so on, signify nothing other than lord and King and famous hero and brave and son of Chus. Similarly, while the Persian empire stood, the Greeks always meant by King the King of the Persians. Baal is frequently understood as Jupiter and Sol, and hence is called Beelsamen by the Phoenicians, i.e. lord of the heavens, and the rites of Adonis and Bacchus are largely borrowed from the rites of Osiris. For Baal was the greatest God of the eastern nations, and every Nation primarily honoured and exalted its ancestral God to such an extent that there was almost no God of those Nations that was not sometimes understood as Jupiter and Sol. Hestiaeus, a very ancient writer (in Euseb. Praep. Evang. bk. 9)[Editorial Note 146] calls Belus Ζεῦς ἐνυάλιος, Jupiter the God of war, or Mars on the throne of Jupiter. For ἐνυάλιος is a name of Mars. So too Suidas under the word Θουρας says: Baal in the language of the Assyrians signifies Mars patron of wars. Therefore Belus is neither Jupiter nor Sol, except insofar as Jupiter or sol is understood as a God of war. And it is generally admitted that Belus is Nimrod, since both founded Babylon and started an empire there. And for this reason Nimrod is Mars of the Assyrians. That Belus which signifies Lord and Melech or Moloch which signifies king are the same is clear from Jeremiah 32.35 and 19.5 and 2 Kings 21.3, 6, as well as from the name of this God, Malachbelus, which is made up of the two. And that neither is Sol or Jupiter is clear from the human sacrifices with which both were placated. Saturn indeed, the devourer of his own children, was at one time placated by such sacrifices, and above all Mars, the savage and insatiable God of wars and human slaughter. The other Gods were gentle and kindly (especially Jupiter, Sol, Venus and Luna) and were worshipped with appropriate sacrifices. To sacrifice men to Gods who turned away from slaughter in horror is gross impiety, and I have never read that any such thing was done by the Nations.

Further, that Molech is Mars is inferred from the compound names of this God, Adramelech, Anamelech, Melicartes. You may see that Adramelech and Anamelech are the same Gods as Melech from the human sacrifices, 2 Kings 17. And Adramelech means brave king, and thus is a title of Mars. < text from f 12r resumes > It is generally agreed that because of his empire Nimrod was called Baal and in abbreviated form Bel, i.e. Lord, by eastern nations. And in the language of the Assyrians, says a[32] Suidas, Baal signifies Mars patron of wars. Hence Bellum[Editorial Note 148] in Latin. Bel in Hebrew also{.} Melec, King, is the same as Molech God of the Ammonites, Jeremiah 19.5 & 32. 35. Hence the very ancient God of the Phoenicians, Melicartes, i.e. brave King. For עריצ Arits (&, in contracted form, Arts) means very strong and brave, as in the Persian names Arto-xerxes[Editorial Note 149], Arta-banus and such. And Melicartes was the Hercules of the Phoenicians. This is affirmed by Sanchuniatho, and Hyginus fab. 2 says that Gymnastic games are held for Melicartes every five years, which are called ἴσθμια.[Editorial Note 150] Those games were celebrated for Hercules Mac 2.4.18, 19, and the Hercules of the eastern Nations is the same as Mars. For[Editorial Note 151] Macrobius, lib. 1 Saturnalia, cap.12[Editorial Note 152], says: Virgil, with his wealth of lofty learning, associates the Salii[Editorial Note 153] with Hercules, because this God is regarded as the same as Mars by the Pontifices[Editorial Note 154] as well. And indeed Varro makes the same assertion in the piece in his Menippea entitled Αλλὸς οὖτος Ηρακλὴς[Editorial Note 155]: in which he said a great deal about Hercules and proved that he was the same as Mars. Also the Chaldaeans call the star of Hercules what everyone else calls the star of Mars. That is what Macrobius says. And Aristotle in his book de Mundo[Editorial Note 156] says that many people called the star of Mars the star of Hercules. And so too Witichindus writes in Chronici Saxonici, bk. 1, ch. 37[Editorial Note 157], that the Germans, in accordance with a traditional error, conduct their worship with a peculiar rite of their own; they worship Mars by imitating Hercules with an effigy of pillars. And Achilles Tatius in his Isagoge[Editorial Note 158] says that for the Egyptians the star of Mars


Pharaoh or (as Josephus has it) Pharaothes, the common name of the subsequent Kings, seems to be borrowed from the same Phathros. On the larger of the two Obelisks which Constantius had transported to Rome, whose translation was published in Greek by Hermapion and is preserved by Ammianus[Editorial Note 159], Ramesses King of Egypt everywhere calls himself Apollo son of Sol. Accordingly, the Egyptian Apollo whose name the Egyptian kings adopted was not Sol but the son of Sol. The Kings of Ethiopia who were sprung from Mizraim also had the same conviction. For the Queen of the Ethiopians (bk. 4 of Heliodorus)[Editorial Note 160] speaks thus, Let Sol the author of our race be invoked as witness & again in bk. 10, Sol the author of the race of my ancestors. Aeaetes too, the ancient King of the Chochi, who migrated from Egypt at some time in the past, was said to be the son of Sol (Ammian bk. 17)[Editorial Note 161]. If all the kings of the Egyptian race aspired to be called sons of Sol, why should not Pharaoh mean that very thing, son, and thus Apollo or Horus would be the same as Pharos or Phathros the son of Osiris? Noah held sway over the whole world, Cham over the whole of Africa, Egypt and Arabia, Misraim over the whole of Egypt and neighbouring territories, and Pathros over the whole of the Thebaid. The first king of Thebes, strictly so called, was Phathros. From him come the people Pathrusim (Gen. 10.14) and the kingdom Pathros and the Land Pathros (Isaiah 11.11, Jeremiah 44.1, 15, Ezekiel 29.14 and 30.14), and there is the same justification for the Royal name – that once it had been commonly taken to signify King and son of Sol, it could have been claimed also by the rest of the Kings of Egypt.

Furthermore, it can be inferred that all this is correct from the affinity, marriages and deeds of the Gods. They are all stated to be consanguineous, & Saturn is said to have taken to wife his sister Opis, Jupiter his sister Juno, and Osiris his sister Isis. They lived therefore in those earliest times when all persons were consanguineous, and brothers joined in matrimony with their sisters. Though[Editorial Note 162] there is no mention of daughters of Noah and no children were born to his sons before the Flood, why should not ‘wife of Cham’ be understood as his sister being betrothed to him as the Flood came on? There was a tendency later to fabricate the same affinity for Noah and his wife because of the customs of the earliest times. Furthermore Saturn is the only one of the whole number of the Gods who is called an old man and is adopted as a symbol of time because of his age and longevity.


– – –

Since these things relate to the origins of Astronomy it seemed useful to explain them at some length.

The most ancient of the barbarians, says Philo of Byblos, – – – would have immortal Gods. Philo takes this from Sanchoniatho in Euseb. Praep. Evang bk. 1, ch. 9. The argument relates to the Origins of astronomy, and therefore deserves to be explained here more fully.

Bochart[Editorial Note 163] has abundantly proved in his Sacred Geography[Editorial Note 164] that Saturn is Noah. The same is also to be understood of Janus, the most ancient God of the Italians. Saturn was the God of time; and in the Orphic writings he is called παγγενέτωρ and γενάρχης[Editorial Note 165] and his wife Rhea is Μητὴρ μέντε θεων ηδὲ θνητων ανθρώπων[Editorial Note 166]. He was depicted by the Egyptians with eyes before and behind, as if he had seen both before the flood and after. Janus too (from whom the month January is named) was God of the year and of the passage of time, and in Terentianus Maurus[Editorial Note 167] he is called the sower of things and the source of the Gods; and he was depicted with two faces. All this[33] can be understood only of Noah, a man long-lived beyond all men, and father of all mortals. Further Saturn and Rhea and the other contemporary Gods are said by Philosophers and Poets to have sprung from Ocean. Hence too the Egyptians portrayed their Gods in a Boat on the waters{.} And a short time later Saturn is said to have been the first to reign, and when he was finally expelled from his kingdom by his son Jupiter, to have fled to Italy and since he was hiding, he was called Saturn from the word סתר satar, i.e., to hide, and for this reason also the Italians were called Cetii and Italy Chetima כתים chetim, concealed, hiding, (as a[34] Bochart explains at length), for which the Italians in their own language said Latins and Latium. And the symbol of Janus was a boat. Hence a coin was struck in Italy at one time with the double face of Janus on one side and a ship on the other. And most people said that this was done in honour of Saturn, because he had crossed to Italy in a boat and was received by king Janus (as more recent writers told the story). Janus therefore was contemporary with Saturn and either reigned in Italy before him, or rather was himself Saturn. And Bochart quite rightly relates the Boat (since several more people sailed to Italy) to the flood. In the same manner Noah with his sons was in some manner born from the waters and ruled in the region of Babylon; and after his descendants, the sons of Cham, under the leadership of Nimrod, occupied a kingdom there, it is likely that he took refuge somewhere. Add to this that Noah was the first to plant a vineyard and that he got drunk, and similarly Saturn was the first to teach agriculture (hence he was equipped with a sickle) and was the patron of drunkenness, and under that aspect was worshipped at the Saturnalia. Janus likewise had his name from ייν vino and was called Consivius from conserendo. Hence too a part of Italy received the name of Oenotria. Moreover that Saturn is Noah is confirmed from the following. Saturn ruled in the age of gold which was the first age. In addition Saturn is said to have forbidden by legislation that anyone should view Gods naked without being punished for it. (This relates to the impiety of Cham). In the Saturnalia the Masters served the slaves. This action seems to be in memory of the curse of Cham. Saturn was King of the whole world, and reigned for the whole of the age <13r> of gold, which was the first of all the ages and by far the happiest. Under his rule there was complete peace, and no toil or distress. All things were in common and undivided. He was so very just that under him no one was a slave and no one had any private property. Land had not yet been parcelled out with boundaries. All of this is very true of Noah. And Saturn begat three sons Pluto, Neptune and Jupiter, i.e. Sem Japhet and Ham. And in the end he divided the whole world between them, and gave the Sky to Jupiter the youngest, the Sea to Neptune, and to Pluto he gave the earth abounding in riches; this is to say that he granted to Ham the region closest to the burning Sun, to Japhet the maritime regions and those across the sea which the Easterners called the islands of the Nations (Gen 10.5), and to Sem he gave Asia, a land fertile and stretching far and wide. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 13r > ‡ To Neptune, says Lactantius – would rule. After the division of the World, Nimrod, Cham’s grandson, a brave and bold man, founded an empire in Babylon. This is the war in which the pagans say that Saturn was expelled from his kingdom by his son Jupiter. For military forces were led out of Egypt, and a war was waged with the advice of Mercury and thus under the auspices of Jupiter. Nimrod was also called Jupiter. Diodorus bk. 1 makes the Titans contemporary with the grandchildren of Cham, and Sanchoniatho, a very early writer, calls the Daughters of the Babylonian Saturn, who is Belus, the Titanides[Editorial Note 168], and therefore Belus or Nimrod is Titan. And Abydenus, – – – – broke out. When[Editorial Note 169] Noah was driven out of his own kingdom, we must suppose that he took refuge somewhere. And there is a very ancient story that he subsequently concealed himself in Italy. Hence the Name of Saturn from סתר Satar, to hide. And the name of Italy, Cittim, is from כתים, concealed, hiding (as Bochart has explained at length in his Geography, bk. 3, ch. 5){.} For Cittim the Latins in their own Language say Latium. At the time when Saturn arrived in Italy, they claim that Janus was king there; and therefore Janus is either a more ancient King than Saturn or, more truly, the same King. Before Saturn there was no God among you: Tertull. Apolog. ch. 10[Editorial Note 170]. Saturn was called Chiun and Chiwan by the Easterners, names which do not much differ from ιαν. And in the Latin language Ιαν is Janus. < text from f 13r resumes > There followed the war waged against Saturn under the auspices of Jupiter and by the counsels of Mercury. When this war was being waged by Nimrod, grandson of Cham, it was also called the war of the Titan. And so the Pagans made two wars out of one because of a difference in their allegorical interpretations. For Sanchoniathon (a writer who predates the Trojan war) calls the seven daughters whom Astarte, who is Venus, bore to Babylonian Saturn, or Belus, the Titanides,[Editorial Note 171] and therefore Belus or Nimrod is Titan. And Abydenus,[Editorial Note 172] who composed his history from the records of the Medes and Persians, after describing the construction and overthrow of the Tower of Babylon and the scattering of mankind, adds: Men had had one and the same language down to this time, but spoke many conflicting tongues thereafter, and subsequently war broke out between Saturn and Titan. It is certain therefore that Saturn is Noah. The Easterners called him Chiun and Chiwan; names which do not differ much from ἴαν or Janus.


The worship of Gods seems to have begun in this way. The ancients gave the names of their ancestors to the Planets and Elements in the same way as Men have been depicted in the Constellations, & Galileo named the stars that circle Jupiter Medicean in honour and memory of his benefactors, and others have recently transferred to the Moon the names of very famous men. So the Planet Mercury was given the name of King Thoth from whom the Egyptians received the sciences. The name Hammun was given to Jupiter. This is Cham, from whom Egypt was formerly called Camia & even today is called Chemi by the Cophtiti[Editorial Note 173]; likewise the whole of Africa was formerly Ammonia, and many places throughout Arabia and the whole of Africa were so called, and in Egypt No-Ammon, which is also Ammon-No & (Jeremiah 46.25) Hammon de No a, as if you were to say Hammon of Noah. ‡ < insertion from f 14v > ‡ ‡ In this month the Egyptians mourned the death of Osiris, and therefore it was the first month of the kingship of Phathros. From the same Pathros com[Editorial Note 174] and that is by the interpretation of Eratasthenes M[Editorial Note 175] &, to pass over other cities and places throughout Arabia and Africa named after Ammon the common father of those peoples, in Egypt also certain places throughout Africa and Arabia Ammonia / and not Solun / And (to pass over other places throughout Africa and Arabia) the city of Egypt No-Ammon and Ammon No and[Editorial Note 176]

      Ammonis             Thoth. Fire       Air Neith. Water Typhon. Apollo Phut. Ammon . Thoth . Neith Minerva. Pythius Apollo. Ptha       Cneph, Canobus. Osiris Nilus Sol. Isis Terra Luna.

Herodotus[Editorial Note 177] in Euterpe[Editorial Note 178]: the Egyptians call Jupiter Αμμουν. Hesychius[Editorial Note 179]: Αμμους ο Ζεὺς, Αριστοτέλης < insertion from lower down f 14v > ‡ Hammus is Jupiter according to Aristotle. He is Thamuz God of the Syrians, Ezek 8.14. Plato in the Phædrus discussing Thoth[Editorial Note 180]; Thamus was, he says, at that time king of the whole of Egypt in the great city of the upper region which the Greeks call Egyptian Thebes, and the God himself they call Hammon. Chronologists now assert that this is Men or Menes the first king of the Egyptians. < text from f 14v resumes > By him[Editorial Note 181] and Noah jointly the royal city of Egypt was formerly called No (Ezekiel 30.14, 15, 16) and No-Amon (Nahum 3.8) & Hamon-No (Ezekiel 30.15) and Amon de No (Jeremiah 46.25), which the Septuagint translates as Diospolis (the city of Jupiter). They tell us that the same name was honoured throughout all the lands granted to Cham, both the various places named after him in Africa and Arabia, and the ancient name of the whole of Africa a[35], Ammonia, and also the common God of those Peoples Hammon. Lucan, bk. 9[Editorial Note 183].

Although there is only one Jupiter Ammon for the peoples of the Ethiopians and for the wealthy nations of the Arabs and for the Indians.

Further, Diodorus[Editorial Note 184] relates that from Jupiter and Juno were born Osiris, Isis and Typho, and Vossius derives Osiris (by a slight transposition of letters) from Misraim. I would prefer Osir from the singular Masor with loss of the first letter That this is Osiris.[Editorial Note 185] For he was the son of Cham & the common father of the Egyptians. But also the name of the Egyptian month Mesor indicates that someone of this name had been translated to the Gods. Also the Nile (a river most famous far and wide and sacred to Osiris) seems to have been taken from the common father of the Egyptians. And Sior and Siris differ little from Osir and Osiris.

The history of Typhon from Orus son[Editorial Note 186] of Osiris and Isis or Apollo c

The Egyptians had a tradition that Orus or Horus was born from Osiris and Isis, and that Typho was slain by him. The Greeks relating the same things said that Pytho a Snake of immense size was slain by Apollo, and that is why they give Apollo the name Pythius. Hence Typho by the usual transposition of letters will be the same as Phut. For he was the brother of Mizraim as Typho was of Osiris, & had his seat in Africa which was the only region known in those times to breed huge snakes. And Orus or Apollo (to the Egyptians Ηαρουηρις) will have to be sought among the sons of Misraim, &, if I am not mistaken, is the same as Pathros, whose descendants are called Pathrusim (Genesis 10.14) & had their seat in the Thebaid, and hence the Land was called Pathros. For Orus was the king, and kings are to be sought where Philosophy first flourished. As Amon, Me, & Menes come from Chamus, and Osir Osiris & Siris come from Masa | or, so from Pathros or Phathros come Hathros & Horus or Harueris & (if I am not mistaken) also the Egyptian month Hathur. ‡ Also the common name of the subsequent Kings Pharaoh or (as Josephus has it) Pharaothes seems to have been taken from this: < text from f 14r resumes > Thus the fact that the name Mesori was given to the last Egyptian month seems to indicate that one of the Gods borrowed it from Misraim or Masor. As Bochart notes, since Misraim is a double name, it signifies not a man but the double offspring of a man, namely the two Egypts sprung from the son of Cham. The singular name is Masor. But after human names were given to the Stars and elements, the consequence was that the great deeds of the same men were attached to the names of the stars, for example: 1. that Saturn (understand Noah) begat threes sons, Jupiter the youngest, Neptune and Pluto, i.e. Cham the youngest (Genesis 9.23), Japhet and Sem. 2. That Saturn (as the Orphic writings say) was παγγενέτωρ and γένάρχης[Editorial Note 187] and his wife Rhea is Μητὴρ μέντε θεων ηδὲ θνητων ανθρώπων.[Editorial Note 188]. 8. That he divided the whole world between his three sons, and gave the Sky to Jupiter, i.e. he granted to Cham the region closest to the burning Sun, and to Neptune he gave the Sea, i.e. to Japhet he granted the islands and the maritime regions which the Easterners called the Islands of the sea, and to Pluto he gave the Earth abounding in riches, i.e. he granted Asia to Sem, a land fertile and stretching far and wide. 4. That Saturn was the first to teach agriculture and was equipped with a reaping-hook. 5. That Saturn was the patron of drunkenness (hence the Saturnalia) & forbade by legislation that anyone should view Gods naked without being punished for it, undoubtedly because of the impiety of Cham, & that in the Saturnalia the Masters should serve the slaves, evidently in memory of the curse of Cham. 3. That he had eyes before and behind (as he was depicted by the Egyptians), & that the Gods arose from the sea. Hence the symbol of Saturn among the Italians was a ship, and the Egyptians depicted their Gods in a boat on the waters. All of this seems to relate to the flood. 6. That he travelled through many parts of the world and brought all men to justice and a more humane life. And he was so very just that under him no one was a slave and no one had any private property. 7. That he reigned in the first and happiest age, and therefore it was called the age of gold. Under his rule there was complete peace, and no toil or distress. All things were in common and undivided; land had not yet been parcelled out with boundaries. 8. That eventually the earth – – – 9. And that Jupiter drove his father out of his kingdom, undoubtedly by means of his grandson Nimrod (who himself is Jupiter Belus and Baal-samin, i.e. the Lord of the heavens{)}. On all of this you may read Bochart’s extensive arguments in his Geographia sacra. And Sidereal Theology seems to have sprung from these beginnings when other Nations, taught by the example of the Egyptians, applied the names of their Heroes to the stars.

And after[Editorial Note 189] the superstition of Astrology had conferred a certain power and divinity on the stars, souls were attributed to them by which they might gain a knowledge of human affairs and govern all things at their will. Hence Plotinus: By means of its soul, he says, this world becomes a God. But the Sun too is a God because he is ensouled, and so too are the other stars[Editorial Note 190]. And as the worship of such Gods gradually grew because of such beliefs, so too at the same time did the veneration for the men whose names were attached to them, until at last they also shared divine honours with them. In addition,[Editorial Note 191] the Egyptians depicted their Gods according to their various characteristics, in the form of various animals, for example, the Sun and Vulcan by a scarab beetle, the Sun also by a Hawk, the Moon by a Cat, Saturn by a man with eyes before and behind, Mercury by a Dog and a Dog-faced baboon[Editorial Note 192] & the Ibis bird, Jupiter by a man with ram’s horns, Mars and Venus by two Crows male and female, Minerva by a flying vulture, the Earth was represented by an ox, Water by a serpent.


The worship of the Gods and pagan Theology seems to have begun in this way. We have seen recently that Galileo named the stars that circle Jupiter Medicean in honour and memory of his benefactors, and that others have transferred the names of very famous men to the Moon. We see too that the memory of certain men is preserved in the Constellations. Just as more recent Astronomers have done this, in the same way too the earliest Astronomers gave to the stars and elements the names of their own ancestors. Thus to Mercury[Editorial Note 193]


That the worship of stars was not invented by each nation separately but came to them all from some common source, we learn from the consensus of religions and the philosophical doctrines of Theologians. This is how Caesar[Editorial Note 194] speaks of the Gauls: They worship the God Mercury most of all, he says; they say that he is the inventor of all the arts, that he is a guide on roads and journeys; they think that he has great influence in money-making and trade. After him they worship Apollo and Mars and Jupiter and Minerva. They have much the same conception of these as other peoples do: Apollo wards off diseases, Minerva teaches the rudiments of crafts and skills, Jupiter has empire over the gods, and that Mars is the ruler of wars. The Druids, whose business is religion and who administer public and private sacrifices and interpret omens, are held in great honour among them. For they decide nearly all public and private controversies, they stay away from wars, they do not pay taxes with the rest of the people, they have exemption from military service and immunity from all things. Attracted by such rewards and of their own accord, many join the order, they are said to learn by heart a great number of verses there. Some spend twenty years each in learning. They do not think it is permitted to entrust these things to writing. What they most want to convince men of is that souls do not die, but after death pass from one person to another. And they have many discussions of the stars and their motions and the size of the world and its lands, and of the force and power of the immortal gods, and they want to pass them on to the young. Their doctrine is thought to have been developed first in Britain and to have been passed from there to Gaul; & now those who want to study the subject more carefully, very often go there to learn. So Caesar. If you look at the honour and privileges of the priests, the silence of the learners, the poetry and the beliefs about immortality and the transmigration of souls, and Mercury as the inventor of all the arts, if you look at their Astronomy, Geography and the rest of their Theology, in all these you will recognise the doctrine of the Egyptians. In addition they have more or less retained the Egyptian name for Mercury, Theut, calling him Teutates. The Gauls, says Lactantius, used to placate Hesus and Teutates with human blood, i.e. Mars and Mercury. Hence Minutius in his Octavius[Editorial Note 195] says, that the Gauls sacrifice human or inhuman victims to Mercury. Also in neighbouring Spain a tomb was found near Carthago Nova[Editorial Note 196], which might be said (on the evidence of Livy bk. 26{)}[Editorial Note 197] to belong to Mercurius Teutates. And the Germans called their own first God a[36] Thautes and Theutates. The Phoeni{cians} by worshipping {the same} god Taautes seem to trace the origin of their rites to the Egyptians. Cecrops is said to have left Egypt and to have been the first to introduce Egyptian gods to Greece. At the same time the Astronomer Atlas flourished there. Later Orpheus, educated by Egyptians, brought their rites to Thrace, proving to be as much an outstanding Philosopher as the father of Theologians. Lucian περὶ ἀστρολογίης[Editorial Note 198] writes that the Ethiopians were the first to pay attention to celestial motions. The study of celestial things subsequently passed to the Egyptians. The Greeks did not receive this discovery from the Egyptians or the Babylonians, but from Orpheus son of Oeagrus and Calliope, who first taught certain things in Greece in a confused manner wrapped up in layers of fable and mystery. And the Orphic fables pictured in the Constellations show that the Greeks were instructed in Astronomy by Orpheus. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 15r > ‡ In the Egyptian globe the Serpent is not included or named, nor are the Bears or Cepheus; but different forms, different names are attached to the images. So too in the globe of the Chaldaeans < text from f 15r resumes > In Cepheus, Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, Pegasus and the sea monster one may read the history of Cepheus king of the Ethiopians who was celebrated for Astronomy. The whole story of the Argonauts is contained in the ram with the golden fleece, the fire-breathing bull, the Twin Argonauts Castor and Pollux, in the Hydra whose death from Medea’s toxic drug is denoted by the Cup and the crow perched on the corpse, and in the ship Argo and Jason’s tutor Chiron. Hercules and Orpheus were among the Argonauts. The Allegory of Hercules is contined in the Great Serpent[Editorial Note 199], Arrow, vulture, Crab and Lion. In Orpheus’ Lyre and in the sign of the Engonasis[Editorial Note 200] Orpheus seems to be depicted. The name Engonasis (who now is commonly called Hercules and depicted with a club) had fallen out of use before the time of Aratus. He was formerly depicted with both hands raised in the manner of a suppliant. Bending of the knee and raising of the hands denote a religious man and a suppliant. Orpheus is depicted as such in the story of the Argonauts. Hercules in the Great Serpent is recognised by the serpent, <15v> as Achillis Statius reports in his Isagoge ad Phaenomena Arati[Editorial Note 201]. Hence it is very likely that Orpheus, inspired by the striking Globe of the Egyptians, devised the aforesaid constellations, and depicted his own image without a name. For Diodorus[Editorial Note 202] confirms that Orpheus sailed to Egypt and was there instructed by the Priests; the agreement of Orphic Theology with that of Egypt (described by others) demonstrates the same point. And the Ethiopians, whose King was Cepheus, and whom Lucian says were the first people to pay attention to the celestial motions, seem to be Thebans. Their kingdom at one time was distinct from Egypt and coterminous with the peoples who are now called Ethiopians. Eustathius[Editorial Note 203] recounting the different names of Egypt says, It is called Aeria and Potamia and Ethiopia by the Ethiopians who are there, most of whom are mindful of ancient things. Understand the Thebaid. Hesiod calls Memnon, king of Thebes, Ἀιθιόπων βασιλῆα, King of the Ethiopians[Editorial Note 204]. Damis (the companion of Apollonius of Tyana) saw the temple of Memnon and its talking statue in Ethiopia [Editorial Note 205]; that is, in the Thebaid, undoubtedly in the Libyan part of Thebes. Menelaus in Homer thus addresses Telemachus

– – Και Αἰγυπτίους ἐπαληθεὶς

Ἀιθιοπὰς θ᾽ ἐκόμην –[Editorial Note 206]

And passing through Egypt

I came to the Ethiopians –

Undoubtedly from lower Egypt, or properly speaking into the Thebaid. For Homer explicitly says that Menelaus came to Thebes. This is that Ethiopia in which (as in their native land) all the Gods got together from all over[37], and banqueted. For the Thebans are famous for their knowledge of the stars above the rest of the Egyptians, and Theuth, to whom the Egyptians attributed the invention of all the arts, was King of Thebes.

We have already seen earlier that the Egyptian {G}ods were worshipped by the Italians. Numa Po{mpiliu}s in particular taught their ceremonies, and he was a notable Philosopher. He had such a grasp of Astronomy that he constituted a year out of twelve months, and since the months were lunar months, and only contained 354 days, he ordered that every second year twenty two days and twenty three days should be added alternately; this comes to 45 days over a four year period, that is, 11 14 days for each year. These together with the Lunar year of 354 days make the solar year of 365 14 days which we now use. He also noted the favourable and unfavourable days, and therefore was skilled in astrology, since the favourable and unfavourable times were always determined in accordance with the Dominion of the Planets. And above all, says Florus[Editorial Note 207], he gave the hearth to the Vestal virgins to tend, so that in the likeness of the celestial stars, the flame, the guardian of empire, should stay alight. It is universally agreed that the rites of Vesta are an astronomical symbol; Plato[Editorial Note 208] says that, as the rest of the gods go travelling, Vesta remains alone in the Temple of the Gods, i.e., in the temple of the stars.


And they said that Belus was the son of Neptune and Libya, and by thus combining Neptune with Libya they show that Typho was Libyan. And hence it is that Neptune, who is held in hatred by the Egyptians, is honoured as highly as can be by the Africans. And they say that Belus was born from Neptune not because he was a natural son of Neptune but because, following the wicked example of Typho, he waged war on his parents. Moreover, Plutarch (in Isis)[Editorial Note 209] affirms that Ursa is the daughter of Typho. He means the Wain. For Ursa is a more recent constellation devised by the Greeks. And the invention of the chariot is ascribed to the Libyan Neptune. Herodotus[Editorial Note 210] in Melpomene:[Editorial Note 211] The Greeks learned to form four-horse chariots from the Libyans. Maximus of Tyre[Editorial Note 212]: Chariot-races are specially characteristic of Cyrene. Ephorus: The Athenians devote themselves to the art of sailing, the Thessalians to horsemanship, the Boeotians to gymnastics, but the Cyrenians devote themselves to skill with chariots. A Scholiast on Pindar’s 4th Pythian Ode: He calls Cyrene equestrian not because of the present occasion, but because Neptune taught the Libyans to yoke horses to the chariot. In addition, ① Diodorus[Editorial Note 213] is our authority for the statement that the Fight between Horus and Typho took place at the river [Nile] near the village which now has the name Antaea from Antaeus on whom Hercules inflicted punishment in the age of Osiris. Therefore the same Hercules fought in the same place with Antaeus and Typho and overcame them both in that place, and from the agreement of the circumstances he is recognised as the same enemy. The war of Hercules with Typho is the famous poem of the Ancients, the Gigantomachia[Editorial Note 214], in which the heavenly Gods, Jupiter Apollo and the rest, with the help of Hercules (i.e. Cham, & Horus and their allies, and the aid of Chus) prostrated in a war of thunderbolts the Giants who were aspiring to dominion of the sky (i.e. royal power). The beginning of the disturbances ~ ~ ~ the daughter of Pierus thus describes in Ovid:[Editorial Note 215]

She sang of the battle of the gods and giants,

ascribing undeserved honour to the

Giants and belittling the deeds of the mighty Gods:

how Typhoeus, sprung from the lowest depths of earth,

inspired the heavenly gods with fear, and how they all turned

their backs and fled, until, weary, they found refuge in the land

of Egypt and the seven-mouthed Nile.

How she tells that even here Typhoeus, son of earth,

pursued them, and the gods hid themselves in lying shapes:

‘Jove thus became a ram,’ said she, ‘the lord of flocks, whence

Libyan Ammon even to this day is represented with curving horns;

Apollo concealed himself as a crow, the son of Semele as a goat;

the sister of Phoebus as a cat, Juno as a snow-white cow,

Venus as a fish, Mercury as an ibis bird.’

< insertion from the right margin >

By his wife Titaea Uranus had the Titans – Saturn, Atlas, Hyperion, etc. apart from daughters P

< text from f 16r resumes >

Such was the consternation of the Gods said to be until Hercules arrived. For it is admitted by all, says Diodorus, that Hercules brought help to the heavenly Giants. And[Editorial Note 216] Plutarch in Sertorius[Editorial Note 217] about Tingi: The Libyans have a tradition that Antaeus lies there; and Sertorius dug up his sepulchre, not giving credence to the barbarians because of its size; and when he came upon a body sixty cubits in length, as the story goes, he was astounded. Strabo has the same account, bk. 17[Editorial Note 218]. You are listening to an excessively poetic story, but one which shows that the war of Hercules with Antaeus was the famous Battle of the Giants. Hercules and Antaeus were the leaders of two peoples, and therefore they fought along with their forces. In such a war it was inevitable that the whole of Egypt <16v> would be disturbed. And the Egyptians recognised no other war of this magnitude but the one with Typho. Also there was no other enemy with whom Hercules could come to grips, except Canaan, whom we will discuss later.

Add to this that Typho with whom Orus or Apollo fought his mighty battle, is said by the Greeks to be a Serpent of immense size & is called by the Egyptians Brebon, a word which, Bochart tells us, means serpent. For the Serpents alluded to here are not found elsewhere within the territories of Cham than in Africa and accordingly Typho is the one who fixed his seat in Africa. This serpent is indifferently called Typho and Pytho; and Apollo from the victory he won, is called Pythius, and also the Games instituted in honour of Apollo are called Pythian with an obvious allusion to the name Phut. By reversing this name the Greeks formed Typho. For the name Typho was unknown to the Egyptians. By them a[38] he was commonly called Seth, i.e. boon companion, because by a trick he got rid of his brother whom he had welcomed to a banquet; this is the origin of the story of Lycaon. But the name Phut was not unknown to the Egyptians.

I have said that philosophy flourished most seriously in the Thebaid. There Plato[Editorial Note 220] places Cham, and Mercury Isis and Orus are to be united with Cham. The antiquity of the city, its size, splendour and name of No-Ammon, testify that a royal seat was established there from the beginning. For of all the cities not only of Egypt but of virtually the whole world this is reported to have been the greatest and most splendid, yet it began to decline even before the Empire of Nebuchdnezar having been seized by the Assyrians. Herodotus:[39] Formerly Egypt was called Thebes, and the Kings themselves Thebans and the whole people and power of the kingdom belonged to the Thebans. Therefore Isis and Osiris and the subsequent kings reigned there. Now Bochart has proved that the Thebaid is that part of Egypt which is called Pathros in the holy scriptures. And Pathros is that son of Misraim who established his seat there, Gen,[Editorial Note 222] and therefore this will be Orus. Pathros in the Septuagint is Φαθώρης and Παθούρης, in Jerome’s language Patures and Phatures, a word made up of Phat or Path and Ores or Ures, or (with a Hebrew termination) Oros. Pathros therefore is a contracted form of Path-Oros, a name composed of the defeated enemy Puth or Put and the name of the victor Orus; it signifies the same thing to the Egyptians as Apollo Pythius to the Greeks and Latins. For Apollo, according to Herodotus, is Ωρος, Orus, in Egyptian. Hence it is very likely that this Egyptian name of Apollo Pythius passed, together with the God, from the Egyptians to the Greeks and Latins. [And that the Egyptian name of Apollo is Orus, {as} Herodotus affirms,[Editorial Note 223] I infer both from the name Ori-genis who was born of Egyptian pagan parents and from the word Ath-yris whom]                 he interprets as mother of Horus.

But I have not yet said who Mercury is. The common view is that he is son of Zeus from Maia daughter of Atlas, but Sanchoniatho in the passage cited above says that he is the son of Misor or of Osiris. These views can be reconciled by saying that in the minds of the Chaldaeans he is the Grandson of Saturn or of Cham and therefore son of Jupiter. I suspect therefore that he is Anubis, he whom Osiris begat of the wife of Typho or rather of his daughter Maia, and I do so for these reasons. There is no reason why Anubis should be worshipped in preference to the legitimate sons of Osiris as a God unless he is Mercury himself. Anubis is always depicted with a dog’s head; and this is the image of Mercury. For the dog (on the evidence of Horus Apollo)[Editorial Note 224] signifies a sacred scribe and a prophet. Servius on Vergil’s passage ‘… Latrator Anubis’[Editorial Note 225]

Mercury, he says, is depicted with a dog’s head because nothing is smarter than a dog. Apuleius bk. 11, p. 384[Editorial Note 226] He is the messenger of the gods – holding high his dog-neck, bearing a caduceus in his left hand. Strabo, bk.17, p. 812[Editorial Note 227]: The whole of Egypt worships the ox, the dog and the cat. <17r> Both born from adultery, moreover an African mother and an Egyptian father

Typho was generally called Seth by the Egyptians, sometimes Bebon & Smy; names which, says Plutarch[Editorial Note 228], designate a certain violent restraint, opposition and reversal: and Seth (from שתה) denotes a boon companion, namely one who immerses his fellow-drinkers and drowns them in drink, whence perhaps the Ποσειδὼν, παρὰ τὸ πόσιν δοῦναι of the Greeks, and Bebon is Snake or Serpent. For the Egyptians portray the Element of water by means of Snakes. Hence Pytho is a Snake of immense size. And who does not see that Snakes and serpents relate to Africa? No region is more fertile in snakes nor are Serpents of greater size found anywhere else but in India which was unknown, I think, to the earliest philosophers. And that the Pytho was Libyan is confirmed also by the name of Apollo g[40] Libystinus. But we have said quite enough about Neptune. The common belief is that Apollo and Mercury were brothers, and the Greeks say that they were sons of Jupiter. But Herodotus, enlightened by the Egyptians, disagrees with his Greek countrymen & makes Apollo the son of Osiris, & Sanchoniatho also in the passage cited says that Mercury is the son of Misor, i.e. of Osiris. These views can be reconciled by saying that they are truly grandsons of Osiris and therefore, in the minds of the Chaldaeans, grandsons of Saturn or Cham, and on that ground are regarded as sons of Jupiter. That Apollo is Orus & Orus is son of Osiris and Isis c[41] Herodotus, d[42] Diodorus, e[43] Plutarch provide abundant evidence. That Mercury was born of Cham and his grandchild Maia is not very likely. It seems to be certain that Osiris had his son Anubis by Maia, who was either the wife or daughter of Typho, and that Mercury as much as Anubis attached himself to Osiris and Isis; and I do not see why we should posit two foster-children for Osiris and Isis illegitimately born of an Egyptian father and an African mother. Especially as they are similar in other ways too. Finally Anubis is depicted with a dog’s head always, and is called a dog, & (on the evidence of Horus Apollo) the dog signifies a sacred scribe and a prophet. Servius on the passage of Vergil ‘…Latrator Anubis’[Editorial Note 233]:

Mercury, he says, is depicted with a dog’s head because nothing is smarter than a dog. Apuleius bk. 11, p. 384[Editorial Note 234]. He is the messenger of the gods – holding high his dog-neck, bearing a caduceus in his left hand. Strabo, bk.17, p. 812[Editorial Note 235] The people of Hermopolis worship the Dog-faced baboon [i.e. Anubis] – It is the Nome Cynopolites and the city of Dogs in which Anubis is worshipped, & veneration and certain sacred food is appointed for the dogs. – The whole of Egypt worships the ox, the dog and the cat. So important a cult befits no less a God than Mercury. The same thing is confirmed by Mercury’s name Ηρμάνουβις[Editorial Note 236] and by the fact that they called him the Horizon of Anubis. For the Planet Mercury, the constant neighbour of the sun, is never seen but on the actual Horizon. All the others are also seen in the Meridian.

The above also shows that Chus is Hercules; and Hercules is Mars. Witichindus[Editorial Note 237], Chron. Saxon. 1 says: the Germans in accordance with a traditional error, conduct their worship with a peculiar rite of their own; they worship Mars by imitating Hercules with an effigy of pillars. <17v> The author of the book De mundo, which is attributed to Aristotle[Editorial Note 238]: Many people call the star of Mars the star of Hercules. Macrobius, Saturnalia, bk. 1, ch. 12: they call the Salii – – – – for Hercules. Achilles Tatius in his Isagoge[Editorial Note 239]: For the Egyptians the star of Mars is the star of Hercules. Of Hercules it is said that he purged the earth of wild beasts. Mars too was a Hunter. For he was called Sylvius by the Latins. That Chus too was such a man I seem to infer from the condition of the region of the Nabataean Arabs, which it is very likely that Chus inhabited because it neighbours on Egypt and is by far the most fertile land. Diodorus, bk. 3[Editorial Note 240]: The Nabataeans occupy a great area of land beside the [red] sea and much too in inland parts. For the region is extraordinarily supportive of both people and cattle. – The people imitate the dwellers by the Pontus in their savagery and in their monstrous proclivity for violence. Because of the abundance and excellent quality of the pasture-land, not only does it support infinite quantities of every kind of cattle but also wild Camels, deer and Gazelles. And the abundance of pasture-land draws in from the deserts Lions, Wolves and Leopards, against which the Shepherds are forced to do battle day and night to protect their flocks. Thus the fertility of the place has serious drawbacks. And given this setting, it is very likely that Nimrod engaged in the hunting of wild animals.

The same thing is implied by the fact that for the Egyptians Typho was Neptune and Neptune was a Libyan God. For Plutarch [44] tells us that the Egyptians called the sea Typho, and they named the farthest edge of the land that reaches down to the sea Nephtis, and therefore they named her last, and said she was the wife of Typho; and through hatred of Typho they were averse to those who made use of the sea. Hence too b[45] they symbolised hatred with the figure of a fish, and they considered it irreligious to taste c[46] fish. Therefore Typho is Neptune. And Herodotus revealed that Neptune was a Libyan god. The name of Neptune, he says,[Editorial Note 244]

As the Egyptians particularly honoured their father Osiris, and the Assyrians honoured their king Belus, and the Latins their father Janus and every nation honoured its own ancestors, so the Africans by honouring Neptune were claiming him as their father.

That Typho was African becomes clear also from the discovery and [47] use of horses and chariots. For horses were first tamed by Neptune, and knowledge of the equestrian art was handed down from him; hence he has the name Hippius, i.e., of horses, & h[48] Plutarch writes, on the basis of Egyptian teaching, that the constellation of Typho is the Bear.

Horses therefore and the Wain are symbols of Neptune, and they relate to the Africans


Orpheus with his followers as well as the Pythagoreans taught that each star is an individual world in the aether which contains land, air and aether

The Pythagoreans also taught that the Moon is an inhabitable land and that every other star is a world in the aether which contains land, air and aether. This view is said to exist among the Orphics too. For the followers of Orpheus also said that each star was a world. Similar things seem to have been taught by Xenophanes, Heraclitus and Heraclides Ponticus. But while declaring that the earth was of the same nature as the Planets, why would they not have included the sun among the fixed stars with Aristarchus? Orpheus is said to have been the first to bring the study of the stars into Greece. Hence both his Lyre and the Argonautic expedition, in which he took part and which he wrote up and made famous by his poems, and other such poetical figures, are perceived in the heavens. For both Jason’s tutor Chyron and the ship Argo and the corpse of the ever-vigilant Hydra which the Crow feeds upon, and the Cup of Medea by whose drugs the beast was killed, as well as the Twin Argonauts Castor and Pollux and the fire-breathing Bull with the gilded horns & the Ram with the Golden Fleece, exhibit the history of the Argonauts to the life. And since the Constellations are older than Hesiod, they seem to have been fashioned at the time when the only philosophy flourishing in Greece was that of Orpheus. [Engonasis, who already had the name of Hercules which was unknown in the time of Aratus, is Orpheus for some people, after Hercules had been banished to the Serpentarius, it is said. The Lyre placed nearby is appropriate, as well as the genuflexion of the Constellation and the raising of the hands above both shoulders, denoting not a fighter but a suppliant. For Orpheus both in life (as in the story of the Argonauts) and in death is portrayed as a suppliant. And the Greeks originally received astronomy from the Egyptians. There Orpheus had learned theology and Mythology, and Pythagoras had learned the symbols of figures and numbers in order to conceal his philosophy. Numa too kept the Egyptian way of doing philosophy by means of figures. It was in this spirit that he erected a temple of Vesta in a circular shape and ordained that a perpetual fire should be kept going in the middle of it as a symbol of the round world and the solar fire in the centre. And his philosophy is also said to have been similar to that of Pythagoras, i.e. mystical.

Orpheus too with his followers as well as the Pythagoreans and some others taught that each star is an individual world in the aether which contains land, air and aether. But in declaring that the earth was of the same nature as the Planets, why would they not include the sun among the fixed stars like Aristarchus? Orpheus is said to have been the first to teach Astronomy in Greece; and the Constellations mythologically delineated in accordance with the Orphic philosophy are clear evidence of that fact. For Astronomy is said to have travelled across the sea to Greece in the earliest times from Egypt. There Orpheus <18v> learned his philosophy and the art of mystical discourse by which he infected the whole of Greece with fables. Pythagoras too took a trip to Egypt and brought back the art of speaking allegorically through figures and numbers. Hence since the Egyptians numbered the Planets in this order , he designated the planets in the same order by musical tones &, to mock the common people, he measured their distances from the earth in the same order by means of harmonic proportions of tones and semi-tones, and he cleverly added the music of the spheres, but as he explained the meaning of the allegories among his own disciples, he spread the astronomy of Copernicus. I suspect that it was through enigmatic discourses of this kind that Plutarch[Editorial Note 246] came to think that Anaximander, a disciple of Thales, < insertion from f 19r > located the earth in the middle of the universe, and yet, as Eudemus tells us, he taught that the Earth hangs aloft on high & moves around the centre of the world. < text from f 18v resumes > As when he erected a temple of Vesta with a circular shape and ordained that a perpetual fire should be kept going in the centre of it. Similarly too Numa developed philosophical theories under allegories in the Egyptian manner. For it was by such a meaningfully sacred figure that he is said to have symbolised the solar fire in the centre of the universe. He is also said to have philosophised in the Pythagorean, i.e. Egyptian, manner. For the Egyptians spoke through symbols both of figures and numbers and of persons and actions. Thus then the truer disciples of the Egyptians are recognised by their mystical discourses, and the Egyptian philosophy is learned from them. < insertion from f 19r > Several men made the trip to Egypt and subsequently practised philosophy, but anything that the Egyptians thought should be concealed was communicated only in enigmatical discourses. There are also other important pieces of evidence about the doctrine of the Egyptians. < text from f 18v resumes > They theorised enigmatically about several worlds and especially about seven. They taught that Venus and Mercury revolve around the Sun, < insertion from f 19r > and they depicted the orbs of the five planets by concentric circles. They depicted the orb of the Moon separately with the character for the elements in the centre, meaning by the elements the earth. They numbered the principal planets from Saturn to the Sun, then they added the Moon, Fire, air, water, earth, naming the four elements instead of the one earth in order to signify that the sun is in the midst of all of them. In Astrology they ignored the four elements, and derived the names of the days of the week from the planets arranged in this order, , , , , , , , always placing the Sun in the centre. So too when Pythagoras wanted to designate the planets by seven tones in Music, he placed the Sun in the middle, then, to confound the vulgar, he designated the intervals of the Planets by the intervals of the tones and cleverly added the music of the spheres. And he enjoined silence on his disciples so that the true sense of the allegories should not get out and become public knowledge. Finally, under the Persian empire Astronomy ceased to flourish in Egypt, & was later restored by the Greeks when they obtained empire. But in Greece those who had not been educated in the schools of the mystical philosophers, fell into various beliefs as a result of not properly understanding the enigmatical discourses of the philosophers, for example about the order of the Planets revolving around the earth, about solid spheres, about the music of the spheres, about the sphere of fire beneath the orbit of the Moon[Editorial Note 247], and about the four elements. The disciples of the Egyptians, whether Chaldaean, Pythagorean or other, taught that Comets were a kind of Planets. Of the same opinion were Hyppocrates of Chios[Editorial Note 248] with his disciple Aeschines and the rest, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Diogenes, Apollonius Mundius, Artemidorus, Seneca. The fluidity of the sky[Editorial Note 249] is necessary for these motions. Comets were necessarily pushed down into the regions below the Moon by the solid orbits introduced by Eudoxus, Calippus[Editorial Note 250], Aristotle. < text from f 18v resumes > [and they numbered the planets in a continuous order from Saturn to the Sun, adding the Moon (a secondary Planet) in the last place. Astrologically and mystically however, they seem to have arranged the Planets in this order , depicting the sun in the centre. For the names of the days of the week (an obviously astrological scheme) are said to have derived from Planets arranged in this order.] I suspect also that the Egyptians held that Comets were a kind of Planets. For so their disciples both Chaldaean and Pythagorean thought. For the Chaldaeans are said to have learned the knowledge of the stars from the Egyptians, and the form of the Egyptian year Nabonassor is a sign of this. Under the rule of the Persians the study of the stars ceased in Egypt. [It was under the Persians too that Greece now began to study philosophy, for its own sake and in popular discourses, gradually abandoning the mystical traditions by which until then the Egyptian philosophy had been secretly spread abroad and preserved among the Wise. Hence too there was a general movement away from the astronomical system of the Egyptians in the time of Plato. Anaxagoras, Democritus and some others first taught that <19r> all the stars revolve to their setting around an unmoving earth, some more swiftly some more slowly, and they do so in very free spaces.


1. The[Editorial Note 251] ancients developed two philosophies, a sacred philosophy and a common philosophy. Philosophers taught the sacred philosophy to their disciples by types and enigmas. Orators committed the common philosophy to writing openly and in a popular style. Sacred philosophy flourished to the highest degree in Egypt, and was based on a knowledge of the stars. This is evident from the annual procession of the Priests instituted in honour of this Philosophy. Clement of Alexandria described the pattern of this procession, which he had seen with his own eyes[Editorial Note 252], as follows.

The Egyptians practise a Philosophy all their own; their Sacred Procession shows this clearly.

In this procession, immediately after the prefatory hymns, comes the astronomer with the sacred books relating to the knowledge of the stars. He is followed by the scribe of the sacred things, who understands the descriptions of the Sky, the Earth, the stars and the sacred things. Then the Priest and the Prefect of the sacred things, who have an expert knowledge of everything that pertains to the sacred rituals & Theology, close the Procession. By combining the knowledge of the stars and of the world with Theology and by putting that knowledge in the first place, they intimated that their Theology concerned the stars. Indeed the Gods of the Egyptians were the stars and the Elements. This is stated by both Diodorus[Editorial Note 253] and Laertius[Editorial Note 254]. Horus Apollo also testifies that for the Egyptians an image of a Star signifies God. Chaeremon too and others (as Porphyry[Editorial Note 255] reports in Eusebius) insisted that no Gods are superior to this corporeal world and its parts on the basis of the doctrine of certain Egyptians, who never spoke of any other Gods but the Planets and the fixed Stars but invariably interpreted all their theological stories as being about the stars and the Planets and the river Nile, and they believed that human affairs depend upon the influences of these things. Hence Eusebius[Editorial Note 256] concludes that the secret Theology of the Egyptians was solely concerned with the stars and Planets as Gods. The same is also evident from the names of the Gods, i.e., Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, Sol, Apollo, Luna, Diana, Vulcan, Neptune, Rhea, Vesta, Pluto, Isis and Ceres, which signify either the Earth or the Dog-star, Osiris and Belus who denote the sun, and so on. In antiquity these gods were disseminated from Egypt through the whole world, and they signify nothing other than the stars and the Elements. As Herodotus says: Almost all the names of the gods have come to Greece from Egypt. I know that this is so, because I inquired about it from foreign peoples[Editorial Note 257], and I think that they came in particular from Egypt, [49] and a little before this he says[Editorial Note 259]: They say that the Egyptians were the first to have in use the names of the twelve Gods, and that the Greeks borrowed them from them; they too were the first to set up altars and images and Shrines for the Gods.

The[Editorial Note 260] Egyptians named the Planets and the elements in this order: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, Sol, Luna, Fire, Air, Water, Earth; Tellus, which is represented by the four Elements, completes the tally of twelve. The whole of Philosophy is comprehended in these twelve, while the Stars represent Astronomy, and the four Elements the rest of Physiology


2.[Editorial Note 261] They were regarded as Gods because all human things were believed to be ruled by them. For Philastrius of Brescia[Editorial Note 262] asserts that Hermes ordained that the generation of men depends upon the seven stars. And Clement of Alexandria says that the Egyptians were the first to introduce astrology among men; similarly also the Chaldeans. [50] And Herodotus Bk. 2 says[Editorial Note 264] that it was the Egyptians who worked out which month or day belonged to each of the Gods, and what fate lies in store for anyone born on a particular day, and how he will die, and what kind of man he will be. By the Egyptian gods here Herodotus means the Planets. For the days of the Gods are the days of the Week, named after the 7 Planets. In the horoscopic art of the Egyptians the Planets presided over the days as a kind of Gods. Hence Dio Cassius[Editorial Note 265]: As for the fact that the Days are assigned to the seven stars which are called Planets, that was certainly an invention of the Egyptians. # < insertion from f 21r > # So also < text from f 20v resumes > And just as to the seven Planets the same number of days < insertion from f 21r > is assigned, so too the words of Herodotus show that the year was divided among the twelve Gods in the same number of months. ‡ < insertion from higher up f 21r > ‡ And there is the same rationale for the signs of the Zodiac and the celestial houses to which the months correspond. < text from f 21r resumes > So too the Chaldaeans (as Diodorus bk. 2 asserts)[Editorial Note 266] accepted twelve Principal Gods and assigned one month and one of the twelve signs of the Zodiac to each of them. < text from f 20v resumes > And to the months correspond the twelve houses and the signs over which the Astrological Gods preside right down to our day. #

< insertion from f 21r >

# The Latins too retained the same number of Gods, and called them the Dei Consentes, as if Jupiter did nothing without their consent. They were also called the select Gods and the Gods of the greater nations and the ever-celestial Gods, while others, who for their deserts had been elevated to heaven from among men, were called demi-gods. Ennius surveys the Dei Consentes in this couplet:

Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars,

Mercurius, Iovis, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo[Editorial Note 267].

Others join to the ever celestial Gods Sol, Luna, Saturn, Tellus, Pluto, Liber, Genius and Janus, and thus make twenty select Gods. Hence it is manifest that the common people of the Latins did not retain the system of the celestial Gods. For since the same god is venerated in different places under different names and stories, the Latins have multiplied celestial Gods to accord with the variety of names. For sol {or} {Saturn} is the same as {illeg}, a[51] Liber is the same as Apollo, Luna as Diana, Pluto as Ceres & Vesta as Vulcan.

4. But in order that the people might worship such Gods more gladly, the Priests developed the notion that the Sun and the Stars were ensouled and understood all human affairs, and they composed various stories about them as acting freely in the persons of men. They also represented that the twelve gods were the first to rule in Egypt, then the Demigods. In addition the Egyptians depicted their Gods by a variety of Animals according to their various qualities, for example, Vulcan by a Scarab, the Sun by Scarab and Hawk, the Moon by a Cat, Mercury by a Dog and a Dog-faced baboon and the bird Ibis, Jupiter by a Ram, Minerva by a Vulture, Mars and Venus by two Crows male and female, the Earth by an ox, Water by a snake. From this habit the worship of beasts and images eventually developed. On all of which Aristotle says[Editorial Note 269]: It is a tradition handed down from the most ancient times that the Stars are Gods, and that the deity contains all things; but all the rest is stories made up to carry conviction to the common people & to lend support to the laws and for practical purposes, as when those Gods are said to take on human form or be like other animals; and other things are added along the same lines.

< text from f 20v resumes > <21v>

5. Hence it is that the worship of the stars has been more universal and more ancient than all other idolatry. Plato testifies to its universality. Prostrations, he says[Editorial Note 270], and adorations offered to the Sun and the Moon, both at their rising and at their setting, by both Greeks and all Foreign Peoples (in all matters favourable and adverse), show that they have been most certainly regarded as Gods. And in the Cratylus he says[Editorial Note 271]: The earliest inhabitants of Greece (and many foreign peoples still today) seem to me to have recognised no other Gods than the visible and perceptible ones, sun, Moon, Earth, Stars and sky. And when they saw that they were perpetually running in orbit, they called them Θεοὺς from θέω which means to run. Then when other invisible Gods were introduced, they attached the familiar name to them. So Plato. And it is very likely that the moving stars had been differentiated from the fixed stars and were distinguished with the name of των θεων, a name derived from their motion, before the worship of them began; and later when that word was transposed to religion, Astronomers gave them the name Planets (a name that was also derived from their motion but less aptly). By the time of Plato therefore it was only the worship of the natural and visible Gods that had made its way to most of the Nations. The Persians venerated the Sun, Moon, Venus, Fire, Earth, Air. They do not put statues in Temples nor do they believe that any Gods have their origin in men. The Albani, on the evidence of Strabo, worshipped Jupiter, Sun, Moon, and thought it irreligious to take care of or make mention of the dead. The Germans, says Caesar, regarded as being in the number of the Gods only those whom they see, Sun, Vulcan and Moon; the rest (i.e. the invisible demigods) they had not received even by report[Editorial Note 272]. The Gauls worshipped above all Mercury as a God, then Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, Minerva. The Africans (as Herodotus records) sacrificed only to the Sun and the Moon. We also infer that such Gods were the most ancient from the books of Job and Moses. For this is how Job clears himself from the charge of worshipping false Gods[Editorial Note 273]: If I saw the sun when it was shining and the Moon moving brightly, and my heart rejoiced in secret and I kissed my hand with my mouth, this too is iniquity to be punished, since it is a denial of the most high God. And Moses recording[Editorial Note 274] the Ten Commandments


Aesculapius son of Arsinoe daughter of Leucippus son of Perieres & Gorgophone. Pausan. p. 277 283

Kings of Arcadia[Editorial Note 275]

3Nyctinus 5Azanes, 6Chitor 9Lycurgus, Ancæus, 11Agapenor.
1Pelasgus 2Lycaon, Callisto, 4Arcas, Aphidas 8Aleus – Amphidamas 12Hippothous,
Œnotrus Elatus, 7Epytus, Cepheus, Aeropus, 10Echenus.

13 Æpytus, 14 Cypselus, 15Olæas, 16Bucolion, 17Phialus, 18Simus, 19Pompus, 20Ægineta, 21 Polymnestor

Briacas, 22Æchnius, 23Aristocrates, 24Hicetas, 25Aristocrates. Under Æchnis the first Messenian war. Polymnestor contemporary with Charillus. The daughter of Cypselus married to Cresphontes. Olaeas restored Æpytus his sister’s son to Messene. While Æpytus was reigning in Arcadia, Orestes son of Agamemnon migrated from Mycenae to Arcadia. Agapenor fought at Troy. Echenus killed Hyllus. Ancæus the Argonaut was killed by the Chalidonian Boar. Auge lay with Hercules. Lycaon contemporary with Cecrops. Pelasgus[Editorial Note 276] is the first who is recorded in Arcadia, he taught men how to build Huts, to make clothes from the skins of pigs & he made use of acorns instead of grass and herbs as food. Pausan p 599 600, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In the reign of Cypselus the Heraclidæ return to the Peloponnese. ib. p. 608.

The kings of Achaia[Editorial Note 277] or Sicyon. Hellen. Zuthus, Achæus, Archander, Metanasta

The pentathlon began in the eighteenth Olympiad. The discus was part of the pentathlon Pausan p 394, 498

Sisyphus[Editorial Note 278] Glaucus, Bellerophon
Ornytion, Phocus Doridas.
Thoas, Demophon, Propadas Hyanthides.

In their reigns the Dorians brought their army against Corinth under the leadership of Aletes son of Hippotas

Hercules, Antiochus, Phylas, Hippotas, Aletes who deprived Doridas & Hyanthis of the kingdom of Corinth. Aletes, Ixion, Agelaus, Prymnis, Bacchis, Agelaus II, Eudemus Aristodemus, Agemon, Alexander, Telestus son of Aristodemus, Automenes year 1, Annual Presidents 124 years, Cypselus, Periander.


Pherecydes[Editorial Note 279] the Historian, called both Lerius because he came from the island of Lerus & Atheniensis because he spent his life in Athens and Genealogus because he treated the Antiquities and Genealogies of the Athenians am{ply} & {at length} in eleven or twelve books, somewhat younger than Pherecydes Syrus & nearly contemporary with Hecataeus of Miletus the Historian, brought his History down to Miltiades, who achieved fame by the Victory at Marathon. [He therefore wrote in the time of Darius Hystaspes and Xerxes.] Prideaux. Annot. ad Marm. Ar. p. 11[Editorial Note 280]

In the time of Amphictyon son of Deucalion, some say that Dionysius coming to the land of Attica was hospitably received by Semachus and presented his daughter with a goatskin. Prideaux. Annot. p. 24 And the Daughters of Semachus became Priests to Bacchus ib. p. 25.

Hercules, Hyllus, Cleodæus, Aristomachus, Cresphontes | Temenus | Aristodemus the Heraclidae returning to the Peloponnese establish kingdoms there. The sons of Aristodemus Euristhenes & Procles or Patrocles gain control of the Lacedemonian kingdom. Prid. p. 52, 149.

Temenus Cisus, Althæmenes | Phalces, Rhegnidas (who in the reign of Codrus brought the Dorians into Attica) Melta, Phidon tenth from Hercules, sixth from Temenus, was the first of the Greeks to strike silver coinage The brother of Phidon was Caranus who leading an army out of Argos occupied Macedonia. Prid. p 150

Cresphontes king of Messenia, son Æpitus[Editorial Note 281] son Glaucus son Istmius son Dotadas son Sibotas son Phintas son Antiochus & son Androches. Euphaes[Editorial Note 282] son of Antiochus entered upon the kingship in year 2 of the 9th. Olympiad, and in this year the first Messenian war with the Lacedaemonians began. Prid p. 151.

Amphictyon King of the Athenians was the first to celebrate the festival of Bacchus at Athens, and he set up an altar to him as to a God. Prid p 103

Mars begat Alcippe by Agraulos daughter of Cecrops. Hallirrhothius son of Neptune by Euryta made an attempt on her virtue and was slain by Mars therefor. But Mars was hauled into court by Neptune before the twelve Gods & was acquitted, the number of votes being equal. – After this judgement about Mars, Cephalus in the reign of Erectheus is recorded as being condemned in the Areopagus for the slaying of his wife Procris, & Dædalus in the reign of Aegeus for the slaying of Talus. The acquittal of Orestes occurred in the reign of Demophoon. Prid p 114, 17

Canaus, who succeeded Cecrops, had a daughter Atthis (from whom Attica is named) & also by his wife Pedias daughter of the Lacedæmonian Menes, a son Rharus, who was either the father or grandfather of Triptolemus, and when he was ruling in Eleusis gave his name to the Rharian plain; he also had two daughters, Cranae and Chranecme, and having given one of them to Amphictyon son of Deucalion in marriage, he was driven out of his kingdom by him after reigning for nine years. Prid. p. 115, 116, 183.

The son and successor of Melampous was Antiphates, of Antiphates Oïcles, of Oïcles Amphiaraus who joined the expedition against Thebes Prid p 144

Triptolemus sowed crops received from Erectheus in the Rharian plain, and took the crops produced in that plain in a long ship to the cities of Greece for the sake of gain, as Philochorus, an ancient writer of Attic history, tells us in Eusebius (in Chron.)[Editorial Note 283]. Near Eleusis was the Rharian plain which is so called from Rharus son of Cranæus & father of Celeus from whom Triptolemus was born, and in it Pausanias testifies that Triptolemus first sowed crops. Prid. p. 183, 89.

Erectheus sacrificed his daughter Proserpina to Dis, on the instructions of an Oracle. Prid. p. 183.

Lustration was first instituted at Athens in the reign of Pandion son of Cecrops. It regularly took place on the sixth day of the month Thargelion, with the slaughter of victims, two of whom were of human kind, a man and a woman to represent both sexes, from Helladius in Photius number 279,[Editorial Note 284] and Selden refers to others. Prid. p 30. Also in the Lycæan rites or Lupercalia it was the custom to make propitiation with human blood, according to Porphyrius lib. 2 de Abstinentia ab Animalibus[Editorial Note 285], on the authority of Theophrastus. Prid. p. 30, 31.

Xuthus third son of Hellen brought help to Erectheus king of Attica when he was making war against the people of Chalcis, inhabitants of Euboea, and on account of the victory he won he married Erectheus’s daughter Creusa, and by her had <24v> {Ion} & Achaeus. Erectheus employed Ion as general in all his wars, especially in the war against Eumolpus and the Eleusinians in which Eumolpus fell. Then when Erectheus died in the war against Immaradus son of Eumolpus, Ion succeeded to the kingship, and was driven out of Attica by the sons of Erectheus with his father Xuthus and his brother Achaeus, and they migrated together to the Peloponnese. And the sons of Achaeus, Archander and Architeles, married the daughters of Danaus, as Pausanias relates. Prid. p. 153, 154.

There were two contemporaries of Amphictyon: one the son of Deucalion who ruled in Thermopylae & first convened the Amphictyonic council, the other who drove Cranaus out of Athens. Pri p 24, 25

Isis placed in a sieve the limbs of Osiris torn apart by Typho. For father Liber is the same, whom Orpheus said was torn apart by the giants. Servius in Georg. I[Editorial Note 286]

When father Liber married Ariadne daughter of Minos king of Crete, Vulcan offered her a crown which Liber placed among the stars as an honour for his wife. Servius in Georg. I

When the Athenian Icarius, father of Erigone, revealed to men the wine he had received from father Liber, he was killed by some rustics, who having drunk more than they should and being inebriated, thought they had been poisoned. His dog returned to his daughter Erigone, and she followed his tracks and came upon the corpse of her father and put an end to herself with a noose. By the will of the gods she was set among the stars and they call her the virgin. Servius in Geor. II.


Inachus, the most ancient king of the Argives, in the time of David.

Io daughter of Inachus violated by a Phoenician Sea-captain fled with him and was taken to Egypt. Diodor. bk. 1.

Phoroneus son of Inachus and Melissa & father of Niobe, first established laws and courts for the Argives & brought them out of their wild and beast-like life to a more civilised state, and was the first to build an altar to Juno Clemens Protrept. Tatian. Euseb.[Editorial Note 287] His daughter Niobe is said to have been the first of mortals that Jupiter had intercourse with and the last was Alcmene. Diodor bk. 4[Editorial Note 288]

The Cretans avenge the seizure of Io daughter of Inachus by seizing Europa daughter of Agenor from Phoenicia in the ship Taurus. Agenor sends his sons Phoenix and Cadmus to seek their sister. Phoenix went over to Asia and equipped Bithynia with cities, Cadmus brings Phoenician letters into Greece and despairing of finding his sister, fixes his abode in Boeotia with his companions, and there he founds the city of Thebes. Herod. bk. 1, Diodor. Ovid Euseb[Editorial Note 289]. These things happened at the time when Solomon entered into a treaty with Hirom king of Tyre and built the Temple, as is testified by Theodotus, Hypsicrates and Moschus, three very ancient Phoenician Historians cited by Tatian in Eusebius (Praep. Evang. bk. 10, ch. 11)[Editorial Note 290]. They all say in their Histories that the seizure of Europa and the departure of Menelaus to Phoenicia and the treaty and alliance with Iram took place at the same time under one king, at the time when he joined his daughter in matrimony with Solomon King of the Jews, & of his own accord gave a very large amount of every kind of wood to build the Temple; Maenander of Pergamum[Editorial Note 291] preserved the memory of these things in his writings. Laetus did the same in his Phoenician history.

In the fifth year of Rehoboam, Sesach or Sesostris invades the whole of Syria and Asia Minor then leaves part of his army to the Colchians against the Scythians. But the Greeks set out for Colchis in the ship Argo and seize Medea daughter of king Aetas[Editorial Note 292], an Egyptian woman, & on the journey kill Laomedon father of Priam King of Troy. Then Priam sends his son Alexander to spoil the Greeks by fraud. And Alexander seizes Helen, wife of Menelaus, and his goods, and is carried by a storm to the coasts of Phoenicia and sails along them & is carried to Egypt where he leaves Helen. And Menelaus departs for Phoenicia in search of his wife, as has been said above. And thus arose the Trojan War.

Danaus or Armais, driven out by his brother Sesostris or Ægyptus, rules in Argos (Manetho in Ioseph. 1. cont. Ap.)[Editorial Note 293]; he made this arid region abound in waters by unearthing springs in the service of his daughters.

Asterius (or Xanthus) King of Crete marries Europa daughter of Agenor by whom he has sons Minos and Rhadamanthus.

Ianus son of Creusa daughter of Erictheus king of the Athenians brother of Cecrops the Egyptian, and therefore contemporary with Aegeus father of Theseus.

Bacchus the son of Semele the daughter of Cadmus & Harmonia. He slew Lycurgus king of Thrace & gave the kingdom to Tharops the father of Oeagrus the father of Orpheus, tho some doubt this story. Diodor l 3. c 4 p 118[Editorial Note 294].

Hercules the scholar of Linus & son of Alcmena daughter of Electrio & Euridice. Electrio son of Perseus & Andromeda daughter of Cepheus & Cassiopea. Euridice daughter of Pelops son of Tantalus. Euristheus king of Argos son of Alcmena & elder brother of Hercules by the same birth. Diodor l 4. c 1.[Editorial Note 295]

Thespis an Athenean son of Erictheus & Prince of a territory in Attica was desirous that his 50 daughters should have issue by Hercules then a young man, who got them all with child. Diodor

Hercules slew Laomedon father of Priamus. He restored Tyndarus the father of Castor Pollux & Hellena to the kingdom of Sparta Diodor

Hercules assisted the Doreans in a war with the Lapithæ whose king was Coronus the son of Phoroneus. Diodor l 4. c. 2. p 146.[Editorial Note 296]

Medea after the death of Iason having liberty to go whether she pleased went to Phœnicia She & her mother & sister &c very very skilful in the vertues of hearbs for curing wounds & diseases & poisoning & accounted sorcerers or witches for their skill & therefore were Egyptians. Diodor p. 150, 153, 154, 156.[Editorial Note 297]

Minos Rhadamanthus & Sarpedon sons of Europa & Asterius king of Crete son of Teutamus son of Dorus son of Hellen son of Deucalion. Diodor

Æsculapius had two sons Machaon & Podalius who were skilfull in their fathers art & went with Agamemnon to the Trojan war.

Dædalus the son of Hymetion or Metionon the son of Eupalamus the son of Erectheus.


Dardanus Iasion & Harmonia children of Electra the daughter of Atlas. Dardanus sailed into Asia maried Batea the daughter of Teucer & founded the kingdom of the Trojans. His son Ericthonius was Father of Tros the founder of Troy & father of Ilus (the father of Laomedon) Assaracus & Ganimedes. Harmonia was the wife of Cadmus & Iasion married Cybele & of her begat Corybas of whom were named the Corybantes. Diodor. l 5 p. 197, 198 & L. 4 p. 167, 168.[Editorial Note 298]

Cecrops & his brother Peteos Aegyptians Diodor p 13

Bacchus instructed Aristæus in the sacra. Aristæus was father of Actæon by Autonoe the daughter of Cadmus. Bacchus was contemporary to Ariadne the daughter of Minos Diodor p 199, 172.

The daughters of Danaus brought out of Egypt the solemnity of Ceres which the Greeks call Thesmophoria & taught it to the Pelagian weomen. Herod. in Euterpe[Editorial Note 299].

Circe and Pasiphae born of Perseis daughter of the Sun. Cic. lib. 3 de Nat. deor.[Editorial Note 300]

Jupiter Belus whose temple was built in Babylon was the inventor of the science of the stars. Pliny bk. 6. ch. 25.

Ethiopia was worn out by alternate periods of dominance and subjection in a series of wars with the Egyptians, having been a famous and powerful country even down to the Trojan wars when Memnon was king; & it is clear from the stories of Andromeda that it dominated Syria and our shores in the time of king Cepheus. Plin bk. 6. 29.[Editorial Note 301]

Cinyra son of Agriopa invented tiles & copper mines, both on the island of Cyprus; also tongs, hammer, crowbar, anvil. Plin. l. 7. c. 56.[Editorial Note 302]

Midas and Croesus already possessed infinite amounts of [gold]. Cyrus after conquering Asia had already found 34000 thousand pounds weight of gold besides golden vessels, and wrought gold including leaves and a plane tree and a vine. By this victory he brought back fifty thousand talents of silver and the mixing-bowl of Semiramis whose weight amounted to fifteen talents. And Varro says an Egyptian talent contained 80 pounds in weight. Plin bk. 33, ch. 3[Editorial Note 303]

Salauces, the descendant of Aeetes, had already reigned in Colchis, and he, obtaining virgin land, is said to have dug up a very great amount of silver and gold among the nation of the Suani, a kingdom which was also famous for golden fleeces. He is credited with gold-vaulted ceilings and silver beams and columns and pilasters, after he conquered Sesostris of Egypt, a king so proud that he is reported to have been in the habit every year of harnessing to his chariot a king selected by lot from among his vassals as he rode in his triumphal procession. Plin l. 33. c. 3[Editorial Note 304]

The Pelasgians brought letters into Latium. Plin. bk. 7, ch. 56.

Cyniras king of the Cypriots lived for 160 years Plin bk. 7, ch. 48[Editorial Note 305].

Of old the cities of Cyprus each obeyed their own tyrants. Strabo Geog. bk. 14, p. 684[Editorial Note 306]

Aeetes founded Aea. Stephanus in Aea.[Editorial Note 307]

נחל Nahal, torrent, river; hence Nile.

That part of Libya that borders upon Nile is the most pleasant & richest for all manner of provision & therefore the Ethiopians & Africans quarrel & are at continual war for the possession of the place. Diodor l. 3. c 1. p 89[Editorial Note 308]


In the year of the Temple 1. Io daughter of Inachus was seized and carried to Egypt by Phoenicians.

Year 6 Europa daughter of Agenor seized by Cretans. Phœnix crosses to Asia & Cadmus to Greece in search of their sister. Asterius King of Crete marries Europa & by her has children Minos and Rhadamanthus

Year 48 Dædalus builds the Labyrinth in Crete, devises sails for ships. The Athenians, defeated by the Cretans, are compelled to send children to be devoured by the Minotaur. Minos acquires a fleet and frees the sea from pirates.

Year 59 Theseus overcomes the Minotaur, returns from the Labyrinth, succeeds his father Ægeus in his kingdom. He gathers the people who were scattered through the countryside into the city & united them in the bond of civil society.

Year 80 The expedition of the Argonauts. Lifetimes of Linus, Hercules, Musaeus, Orpheus. The Greeks kill the father of Priam & seize Medea

Year 86 Priam protests to the Greeks through Antenor about the war waged against them by the Argonauts, but in vain

Year 89 Alexander, dispatched by his father Priam, avenges the injury by seizing Helen wife of Menelaus king of the Spartans together with his goods. 84 Theseus, now in his fifties, seizes Helen. 89 A storm arises, and Alexander is driven along the shores of Phoenicia to Egypt and he leaves Helen there.

Year 160 Agamemnon with his brother Menelaus and the rest of the Greeks make war on the Trojans.

Year 109 Theseus dies & his son Demophon succeeds to the kingdom.

Year 110 Troy is captured & burned in the first year of Demophon Clem Strom 1 p 321[Editorial Note 309]

Year 6 Phoroneus, son of Inachus and Melissa, brother of Io & father of Niobe, succeeds to the kingship of the Argives, establishes laws and courts for the Argives & brings them out of their wild and beast-like life to a more civilised state, and was the first to build an altar to Juno.

Year 52 Danaus, driven out by his brother Ægyptus or Sesostris, rules in Argos

Year 50 Evander comes to Italy. His mother Carmenta (otherwise called Themis) taught the Aborigenes the use of letters.

Year 20 Janus comes to Italy.

Year 126 Dido in year 7 of Pigmaleon king of the Tyrians takes refuge in Libya

Year 143 Carthage founded

Year 112 Æneas comes to Italy, founds Lavinium.

Year 266 Rome founded.

Year 108 Latinus son of Lavinia by Hercules King of the Aborigines

Year 111 Ægisthus who committed adultery with Clytemnestra cuts down Agamemnon returning from the war.

Year 118 Orestes son of Agamemnon avenges the murder of his father against Ægistheus and his mother & is the first be prosecuted in the Areopagus which had now been established in Athens.

Year 150 The Heraclidæ returning drive the descendants of Orestes out and recover the Peloponnese, and from this time they rule in Sparta and Corinth.

    130 The Bœotians driven from Ana by the Thessalians occupy Bœotia formerly called Cadmeia

    140 The Dorians occupy the Peloponnese.

    210 The Ionian migration 140 years after the capture of Troy Clem. ex Eratosthene.[Editorial Note 310] Homer born. Arist. 3 Poet.[Editorial Note 311]

230 Homer {{wins}} a prize at the 23rd Olympiad, as Theopompus, etc. say. Clem. Alex.[Editorial Note 312]


A historical account of the Gods

1. Saturn in the Orphic hymns is called παγγενέτωρ and γενάρχης[Editorial Note 313] and his wife Rhea Μητὴρ μέντε θεων ηδὲ θνητων ανθρώπων[Editorial Note 314] 2. Under the rule of Saturn there was complete peace, and no toil or distress. All things were in common and undivided, a single patrimony for all men. Land had not yet been parcelled out with boundary lines. And he was so very just that under him no one was a slave, and no one had any private property. 3. He brought the men of his time from a savage state to a more civilized manner of life, and won great honour for that. He travelled through many parts of the world and brought all men to justice and simplicity of heart. He persuaded men who were savage and accustomed to live by plunder to adopt a settled life. 4. He was the first to give men a good knowledge of agriculture. He presides over the vigour of crops and or[Editorial Note 315] agriculture, for this is what the reaping-hook signifies. 5. Saturn was the patron of drunkenness, and during the seven days of the Saturnalia it was not allowed to do anything serious but drink, get drunk and enjoy boisterous fun, 6. and the Masters ministered to the slaves 7. Saturn forbade by legislation that anyone should view Gods naked without being punished for it. 8. Saturn and his wife Rhea and those who were with them are represented[Editorial Note 316] as the children of Oceanus and Thetis. 9. And the symbol of Saturn was a ship. Among the Egyptians Gods were depicted in a Boat. 10. Saturn had three sons who divided the empire of the world between them. All these things are true of Noah. He was the father of all human beings; he reigned peacefully for one hundred years before the division of the earth (this was the golden age). A just man, a Farmer, drunken, seen naked, he made Ham the slave of slaves, he was born as it were from the Flood, preserved by the Ark, he had three sons who divided the world between them. All this Bochart tells us in Geogr. Sacr. p. 3, 4, 5[Editorial Note 317] from various authors. The Sky went to Jupiter, the youngest, the Sea went to Neptune, and the earth with its riches went to Pluto: that is, to Cham, the youngest, went the region that was closer to the sun, a region with a burning hot atmosphere, wonderfully clear for observing the stars, to Japhet regions which were for the most part insular and peninsular and which were situated beyond the seas, and to Sem went the best and largest Territory. Japhet is so-called from dilatando[Editorial Note 318], Pesitam in Punic, ‘broad’, whence Greek ποσειδῶν[Editorial Note 319]. Sem, from desolation and invisibility, is rendered in Greek as Ἄδης, the name and region of Pluto. On these etymologies see Bochart p. 10, 11.

2 Ham, the youngest of the brothers (Gen 9.24), was relegated to the sterile sands of Africa and worshipped there as Jupiter. The Egyptians called him Ammun or Amun (Αμμοῦν or Αμοῦν). Αμμοῦν γὰρ Αιγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία: for the Egyptians call Jupiter Ammun. Herodotus in Euterpe.[Editorial Note 320] Also because most people take the view that the proper name of Jupiter is Αμοῦν, Amun, which we, with a slight alteration of the word, pronounce Hammon: Plutarch. in Iside.[Editorial Note 321] Hesychius Αμμοῦ ὁ ζεὺς, Αριστοτέλης[Editorial Note 322]. By the Hebrews אמון Amon and המון Hamon. Jeremiah 46.25. Ezekiel 30.15. Nahum 3.8. [Why not derive Men from this, in Greek Menes, the first king? Menes ερμηνεύε[Editorial Note 323]] Διόνιος’ is explained as Iovius[Editorial Note 324] (Eratosthenes.) ‡ < insertion from lower down f 28r > [‡ At that time Thamus was the king of the whole of Egypt in the great city of the upper region which the Greeks call Egyptian Thebes, and they call the God himelf Hammon. So says Socrates, discoursing with Phædrus about Thoth in Plat. in Phædr.[Editorial Note 325] See Marsham p 31[Editorial Note 326]. This Thamus or Chamus is Cham. The Jews made lamentation over him as Thammuz, Ezekiel[Editorial Note 327]      ] < text from f 28r resumes > Saturn, says Sanchuniathon (a writer older than the Trojan war), came into the south and gave the whole of Egypt to the God Taautus for his kingdom. By Saturn understand Cham here, and by Taautus Mizraim. For the Phoenicians called Saturn’s three children Saturn, Jupiter Belus, and Apollo. See Marsham p 30.] From Ham or Cham Egypt was called Chamia or Chemia by its ancient inhabitants, i.e. the land of Cham, as it is named in Psalms 78.51 & 105.23, 27 & 106.22. Also Plutarch says[Editorial Note 328]: the Egyptians call Egyp{t}, whose soil is very black, Chemia. And the Cophtitæ even today call Egyp{t} Chemi. See Kircher prodromum Coptum p 293. And many place names, not only in Egypt but also in Arabia and throughout Africa, show that the name Ammon was well-known. Also the whole of Africa was once called Ammonia, Ammone and Ammonis (See Bochart. Geog. p 7). Hence Lucan says of Ammon in bk. 9[Editorial Note 329]:

Although there is only one Jupiter Ammon for the peoples of the Ethiopians and for the wealthy nations of the Arabs and for the Indians.

, to be hot, to grow warm, הם Ham, burning hot, sounds as if it is from the root המם & is rendered in Greek as Ζεὺς, from ζέω. Cyril of Alexandria in bk. 2 of his Glaphyta to Genesis[Editorial Note 330] derives θερμασίαν from fervendo; which the Author of the Etymologicum[Editorial Note 331] relates to the heat of the air, over which Jupiter presides, Ζεὺς, he says, παρὰ τὴν ζέσιν, θερμότατος γὰρ ὁ ἀὴρ, ἢ παρὰ τὸ ζέω, ὡς τρέω, τρεὺς καὶ Ατρὲυς, H Cyril of Alexandria explains θερμασίαν in bk. 2 of his Glaphyta to Genesis.

Though Misraim is a dual form, it is not the name of a man but of the double land which fell to the son of Cham, and from which the inhabitants take their name (On this see Bochart page 293. Misraim in the singular is Masor, Micha 7.12. 2 Kings 19.24. Isaiah 19.6. And the ancient name of the first of the months, which was called Thoth by the Egyptians, was also μεσορὶ Mesori. Bochart p 293.


Certain Naxians, differently from other writers, say that there were two Minos’s and two Ariadne’s, one of whom they say had a union with father Liber on Naxos and bore Stapylus, while the younger was carried off by Theseus and subsequently deserted after being taken to Naxos. Plutarch in Theseus, p. 13[Editorial Note 332]

The wife of Aidoneus king of the Molossi was Persephone, his daughter Proserpina. Plutarch in Theseus p. 22.[Editorial Note 333]

Fabius Pictor was the first man to write a Roman History. Plutarch in Romulus, p. 28, 33[Editorial Note 334]

Some say that Lycurgus was the contemporary and partner of Iphitus in organising the Olympic games; among them is Aristotle the philosopher, who used the evidence of an Olympic discus which carries an inscription of the name of Lycurgus. Others, such as Eratosthenes and Apollodorus, calculating periods of time by the succession of the kings of Lacedaemon, assert that he antedated the first Olympiad by quite a few years. Timaeus suspects that since there had been two Lycurgus’s at Sparta at different times, the achievements of both were attributed to one of them because of his fame, and that the elder of them was certainly not much later than the age of Homer, some even say that he met him. Plutarch in Lycurgus, p. 65[Editorial Note 335]. Lycurgus a partner of Iphitus, ib. p. 87[Editorial Note 336]

Clodius in the book to which he gave the title Index temporum[Editorial Note 337] argues that the ancient records of the Romans were destroyed when the Gauls wasted the city by fire; and the records which we now possess were forged by their compilers to gratify certain persons who inserted themselves into the most noble families and clans to whom they are not in any way related. – There is a story that Numa was a disciple of Pythagoras. – To fix times exactly is not an easy thing, especially if they are measured by the Olympic periods, which they say Hippias of Elis published much later in a summary form which relied on no certain evidence. Plutarch in Numa p. 96[Editorial Note 338]

In the reign of Romulus – when the people being ignorant of the unequal courses of Moon and Sun, clung to the single principle of a 360 day year, Numa, noticing that the extent of the inequality was eleven days because the Lunar year consists of 354 days whereas the solar year completes 365 days, he doubled these eleven days and inserted, after the month of February in every other year, an intercalary month of twenty two days which the Romans call Mercedinus. Plutarch in Numa, p. 114[Editorial Note 339]. Some believe that they can refute as fictitious the meeting of Solon with Croesus because of the chronology. But I cannot bring myself to reject such a famous story, one attested by so many witnesses and, what is more important, one that is consistent with the character of Solon and worthy of his maganimity and wisdom, because of certain so called chronological canons which hundreds have attempted to correct, and they have not been able to this day to determine anything certain from the conflicting accounts on which they may agree. Plutarch in Solon, p. 151[Editorial Note 340]

When Solon travelled to Egypt, he heard from the Priests (as Plato tells us) that the Atlantic discourse which he attempted to turn into verse for the Greeks – – but he grew weary with old age deterred by the magnitude of the task. Plutarch in Solon, p. 150, 156[Editorial Note 341]

In ancient times philosophers published their sentiments in poetic form, for example Orpheus, Hesiod, Parmenides, Xenophanes, Empedocles, Thales; later they gave up verse, for example --- Nor did Aristarchus Timocharis Aristillus Hipparchus render Astrology more contemptible by writing about it in prose, though earlier Eudoxus, Hesiod, Thales had written about it in poetry. Plutarch. de Pythiæ Orac.[Editorial Note 342]

Phercydes of Syros instituted prose composition in the time of king Cyrus, Cadmus of Miletus instituted History. Plin. bk. 7. ch. 56[Editorial Note 343]. Cadmus of Miletus instituted prose composition. Plin bk. 5. ch. 29.

Pythagoras of Samos was the first to recognise that the Star of Venus is sometimes the morning star and sometimes the evening star around the 42nd. Olympiad, which was U.C. 142[Editorial Note 344]

King Typhon gave his name to the Comet of that age. Plin bk. 2. ch. 25.[Editorial Note 345]


Alexander Polyhistor, from Eupolemus, says in Euseb. Præp. Evan. bk. 9, ch. 39[Editorial Note 346]: – Therefore Nebuchodonosor, king of the Babylonians, implored Ἀστιβάρην Astivares, king of the Medes, to become his ally in this expedition, and with the united forces of the Babylonians and the Medes, which consisted of 180000 Foot and 120000 Cavalry as well as ten thousand Chariots, he first wiped out Samaria, Galilaea Scythopolis and the Jews who dwelt in Galaatis; and later he captured Jerusalem itself also and took King Joachim alive &c

Sennacherib returning from the war against Egypt came before Ierusalem & the first night of the siege by very violent pestilence lost 185000 men, which made him presently retire to Nineve to save the rest of his army. Berosus apud Ioseph. Antiq. l 10. c 1[Editorial Note 347].

Pharaoh Nechao went to war against the Medes & Babylonians who had destroyed the empire of Assyria, was resisted by Iosias. Iosias slain. The King of Egypt returning from the war sent for Ioaz to Samath a City of Syria, kept him prisoner made Ioachin king & imposed a tribute on Iudah. Ioseph antiq. l. 10. c. 5[Editorial Note 348].

In the 4th year of Iochim Nebuchadnezzar lead his army against Carchabesa (a city scituate neare Euphrate) to take it from Pharaoh Nechao to whom all Syria was subject. Nechao advanced with a great army to Euphrates but was overthrown. Whereupon the Babylonian (passing Euphrates) seized all Syria as far as Pelusium, Iudea only excepted. In the 4th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over these countries & eighth of Iehojakim, the Babylonian lead his army against Ierusalem & Iehojakim bought his peace & became tributary three years: but then (understanding that the Egyptians were up in arms against the Babylonian) rebelled & when the Babylonian came against him & the Egyptians failed him not daring to make war, he opened the gates to the Babylonian who slew him with many of the inhabitants & captivated others amongst which was Ezekiel & made Ioachin king but after three months repented of what he had done &c. Ioseph. Antiq. l 10. c. 6 & 7[Editorial Note 349].

Nebucadonosor the father (or Nabulassar as he is called by Berosus in Ioseph. cont. App.[Editorial Note 350]) hearing that the governor whom he had appointed over Egypt & the neighbouring parts of Syria & Phœnicia was revolted from him sent his son Nebuchadonosor against the rebels & he fighting with them & overcoming them reduced the country to obedience. Mean while the father died in Babylon having reigned 21 years & his {son} upon news thereof made hast to Babylon, leaving his friends to bring back his army with the captivated Iews Syrians Egyptians & Phenicians. He enlarged the old city & beautified it with new buildings & a new palace & with a triple wall, & a hanging garden for his wife who was a Mede &c Berosus apud Ioseph Antiq. l. 10 c 10[Editorial Note 351]. He overcame Tyre at the end of thirteen years when Ithobalus reigned over the Tyrians. Diocles in his second book of the Persian history & Philostratus in his Phœnician & Indian history apud Ioseph. Antiq. l 10. c 10. & cont Ap. l 1[Editorial Note 352]


Nineve overthrown by the Medes in the reign of Ezethias & Merodach Ioseph Antiq. l 10. c. 2.[Editorial Note 353]


The Cappadocians are called Syrians by the Greeks; and these Syrians were under the sway of the Medes before the Persians won empire, and then they were subject to Cyrus Herod bk. 1. ch. 72[Editorial Note 354]

The Medes and the Lydians are reconciled by the mediation of Labynetus of Babylon Herod bk. 1 ch. 74

At the time when Croesus made war on Cyrus, he had struck a treaty with the Babylonians. And Labynetus was tyrant of the Babylonians at that time. Herod bk. 1 ch. 77

After the Assyrians had held upper Asia for five hundred and twenty years, the Medes were the first to begin to defect from them; and they fought strenuously against the Assyrians in their struggle for liberty, and when they had struck off the yoke of servitude, they swore an oath of freedom. Other nations after them also did the same thing as the Medes. But when they were now in the enjoyment of their own laws everywhere throughout the mainland, eventually they were again subjected to tyranny in this manner. Herod. bk. 1, ch. 96. – When Deioces therefore obtained power, he compelled the Medes to build one fortified town, so that once this one was fortified and equipped, they would not have so much concern for the rest. As the Medes obeyed them in this, he made the walls both large and strong, and they are now called Ecbatana. ib. ch. 97. Deioces therefore subdued only the Median nation and ruled it alone, though there are so many peoples in this nation, Busæ, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budij Magi. So many are the peoples in Media. When Deioces died, after reigning for fifty three years, his son Phraortes took over the government. He was not content merely with the empire of the Medes; he made war on the Persians first of all, and they were the first whom he brought under the sway of the Medes. Having gained control of these peoples, both of them powerful, he soon conquered Asia, by invading one nation after another, until finally he found himself taking on the Assyrians, those Assyrians I mean who lived in Ninus, who at one time had been lords of all, but by this time had been deserted by their allies who had revolted from them, though in other ways they were prospering by themselves. Phraortes mounted an expedition against them in the twenty second year after he came to the throne, and he perished with the largest part of his army. ib. ch. 102. After his death his son Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, succeeded; he is said to have been a much better fighter than his ancestors and was the first to organise the peoples of Asia into provinces, and the first to distribute his troops into companies of spearmen, horsemen and archers, whereas previously they had all been massed together without distinction. He it is who made war on the Lydians, and it was at this time, during the battle itself, that day was turned into night[Editorial Note 355]; and he united under him all of Asia[Editorial Note 356] above the river Halys. Having collected all his own people, he led his forces against Ninus both to avenge his father and to overthrow the city. But then after overcoming the Assyrians in battle, he was besieging Ninus, when a huge force of Scythians came down upon him, led by king Madyes of the Scythians – From the Colchi it is not such a long journey to reach Media; only one nation lies between them, the Saspires; once you have passed them, Media is there right in front of you. Here the Medes engaged in battle with the Scythians and were scattered and lost the empire of Asia ib. ch. 103. Further, once the Scythians had made themselves masters of the whole of Asia, they made straight from there for Egypt. As they entered Syria Palestina, Psammiticus king of Egypt confronting them &c – And after the Scythians had held the empire of Asia for twenty eight years – finally Cyaxeres hospitably received the greater part of them, made them drunk and slew them. And that was how the Medes recovered their empire, taking back those whom they had formerly controlled; and they captured Ninus after a siege, and subdued the Assyrians except for the Babylonian area. After this <31r> Cyaxares died, having ruled for forty years including the Scythian period. His son Astyages took over his kingdom. He had a daughter and called her Mandane ib ch. 106.

After conquering Croesus, Cyrus had in mind to make an expedition against the Babylonians & Bactrians & Sacae and the Egyptians Herod bk. 1, ch. 153

When therefore Cyrus had subjected the whole of the mainland to his sway, he made war on the Assyrians. And though there are many other great towns in Assyria, the most famous of them and the strongest is Babylon, where the royal palace was located after the overthrow of Ninus. Herod bk. 1, chs. 178, 179.

Cyrus led an army against Nitocris’s son[Editorial Note 357] who held the name of his father Labynitus and the Empire of Asia. Herod bk. 1, ch. 189

[Editorial Note 1] Cf. ‘Amosis, or Tethmosis, the successor of Misphragmuthosis’, Newton, Chronology, sv 1070.

[Editorial Note 2] Cf. perhaps Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, bk. 1, ch. 23. Clément d`Alexandrie, Les stromates, ed. C. Mondésert and M. Caster (Paris: Éditions du Cerf 1951), vol.1, pp. 154-58.

[Editorial Note 3] pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca [Library], 3.4.2. Apollodorus, The Library, ed. and tr. J.G. Frazer (London: Heinemann 1921) in Loeb Classical Library. Frazer’s translation with his extensive notes is available online on the site ‘Theoi, e-texts Library’. Newton owned Apollodorus Atheniensis, Bibliotheces sive De dijs libri III … Salmurii 1661. Harrison 61. On the Library and its author, see Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd. edn. revised, ed. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2003), p. 124, sv Apollodorus (6) and p. 1018, sv mythographers. Oxford Classical Dictionary henceforth abbreviated as OCD; also available online. I have also used Brill’s New Pauly: encyclopedia of the ancient world, ed. H. Cancik and H. Schneider; English edition ed. C.F. Salazar and D.E. Orton, 15 vols. (Leiden/Boston: Brill 2002- ); also available online.

[Editorial Note 4] 3.14.7 in Loeb edition.

[Editorial Note 5] Hyginus, Fabulae or Genealogiae. OCD, sv Hyginus 3 (a), p. 735. The ‘Fables’ are numbered 1-277; Newton’s numbers appear to agree with those in modern editions. Hygin, Fables, ed. J-Y. Boriaud (Paris: Les belles lettres 2003). An English translation is available on the website, ‘Theoi, e-texts Library’. Newton owned: Mythographi Latini. C. Jul. Hyginus [etc.] … Amstelodami 1681. Harrison 1139.

[Editorial Note 6] Among Newton’s editions of Virgil is one apparently containing Servius’s annotations: Harrison 1676. A modern edition is Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii, ed. G. Thilo and H. Hagen, 3 vols. (repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms 1961). The references in this passage are to Servius’s annotations on Georgics 3.48 (Thilo and Hagen, vol. 3, p. 279) and Aeneid 1.489 (ibid. vol. 1, p. 155).

[1] Ovid Epist VI.[Editorial Note 7]

[Editorial Note 7] This seems likely to be Ovid, Heroides, 6 ‘Hipsypyle and Jason’ in Ovid, Heroides and Amores, ed. and tr. G. Showerman (Cambridge, Mass. and London, 1914), p. 68ff.

[2] Ovid Epist 15. Argument[Editorial Note 8]

[Editorial Note 8] This may be Ovid, Heroides, 16 ‘Paris to Helen’ in the Loeb edition, p. 196 ff. ‘Argument’ refers perhaps to a scholarly headnote to the letter in one of Newton’s editions. Newton possessed several editions of Ovid: Harrison, 1221-25.

[Editorial Note 9] Etymologicum Magnum, ed. T. Gaisford (repr. Amsterdam: Hakkert 1962), p. 138, sv ἌΡΕΙΟΣ ΠΆΓΟΣ.

[Editorial Note 10] Could this be ‘Annotationes ad Chronicon Marmoreum’ in Marmora Oxoniensia … ed. H. Prideaux? Harrison 1031.

[Editorial Note 11] In Greek, Athene Areia.

[Editorial Note 12] ‘Pausanias in “Attica”’: Pausanias, Description of Greece, bk. 1 ‘Attica’ ch. 28.5. Pausanias, Description of Greece, ed. and tr. W.H.S. Jones and others, 5 vols. (London: Heinemann 1918-35) in Loeb Classical Library. The Loeb translation is available online on the site ‘Theoi, e-texts Library’. Newton possessed Pausanias, Graeciae descriptio accurata … Lipsiae 1696. Harrison 1270.

[Editorial Note 13] Apollodorus 3.15.1 (Cephalus) and ‘the Scholiast to Euripides on the ‘Orestes’. Scholia in Euripidem, ed. E. Schwartz, 2 vols. (Berlin 1887-91). The scholia to the ‘Orestes’ are in vol. 1, p. 92 ff.

[Editorial Note 14] In the Loeb edition this is bk. 2, ‘Corinth’, ch. 15.5.

[Editorial Note 15] It is difficult to see what the MS says. The passage to which Newton is referring may be bk. 4 ‘Messenia’, ch. 2.4-5.

[Editorial Note 16] ‘Jupiter the Contriver’, Ζεὺς Μηχανεύς, Pausanias, Description, 2 ‘Corinth’ 22.2.

[Editorial Note 17] ‘Hercules of Ida’, Pausanias, Description, 7 ‘Achaia’, 5.5 ff.

[Editorial Note 18] A small but rather complicated family tree of mythical Greeks is here omitted from the transcription.

[Editorial Note 19] Usually spelled ‘Cinyras’.

[Editorial Note 20] Usually spelled ‘Panyasis’.

[Editorial Note 21] This is 3.14.4 in the Loeb edition of Apollodorus.

[Editorial Note 22] Antoninus Liberalis, Collection of Metamorphoses. A mythographer of the second or third century AD. Antoninius Liberalis, Les Métamorphoses (Paris: Les belles lettres 1968). Mythographi Graeci, vol. 2, part 1 (1896). For sources of the Adonis story see H.J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology, 6th edition (London: Methuen 1958), p. 133 n. 95. Greek texts of the mythological writers cited by Newton are available in Mythographi Graeci, 5 vols. Lipsiae 1894-1902 and Scriptores poeticae historiae graeci (1843). The iconography is exhaustively treated in Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae 10 vols. in 20 (Zürich: Artemis 1981-99).

[Editorial Note 23] This appears to be ch. 34 in more modern editions.

[Editorial Note 24] Conon, Narratives [Diegeseis]. Critical Greek text available in F. Jacoby, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker (Berlin: Weidmann 1923- ), no. 26. Henceforth Jacoby, FGrH. This work is available online. A new edition of Jacoby in English, edited by Ian Worthington, is being published online by Brill.

[Editorial Note 25] Usually spelt ‘Bisaltes’.

[Editorial Note 26] Major Fifth century BC mythographer and historian, whose works have survived only in fragments, which are collected in Jacoby, FGrH no. 4. See OCD sv Hellanicus (1) of Lesbos, p. 677. Newton says of him: ‘Hellanicus, who was twelve years older than Herodotus, digested his History by the Ages or Successions of the Priestesses of Juno Argiva.’ Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms, ‘A Short Chronicle’, Introduction, ad init.

[Editorial Note 27] The sons of Boreas are usually spelled Zetes and Calais.

[Editorial Note 28] Usually spelled ‘Iasion’: Rose, Handbook, p. 250, n. 20.

[Editorial Note 29] Greek προσέληνοι, a term applied to the Arcadians that Greek writers usually interpreted as ‘older than the moon’. Cf. Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 4.263-5.

[Editorial Note 30] this is clearly the famous ‘Oedipus’, but it is spelt ‘Aedipus’ in the MS

[Editorial Note 31] The MS reading ‘Harpin’ can be restored to ‘Harpina’ with the help of L. Preller, Griechische Mythologie vol. 2, Die Heroen, 3rd. edn. by E. Plew (Berlin 1875), p. 384 n.3, which is online in ‘openlibrary’.

[Editorial Note 32] I restore this name with the help of W.H. Roscher, ed., Ausführliches Lexikon der Griechischen und Römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: B.G. Teubner 1897-1909), vol. 3, col. 2370 (online). Among the many different accounts given of the names of the sons of Phineus and Cleopatra, Newton seems to be noting the names given by the Scholiast to Apollonius Rhodius 2.178.

[Editorial Note 33] Dionysius Scytobracion, a writer of the 3rd century BC, whom Diodorus tells us he is following in his account of the Amazons in Lybia in bk. 3, ch. 52 ff. Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, ed. and trans. C. H. Oldfather and others, 12 vols., Loeb Library (1933-67). Diodore de Sicile. Bibliothèque historique, ed. and tr. Bertrac et Verrières (Paris: Les belles lettres 2002- ). Newton owned Rhodomann’s bilingual edition (Hanover 1604) and an English translation by G. Booth (London 1700). Harrison 517 and 518. Oldfather’s translation is online on the website ‘Lacus Curtius’.

[Editorial Note 34] I find the bracketed letters illegible. The name Sesonchosis is not mentioned in the passage from which this note appears to be taken, Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 4. 272-81. It seems the ‘Chochi’ are the people now normally called ‘Colchi’, the inhabitants of Aia or Aiaia.

[Editorial Note 35] ‘Farmer’

[Editorial Note 36] ‘Agricola’

[Editorial Note 37] This is Xenophon of Grypho, De Aequivocis. It is included in Antiquitatum Variarum Autores attributed to Joannes Annius (frequently reprinted in the sixteenth century). It includes works purporting to be by Berosus, Manetho, etc., but apparently all but Frontinus, De Aquaeductibus are spurious. The full quotation is given in Yahuda 16.2, ff 42r and 67r.

[Editorial Note 38] This looks like the beginning of the passage that is quoted in full in f 10v below.

[Editorial Note 39] It looks as if N. failed to change ‘usurparentur’ to the singular after deleting a few words in this clause

[Editorial Note 40] Perhaps Diodorus 1.15.3.

[Editorial Note 41] Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 31r. ‘Sanchuniathon is cited by Philon of Byblos as a pre-Trojan War authority for his Phoenician History (preserved in Eusebius).’ (OCD, p. 1352). See Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 1.9.22 ff. (1.9, 31d in Gifford). The fragments are collected in Jacoby, FGrH 790. The passage in the text here occurs at Eusebius, Preparation, 1.10, 39d. Isiris is spelt Eisirius in Gifford’s translation, vol. 1, p. 4, which would represent the Greek spelling.

[Editorial Note 42] Perhaps ‘q.d.’ stands for ‘quod dicit’, ‘which means’.

[Editorial Note 43] Genesis 9.25: ‘And he [Noah] said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren’.

[Editorial Note 44] This passage also occurs at f 48r below. Cf. also Yahuda Ms. 16.2, f. 13r and 14r. Abydenus, author of a History of the Assyrians, mentioned by Eusebius. The incident in the text occurs in Eusebius, Preparation, bk. 9, ch. 14, 416a-c.

[Editorial Note 45] The following passages are given in full in Yahuda 16.2, f. 53r.

[Editorial Note 46] Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.89 ff.

[Editorial Note 47] Virgil, Georgics, 1.125 ff.

[Editorial Note 48] Hesiod, Works and Days, 108-9.

[Editorial Note 49] Hesiod, Works and Days, 143-46

[Editorial Note 50] With the following cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 53r ff. and MSS. Temp. 3, f 12.

[Editorial Note 51] Hyginus, Fables, Fable 274.22.

[Editorial Note 52] Virgil, Georgics, 1.137-43.

[Editorial Note 53] I can’t quite make out this word in the MS. In any case it looks as if it is meant to be erased. Also, it is not in the parallel passage in Yahuda 16.2.

[Editorial Note 54] Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 54r.

[3] a Diodorus, bk.

[Editorial Note 55] Tibullus, Elegies, 1.10.1-2.

[4] c Trogus in Justinus, bk. 43.[Editorial Note 56]

[Editorial Note 56] Trogus in Justinus, bk. 43.1.3. Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, tr. J.C. Yardley (Atlanta, Ga: Scholars’ Press 1994).

[5] d Diodor l. 5 Bibliothecæ. Aurel. Victor.[Editorial Note 57]

[Editorial Note 57] Diodorus, bk. 5.66.4. Aurelius Victor, Origo gentis Romanae, 3.2.

[Editorial Note 58] Virgil, Aeneid, 8.321-2 (Loeb translation). Virgil, ed. and tr. H. Rushton Fairclough, rev. G.P. Goold, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass and London: Harvard University Press1999) in the Loeb Classical Library.

[Editorial Note 59] Cf. ‘Saturnus liberorum propriorum heluo’ in f. 11v below.

[Editorial Note 60] This passage is given in f 14r below. It is Herodotus 2.42. Herodotus, ed. and trans. A. D. Godley, 4 vols., Loeb Library (1921). Newton owned an edition by Stephanus (Geneva 1618). Harrison 758.

[6] a Africanus in Syncellus, p. 17.[Editorial Note 61]

[Editorial Note 61] Sextus Julius Africanus, a chronographer of perhaps the second century AD, whose work was used by Eusebius (fourth century) and George Syncellus (eighth century).

[7] b Eusebius, Chronicon and Syncellus.

[Editorial Note 62] Herodotus, 2.4. Quoted also in Yahuda 16.2, f 3r.

[Editorial Note 63] Herodotus, 2.50.

[Editorial Note 64] Deuteronomy 4.15, 19.

[Editorial Note 65] Deuteronomy 17.2-3.

[8] Diod. l. 1[Editorial Note 66]

[Editorial Note 66] Diodorus 1.15.9 ff.

[Editorial Note 67] Perhaps Sir John Marsham, Canon chronicus Aegyptiacus, Ebraicus, Graecus, et disquisitiones … Lipsiae 1676. Harrison 1036.

[Editorial Note 68] ‘which is interpreted as born of Hermes’. N. seems to have taken his quotations of Eratosthenes from Eusebius, Chronicon; Cf. f. 8v below: ‘the Egyptian Chronology of the Gods and Demigods which Eusebius has transcribed in his Chronicle from Eratosthenes’. The fragments of Eratosthenes’s work on chronology are collected in Jacoby, FGrH no. 241.

[9] Euseb. Pr. Ev. l. 1. p. 32[Editorial Note 69]

[Editorial Note 69] Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 1.9.24. Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, translated by Edwin Hamilton Gifford, 2 vols. (1903; reprinted, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House 1981). Eusèbe de Césarée, La Préparation Evangélique, ed. J. Serinelli and E. des Places, 9 vols. (Paris : Les éditions de Cerf 1974-87). Newton owned Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica. F. Vigerus recensuit, Latinè vertit, notis illustravit. Ed. nova. (Greek and Latin) Coloniae, 1688. Harrison 591.

[Editorial Note 70] Manetho, ed. and tr. W.G. Waddell (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard, 1940), p. 208-9. Loeb Classical Library..

[Editorial Note 71] On the astrological books of Mercury, cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 1r.

[10] Diod l 1. p 51.[Editorial Note 72]

[Editorial Note 72] Diodorus, 1.81.6.

[11] Strom. l. 1, p. 306.[Editorial Note 73]

[Editorial Note 73] Clement, Stromata, bk. 1, p. 306. Newton possessed Clemens Alexandrinus, Opera Graece et latine quae exstant … Lutetiae Parisiorum 1641. Harrison 398..

[12] Marcel. Hist l 23. p 253.[Editorial Note 74]

[Editorial Note 74] Ammianus Marcellinus, 23.6.25.

[13] Plat. in Epinomid{e}[Editorial Note 75]

[Editorial Note 75] Plato, Epinomis, 986e-987a.

[14] Herod. in Euterpe.[Editorial Note 76]

[Editorial Note 76] Herodotus, 2.4.

[15] Cited by Bullialdus in the Prolegomena to his Astr. Phil.

[Editorial Note 77] peri astrologiēs, ‘On astrology’.

[Editorial Note 78] Newton owned: Orpheus, Argonautica, Hymni, et De lapidibus … Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1689. Harrison 1214. The Argonautika of ‘Orpheus’ is available in Les argonautiques orphiques, ed, and tr, F. Vian (Paris: Les belles lettres 1987).

[16] Bar{illeg}

[Editorial Note 79] Presumably a reference to Aratus, Phaenomena. Aratus lived in the first half of the fourth century BC. Aratos, Phénomènes, ed. & tr. J. Martin, 2 vols. (Paris: Les belles lettres 2002-3).

[Editorial Note 80] Lucian, Astrology, 10, in Loeb vol. 5, p. 354-5. Lucian, ed. and trans. A. M. Harmon et al., 8 vols., Loeb Classical Library (1913-2004).

[17] Herod. in Euterpe p 102, 120.[Editorial Note 81]

[Editorial Note 81] Herodotus, 2.4. Quoted also in f. 5r and Yahuda 16.2, f 3r.

[Editorial Note 82] Herodotus 2.50.

[Editorial Note 83] the text seems to break off here in the middle of a sentence and a new topic begins at the top of f. 7r also in the middle of a sentence.

[Editorial Note 84] ‘Sanchuniathon is cited by Philon of Byblos as a pre-Trojan War authority for his Phoenician History (preserved in Eusebius)’ (OCD, p. 1352). Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 1.10.32.

[Editorial Note 85] ‘Suidas’: see Suidae Lexicon, ed. A. Adler, 5 vols. (repr. Stuttgart: Teubner 1971), vol.1, p. 389, sv Ἀστάρτη (no. 4221). This book is now called ‘the Suda’; the alleged author ‘Suidas’ is a fiction created from the title; see OCD, p. 1451.

[Editorial Note 86] Procopius of Gaza wrote catenas with commentary on the historical books of the Bible.

[Editorial Note 87] Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, bk. 1, ch. 8 in The Interpretation of Dreams: Oneirocritica by Artemidorus, ed. and tr. R.J. White (Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press 1975), p. 21.

[Editorial Note 88] Both passages are from Herodotus, 1.131. Cf. Mss. Temp. 3, f 14.

[Editorial Note 89] Perhaps Agathias, Histories, 2.24 in Agathiae Myrinaei Historiarum libri quinque, ed. B.G. Niebuhr (Bonn: Weber 1828), p. 117. Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae.

[Editorial Note 90] Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.14.7. Bk. 1 is devoted to Attica.

[Editorial Note 91] Hesychius, Lexicon sv βῆλος. Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon, ed. K. Latte, 2 vols. (Hauniae: Ejnar Munksgaard 1953- ), vol. 1, p. 325. Newton possessed a 1521 edition of Hesychius: Harrison 759. On Hesychius See OCD p. 701-2, sv Hesychius.

[Editorial Note 92] Herodotus, 2.43.

[Editorial Note 93] See Latte’s edition (fn. 119 above), vol. 2, p. 621.

[Editorial Note 94] For Hesychius, see fn. 119 above.

[Editorial Note 95] Diodorus, 2.1.4.

[Editorial Note 96] Cf. Genesis 10.11.

[Editorial Note 97]Alexandrian Chronicle’. Cf. Chronicon Alexandrinum, ed. M. Rader (1615), p. 84-5.

[Editorial Note 98] ‘Sicilian Calendar’. The ‘fasti Siculi’ are contained in the volume detailed in the previous editorial note.

[18] a Diodorus, bk. 1, p. 17.

[19] b Messeniac. p. 261.

[Editorial Note 99] Cf. Pausanias, Description, 4.23.10 (in the section on Messene).

[Editorial Note 100] ‘He-goat’.

[20] c Bayer.[Editorial Note 101]

[Editorial Note 101] Could this be Johann Bayer, Uranometria (Ulmae 1655)?

[Editorial Note 102] ‘bellatrix’.

[Editorial Note 103] ‘A name given to part of the constellation Orion (prob. the shoulders), and app. also to the whole constellation’ Oxford Latin [= OLD], ed.P.G.W. Glare, 1st edn. (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1982), sv Iugulae.

[Editorial Note 104] sic in MS, but I think it should be ‘clava’, a word specially used for the club of Hercules (OLD); ‘clavus’ normally means ‘nail’.

[Editorial Note 105] Pliny, Natural History, 18.69.278. Pliny the Elder, Natural History [Naturalis historia], ed. and trans. H. Rackham,W. H. Jones, D. E. Eichholz, 10 vols., Loeb Classical Library (1942-62). Pline l’Ancien, Histoire naturelle, ed. and tr. A. Ernout et al. (Paris: Les belles lettres 1947-).

[Editorial Note 106] ‘vis major’, a legal term.

[Editorial Note 107] Herodotus, 2.42.

[Editorial Note 108] With the following passage cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 30r.

[Editorial Note 109] Cf. Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 61. This is available in vol. 5 of Plutarch’s Moralia, 15 vols., ed. and trans. Frank Cole Babbitt et al., Loeb Classical Library (1922-69). The Loeb translation is online on the site ‘Lacus Curtius’. Newton owned two copies of Plutarch’s complete works. Harrison 1330, 1331.

[Editorial Note 110] Diodorus, Library, 1.27.3-5. Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 31r.

[Editorial Note 111] ‘Sanchuniathon is cited by Philon of Byblos as a pre-Trojan War authority for his Phoenician History (preserved in Eusebius).’ (OCD, p. 1352). See Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 1.9.22 ff. (1.9, 31d in Gifford). The passage in the text here occurs at Eusebius, Preparation, 1.10, 39d. Isiris is spelt Eisirius in Gifford’s translation, vol. 1, p. 4, based on the Greek spelling. The fragments of Sanchuniathon are collected in Jacoby, FGrH, no. 790.

[Editorial Note 112] Or ‘Phoenician’.

[Editorial Note 113] Stephanus of Byzantium was a sixth century grammarian; his book is now known as Ethnica. See OCD, p. 1442.

[Editorial Note 114] ‘Chna, this is what Phoenicia used to be called’; ‘the ethnic name of it was Chnaos’

[Editorial Note 115] With the following passage cf. Yahuda 16.2 f 12r and elsewhere.

[Editorial Note 116] Newton owned Samuel Bochart, Geographia sacra, Frankfurt 1681. Harrison 231.

[21] d Pluta{r}ch. in Isi{de.}

[Editorial Note 117] ‘sowing’.

[Editorial Note 118] ‘wine’.

[Editorial Note 119] From Greek οῖνος, ‘wine’.

[Editorial Note 120] This is ‘Xenophon of Grypho, De Aequivocis’. It is included in Antiquitatum Variarum Autores attributed to Joannes Annius (frequently reprinted in the sixteenth century). It includes works purporting to be by Berosus, Manetho, etc., but apparently all but Frontinus, De Aquaeductibus are spurious. The full quotation is given below at f. 10v; cf. also Yahuda 16.2, ff. 42r and 67r.

[Editorial Note 121] Herodotus, 2.42.

[Editorial Note 122] Diodorus, Library, 1.17.3. Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 19r etc.

[Editorial Note 123] Or ‘Phoenicians’; cf. f. 10v below: ‘Poenos id est Phoenices’.

[22] a See Bochart, Geography, bk. 1, ch. 12 and bk. 2, ch. 15[Editorial Note 124]

[Editorial Note 124] Samuel Bochart, Geographia sacra … (Frankfurt 1681). Harrison 231. Lucian, Dialogues of the Gods 4 (24), ‘Hermes and Maia’, in vol. 7 of the Loeb Lucian, p. 254-5.

[Editorial Note 125] Cf. Genesis 10.6.

[Editorial Note 126] Cf. Yahuda f 16.2, f42r and f 67r. For Xenophon.

[23] ✝ Mag or Magae

[Editorial Note 127] When it occurs in classical Latin ‘Poeni’ is usually translated ‘Punic’ and normally refers to the Carthginians, but N. uses it, as he makes clear here, as a synonym for ‘Phoenices’, ‘Phoenicians’. Carthage had been founded as a colony from the Phoenician city of Tyre.

[Editorial Note 128] With the following passage, cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 16r.

[24] a Pliny bk. 34, ch. 7. Arnobius, bk. 3.[Editorial Note 129]

[Editorial Note 129] Pliny, Natural History, 34.16.33. The subdivisions of the text of Pliny’s Natural History differ markedly in modern editions from those current in Newton’s time. Arnobius, Adversus gentes 3.29; Arnobius of Sicca, The Case against the Pagans, ed. and tr. G.E. McCracken, 2 vols. (Westminster, MD: Newman Press 1949), vol. 1, p. 215.

[Editorial Note 130] ‘wine’

[Editorial Note 131] ‘vine’

[25] b Macrobius, 1 Saturnalia, bk. 9[Editorial Note 132]

[Editorial Note 132] Cf. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.9.16 in the Loeb edition. Macrobius, Saturnalia, ed. and tr. R.A. Kaster, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard 2011).

[Editorial Note 133] ‘sowing together’

[Editorial Note 134] ‘Noah’

[26] a Diodorus.[Editorial Note 135]

[Editorial Note 135] Cf. Diodorus, 1.13.

[Editorial Note 136] Herodotus 2.42.

[27] a So Diodorus, bk. 1, p. 14[Editorial Note 137]

[Editorial Note 137] Diodorus, 1.15.

[28] b. Plin. 5. 9[Editorial Note 138]

[Editorial Note 138] This looks like a reference to Pliny, Natural History, 5.11.60.

[29] b Dionysius Periēgētēs. Hence the star Sirius[Editorial Note 139]

[Editorial Note 139] On this author and his poem, ‘Geographical Description of the Inhabited World, see OCD, p. 478, sv Dionysius (9) ‘Periegetes’.

[Editorial Note 140] the sentence breaks off here

[Editorial Note 141] Ammianus Marcellinus, 14.4.1-3, 6-7. My translation is adapted from Ammianus Marcellinus, ed. and trans. John C. Rolfe, 3 vols., Loeb Classical Library.

[30] a Justin, bk. 1.

[Editorial Note 142] Justinus, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, 1.2.13.

[31] b Manetho in Josephus, Against Apion’.[Editorial Note 143]

[Editorial Note 143] Cf. Against Apion, 1.82. Josephus, The Life. Against Apion, ed. and tr. H. St. J. Thackeray (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard 1926). Loeb Classical Library.

[Editorial Note 144] ‘For every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.’

[Editorial Note 145] Diodorus, 2.48.4.

[Editorial Note 146] Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 66r. The reference is to Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 9.16, 416d.

[32] a under the word thouras’.[Editorial Note 147]

[Editorial Note 147] ‘Suidas’, Lexicon, ed. Adler, vol. 2, p. 722, no. 417.

[Editorial Note 148] ‘War’.

[Editorial Note 149] Sic in MS, but the correct form is ‘Artaxerxes’, which is presumably what N. intended to write, given the parallel with ‘Artabanus’.

[Editorial Note 150] Hyginus, Fables, 2. Hyginus speaks of Melicertes, the son of Ino, not ‘Melicartes’.

[Editorial Note 151] With the following passage cf. Yahuda Ms. 16.2, f 65r.

[Editorial Note 152] Macrobius, bk. 1 Saturnalia, ch. 12’. But it looks like Saturnalia 3.12.5-6.

[Editorial Note 153] The Salii were archaic and aristocratic ritual associations in towns throughout Italy. The Virgil reference is Aeneid, 8.285 ff.

[Editorial Note 154] A prestigious order of ancient Roman priests.

[Editorial Note 155] ‘This other Herakles’. This passage may be found in Varro, Menippea, fragments 19 and 20 (ed. J-P. Cèbe, Rome 1972).

[Editorial Note 156] Aristotle, On the World, ch. 2, 392a25.

[Editorial Note 157] This passage may be found in Widukindi res gestae Saxonicae, ed. D.G. Waitz, bk. 1, ch. 12 in Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Annales, chronici et historiae aevi Saxonici, Tab. IV, p. 423. The MGH is available online.

[Editorial Note 158] Apparently Achilles Tatius, ‘Isagoga excerpta’, no. 17, in Commentariorum in Aratum Reliquiae, ed. E. Maass (Berlin 1958), p. 43. Isagoge means ‘Introduction’.

[Editorial Note 159] Ammianus Marcellinus, 17.4.12 ff.

[Editorial Note 160] Heliodorus, Aethiopica.

[Editorial Note 161] This looks like Ammianus Marcellinus, 17.4.12 ff.

[Editorial Note 162] Or perhaps ‘since’.

[Editorial Note 163] With the following passage, cf. Yahuda 16.2, folios 12r and 16r.

[Editorial Note 164] Newton owned Samuel Bochart, Geographia sacra, Frankfurt 1681. Harrison 231.

[Editorial Note 165] pangenētōr ‘father of all’; genarchēs ‘ruler of created things’.

[Editorial Note 166] Mētēr men te theōn ēde thnētōn anthrōpōn ‘Mother of gods and mortal men’. In the Hymn to Rhea in Orphica, ed. Abel (1885), 14.9.

[Editorial Note 167] Terentianus Maurus, a grammarian of the late second century AD. Newton’s quotation can be found in his work, De literis, De Syllabis, and De metris, line 1894, in Keil, ed., Grammatici Latini, vol. 6, p. 382.

[33] c Pliny, bk. 34, ch. 7 Arnobius, bk. 3

[34] a Geography, bk. 3, ch. 5.

[Editorial Note 168] ‘daughters of Titan’.

[Editorial Note 169] Cf. Yahuda 16, f 14r.

[Editorial Note 170] Tertullian, Apology, ch. 10.

[Editorial Note 171] ‘daughters of Titan’.

[Editorial Note 172] Abydenus, author of a History of the Assyrians, mentioned by Eusebius. The incident in the text occurs at Preparation, bk. 9, ch. 14, 416a-c. Cf. Yahuda 16, f 12r and 48r.

[Editorial Note 173] ‘Copts’?

[Editorial Note 174] ‘com’ is unintelligible

[Editorial Note 175] I can’t make sense of ‘M’.

[Editorial Note 176] the final couple of lines seem to be unintelligible.

[Editorial Note 177] With the following passage, cf. Yahuda Ms. 16.2, f 56r.

[Editorial Note 178] Herodotus 2.42.

[Editorial Note 179] Hesychius, Lexicon, ed. Latte, vol. 1, p. 129.

[Editorial Note 180] Plato, Phaedrus, 274d.

[Editorial Note 181] Cf. Yahuda Ms. 16, f 14r and f 15r.

[35] a Steph.[Editorial Note 182]

[Editorial Note 182] Might this be Robertus Stephanus, Dictionarium nominum propriorum virorum, mulierum, populorum … (Cologne 1576)? Harrison 1559.

[Editorial Note 183] Lucan, Pharsalia, 9.518-19.

[Editorial Note 184] Diodorus, 1.13.

[Editorial Note 185] the erasures seem to have disturbed the syntax here.

[Editorial Note 186] ‘fi’ seems to be an abbreviation for ‘filio’.

[Editorial Note 187] pangenētōr ‘father of all’; genarchēs ‘ruler of created things’.

[Editorial Note 188] Mētēr men te theōn ēde thnētōn anthrōpōn ‘Mother of gods and mortal men’.

[Editorial Note 189] With the following passage cf. Yahuda Ms. 16.2, f 57r.

[Editorial Note 190] Plotinus, Enneads, 5.1.2.

[Editorial Note 191] The emblematic representations of the gods in the following lines seem to derive from Horapollo, Hieroglyphica, 1.12.

[Editorial Note 192] Apparently Simia hamadryas, a sacred animal in Egypt (OLD, sv cynocephalus).

[Editorial Note 193] the sentence breaks off here.

[Editorial Note 194] Cf. Caesar, Gallic War, 6.13-17.

[Editorial Note 195] Minucius Felix, Octavius, 30.

[Editorial Note 196] Cartagena.

[Editorial Note 197] Perhaps cf. Livy, 26.44.

[36] a Vide Sched. de Dijs Germanis

[Editorial Note 198] Cf. Lucian, On Astrology, 3-10. Lucian, ed. and tr. A. M. Harmon et al., 8 vols., Loeb Classical Library (1913-2004), vol. 5, p. 350-55.

[Editorial Note 199] ‘Serpentario’.

[Editorial Note 200] Or ‘engonasin’ apparently: ‘the kneeling figure’.

[Editorial Note 201] Achilles Tatius, ‘Introduction to the Phaenomena of Aratus’. See Commentariorum in Aratum Reliquiae, ed. E. Maass (Berlin 1958).

[Editorial Note 202] Diodorus. 1.23.2.

[Editorial Note 203] Perhaps his Commentary on Dionysius Periegetes. See OCD, p. 576-7, sv Eustathius.

[Editorial Note 204] Hesiod, Theogony, 984-5.

[Editorial Note 205] Cf. Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, 6.4. Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, ed. and trans. Christopher P. Jones, 2 vols., Loeb Classical Library (2005). See OCD, p. 128, sv Apollonius (12) of Tyana and p. 1171, sv Philostrati.

[Editorial Note 206] Homer, Odyssey, 4.83-4.

[37] Il. 1.

[Editorial Note 207] Florus, Epitome, 1.2.3.

[Editorial Note 208] Plato, Phaedrus, 246e. Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 5r.

[Editorial Note 209] Plutarch, ‘On Isis and Osiris’ 21 (359d).

[Editorial Note 210] With the following cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 35r.

[Editorial Note 211] Herodotus, History, bk. 4.189. Newton possessed Herodotus, Historiarum libri VIII … … [Geneva] 1618. Harrison 758.

[Editorial Note 212] Maximus of Tyre, Philosophical Orations, 17.2. Maximus of Tyre, The Philosophical Orations, trans. and ed. M. B. Trapp (Oxford: Clarendon, 1997).

[Editorial Note 213] Diodorus 1.21.

[Editorial Note 214] The late Roman poet Claudian wrote a ‘Gigantomachia’, available in Claudian, ed. and tr. M. Platnauer (London 1922), p. 280 ff. (Poem no. 52). Loeb Classical Library. Apollodorus, 1.6.1 ff. gives a substantial prose account. See also H.J. Rose, Handbook, p. 56 ff.

[Editorial Note 215] Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.319-31. Loeb translation adapted: Ovid, Metamorphoses, ed. and tr. F.J. Miller and G.P. Goold, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U.P. 2004-2005). Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f. 34r, etc.

[Editorial Note 216] With the following cf. Yahuda 16r, f 34r.

[Editorial Note 217] Plutarch, Lives, ‘Sertorius’, 9.3-4.

[Editorial Note 218] Strabo, Geography, 17.3.8.

[38] a Plutarch. in Iside[Editorial Note 219]

[Editorial Note 219] Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 41 (367d).

[Editorial Note 220] Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 274d.

[39] bk. 2, ch. 5[Editorial Note 221]

[Editorial Note 221] This looks like Herodotus, 2.15.

[Editorial Note 222] Cf. Genesis 10.13-14.

[Editorial Note 223] I have made this sentence grammatical by assuming that a word like ‘ut’, ‘as’ has been lost in the erasure before ‘Herodotus’. The passage of Herodotus is 2.144.

[Editorial Note 224] Horapollo was a grammarian with Neoplatonist tendencies in Alexandria c. 500 AD. The first printed edition of his Hieroglyphica was published in 1505 along with Aesop’s Fables, and it was frequently reprinted.

[Editorial Note 225] ‘… barking Anubis’; Virgil, Aeneid, 8.698. For Servius on this passage, see Thilo and Hagen, vol. 2, p. 302..

[Editorial Note 226] Apuleius, Metamorphoses, 11.11.

[Editorial Note 227] Strabo, 17.1.40.

[Editorial Note 228] Plutarch, ‘On Isis and Osiris’, ch. 62; cf. also 41 and 49.

[40] g Macrob. Saturn. l. 1. c. 17.[Editorial Note 229]

[Editorial Note 229] Cf. Macrobius, Saturnalia, bk. 1, ch. 17.24.

[41] c lib 2[Editorial Note 230]

[Editorial Note 230] Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 144.

[42] d lib 1[Editorial Note 231]

[Editorial Note 231] Perhaps Diodorus, bk. 1, ch. 25.7.

[43] e De Iside[Editorial Note 232]

[Editorial Note 232] Perhaps Plutarch, ‘On Isis and Osiris’, ch. 12.

[Editorial Note 233] ‘… barking Anubis’; Virgil, Aeneid, 8.698..

[Editorial Note 234] Apuleius, Metamorphoses, 11.11.

[Editorial Note 235] Strabo 17.1.40.

[Editorial Note 236] Hērmanoubis.

[Editorial Note 237] With the following cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 65r.

[Editorial Note 238] [Aristotle], On the World, ch. 2, 392a25.

[Editorial Note 239] ‘Introduction’. Apparently Achilles Tatius, ‘Isagoga excerpta’, no. 17, in Commentariorum in Aratum Reliquiae, ed. E. Maass (Berlin 1958), p. 43.

[Editorial Note 240] Diodorus, 3.43.4-7, with omissions.

[44] a Plut Isid.[Editorial Note 241]

[Editorial Note 241] Plutarch, On Isis, 32, 363e-f. Cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 34v.

[45] b Clement. Alex. Str. 5.[Editorial Note 242]

[Editorial Note 242] Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 5.7.

[46] c Herodotus, bk. 2.[Editorial Note 243]

[Editorial Note 243] perhaps 2.37.

[Editorial Note 244] The sentence breaks off here.

[47] g Diodorus, bk. 5.

[48] h in Isis[Editorial Note 245]

[Editorial Note 245] i.e. ‘On Isis and Osiris’, ch. 21.

[Editorial Note 246] Perhaps pseudo-Plutarch, De placitis philosophorum libri V, On the doctrines of the Philosophers, which appears in Plutarch's Moralia. Plutarque, Opinions des philosophes, ed. and tr. Guy Lachenaud (Paris: Les belles lettres 1993).

[Editorial Note 247] I am not sure if I have translated ‘sub concavo Lunae’ correctly-->

[Editorial Note 248] Hippocrates of Chios, late fifth century B.C. mathematician and astronomer. See OCD, p. 711.

[Editorial Note 249] interpreting ‘fl. coe.’ (which just might be ‘fl. coel.’ in the MS) as ‘fluiditas coeli’.

[Editorial Note 250] Usually spelled ‘Callippus’, an astronomer who was an associate of Aristotle. See OCD, p. 278.

[Editorial Note 251] With the following passage cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 1r and 1v.

[Editorial Note 252] ἀυτοπτης. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 6.4.35-37.

[Editorial Note 253] Perhaps Diodorus Siculus, Library, 1.11.

[Editorial Note 254] This looks like Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 1.10-11.

[Editorial Note 255] This report about Chaeremon by Porphyry is found in Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 3.4, 92b. Chaeremon was an Alexandrian scholar who was a tutor to Nero.

[Editorial Note 256] Cf. Preparation for the Gospel, bk. 1, ch. 6.

[Editorial Note 257] The notorious Greek use of the word barbaroi.

[49] Herod. Euterpe. p 123.[Editorial Note 258]

[Editorial Note 258] Herodotus, History, 2.50. The nine books of Herodotus’s History were given the names of the nine Muses.

[Editorial Note 259] Herodotus, 2.4. These two passages of Herodotus were also quoted above at f. 5r.

[Editorial Note 260] With this paragraph cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 3r.

[Editorial Note 261] With this paragraph cf. Yahuda 16.2, f 4r.

[Editorial Note 262] Philastrius, Bishop of Brescia, author of De Haeresibus (1539).

[50] Strom l. 1. Lib 2.[Editorial Note 263]

[Editorial Note 263] Clement, Stromata, bk. 1, ch. 16..

[Editorial Note 264] Herodotus, History, 2.82.

[Editorial Note 265] Dio Cassius, Roman History, 37.18.1.

[Editorial Note 266] Diodorus, 2.30.6.

[Editorial Note 267] These lines may be found in Remains of Old Latin, ed. and tr. E.H. Warmington (Cambridge, Mass/London), 1935), vol. 1, p. 22-3, ‘Ennius’, lines 60-1. They were preserved in Martianus Capella, ‘De nuptiis philologiae et Mercurii’, bk. 1, sect. 42 in Martianus Capella, ed. F. Eyssenhardt (Leipzig: Teubner 1866), p. 17. Both books are online on ‘openlibrary’.

[51] a See Vossius de Idol. bk. 2, chs. 16 and 19.[Editorial Note 268]

[Editorial Note 268] This looks like G.J. Vossius, De theologia Gentili, et physiologia Christiana; sive de origine ac progressu idololatriae … liber I, et II. Amsterdam 1641. Harrison 1697.

[Editorial Note 269] Aristotle, Metaphysics, 8, 1074b1-8. Also quoted in Yahuda 16.2, f. 57r.

[Editorial Note 270] Cf. pseudo-Plato, Axiochus 370b.

[Editorial Note 271] Plato, Cratylus, 410b.

[Editorial Note 272] Caesar, Gallic War, 6.21.

[Editorial Note 273] Job 31.26-8.

[Editorial Note 274] Cf. Exodus 20.4-5?

[Editorial Note 275] Pausanias, Description, bk. 8 is devoted to Arcadia.

[Editorial Note 276] Cf. Pausanias, Description, 8.1.4-6 on Pelasgus.

[Editorial Note 277] Pausanias, Description, bk. 7 is devoted to Achaea.

[Editorial Note 278] This and the following paragraph concern Corinthian figures; Pausanias, Description, bk. 2.1ff. is devoted to Corinth.

[Editorial Note 279] On these writers see OCD, p. 1157 sv Pherecydes (1) and Pherecydes (2).

[Editorial Note 280] Perhaps Marmora Oxoniensia, … H. Prideaux Oxonii 1676. Harrison 1032.

[Editorial Note 281] I interpret ‘fi.’ as ‘filius’. Cf. Pausanias, Description, bk. 4, ch. 4.

[Editorial Note 282] Cf. Pausanias, Description, 4.5.8 ff.

[Editorial Note 283] Eusebius, Chronicon.

[Editorial Note 284] Photius, Bibliotheca, no. 279 in vol. 8 of Photius, Bibliothèque, ed. and tr. R. Henry (Paris: Les belles lettres 1977).

[Editorial Note 285] Porphyry, On Abstinence from Animals, bk. 2, ch. 27. Porphyry, On Abstinence from killing Animals, tr. Gillian Clark (Ithaca, NY: Cornell 2000).

[Editorial Note 286] ‘Servius on Georgics I.

[Editorial Note 287] Clement, Protrepticus, Tatian, Eusebius.

[Editorial Note 288] Diodorus 4.14.4.

[Editorial Note 289] Herodotus, bk. 1, Diodorus, Ovid, Eusebius.

[Editorial Note 290] Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, bk. 10, ch. 11. Perhaps §10-11.

[Editorial Note 291] See OCD sv Menander (3) of Ephesus, p. 957.

[Editorial Note 292] Usually spelled ‘Aeetes’.

[Editorial Note 293] Josephus, Against Apion, bk. 1.97-105.

[Editorial Note 294] Diodorus, bk. 3, ch. 4.

[Editorial Note 295] Diodorus, bk. 4, ch. 1.

[Editorial Note 296] Diodorus, bk. 4, ch. 2 (4.37.3 in the Loeb edition). Newton’s ch. 2 perhaps covers bk. 4, chs. 8-39 in the Loeb edition, a section which recounts the deeds of Hercules. Comparable remarks would apply to Newton’s other references in this section.

[Editorial Note 297] These page numbers perhaps apply to one of the two copies of Diodorus owned by Newton.

[Editorial Note 298] ‘Diodorus bk. 5 p. 197, 198 & bk. 4 p. 167, 168.’

[Editorial Note 299] Herodotus, 2.171.

[Editorial Note 300] Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods 3.48.

[Editorial Note 301] Pliny, Natural History, 6.35.182. Pliny, Natural History, ed. and trans. H. Rackham,W. H. Jones, D. E. Eichholz, 10 vols., Loeb Library (1942-62).

[Editorial Note 302] Pliny, Natural History, 6.35.182.

[Editorial Note 303] Pliny, Natural History, 33.15.51-2.

[Editorial Note 304] Pliny, Natural History, 33.15.52.

[Editorial Note 305] Pliny, Natural History, 7.48.154.

[Editorial Note 306] Strabo, Geography, 14.6.6. Newton owned two editions of Strabo’s Geography: Harrison 1572, 1573.

[Editorial Note 307] This is perhaps a reference to the dictionary of proper names by Robertus Stephanus, sv Aea.

[Editorial Note 308] Diodorus, bk. 3, ch. 1.

[Editorial Note 309] Clement, Stromata bk. 1, ch. 21.

[Editorial Note 310] ‘Clement from Eratosthenes’. Cf. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, bk. 1, ch. 21.

[Editorial Note 311] This too seems to come from Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, bk. 1, ch. 21: ‘Aristarchus, in his Commentary on Archilochus, says that he [Homer] lived during the Ionic migration’. This seems most likely to be the Alexandrian critic Aristarchus (see OCD, p. 159 sv Aristarchus (2) of Samothrace).

[Editorial Note 312] Clement of Alexandria.

[Editorial Note 313] pangenētōr ‘father of all’; genarchēs ‘ruler of created things’.

[Editorial Note 314] Mētēr men te theōn ēde thnētōn anthrōpōn ‘Mother of gods and mortal men’.

[Editorial Note 315] ‘et aut’

[Editorial Note 316] translating as if it were ‘finguntur’, though it is ‘figuntur’ in MS.

[Editorial Note 317] Bochart, Geographia Sacra.

[Editorial Note 318] ‘spreading wide’.

[Editorial Note 319] poseidōn

[Editorial Note 320] Herodotus, 2.42.

[Editorial Note 321] Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 9.

[Editorial Note 322] Hesychius, ed. Latte, vol. 1, p. 129: Αμμοῦς ὁ ζεὺς, Αριστοτέλης, ‘Ammous is Zeus, according to Aristotle’.

[Editorial Note 323] ἑρμηνεύε with the breathing (hermēneue): ‘was an interpreter’.

[Editorial Note 324] Dionios seems to be explained here as an adjectival form from Di-, which is the root of all but the nominative case of Zeus (Dia, Dios, Dii). ‘Iovius’ is apparently being said to be an adjectival form from Jovem, Jovis, etc.

[Editorial Note 325] Plato, Phaedrus, 274d2-4.

[Editorial Note 326] Perhaps Sir John Marsham, Canon chronicus Aegyptiacus, Ebraicus, Graecus, et disquisitiones … Lipsiae 1676. Harrison 1036.

[Editorial Note 327] Cf. Ezekiel 8.14: ‘and behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz’.

[Editorial Note 328] On Isis and Osiris, 33.

[Editorial Note 329] Lucan, Pharsalia, 9.518-19.

[Editorial Note 330] The MS reads ‘Glaphyta, but I think these commentaries of Cyril on the Pentateuch are usually called ‘Glaphyra’.

[Editorial Note 331] Etymologicum Magnum.

[Editorial Note 332] Plutarch, Theseus 20.5. The Loeb translation of Plutarch’s Theseus is available on the website ‘Theoi e-texts’.

[Editorial Note 333] Plutarch, Theseus 31.4.

[Editorial Note 334] Plutarch, Romulus 3.1 and 8.7. Loeb translation available on the website ‘Lacus Curtius’.

[Editorial Note 335] Plutarch, ‘Lycurgus’ 1.1-2.

[Editorial Note 336] Plutarch, ‘Lycurgus’ 23.2.

[Editorial Note 337] ‘Examination of Chronology’; see Plutarch, ‘Numa’ 1.1.

[Editorial Note 338] Plutarch, ‘Numa’ 1.

[Editorial Note 339] Plutarch, ‘Numa’ 18.

[Editorial Note 340] Plutarch, ‘Solon’ 27.

[Editorial Note 341] Plutarch, ‘Solon’ 26, 31.

[Editorial Note 342] Plutarch, ‘Why the Oracles at Delphi are no longer given in Verse’, 18 in Plutarch, Moralia, vol. 5 of the Loeb edition: Plutarch’s Moralia, 15 vols., ed. and trans. Frank Cole Babbitt et al., Loeb Library (1922-69).

[Editorial Note 343] Pliny, Natural History, 7.56.205.

[Editorial Note 344] ‘Ab urbe condita 142’.

[Editorial Note 345] Pliny, Natural History, 2.23.92.

[Editorial Note 346] Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, 9.39.

[Editorial Note 347] ‘Berosus in Josephus, Antiquities, bk. 10, ch. 1’. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.21 in the Loeb edition. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, ed. and tr. R. Marcus, 9 vols. (Cambridge, Mass 1998). Newton owned Josephus, Opera quae extant omnia … (Coloniae 1691). Harrison 861, and Josephus, Works … (London 1693). Harrison 862.

[Editorial Note 348] Josephus, Antiquities, bk. 10, ch. 5’ (10.74 ff.).

[Editorial Note 349] Josephus, Antiquities, bk. 10, chs. 6 & 7’. (10.84 ff.).

[Editorial Note 350] Josephus, Against Apion; cf. 1.134 ff.

[Editorial Note 351] ‘Josephus, Antiquities, bk. 10, ch. 5’.

[Editorial Note 352] ‘in Josephus, Antiquities, bk. 10, ch. 10 & Against Apion. bk. 1.’

[Editorial Note 353] ‘Josephus, Antiquities, bk. 10. ch. 2’.

[Editorial Note 354] All the remaining references are to Herodotus, Histories, bk. 1. The edition Newton used has chapter divisions similar to those of modern editions. Newton owned Herodotus, Historiarum libri IX … [Geneva], 1618. Harrison 758.

[Editorial Note 355] This refers to the eclipse of the sun dated to May 28, 585 BC.

[Editorial Note 356] translating as if the text were ‘totam … Asiam’. N. seems to have changed the structure of the sentence, but forgotten to put these two words into the accusative.

[Editorial Note 357] Spelled ‘Labynetus’ in Herodotus.

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Professor Rob Iliffe
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