447 Togro'l Beg 1055
455 Olub-Arslan nepos 1063
465 Malecsahus fil 1073
485 Mahmud fil 1092
487 Barkiaruc frat 1094
498 Muhammed frat 1105
511 Mahmud frat iterum 1117
525 David fil 1131
530 Masud
547 Melechsahus
547 Mohammed
554 Soliman sha 1159
or 1160


Il Gazi ebn Ortoc
516 Solyman fil. 1122
578 vel * *
581 Saladin 1185
Adel fil
615 Modhaffer fil 1218
Ashraf fil occisus ab Hulacu anno 658


500 Zengius fil 1107
502 Maudud fil. {Tatash} 1109
515 Oksenkar (Assangur) 1121
520 Ezzoddinus fil 1126
521 Zengius (Saugain) frat. 1127
540 Gazi fil. 1145
544 Kotboddin frat 1149
565 Gazi fil 1170
576 Ezzoddin frat. 1180
589 Nuraddin fil 1193
607 Ezzodin fil. 1211
615 Nuroddin fil 1218
615 Naseroddin frat 1218
631 Badroddin Luluus 1234
657 Al Saleh fil una cum fratribus qui anno 659 & 660 a Tartaris evertuntur AC: 1261 & 1262


IlGazi fil
516 Tamartash fil 1122
547 Nojmoddin fil 1152
IlGazi fil
Kotboddin fil
580 Hosamoddin fil 1184
puer in vivis an 594 (1198) 595 Kotboddin frat puer 1200 circiter
Pater Modhafferi anonymus
658 Modhaffer 1260


468 Aksis 1075
472 Tagjuddaulas Talash filius Olub Arslami 1079
488 Raduan 1095
Tagjuddaulas 1113
Bulgarus 1117
515 Solyman 1121
517 Balac 1123
518 Oksenkar (Assangur) 1124
520 Anonymus quidam fil 1126
522 Zengius (Sanguin) frat 1128
540 Noroddin fil 1145
569 Malechsalah fil 1174
Omadoddin Zengius
579 Salahoddin
589 Al Dhaher fil Saladin cum fratre Damasceno 1193
612 Al Aziz fil 1216
634 Malec-Naser fil, regum Iiubidarum ultimus quem interfecit Hulacu.
[Editorial Note 1]

For these were the Princes of the East whose way was prepared by the dissolution of the Euphratean Sultanies. And of these there are recconned by historians 7 eminent ones a little before they united under Ottoman.


Now in this History we have first the desolation of Bagdad, but that being not a Turkish Sultany &c – conclusion thereof: & so there will remain

[for (accounting Damascus the head of Syria as it was unquestionably in the beginning of that sultany & many ages before) their position, so nearely as I can gather it out of Ptolomy & the Nubian Geography, is this.

2 Decac at Damascus (1095) with his brother Roduan at Aleppo. 3 Togtacinus Atabec (or {Doldaqin} Abacuc) 1104 4 Tegel-melud, 5 Majiroddin Atec ebn Mohammed ebn Buri ebn Togtacin Atabec. 6 Norodin 1154. 7 Malechsala fil 1174. 8 Saladin 1175.

After the death of Tajuddaulas this Sultany became divided between his sons Decac & Roduan the first residing at Damascus the other at Aleppo And in this divided state it continued about 32 years the successors of Roduan being Tajuddaulas fil 1113. Bulgar 1117. Solyman 1122. & Balac 1123. The next year AC 1124 Aleppo became subject to Oksenkar the sultan of Mausela & after him to his son Zengius until the year 1145 & then he dying his son Nuroddin inherited Aleppo without Mausela & after 9 years reunited it & Damascus under himself. And from that time Damascus &c

[4 Buri fil. 5 Muhammed fil (Shekaboddin, or Tegel-melud) 6 Majiroddin fil. 7 Nurrodin who began at Aleppo A.C 1145 & at Damascus AC 1154.

{3} These nations were seated in a 4square position. This is hinted by the 4 horns of the g. Altar from whence the voice concerning them came. For the horns by this voice coming from them are made a type of the 4 Angels, . & consequently of their position For they can typify them in nothing but their position & number & it would be a superfluous circumstance were it only to express their number since that is otherwise sufficiently defined.

– & that in a square position one to another, &c –

Their position was not indeed exactly square. But as Daniel expressed that the successors of Alexander the great should be divided toward the 4 winds of heaven Dan 11.2 & yet they lay not exactly east west north & south from their common center but only something nearly approached to that posture: so here it may suffice if the posture of the 4 Turkish nations pretty nearly resemble a square: And they do whether you consider their ditions in general or their head cities if


The first that notably advanced | promoted the Turkish state was Togru'lbec (called also Togra, Taugrolipix, Dogrissa, & Sadoc) who having conquered Chorasan & Persia & added Bagdad to his Empire AC 1055 & made that the seat thereof. And his successor Olub'Arslan ( called also Asan, Accian, Olbarsalan Alpasalem & Aspasalem) who began his reign A.C. 1063, added also Mesopotamia a good part of which he took from the Greeks captivating at the same time their Emperor Diogenes Romanus. The third Sultan Malechsah (or Melecla) who began his reign A.C. 1071 sent Aksis to invade Syria AC 1075 & Cutlumuses into to invade the lesser Asia AC 1079, [the first of which made | took Aleppo & the last Cæsarea & Iconium the seat of their dominions which their successors asserted to thems] & after the death of this Sultan which happened AC 1092 the Empire was rent in pieces by civil dissentions, the subordinate Sultans (of the principal cities) asserting absolute dominion over the territories which before they held under the Sultan of Bagdad. whence sprang the following senary | dynasties

1 The remainder of the Sultany of Bagdad, whose Sultans were Barchiaruc, (or Belchiaroc) Muhammed, Mahmud, David, Masud, Melechsa, Muhammed, & Solyman shah: in whom the race of the Saghucides at Bagdad ended about the year 1160 or soon after, & from thence forward unto the taking of Bagdad by the Tartars, the Chalifa recoverd & maintained supreme temporal power within this Sultany, which had been intermitted for about 224 years.

2 The Sultany of Mausela or Mosul, a City of Mesopotamia seated upon Tigris about 100 miles north west of Bagdad & 60 miles from a branch of Euphrates; whose Sultans were 1 Iagarmish, 2 Zengius fil who began his reign AC 1107, 3 Maudud 1109, 4 Oksenkar (or Assangur) 1121, 5 Ezzoddin fil. 1126, 6 Zengius (or Sanguin) frat 1127, 7 Gazi fil 1145, 8 Cotboddin frat 1149 9 Gazi fil 1170, 10 Ezzoddin frat 1180, 11 Nuroddin fil 1193, 12 Ezzoddin fil 1211 13 Nuroddin fil 1218, 14 Naseroddin frat 1218, 15 Badroddin 1234, 16 Saleh fil with his brothers 1259 whose Territories after two or three years were taken from them by the Tartars. To this Sultany belonged the southern regions of Mesopotamia extending from Tigris to Euphrates, together with a good part of Assyria, on the other side of Tigris.

3 The Sultany of Maredin (or Mirdein or Marde) a city of Mesopotamia seated also not far from Tigris northwest of Mausela. Its Sultans were 1 Ortoc who was contemporary to Olub Arslan & Melecsah & Barki{aru}{c}; 2 Gazi fil; 3 Tamartash fil, who began his reign 1122; 4 Nojmoddin fil who began 1152; 5 Gazi fil; 6 Cotboddin fil; 7 Hosamoddin fil. 8 Kotboddin frat. 9 Pater Modhafferi anonymus; 10 Modhaffer qui cepit – –


The Sultany of Miepharekin (called also Magarkin & Martyropolis) a city of Armenia major upon the border of Mesopotamia at a {little} distance beyond {Tigris} about 120 miles beyond Euphrates but scarce above half that distance from one of its arms. This sultany was for the most part a Province of the Sultany of Maredin until Saladin invaded it about the year 1185 after whose death succeeded Adel fil, Modhaffer fil, & Ashraf fil;

4 The Sultany of Syria usually seated at Alepo . Its Sultans were 1 Aksis, who took | conquered Damascus & the most of Syria A C 1075 2 Tagjuddaulas Talash who took Aleppo A. C. 1079, 3 Roduan, 4 Tagjuddaulas     5 Bulgar     6 Solyman 7 Balac 8 Oksenkar (or Assangur) 9 Anonimus quidam fil 10 Zengius (or Sanguin) frat, 11 Nurrodin fil, 12 Saheh fil, 13 Saladin, 14 Dhaker fil, 15 Aziz fil, 16 Naser fil who began his reign AC 1237 & reigned till the invasion of the Tartars. Vnder this Sultany besides Syria was sometimes (& particularly at the time of the Tartarian invasion) a part of Mesopotamia comprehending Edessa & Harran or Carrhæ. After the reign of Tagjuddaulas which ended AC 1095 Syria was divided into two Sultanies the one seated at Alepo the other at Damascus But < insertion from f 3r > Nuroddin AC 1154 united them again & from that time the regions of Damasc were almost continually subject either to the Sultans of Alepo or Egypt or divided between them.

< text from f 2v resumes >

5 The Sultany of Asia seated at Iconium whose Sultans were Cutlumuses, Solyman fil, Tanisman (or Kelui Arslan) fil Masut fil with his Brothers., Clisastlan fil, Kai Cosroes fil with his brothers Ezzodin (Azatin) fil, Aladin frat. Iathatin frat Ezzodin fil with his brother Rocnoddin (Masut & Kei cubades). Aladin {f} Salghucidarum ultimus.

Besides these, (& the sultanies of Egypt & Corasan which I reccon not here by reason of their distance from Euphrates) there were sometimes other sultanies split out of these; but those were but of small extent, bearing perhaps that proportion to these which the European Dukedomes & Principalities do to Kingdoms; & if any of them were at any time greater yet they were but of short continuance, & extinct before the incursion of the Tartars, & therefore deserve not to be here remembred unles with reference to those aforenamed cardinal Sultanies out < insertion from f 3r > of which they were derived, & into which they returned again.

< text from f 2v resumes > <3r>

During this state of the Turks, the Empire of the Tatars (or Tartars) was founded in Tataria under Zingiz Chan A.C. 1203. by whom amongst other eastern & northern regions Corasan was {subdued} Afterwards the Kingdom of Armenia was much afflicted by his successors & the sultany of Iconium subjugated A.C. 1243 but not overthrown And at length Mangca Caan the 4th Emperor of the Tartars being converted to Christianity by means of Ayton King of Armenia sent his brother Hulacu (or Haolon) with a great army to invade the Turks & root out their religion. Hulacu therefore advancing from the East after he had stayed sometime in Persia & subjected it came to Bagdad Ian 22 1258 & in a day & a night having compassed the city with a wall & a ditch & placed their engins of Battery they begain to batter it Ian 29 & took it on the 10th Feb 10 following. & for 7 days together continued to spoile it & to kill or captivate the inhabitants, at the end of which time the Califa was also put to death, & so the Califate abolished.

The same yeare Ashraph sultan of Miepharekin went to Naser Sultan of Syria desiring aid that they together might hinder the Tatars from entring Syria, but Naser slighting his advice, he returns in anger to Miepharekin & ejects the Tattarian Prefects, crucifying also a certain Priest who by appointment of the great Chan came to him with commands & edicts. But the Tattars immediately follow & beseige him & in the space of a day & a night compass the city with a wall & a deep ditch, & begin to make assault, but after some sharp conflicts on both sides finding they could not take it by force, they determin to hold it beseiged so that none should go in or out.

The next year AC 1259 Hulacu cites the Sultans of Syria & Asia to come to him & submit themselves which Ezzoddin the Sultan of Asia with his Brother Rucnoddin did, but the Sultan of Syria refused: wherefore he sent back the Asian sultans honourably & established them in their dominions but invaded Syria AC 1260 with an army of four hundred thousand taking first Harran & Roan with the adjacen{t} regions on the East of Euphrates which belonged to this sultany, & then having passed the River whilst his Captains invade the other Cities of this Sultany (amongst which was Damascus Emessa Hama & Moarra &c) he himself beseiged Alepo & took it within a few days, a greater number of people being slain there then at Bagdad. Naser himself the Sultan thereof was fled before the siege, but soon after taken & slain with his whole family.

Not long after Halacu being about to return into the eastern regions <3v> the other army came to him from the siege of Miepharekin bringing with them Ashraph the Sultan thereof & relating how they had slain all that were in the city, there being but few of them whom the famin had not destroyed before.

About the same time Hulacu so soon as he came neare Maredin cited the Sultan thereof, who refusing to appear before him, the Tatars beseige that city also, but the Sultan dying suddenly, his son Modhaffer presently yeilds the City to Hulacu whereupon Hulacu treated him honourably & restored the City to him with the rest of his fathers dominions. Yet about 30 years after this Sultany as well as the rest was utterly dissolved.

The next year AC 1261 Saleh the Sultan of Mausela with his brother combining with the Egyptians against the Tartars, was invaded also by them under the leading of Samdago one of Hulacu's captains, & Mausela beseiged & taken the soldiers continuing for 8 days together to kill spoile & captive the city. And amongst the rest Saleh was taken & commanded to be slain by Hulacu

Vntil this time the Greeks had constantly posessed Asia minor, strictly so called, Paphlagonia Bithinia, Phrygia magna, Phrygia Pacatiana, Caria, & part of Cilicia; & the rest of the Asian provinces to Eufrates (namely Lycaonia Galatia, Pamphilia, Armenia, Helenopontus, Pisidia, & Lycia) belonged to the Sultany of Iconium. But now the Turks of Mesopotamia & Syria bing molested by the Tartars flocked into Asia to shelter them selves under the the Iconian sultan & to obtain new seats their severall Princes make wars upon the Grecians. Mantachia subdued the city Ephesus & the Province Caria, Atin conquered Lydia as far as Smyrna Sarohanall Magnesia to Pergamus together with the whole Province of the Magedi. Carmian all Phrygia. Carases the other Phrygia between Hellespon & the City Asso & Othoman all Bythinia with part of Paphligonia.

In the meane time the Iconian Sultany became much afflicted & weakened by the Tartars pressing upon them & taking from the regions next Eufrates insomuch that at the death of Aladin it was utterly dissolved. And then or soon after namely in the year 1299 Ottoman being grown more powerful then the rest of the Turkish Princes took upon him the title of Sultan & by degrees became the universall Monarch of the Turks, the rest of the Princes uniting under him; whereby being rendered more powerfull they prevailed still more upon the Greeks & within a while invaded Europe & ceased not to propagate <4r> their victories till at length they overthrew the Contstantinopolitan Empire & on its ruins erected that great Empire which we see at present.

Now in this history if we should reccon the angels losed to be the regal cities actually which were together overthrown by H, they would be Bagdad, Miepharekin; Aleppo, & Mausela. But Bagdad being not a Turkish sultany like the rest but in the hands of the Chalifa who had been always of the Saracen nation & for almost the last 500 years of one & the same family of the Abasides it is more proper to refer the destruction of this city to the former Trumpet as the conclusion thereof, & so the following dissolution of the Turkish sultanies with which this Trumpet begins will fall in with the loosing of the Angels. And in these if we consider that Miepharekin was but lately rent from the Sultany of Maredin, & guirded on one hand by the Kingdom of Armenia & on the other by the Sultany of Maredin their seats Maredin & Miepharekin being not above 60 or 90 Italian miles distant, & also that {Maeredin} was seated {beyond} Tigris this Sultany was neither of equall standing nor extent with the rest nor so properly bound in Euphrates

it will be more reasonable to refer this sultany to that of Maredin as a branch thereof:] & so there will remain these four great Turkish nations, the South-Mesopotamian the North Mesopotamian including part of Armenia, the Syrian & the Asian, < insertion from f 1v > with which at this time the turkish dominions were bounded, & all which | were the full extent of the turkish dominions & all which with in the < text from f 4r resumes > compas of 30 or 40 years after the desolation of the Chalifate that is in the beginning of this Trumpet were overrun & losed by the Tartars from their Eufratean seats & forced upon the Christians to make war upon them & erect that great Empire which rules at present & is the great plague of Apostate Christendom threatned in this Trumpet.

The greatest objection against this interpretation is that Miepharekin was at this time a distinct Sultany & so there should have been rather 5 then 4 Angels. But if we consider that this Sultany was neither of equal standing nor extent with the rest being but lately rent from the sultany of Maredin & guirded on the one hand by the kingdom of Arm. & on the other by the Sultany of Maredin whose seats M. & M. were not above 6 or 90 Italian miles distant; & also that miepharekin was seated beyond Tigris & so not so truly bound in Euphr as the rest: it will be more naturall to refer this (as I signified above) to the Sultany of Maredin as a branch thereof reconning them both to make but one great nation or Angel as formerly, then to then to fellow it with the originall Sultanies. A case not unlike this we have in the third of Daniels universal Empires represented by the Leopard who had 4 heads to signify its division into four kingdoms at the death of Alexander. And yet it was divided into more then 4 Kingdoms [For besides the Egyptian, Syrian, Asian, & Macedonian Kingdom there was (to mention no others) the Thracian which continued distinct about 36 years, & yet <4v> but this becaus none of the principall kingdoms such as might properly be represented by the heads of the beast, was not recconned among the other 4 but rather referred to the Kingdom of Macedon as I suppose because it was at length united to that compare this with the present case of the Turks, & I think it will make the interpretation clear.

< insertion from higher up f 4v >

Mausilæ, Senjari, & AlIaziræ. Hama, Hemesa, Moarra, Harran, Roan, Saruji.

657 filij ejus Badroddinus

< text from lower down f 4v resumes >

In the mean while Naser, who with his court resided at Damascus, hearing of the progress of the Tartars, fled with his family into the Desert Carac & Shaubac [but was after a while taken & slain,] & the nobles of Damascus so soon as the Tartars approached the city delivered it to them , & after a while Naser with his family was taken & slain.

Moreover whereas I interpret the loosing of the Angels to be the dissolution of these Euphratean Sultanies, this interpretation is confirmed not only by the opposition which loosing has to their being bound in Euphrates, but also by the 6t Vial which is coincident with this Trumpet & in the beginning of which the water of Euphrates was dried up that the way of the Kings of the East might be prepared. By the waters of this river we are to understand the people situate upon it by Def     that is the Turkish sultanies & by the drying up of those waters the consumption of the power & dominion of that people by Def.     which

Analogous to the losing of these angels is the drying up the waters of Euphrates in the 6t Vial. For these two actions must correspond with one another because they are the beginning of this Trumpet & Viall which are contemporary. Now by the waters of – Def that is the dissolution of those sultanies by the Tartars. And consequently by the Kings or Princes of the East whose way was prepared by the drying up of Eufrates, we must understand the Chief leaders of the great Army of Horsmen which upon the loosing of the 4 angels came from Eufrates to execute the plague of this Trumpet that is the Princes under whose conduct the Turks fled from the Tartars into Asia & began to invade the Christians


But you'l say perhaps this was a prediction of the father of his & it's rashness & uncharitableness to accuse the Christian world upon such grounds as these.

Thus you have the consent of Prophesies both sacred & prophane to assigne to this nick of time the end of the Church & begining of wicked times of the Beast & the consent of the event also to confirm these prophesies. But I know they who stand accused hereby will contend they are the orthodox church & the Barbarians Hereticks & therefore the Oracle was a ly & my application of these things to them is rash & uncharitable. To convince these men of their Heresies would {be} a vain attempt it being the nature of Heretics to be obstinate what I write of that kind I write not to them but to make such as already know their baksliding, understand how these prophesies are fulfilled in them. Yet for the sake of these men I shall add something to shame 'em at least if not to convince 'em. They'l contend the Trinity is no denying the Father & Son, the Hypostatical union no denying the incarnation & passion, the worshipping of Saints & reliques no Idolatry, but what will they say of whoredom, murder, perfidy lying, perjury, drunkeness, gluttony oppression, pride, stealing, blasphemies, strifes. Any of these are enough to damn a man as well as Antrichristianity & Idolatry: & therefore make a man as much a fals Christian & church of such Christians as these as much a fals Church; & if the generation I speak of were not notoriously guilty of these crimes, if they were not more guilty then Heathens themselves yea then the Barbarian Heathens if they were not apparently the worst sort of men that ever reigned upon the face of the Earth till that same time then let the Oracle be fals & my accusation rash & incharitable. My Author is Salvian one of their own Bishops who after above 40 years observation wrote a tract to convince those of his own religion that such was their extreme wickedness they provoked the divine vengeance to execute upon them those severe judgments of the Barbarian invasions which you shall hear described in the Trumpets. But to waken your attention to this author I shal with all give you the judgment of the great Cardinal Baronius, a man unwilling to confes any thing to the scandal of his Church that he can decline. Imperium, saith Baronius, – /    He proceeds further to tell how some men went about the streets in weomens apparell known to the City & connived at by the magistrates, but what has been produc't is enough to cause teares & astonishment, & almost too much to be believed did not the circumstances of the Author ascertain it: [which were such that Baronius mentioning these things, could not but subjoyn. Cæterum] And yet Baronius mentioning these things confesses he dealt favourably with the accused. Cæterùm inquit

Salvian having thus described the Roman manners in general & then those of its several Provinces in particular proceeds one step farther & shows that they were so stupidly wicked so hardened in sin that the greatest afflictions could never make 'em relent or remit their cours of sinning, no not in the very nick of danger: for proof of which he instances in times that their principal cities were taken by the enemy. And first of Carthage he says


Much to the same purpose is a passage of D. Austin which Baronius after the recital of Salvian thus mentions

Then he speaking of the strange fury of the Donatists, adds / In the same discours St Austin has {divers} other things very conformable to Salvian. Amongst the rest this is remarkable that he strove to think the best of men. For he tells us that there were divers who lamented the sinfull state of the people & yet by his discours these lamenters were worldlings & consequently but Pharisaical censures

Hieron adv. Lucif. Baron 362 § 223.

Baron 370. 117, ad 122.

Asserebat [Helladius scil.] universum mundum esse diaboli: &, ut jam familiare est eis dicere, factum de ecclesia Lupanar. Hieron. adv. Luciferanos.

De fossa ab Eufr. in Tigr. Greg. Naz. Orat 2 in Iul. Baron 363. 45.

L 1 de his qui confugiunt ad Ecclesias. Baron 392. 29.

About the same time the clergy began to be notoriously infecte

De superbia, neophytate et alijs vitijs cleri, vide Hieron. ep. Oceano tom 2 p 324 De luxuria tom 6. 142 sub fin: script post An 413 / tom 1. p 144 De avaritia, Hypocrisi &c.

what a clergy, what successors were such as these like to leave. Another argument of the declining state of the Clergy is the election of unfit persons into it which began now to be an epidemical distemper. Multi saith Ierom –       And in another place where a question about the marriage of Priests put him upon commenting on St Pauls instruction to Titus about of the clergy: Upon these words Non           

O deus, deus tuus. Eloim, Eloach. Euseb. Demonstr. evang. l 4 § 15. Ex Hebr. & transl. Aquilæ. in Hebr 1. & Psal.              But what a clergy they left.

< insertion from f 6r >

Nolo te declamatorem esse & rabulam garulumque sine ratione sed mysteriorum peritum, & sacramentorum Dei tui eruditissimum Verba volvere, & celeritate dicendi apud imperitum vulgus admirationem sui facere indoctorum hominum est. Hieron. ad Nepotianum. Ep 2.

– sed nostras breviter flere miserias. – O si possemus in talem ascendere speculam de qua universam terram sub nostris pedibus cerneremus; jam tibi ostenderem orbis ruinas, gentes gentibus & regnis regna collisa, alios torqueri, alios necari, alios absorberi fluctibus, alios ad servitutem trahi. – Vincitur sermo rei magnitudine & minus est omne quod dicimus. Hieron epist 3 epitaph Nepotiani. Pone in Tub: 1.

< text from f 5v resumes >

But to let you see how the clergy declined manifestly from this I shal manifest by showing [that it began from hence forward to be an) not only how vitious they were but / Here Ierom acquaints us both with the cause] is notorious

Of their vices Ierom has divers other passages. And in this epistle he has these / So Ammianus a heathen historian but yet a most faithful one & one that speaks honourably of the Christians where they deserve it. Damasus, inquit, et Vrsicinus –       This of the Bishop of Rome himself. which with what candor towards Christianity it was spoken may be guest by the good character he gives some other Provincial Bishops. But who were those think you? Not the Bishop of Alexandria I'me sure for of him Ammian gives this character Athanasium – obtinebat. Now if the two head Bishops of this party [besides the multitude which Ierom spoke of,] thus plaid the game of Lucifer: guesse whether the Provincial Bishops which Ammian commends were to be found <6r> among the admirers of these or among the other party that so much detested what this party admired in Athanasius, & were at this time above two third parts of the whole. I deny not but that there might be Some humble & sober Bishops of this party, but how few they were may be guest out of St Ierom. Regis ad exempl. takes place in ecclesiastical as wel as civil bodies, & therefore I thank Ammian that for acquainting us that while the two head Bishops of this party thus elevated themselves, there were in the Empire Provincial Bishops which demeaned themselves so soberly & humbly as to deserve so good a report from without as he gives of them. < insertion from lower down f 6r > as indeed there were at that time so many of the other side that his laudible character could not fall beside them: for the schism {then} being but newly begun could not then have gained a quarter of the whole. /

You heard how they [insinuated themselves into affection o | inricht them by the donation of widdows & other simple people out of love] crept into houses leading silly weomen captive to inrich themselves by their donations. Now this even before the year 370 was become so frequent & notorious such a grievance to the Em that the Emps were fain to check them by this edict which he sent to the Bishop of Rome to be read in the Churches. This was this their covetousnes the root of al evil, & this prid and arrogance | insolence too was so enormous & intollerable as in some cases to be curbed by laws.

< text from higher up f 6r resumes >

Nor could they be any other monkish Bishops, for those had at this time got footing no where but in Egypt. And as for the rest though It's plain out of St Ierom that many of them followed the Bishop of Romes example. Had they detested pride as certain signe of gracelesnes, they would not have broken their oaths & make a schism in the Church to go a whoring after a new religion set up & headed by two such Lucifers as the Bishops of Rome & Alexandria. Simile gaudet simili & Regis ad exempl.


Fertur Melitonem {sand} fuisse Chiliastam. Sand l 1. p 131    Aliqui ferunt Apollinarium Ep. Hierap. Papiæ discipulum & Chiliastam fuisse Papiæ successit in Episcopatu. Sand l 1 p 141. Fuit etiam Apollinaris Laodicenus Chil (Basil ep. 293. Greg. Naz 2 ad Cledon. Hieron &c. Sandius. Ib. Fertur etiam Origenes fuisse Chiliasta. Sand 168. Cyprianus Chiliasmum non obscure docuit Serm 6. Victorinus Pictabionensis Ep. Chiliasta (Hieron. de Script. Eccl. in Papia.)    Chiliastarum opinio ad tempora Damasi P.P. absque jactura fidei vel communionis divisione liberè fruebatur (Baron in Martyrol. Nov.). Chiliastæ Barnabas, Papias, [Hermas] Iustin M. Melito. Apollinaris, Irenæus, Tertullian Origen, Cyprian. [Dionysius A. Contra] Victorinus Lactantius.

[Editorial Note 2]

Quod. ais, quasdam esse virgines tabernarias: ego tibi plus dico, esse in bis & adulteras & (quo magis mireris) clericos esse caupones & monachos impudicos. tom 2. 15. a. Hieron adv. Helvidium.

Multi eliguntur non amore sui, sed alterius odio. Nonnunquam errat plebis vulgique judicium & in sacerdotibus comprobandis unusquisque suis moribus favet ut non tam bonum quam sui similem quærat propositum. Dicam aliquid quod forsitan cum multorum offensa dicturus sum, sed boni mihi non irascentur quia eos peccati conscientia non remordebit. Interdum hoc et Pontificum vitio accidit qui non meliores sed argutiores in clerum allegunt, & simpliciores quosque atque innocentes inhabiles putant vel affinibus & cognatis quasi terrenæ militiæ officia largiuntur, sive divitum obediunt jussioni. Quodque his pejus est, illis clericatus donant gradum quorum sunt obsequijs deliniti. Hieron. adversus Iovinianum lib 1. Tom 2. p 40. script post A.C. 410. Præf. Com. in Ionam.

Quotidiè mæchorum sanguis effunditur, adulteria damnantur & inter ipsas leges & secures ac Tribunalia flagrans libido dominatur. ib. p 41.

Eo tempore quo totum Orientem excepto Papa Athanasio atque Paulino) Arianorum & Eunomianorum hæresis possidebat &c vide locum Hieron tom 2 p 163. b.

Sunt enim quidam [Clerici scil.] ignorantes mensuram suam & tantæ soliditatis ac vecordiæ, ut et in motu et in incessu & in habitu & in sermone communi risum spectantibus præbeant: et quasi intelligentes quid sit ornatus, comunt se vestibus & muditijs corporis & lautioris mensæ epulas parant: cum omnis istjusmodi ornatus & cultus sordibus fædior sit. – In hæc Pauli ad Titum verba: Non litigiosum non avarum: addit, Nihil enim impudentius arrogantia rusticorum, qui garrulitatem authoritatem putant: & parati semper ad lites, in subjectum sibi gregem tumidis sermonibus tonant. Ib.            Talis ergo sit pontifex Christi:


4 The Sultany of Miepharekin, a city of the greater Armenia upon the borders of Mesopotamia seated about two days journey north or northwest of Ameda on the other side Tigris. What Sultans it had before the year Heg. 515. I find not, but then it came into the hands of Gazi sultan of Maredin & he dying the next year his Sons Solyman & Tamartash inherited the one Miepharekin, the other Maredin. Afterwards Maredin & Miepharekin were united again under one Sultan & I know not whether they continued so till Saladin invaded Mesopotamia who amongst his other victories took Miepharekin with the adjacent regions, & left it to his brother Adel, & after his death it had without interruptions Sultans of the posterity of Saladin Adel f. & sub eo Nojmoddin fil. 1193 2Modhaffer fil Adeli 1218 & 3Ashraph Modhafferi fil the last of which was slain by the Tartars (A.C. 1260.)

Now of these six Sultanies that of Bagdad is to be omitted because it ceased long before the loosing of the angels & while it lasted was coincident with the Chalifate. Also that of Maredin is to be omitted because of its distance from Euphrates. At first indeed, while it was united to that of Miepharekin it extended to Euphrates, but not after Saladin invaded Mesopotamia, for he took Roka Harran Nisibis Senjar, Ameda, & Miepharekin with their ditions, that is almost all the regions round on that side Maredin towards Euphrates, & these regions his Sons & his son's sons inhærited except that the Sultan of Mausel (Pharajius pag                           Wherefore since the angels which were loosed from their Euphrates bonds must signify such sultanies as were adjacent to Euphrates in the years immediately preceding their loosing, & this loosing happened not before the end of the fift Trumpet which as we shall hereafter explain ended not before the dissolution of the Chalifate A.C. 1258, we must not number this Sultany among the Angels: we must reject this Sultany seeing it was nevet adjacent to Euph. after the year 1182.

There remain therefore for the 4 Angels the Sultanies of Mausela Miepharekin, Syria, & Asia. And these fulfill all conditions. The Sultany of Asia without question bordered always upon Euphrates especially towards the time of loosing for then & for       years before it comprehended the provinces of Malatia & Chartaberta which lay upon that river (Pharajius p 314, 317, 321, 332 & 333) & at the very time of losing (A.C. 1260 & 1261) Parajius (pag expresses that it extended to Armenia major Yea sometimes it had extended into the regions of Mesopotamia & Armenia major. (Abdul. p           ) The Sultany of Syria was not only always adjacent to the river but at the time of loosing extended a good way into Mesop.


Yea & of the Sultanies here named, two make nothing to our purpose: the sultany of Bagdad becaus it ceased long bef. t. end of the 5t Tr. & w. it l. w. c w. t. chalifate; & the Sultany of Maredin becaus of its distance from Euphrates. For when Saliadin invaded Mesopotamia (viz: A.C. 1182) he tooke Roha – except that the Sultan of Mausil towards the end of the 5t Tr. recovered Senjar with the adjacent regions with in which I suppose was also Nisibis. [And so open to the enemy was Maredin layed by this skirting of it that it was afterwards after besieged as by Saladin A.C       & then by his brother Adel A.C.       & again AC      . And so much was Maredin skirted on that side by this invasion & layd open to the enemy that it was afterwards often besieged: as by Saladin A.C. 1183 & by his brother Adel A.C. 1198 & again A.C. 1203.] [proceeding to besiege even Maredin it self, as did also his brother Adel after him ofner then once. And these regions his family inherited to the end of the fift Tr: except that the sultan of Mausel towards the end recovered Senjar with the neighboring regions within which I suppose was also Nisibis.

These two sultanies therefore being rejected there remains for the four angels the Sultanies of Asia, Syria, Mausel, & Miepharekin. The Sultany of Asia was watered by a large arm of Euphrates passing through the middle of it & not only so but bordered upon the main channel towards the time of loosing for then & for      years before – to Armenia major. The Sultany of Syria was not only adjacent to the river but at the time of loosing extended a good way into Mesopotamia. The Sultany of Mausel was watered by the River Alchabur (or Harnas) a large arme of Euphrates & bordered also upon the Euphrates it self for Mausel it self thoug situate upon Tigris, yet was distant but about one or two little days journey from one of the streams. Miepharekin was indeed something further from Euphr. namely about 5 days journey or 125 Italian miles (Geogr. Nubisusis clim 5 pars 5) but yet it was nearer to it then Maredin by two days journey at least, & in all probably extended its jurisdiction to Euphrates for it was guirded on the north by the kingdom of Armenia which in the end of the 5t Tr was pretty powerful & on the south east by the Sultany of Maredin those metropol{e}s being scarce above three days journey distant from one another & yet that it was a powerful Sultany & consequently of large extent towards the other quarters is manifest by the defiance which its Sultan (as Pharajus informs us bad to the Tartars even when they had newly sacked Bagdad. [* For it's chief extent was that way as may be collected from hence that it was founded by the conquests of Saladin which extended from Eufrates to this city but not much farther. It comprehended Ameda with its territory (Pharajus) & so lay partly between Maredin & Eufrates. It was guirded on the north – sacked bagdad. And as in the reign of Saladin & his successor Adel it was united to Syria under one supreme Sultan so still at the end of the fift Tr. it bordered upon the Syrian Sultany as may appear {from} <8r> hence that its sultan Ashrat after the sacking of Bagdad went into Syria to consult with the Sultan thereof about their common safety & mutual aid. And if it extended to the Syrian Sultany much more should it extend to that of Asia which lay over against it on the other side the river, for I read not of any other Sultany between them. I may further add that its regions were watered by a large river which flows out of the mountains of Armenia & joyns with the main channel of Euphrates below Samoset. (Geogr. Nub. Clim 5. Part 5)

These four Sultanies therefore were all seated upon Euphrates & so fitly answer to the 4 angels bound in that river. But there is another character of them which notably confirms this determination for by the 4th condition of this Tr. their Metropoles were to resemble a 4 square position . And behold here theire position how nearly it appoaches that figure. □ reccon here Damascus the chief seat of Syria becaus it had been ever so & at time of loosing the Angels the Sultan resided there.

5 Supposing therefore that these Tetrarchies are the 4 angels --

After this Ashraf the Sultan of Miepharekin went the same year into Syria to Naser Sultan thereof to desire aid of him whereby the Tartars might be kept out of Syria, but Naser not hearkening to him he returned in anger & when he came to Miepharekin ejected the praæfects of the Tartars & crucified a certain Priest sent to him with commands from the great Chan. Whereupon Hulacu sent his son Yashmut with part of his army – to be slain by Hulacu.

The same year the Tartars, I know now upon what occasion invaded Asia also [& overran all Cilicia, the less Armenia, & Cappadocia as far northward as the river Thermodon,] & easily subdued it, the limits of the excursion northward being Cappadocia & the river Thermodon, southward Cilicia & those parts of the mountain Taurus which a little after its beginning are variously divided. And then they] forced [als{o} the imperial cities [Iconium & Cæsarea.] constraining Ezzoddin [Azatinus] with one of his brothers to fly to the Greek Emperor Michael Palæologus where being confined, they were freed by an incursion of the Scythians from beyond the Danube. Ezzoddin died soon after he had passed the Danube with them, but his brother escaped into Asia & was received for a while by the Satrapæ of the Turkish reliques as their Sultan.

Vntill this time – of Iconium. But now the Turks out of these four disso{lved} Sultanies flying every where from the violence of the Tartars flocked continual{ly} towards the western parts of Asia & to obtein new seats – Paphlagonia; the last of which growing more powerful then the rest, at length (namely in the year 1299) took upon him – see at present. / Thus you see the four angels were all at once in the very beginning of the 6t Tr. loosed from their <8v> Eufratean seats & forced – threatened in this Trumpet.

Analogous to the loosing –

parts of Asia: the reliques of them about 30 years after (viz A.C. 1289) universally ejected hither out of Assyria Mesopotamia & the other Tartarian dominions. In the meane while to obtein new seats their severall princes or heads of families under whose conduct they fled hither made war upon the Rommans, every one in this confused gaining what he could for himself: Turci autem, saith Nicephorus (l 7) satrapis illis – mala conjecit.

Vntil the afforesaid dissolution of the 4 Turkish Euphratean Sultanies , the Greeks had constantly posessed Asia – of Iconium, but from that time, & chiefly after the battel newly mentioned (which happened about the year     ) the Turkish Princes spread by degrees into the Greek Provinces. Mantachia –– Paphlagonia: The last of which growing more powerfull than the rest at length (A.C. 1299) took upon him the dignity & title of Sultan – – founded that which reigns at present / founded a greater of their own

Thus you see the 4 angels were all at once in the very beginning of the Sixt Trumpet A.C. 1260 & 1261 loosed from their Eufratean seats & forced upon the Christians to make war upon them & thereby erect that great Empire which reigns at present & is the plage of Apostate Christendome threatned in this Tr.

Thus {wer} the Sultanies of Mosul Miyapharekin Syria & Asia all at once in the very begining of the sixt Trumpet A.C. 1260 & 1261 dissolved: & from that time the turks out of these Sultanies flying every where from the violence of the Tartars flocked into the western parts of Asia: the reliques of them also within 30 years after (viz A.C. 1289) being universally ejected hither out of [Persia Assyria Mesopotamia & the otherer Tattarian dominions] the new Tattarian Empire.

NB. Βασιλεῦς [reges quod nos reges vertimus] apud Græcos non tantum pro Monarchis præpotentibus quales nos jam reges dicimus vsurpabatur sed inferioris etiam generis Principes significabat ut apud Homerum non uno loco videre est. Sic et מלד ejusdem significationis vox hebræa, an sacris litteris pro Principibus Ducibus et singularum ferè urbium dominis usurpatur ut e regibus 31 quos Ioshue in exiguo illo terræ sanctæ circuitu {superavavit}. (Iosh 12.) Et quinque regibus Midian a Mose cæsis Num 31.8. qui in Iosh 13.21 Principes Midian & Duces Sehon vocantur, manifestum est.

that is Osrohene a region of Syria within Mesopotamia, some part of which, appears by this passage to have belonged to Ashraf. / whereby they might keep the Tattars out of Syria, that is Syria Osroene a province on the east of Euphrates comprehending among other cities Edessa Carrhæ & Nicephorium. some part o. Instantiā habes in exercitu Roili fulgure & igneis turbinibus perdito

[Editorial Note 1] The remainder of the text on this page is written upside down.

[Editorial Note 2] The remainder of the text on this page is written upside down.

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