THE special virtues which regulate our desire of external advantages, have reference either to bodily gratifications, or to the possessions which enrich and adorn life.

The virtue which prescribes bounds to the desire of bodily gratification, is called temperance. Tit. ii. 11, 12. "the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared unto all men, teaching us, that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world." 1 Pet. ii. 11. "as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul." 2 Pet. ii. 9. "the Lord knoweth how..... to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished; but chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness."

Under temperance are comprehended sobriety and chastity, modesty and decency.

Sobriety consists in abstinence from immoderate eating and drinking.[1] 1 Thess. v. 8. "let us, who <353> are of the day, be sober." 1 Pet. i. 13. "wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober." iv. 7. "the end of all things is at hand; be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer." v. 8 "be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour." Esth. 8. "the drinking was according to law; none did compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure."

The opposites of this virtue are drunkenness and gluttony; instances of which may be seen in Noah, Gen. ix. Lot, Gen. xix. and Benhadad, 1 Kings. xx. 16. Prov. xx. 1. "wine is a mocker." xxi. 17. "he that loveth wine..... shall not be rich." xxiii. 3, &c. <354> "be not desirous of his dainties, for they are deceitful meat." v. 20, 21. "be not among wine-bibbers, among riotous eaters of flesh —." v. 29-32. "who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath contentions? who hath babbling? who hath wounds without cause? who hath redness of eyes? they that tarry long at the wine." Isai. v. 11, 12. "woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink..... but they regard not the work of Jehovah." v. 22. "woe unto them that are mighty to drink wine." xxviii. 1, 3, 7, 8. "woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim —." Ezek. xvi. 49. "behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread." Luke. xxi. 34, "take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares." Rom. xiii. 13. "let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness." 1 Cor. vi. 10. "nor drunkards..... shall inherit the kingdom of God." Gal. v. 21. "drunkenness, revellings, and such like..... shall not inherit the kingdom of God." Hos. iv. 10. "they shall eat, and not have enough." vii. 5. "in the day of our king the princes have made him sick with bottles of wine." Habak. ii. 15. "woe unto him that giveth his neighbour drink." Eph. v. 18. "be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but —." 1 Pet. iv. 3, 4. "the time past of our lives may suffice us..... when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings,..... wherein they think it strange that ye run not with them to the same excess of riot."


Allied to sobriety is watchfulness. Matt. xxiv. 42. "watch therefore; for ye know not what hour your lord doth come." See also xxv. 13. xxvi. 41. "Mark xiii. 35. v. 37. "what I say unto you, I say unto all, Watch." Luke. xii. 37. "blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching." xxi. 36. "watch ye therefore and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass." Col. iv. 2. "continue in prayer, and watch —." 1 Thess. v. 6. "therefore let us not sleep, as do others; but let us watch and be sober." 1 Pet. v. 8. "be sober, be vigilant." Rev. iii. 3. "if therefore thou shall not watch, I will come upon thee as a thief in the night." xvi. 15. "blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked." In most of these passages it appears that the watchfulness spoken of refers less to the sleep of the body, than to the lethargy of the mind.

The opposite to this, is an excessive love of sleep.[2] Prov. xx. 13. "love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty."


Chastity consists in temperance as regards the unlawful lusts of the flesh; which is also called sanctification. 1 Thess. iv. 3. "this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication." Rev. xiv. 4. "these are they which were not defiled with women, for they are virgins: these are they which follow the Lamb."

To chastity are opposed all kinds of impurity; effeminacy, sodomy, bestiality, &c. which are offences against ourselves in the first instance, and tending to our own especial injury.[3] 1 Cor. vi. 15, 16. "know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I then take, &c —. ? what, know ye not that he which is joined to an harlot is one body? —." v. 18. "flee fornication: every sin that man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication, sinneth <357> against his own body." See also Prov. vi. 24, &c. Gen. xxxviii. 9,10. "the thing which he did displeased the Lord." Exod. xxii. 19. "whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death." Lev. xviii. 22, 23. "thou shalt not lie with mankind." Deut. xxiii. 17. "there shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, nor," &c. xxvii. 21. "cursed is he that lieth with any manner of beast." Prov. ii. 16 "to deliver thee from the strange woman." v. 3, &c. "the lips of a strange woman drop as an honeycomb." vi. 24. "to keep thee from the evil woman." See also v. 32. vii. 25. "let not thine heart decline to her ways." ix. 18. "he knoweth not that the dead are there —." xxii. 14. "the mouth of strange women is a deep pit" See also xxiii. 26, 27. xxx. 20. "such is the way of an adulterous woman; she eateth, and wipeth her mouth, and saith, I have done no wickedness." 1 Kings. xiv. 24. "there were also sodomites in the land." Rom. xiii. 13. "not in chambering and wantonness." 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10. "be not deceived; neither fornicators... nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of them selves with mankind... shall inherit the kingdom of God." v. 13, &c. "the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body." Eph. v. 3-5. "fornication and all uncleanness... let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints... nor filthiness... which are not convenient... for this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean per son... hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God."

Modesty consists in refraining from all obscenity of language or action, in short, from whatever is inconsistent with the strictest decency of behaviour in ref <358> erence to sex or person. Deut. xxv. 11, 12. "when men strive together," &c. Job. xxxi. 1. "I made a covenant with mine eyes," &c. 1 Cor. xi. 10. "for this cause ought the woman to have power on her head, because of the angels." Heb. xii. 28. "we may serve God acceptably, with reverence and godly fear." 2 Kings. iv. 15. "when he had called her, she stood in the door." The same ideas of womanly decorum existed even among the Gentiles. Thus Homer introduces Penelope;

στῆ ῾ρα παρὰ τέγεος πύκα ποιητοῖο. Odyss. a. 333.

She... beneath

The portal of her stately mansion stood.

I. 414. Cowpers Translation.

Opposed to this are obscene conversation, and filthy and licentious gestures. Isai. iii. 16, &c. "therefore Jehovah will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion, and Jehovah will discover their secret parts." Matt. v. 28. "whosoever looketh on a woman," &c. Eph. v. 4. "neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient." 2 Pet. ii. 14. "having eyes full of adultery."

Decency consists in refraining from indecorum or lasciviousnsss in dress or personal appearance. Exod. xx. 26. "neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon." Deut. xxii. 5. "the woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman's garment; for all that do so are abomination unto Jehovah thy God." Zeph. i. 8. "it shall come to pass that I will punish all such as are clothed <359> in strange apparel." Matt. xi. 8. "they that wear soil clothing are in kings houses." 1 Tim. ii. 9. "in like manner also that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety, not with broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array." 1 Pet. iii. 3. "whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel." 2 Kings. ix. 30. "she painted her face," &c.

Moderation in the enjoyment of temporal possessions manifests itself in the virtues of contentment, frugality, industry, and a liberal spirit.

Contentment is that virtue whereby a man is inwardly satisfied with the lot assigned him by divine providence. Prov. x. 22. "the blessing of Jehovah, it maketh rich." xxx. 8. "give me neither poverty nor riches; feed me with food convenient for me." Eccles. iii. 12, 13. "I know that there is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice and to do good in his life; and also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of God." v. 18, &c. "behold that which I have seen; it is good and comely for one to eat and to drink, and to enjoy the good of all the labour that he taketh under the sun all the days of his life which God giveth him, for it is his portion; every man also to whom God hath given riches and wealth, and hath given him power to eat thereof, and to take his portion arid rejoice in his labour; this is the gift of God: for he shall not much remember the days of his life; because God answereth him in the joy of his heart." vi. 1,2. "there is an evil which I have seen under the sun, and it is common among men; a man to whom God hath given <360> riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it." ix. 9, 10. "live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest —." Zech. ix. 16, 17. "how great is his goodness, and how great is his beauty!" —. Philipp. iv. 11, 12. "not that I speak in respect of want; for I have learned in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content: I know both how to be abased, and I know how to abound; every where, and in all things, I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need." 1 Tim. vi. 6, 7. "godliness with contentment is great gain; for we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out: and having food and raiment let us therewith be content." Heb. xiii. 5. "be content with such things as ye have." Even in poverty. Psal. xxiii. 1, 2. "Jehovah is my shepherd; I shall not want." xxxiv. 9, &c. "there is no want to them that fear him; the young lions do lack and suffer hunger —." xxxvii, 16, 18, 19. "a little that a righteous man hath is better, &c... they shall not be ashamed in the evil time, and in the days of famine they shall be satisfied." xl. 17. "I am poor and needy, yet Jehovah thinketh upon me —." lxviii. 10. "thou hast prepared of thy goodness for the poor." Prov. x. 3. "Jehovah will not suffer the soul of the righteous to famish." Hence poverty is not to be accounted a disgrace. Prov. xvii. 5, "whoso mocketh the poor, reproacheth his maker." xix. 1. "better is the poor that walketh in his integrity, than he that is perverse in his lips." xxviii. 6. better is the poor that walketh in his uprightness, than he that is perverse in his <361> ways, though he be rich." v. 11. "the rich man is wise in his own conceit, but the poor that hath understanding searcheth him out." We are forbidden to glory in riches, or to put our confidence in them. Prov. xi. 28. "he that trusteth in his riches shall fall." Eccles. vi. 11. "seeing there be many things that multiply vanity-." Mark. x. 2325. "how hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!..... it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle —." 1 Tim. vi. 17, 18. "charge them that are rich in this world that they be not high-minded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God." 2 Kings. xx. 13, 14. "Hezekiah hearkened unto them, and showed them all the house of his precious things."

Opposed to this are, first, anxiety respecting the necessaries of life. Matt. vi. 25, &c. "take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on." v. 33. "seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you."

Secondly, covetousness. Job. xx. 15. "he hath swallowed down riches, and he shall vomit them up again." Josh. vii. 21. "when I saw among the spoils, &c...... then I coveted them and took them." Psal. cxix. 36. "incline my heart unto thy testimonies, and not to covetousness." Prov. i. 19. "so are the ways of everyone that is greedy of gain, which taketh away the life of the owners thereof." xv. 27. "he that is greedy of gain troubleth his own house." xx. 21. "an inheritance may be gotten hastily at the beginning, but the end thereof shall not be blessed." Eccles. ii. 26. "to the sinner he giveth <362> travail, to gather and to heap up, that he may give to him that is good before God." iv. 8. "there is one alone, and there is not a second; yea, he hath neither child nor brother, yet is there no end of all his labour, neither is his eye satisfied with riches." v. 10. "he that loveth silver, shall not be satisfied with silver." Isai. lvii. 17. "for the iniquity of his covetousness was I wroth, and smote him." Matt. vi. 19. "lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt." xxvii. 5. "he cast down the pieces of silver," &c. Luke. xii. 15. "take heed and beware of covetousness: for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things that he possesseth." 1 Tim. vi. 9, &c. "they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts." Heb. xiii. 5. "let your conversation be without covetousness. For covetousness is idolatry." Matt. vi. 24. "ye cannot serve God and mammon." Eph. v. 5. "nor covetous man, who is an idolater." Col. iii. 5. "covetousness, which is idolatry." It is likewise styled the root of all evil. 1 Tim. vi. 10. "the love of money is the root of all evil; which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith."

Thirdly, a murmuring against the wisdom of God in making provision for the wants of this life. Jude. 16. "these are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts, and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men's persons in admiration be cause of advantage."

Frugality consists in avoiding expense, so far as is seemly, and in wasting nothing which is capable of <363> being applied to an useful purpose. John. vi. 12. "gather up the fragments that remain."

The opposite of this is penuriousness. 1 Sam. xxv. 3. "the man was churlish." v. 11. "shall I then take my bread, and my water... and give it unto men?" Eccles. vi. 2. "a man to whom God hath given riches, wealth, and honour, so that he wanteth nothing for his soul of all that he desireth, yet God giveth him not power to eat thereof, but a stranger eateth it."

Industry is that by which we honestly provide for ourselves the means of comfortable living. Gen. ii. 15. "to dress it and to keep it." iii. 19. "in the sweat of thy face thou shalt eat bread." Prov. x. 4. "he becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand." v. 5. "he that gathereth in summer is a wise son." xii. 11. "he that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with bread." xiv. 23. "in all labour there is profit." xxi. 5. "the thoughts of the diligent tend only to plenteousness, but of every one that is hasty only to want." xxii. 29. "seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings." 1 Thess. iv. 11, 12. "work with your own hands, as we commanded you; that ye may walk honestly toward them that are without, and that ye may have lack of nothing." 2 Thess. iii. 12. "we exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread."

The opposite of this is remissness in making provision for the necessaries of life. Prov. vi. 6. "go to the ant, thou sluggard." x. 5. "he that sleepeth in harvest is a son that causeth shame." xiii. 4. "the soul of the sluggard desireth, and hath nothing." xix. 24. "a slothful man hideth his hand in his bosom." <364> xx. 4. "the sluggard will not plow by reason of the cold; therefore shall he beg in harvest and have nothing." xxi. 25. "the desire of the slothful killeth him, for his hands refuse to labour." xxii. 13. "the slothful man says, There is a lion in the streets." xxiv. 30. "I went by the field of the slothful." xxvi. 14. "as the door turneth upon his hinges," &c. xxviii. 19. "he that followeth after vain persons shall have poverty enough." Eccles. iv. 5, 6. "the fool foldeth his hands together, and eateth his own flesh: better is an handful with quietness, than both the hands full with travail and vexation of spirit." 2 Thess. iii. 10. "if any would not work, neither should he eat."

Liberality is a temperate use of our honest acquisitions in the provision of food and raiment, and of the elegancies of life.

In the provision of food. Gen. xxi. 8. "Abraham made a great feast." Job. i. 5. "it was so when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them." Psal. xxiii. 5. "thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; thou anointest mine head with oil; my cup runneth over." civ. 15. "wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine —." Prov. xxxi. 6. "give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish." Dan. x. 3. "I ate no pleasant bread." Luke. v. 29. "Levi made him a great feast." John. xii. 2, 3. "there they made him a supper... then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly." Acts. xiv. 17. "filling our hearts with food and gladness."

Of the elegancies of life. Gen. xxiv. 22. "the man took a golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight —." 2 Sam. i. 24. "who clothed you in scarlet, with other <365> delights, who put on ornaments of gold upon your apparel." Prov. xiv. 24. "the crown of the wise is their riches." xxxi. 22, 25." she maketh herself coverings of tapestry —." Eccles. ix. 8. "let thy garments be always white, and let thy head lack no ointment."

The opposite of this is luxury. Prov. xxi. 17. "he that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man; he that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich." Luke. xvi. 19. "there was a certain rich man which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day."

The virtues more peculiarly appropriate to a high station are lowliness of mind and magnanimity.

Lowliness of mind consists in thinking humbly of ourselves, and in abstaining from self-commendation, except where occasion requires it. Exod. iii. 11. "who am I, that I should go unto Pharoah? Psal. cxxxi. 1. "my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty, neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or in things too high for me." Prov. xi. 2. "with the lowly is wisdom." xii. 9. "a man that is despised and hath a servant, is better than he that honoureth himself." xv. 33. "before honour is humility." See also xviii. 12. xvi. 19. "better is it to be of an humble spirit with the lowly, than to divide the spoil with the proud." xxix. 23. "honour shall uphold the humble in spirit." Jer. i. 6, 7. "ah Lord... I am a child." Dan. ii. 31. "this secret is not revealed to me for any wisdom that I have more than any living." Matt. xxiii. 12. "he that humbleth himself shall be exalted." Rom. xii. 10. "in honour preferring one another." 2 Cor. x. 13. "we will not boast of things without our measure, but according to the measure of the rule," <366> &c. v. 15. "not boasting of things without our measure —." Eph. iii. 8. "unto me who am less than the least of all saints —." v. 21. "submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God." Philipp. ii. 3. "in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves."

In abstaining from self-commendation, except where occasion requires it. Job. xii. 3. "I have understanding as well as you, I am not inferior to you." xiii. 2. "what ye know, the same do I know also." xxix. 8, &c. "the young men saw me, and hid themselves, and the aged arose and stood up." Judges. v. 7. "until I Deborah arose, that I arose a mother in Israel." Eccles. i. 16. "lo, I am come to great estate, and have gotten more wisdom than all they that have been before me."

Opposed to this are, first, arrogance. Prov. xx. 6. "most men will proclaim every one his own goodness." xxvi. 16. "the sluggard is wiser in his own conceit, than seven men that can render a reason." James. iii. 1. "be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation."

Secondly, a desire of vain glory. Matt, xxiii. 12. "whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased." John. v. 41. "I receive not honour from men." v. 44. "how can ye believe, which receive honour one of another?" xii. 42, 43. "they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God." Gal. v. 26. "let us not be desirous of vain glory." 1 Thess. ii. 6. "nor of men sought we glory, neither of you, nor yet of others."

Thirdly, boasting. Prov. xxv. 14. whoso boasteth himself of a false gift, is like clouds and wind without rain."


Fourthly, a crafty or hypocritical extenuation of our own merits, for the purpose of extorting greater praises.

Fifthly, a glorying in iniquity and misdeeds. Psal. lii. 1. "why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O thou mighty man?" Isai. iii. 9. "they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not; woe unto their soul, for they have rewarded evil unto themselves."

Allied to lowliness is the love of an unspotted reputation, and of the praises of good men, with a proportionate contempt for those of the wicked. Psal. cxix. 22. "remove from me reproach and contempt; for I have kept thy testimonies." v. 39. "turn away my reproach, which I fear." Prov. xxii. 1. "a good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than silver and gold." Eccles. vii. 1 . "a good name is better than precious ointment." 1 Kings. xviii. 13. "was it not told my lord what I did, when Jezebel slew the prophets of Jehovah?" Neh. v. 14, 15. "so did not I, because of the fear of God." Matt. v. 11. "blessed are ye when men... shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake." 2 Cor. vi. 8. "by honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report, as deceivers and yet true." Heb. xi. 24 26. "esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt." xiii. 13. "let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach."

Opposed to this is a shameless disregard of reputation. Luke. xviii, 2. "which feared not God, neither regarded man."

Secondly, an excessive and indiscriminate passion for esteem and praise, from whatever quarter. Prov. <368> xxvii. 2. "let another man praise thee, and not thine own mouth." Matt. xxiii. 5. "all their works they do for to be seen of men." Luke. vi. 26. "woe unto you when all men shall speak well of you."

Magnanimity is shown, when in the seeking or avoiding, the acceptance or refusal of riches, advantages, or honours, we are actuated by a regard to our own dignity, rightly understood. Thus Abraham did not refuse the gifts of the king of Egypt, Gen. xii. 13. xx. 14. though he rejected those of the king of Sodom, xiv. 22, 23. and though he declined to accept the field offered him by Ephron the Hittite except on payment of its full value, xxiii. 13. Thus also Job, although restored to his former health and prosperity, did not disdain the congratulatory offerings of his friends, xlii. 11. In this spirit Gideon refused the kingdom, Judges. viii. 23. The same disposition accompanied Joseph in his exaltation from a prison to the first honours of the empire, Gen. xli. So also Dan. ii. 48, 49. "then the king made Daniel a great man, and gave him many great gifts." On the other hand, chap. v. 17. "he answered and said before the king, Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another;" but v. 29. "Belshazzar commanded, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet." He was actuated by the same temper in refusing and in accepting dignities, vi. 2. "over these were three presidents, of whom Daniel was first." Such was also the spirit of Nehemiah in asking honours, ii. 5. "I said unto the king, If it please the king, and if thy servant hath found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me into Judah;" of Samuel in laving down his authority. 1 Sam. x. 1. "then Samuel took a vial of oil, and <369> poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is it not because Jehovah hath anointed thee —?" of Elisha in refusing a reward for the cure he had wrought, 2 Kings. v. 15, 16. "as Jehovah liveth, before whom I stand, I will receive none; of Christ in rejecting the empire of the world," Matt. iv. 9. "all these things will I give thee, if," &c. Luke. iv. 6. John. vi. 15. "when Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force to make him a king, he departed: in despising riches," 2 Cor. viii. 9. "though he Was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor;" in accepting honours, Matt. xxi. 7, &c. "they brought the ass, and the colt... and they set him thereon." Such, finally, is the spirit by which every true Christian is guided in his estimate of himself. James. i. 9, 10. "let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted; but the rich in that he is made low."

Allied to this is indignation at the unfounded praises or undeserved prosperity of the wicked, Prov. xxx. 21, &c. "for three things the earth is disquieted, and for four which it cannot bear; for a servant when he reigneth, and a fool when he is filled with meat; for an odious woman when she is married, and an handmaid that is heir to her mistress." When however this feeling exceeds due bounds, it ceases to be praise-worthy. Psal. xxxvii. 1. "fret not thyself because of evil doers." v. 7, 8. "fret not thyself because of him who prospereth in his way, because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to pass." Prov. iii. 31. "envy thou not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways." The language of indignation is used, Job. xxx. 1, &c. Psal. xv. 4. "in whose eyes a vile person is contemned, but he hon <370> oureth them that fear Jehovah." The vehemence of its expression sometimes borders on indecency. See Ezek. xvi. 25, 38.

Opposed to magnanimity are, first, an ambitious spirit. Numb. xii. 2. "hath Jehovah indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" xvi. 3. "seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and Jehovah is among them: wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the congregation of Jehovah?" Judges. ix. 1,2. "Abimelech went to Shechem

... and communed with them..... saying, Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem," &c. 2 Sam. xv. 2. "Absalom rose up early, and stood beside the way of the gate —." v. 4. "O that I were made judge in this land —." Prov. xxv. 27. "for men to search their own glory is not glory."

Secondly, pride, when a men values himself with out merit, or more highly than his merits deserve, or is elated by some insignificant circumstance. 2 Sam. xxii. 28. "thine eyes are upon the haughty, that thou mayest bring them down." Prov. vi. 16, 17. "these six things doth Jehovah hate..... a proud look —." xv. 25. "Jehovah will destroy the house of the proud." xvi. 5. "every one that is proud in heart is an abomination to Jehovah." v. 18. "pride goeth before destruction." xviii. 12. "before destruction the heart of man is haughty." xxi. 4. "an high look, and a proud heart —." xxix. 23. "a man's pride shall bring him low."

Thirdly, pusillanimity; of which Saul when chosen king is an example, 1 Sam. x. 21, 22. "when they sought him, he could not be found..... behold, he hath hid himself among the stuff."


Abstinence in diet, says a biographer of Milton, was one of his favourite virtues, which he practised invariably through life, and availed himself of every opportunity to recommend in his writings. He is reported to have partaken rarely of wine or of any strong liquors. In his Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing, the following passage occurs: 'How great a virtue is temperance, how much of moment through the whole life of man.' Yet God commits the managing so great a trust, without particular law or prescription, wholly to the demeanour of every grown man.' Prose Works, I. 290. Again, in Paradise Lost:

..... well observe

The rule of not too much, by temperance taught,

In what thou eat'st and drink'st, seeking from thence

Due nourishment, not gluttonous delight,

Till many year? over thy head return. XI. 530.

See also Sampson Agonistes, 542, &c. and the second elegy to Deodati. In the Apology for Smetctymnuus, he vindicates himself with some indignation against the charge of being a sack-drinker, which one of his opponents had brought against him. He concludes his defence with the following sentence. 'For the readers [of the book in which the accusation appeared] if they can believe me, principally for those reasons which I have alleged, to be of life and purpose neither dishonest nor unchaste, they will be easily induced to think me sober both of wine and of word; but if I have been already successless in persuading them, all that 1 can further say will be but vain; arid it will be better thrift to save two tedious labors, mine of excusing, and theirs of needless hearing.' 1 Prose Works, I. 126.


Milton's habit of early rising is mentioned by all his biographers. In summer he rose at four, in winter at five; or if he remained in bed beyond these hours, he employed a person to read to him from the time of his awaking. He has left the following account of his mode of living during his early years in the Apology for Smectymnuus. 'Those morning haunts are where they should be, at home; not sleeping, or concocting the surfeits of an irregular feast, but up and stirring, in winter, often ere the sound of any bell awake men to labour or devotion; in summer as oft with the bird that first rouses, or not much tardier, to read good authors, or cause them to be read, till the attention be weary, or memory have its full fraught: then with useful and generous labours preserving the body's health and hardiness to render lightsome, clear, and not lumpish obedience to the mind, to the cause of religion, and our country's liberty, when it shall require firm hearts in sound bodies to stand and cover their stations, rather than to see the ruin of our protestation, and the inforcement of a slavish life.' Prose Works, I. 220.


The same enemy of Milton who was alluded to in a preceding page as charging him with intemperance in drinking, also accuses him of licentiousness, and of frequenting 'play-houses and the bordelloes'. The, imputation is thus repelled: 'Having had the doctrine of Holy Scripture, unfolding those chaste and high mysteries, with timeliest care infused, that the body is for the Lord, and the Lord for the body, thus also I argued to my self, that if unchastity in a woman, whom St. Paul terms the glory of man, be such a scandal and dishonour, then certainly in a man, who is both the image and glory of God, it must, though commonly not so thought, be much more deflowering and dishonourable; in that he sins both against his own body, which is the perfecter sex, and his own glory, which is in the woman; and that which is worst, against the image and glory of God, which is in himself. Nor did I slumber over that place expressing such harsh rewards of ever accompanying the Lamb, with those celestial songs to others inapprehensible, but not to those who were not defiled with women, which doubtless means fornication, for marriage must not be called a defilement. Thus large I have purposely been, that if I have been justly taxed with this crime, it may come upon me, after all this my confession, with a ten fold shame; but if I have hitherto deserved no such opprobrious word or suspicion, I may hereby engage myself now openly to the faithful observation of what I have professed.' Apology for Smectymnuus. Prose Works, I. 226. See also the noble passage in Comus; 418-475.

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