The special virtues, or various modes of charity or justice as regards our neighbour, relate to him either under the general acceptation of the word neighbour, as denoting simple proximity; or under some special acceptation, where our relationship arises from special circumstances.

The discharge of our special duties towards our neighbour includes the regulation not only of our actions, but of our affections, as concerns him. Exod. xx. 17. "thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house —."

Special duties towards our neighbour, using the word in its general sense, regard either his internal or external good.

His internal good is consulted by a regard to his, safety and honour; his external, by a concern for his good name and worldly interests. Our regard to his safety should extend not merely to the present life, but to the eternal state. Prov. x. 11. "the mouth of a righteous man is a well of life." Rom. xiv. 15. "destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died." James. v. 20. "let him know that he which <390> converteth the sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins." The duty of preserving our neighbour's life is inculcated, Prov. xxiv. 11, 12. "if thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain; if thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it? doth not he know it? and shall not he render to every man according to his works?"

Under this class of virtues are comprehended innocence, meekness, and placability.

Innocence consists in doing a voluntary injury to no one. Psal. xxiv. 4. "he that hath clean hands." xxvi. 6. "I will wash mine hands in innocency." Rom. xii. 18. "if it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men." Heb. xii. 14. "follow peace with all men."

Meekness is that by which we are so far from offering or taking offence, that we conduct ourselves mildly and affectionately towards all men, as far as is practicable. Num. xii. 3. "now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth." Psal. xxv. 9. "the meek will he teach his way." cxlvii. 6. "Jehovah lifteth up the meek." Isai. iii. 1. "Jehovah hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek." Matt. v. 5. "blessed are the meek." xi. 29, "learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls." xxi. 5. "behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek —." Tit. iii. 2. "showing all meekness unto all men."

Placability consists in a readiness to forgive those by whom we have been injured. Matt. vi. 12, 14 <391> "forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors... for if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you." xviii. 21, 22, "how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him?..... until seventy times seven." Luke. xvii. 3, 4. "if thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him; and if he trespass against thee seven times a day —." Rom. xii. 18. "if it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men."

Opposed to a regard for the life of our neighbour, is, first, the shedding his blood. Gen. iv. 10. "what hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground." ix. 5, 6. "whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made he man." Exod. xx. 13. "thou shall not kill." xxi. 12. "he that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall surely be put to death." v. 14. "if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile," &c. v. 28. "if an ox gore a man," &c. Deut. xxvii. 25. "cursed is he that taketh reward to slay an innocent person." Num. xxxv. 31. "ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer." v. 34. "defile not therefore the land which ye shall inhabit —." Deut. xxi. 1. "if one be found slain in the land," &c. 1 Kings. ii. 5, 6. "thou knowest also what Joab did to me," &c. v. 33, 34. "their blood shall therefore return upon the head of Joab." Prov. vi. 16, 17. "these six things doth Jehovah hate... hands that shed innocent blood." xxviii. 17. "a man that doeth violence to the blood of any person, shall flee to the pit: let no man stay him"


Under this head is also included, first, every thing by which the life of our neighbour is endangered; as blows, wounds, mutilations, &c. Exod. xxi. 18,

&c. "if men strive together, and one strike another," &c. Lev. xxiv. 19, 20. "if a man cause a blemish in his neighbour," &c. Deut. xxvii. 24. "cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour secretly."

Secondly, hasty anger. Prov. xiv. 29. "he that is slow to wrath is of great understanding; but he that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly." xvi. 32. "he that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city." xix. 11. "the discretion of a man deferreth his anger; and it is his glory to pass over a trangression." xv. 18. "a wrathful man stirreth up strife." Matt. v. 22. "whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment." 1 John. iii. 15. "whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer."

Thirdly, revenge. Lev. xix. 18. "thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge, against the children of thy people." Deut. xxxii. 35. "to me belongeth vengeance and recompense." Psal. xciv. 1. "O Jehovah, God to whom vengeance belongeth." Prov. xx. 22. "say not thou, I will recompense evil." xxiv. 29. "say not, I will do so to him, as he hath done to me." Rom. xii. 19. "dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath." 1 Pet. iii. 8, 9. "not rendering evil for evil." To avenge the church, however, or to desire that she be avenged of her enemies, is not forbidden. Exod. xvii. 16. "because Jehovah hath sworn that Jehovah will have war with Amalek from generation to generation." Deut. xxv. 17. "remember what Amalek did unto thee by the <393> way." Psal. xviii. 37-43. "I have pursued mine enemies... then did I beat them small as the dust." xli. 10, 11. "raise me up that I may requite them." liv. 5. "he shall reward evil unto mine enemies." xcii. 11. "mine eyes also shall see my desire upon mine enemies." xciv. 2. "render a reward to the proud." cxxxvii. 8. "O daughter of Babylon," &c. Jer. xi. 20. "let me see thy vengeance on them." See also xx. 12. xv. 15. "revenge me of my persecutors." 1. 15. "take vengeance upon her." Lam. i. 21, 22. "let all their wickedness come before thee." iii. 64, &c. "render unto them a recompense." Esth. ix. 13. "then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted unto the Jews... to do to-morrow also according unto this day's decree, and let Hainan's ten sons be hanged on the gallows." Rev. vi. 10. "how long, O Lord?"

The honour of our neighbour is consulted by a respect to his personal modesty. Lev. xix. 29. "do not prostitute thy daughter to cause her to be a whore." Deut. xxiii. 17. "there shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel."

Opposed to this are unnatural vices, fornication, violation, adultery, incest, rape, whoredom, and similar offences. Gen. xix. 5. "bring them out unto us, that we may know them." See also Judges. xix. 22. Deut. xxiii. 17, as above. 1 Kings. xv. 12. "he took away the sodomites out of the land." xxii. 46. "the remnant of the sodomites," &c. Gen. xxxiv. 2. "he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her." Exod. xx. 14. "thou shalt not commit adultery." Lev. xviii. 20. "thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's <394> wife, to defile thyself with her." Job. xxxi. 9, 10, &c, "if mine heart hath been deceived by a woman," &c. Jer. v. 7, 8. "they committed adultery, and assembled themselves by troops in the harlots houses." Ezek. xviii. 6. "neither hath defiled his neighbour's wife." xxii. 11. "one hath committed abomination with his neighbour's wife." Hos. vii. 4. "they are all adulterers." Amos. ii. 7. "a man and his father will go in unto the same maid —." Heb. xiii. 4. "whoremongers and adulterers God will judge." Hence the laws against fornication, Exod. xxii. 16, 17, &c. "if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her," &c. against incest, Lev. xviii. 6. xx. 11, &c. "the man that lieth with his father's wife," &c. Deut. xxii. 21, 23, 28. "then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father's house, and the men of her city shall stone her... because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to play the whore in her father's house: if a man be found lying with a woman married to an husband... if a man find a damsel that is a virgin —." xxiii. 2. "a bastard shall not enter into the congregation of Jehovah." xxvii. 20, &c. "cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife." Hence also provision was expressly made for cases of jealously, Num. v. 12, &c. Prov. vi. 34. "jealousy is the rage of a man." Cant. viii. 6. "jealousy is cruel as the grave." Even before the promulgation of the law, adultery was made capital by divine command: Gen. xx. 3. "thou art but a dead man, for the woman whom thou hast taken." xxxviii. 24. "bring her forth, and let her be burnt." Some marriages, however, were prohibited by the Mosaic code, which appear to have been previously lawful. Gen. xx. 12. "yet indeed she is my sister; <395> she is the daughter of my father;" compared with Deut. xxvii. 22. "cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father;" and Ezek. xxii. 11. "another in thee hath humbled his sister, his father's daughter." Exod. vi. 20. "Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife." Lev. xviii. 12. "thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father's sister." Respecting a menstruous woman, see Lev. xx. 18. "if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness," &c. Exek. xviii. 6. "neither hath come near to a menstruous woman." xxii. 10. "in thee have they humbled her that was set apart for pollution."

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