heavens & removing the earth out of its place & darkening of the Sun m|M|oon & Stars, & termed a punishing the w|W|orld for their evil Isa. 13. And so the desolation of Israel is represented by a Chaos. I beheld, saith Ieremy, the earth & lo it was without form & void, & the heavens & they had no light. I beheld the mountains & they trembled. – For thus saith the Lord the whole land shall be desolate. Ier. 4.23. So where Isaiah saith, Hear o heavens & give ear o earch {sic} (ch. 1.2) \again Sing o ye heavens, shout ye lower parts of ye earth, break forth into singing ye mountains, O forrest & every tree therein {illeg}(|Ch|. 44.23, & 49.13 Let the world hear. ch. 34.1./ he speaks to a world wch can hear \& sing/ that is, to a world politick. And so the ruin of Idumea (by wch ye Iews understand ye Roman world \Empire/) he describes by the heavens rolling away as a scroll & their host dissolving & falling down & the mountains melting wth blood & the rivers turning into burning pitch & the \dry/ land into burning brimstone (chap. 34) \All this is a the world poli Roman world politick ruined by war:/ ffor, saith he, my sword shall be bathed in heaven it shall come down \[from thence]/ upon Idumea, the people of my curse, to judgment: the sword of ye Lord is filled wth blood &c. So also where Debora saith: They fought from heaven, the stars in their courses fought against Sisera (Iud. 5.20) the heaven & stars are men & Moses describes the desolation of Israel by a conflagration of the Earth (Deut. 32.22:) the heaven & starrs & earth are men. ffor nothing is more usual then by the earth to understand ye nations of ye earth, as in these expressions: Let ye earth rejoyce (Psal 97.1) He causeth ye earth to|&| wor them that dwell therein to worship the first Beast Apoc. 13.2 And ye same language is also applied to ye heavens. Rejoyce ye heavens & ye that dwell in them: wo to ye inhabiters of the earth & of ye sea. Apoc 12.12. Thus also in the first four Trumpets where ye earth & Sea & Rivers & Sun Moon & Stars are gradually smitten, \(Apoc. 8)/ it denotes the smiting of the a world politiqꝫ by the wars of those Trumpets. And where Iohn saith, I saw a new heaven & new earth, for ye first heaven & first earth were passed away |(Apoc. 21)| & Peter after he had described a conflagration of ye old heaven & earth subjoyns: Nevertheless we exp according to his promise look for new heavens & a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness (2 Pet. 3.13:) the old & new heavens & earths are old & new worlds politiqꝫ. ffor ye promise wch Peter refers to is this. Behold I create new heavens & a new earth & the former shall not be remembred nor come into mind: but be ye glad & rejoyce for ever in yt wch I create, for behold I create Ierusalem a rejoycing & her people a joy – \& the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her –/ & they shall build houses & inhabit them & they shall plant vineyards & eat the fruit of them, & dye an hundred years old, &c. Isa 65.17, 18, 20, 21. If you compare the [And whilst ye world natural wth its severall parts is put for a world politick or \great/ kingdom, its very proper to represent ye end of \such/ a \politiqꝫ es/ kingdom by the end of the world: & accordingly we find in the new Testament the end of the world at Christs second coming frequently put for the end of that world polityck \great body politick/ represented by in Daniel by the four Monarchies: wch figurative way of speaking not be|ing| understood by the vulgar common people, they have framed a notion as if the world natural should then be at an end. And yet there is nothing more frequ usual in scripture then to put the world for a great body of <2r> men, as in these phrases places. Augustus Cesar taxed all the world Luke 2.1. All the world wondered after the Beast Apoc. 13.2. The great Dragon was cast out wch deceiveth the whole world Apoc 12.9. The sins of the world Iohn 1.29 & 1 Iohn 2.2 The Saviour of the world Iohn 4.42 \These have turned the world upside down Acts 17.6./ Ye are the light of ye world Mat 5.14 The world is gone after him Iohn 12.19. The world lyeth in wickedness 1 Iohn 5.19 The sins of the world Iohn 1 29. The saviour of the world Iohn 4.42. These \The/ Wisdome of this world 1 Cor. 3.19. |The| Prince of this world Iohn 14.30. And that ye end of the world is a phrase of the same kind \with these/ is evident because after that revolution there still continues a race of mortalls on earth, Apoc as may appear by comparing Apoc 10.6, 7 wth ch.11.15, 18. See also ch 20.8, 9 & ch 21.1, 24, 26 & Dan 7.26, 27 & compared wth Dan 12. See also Isa 51.5, 6, 11. \& 54.8, 9, 10 & 60.20, 21 & 66.22 &/ Ier 31.33, 36 & 33.20, 21 25, 26, & Ezek 37.25. & Amos 9 14, 15. & Ioel 3.12, 20.]


The first book con
Concerning ye language of the Prophets

The Preface

The reasons of ye usual miscarriages – – – mend wt he finds amiss.

Chap. 1
A synopsis of ye Prophetick figures.

Now the original – – – following c|C|ommentaries upon these figures.

Chap 2
Of ye world, heaven & earth, ascending to heaven & descending to earth, \rising out of ye earth or Waters & falling into them/ moving from place to place, shaking earthquakes, shaking of heaven & earth & passing away of heaven & earth.

The comparison – – – – pass away in ye Apoc. ch. 20.11 & 6.14.

Chap. 3
Of \things celestial vizt/ ye Sun, m|M|oon & Starrs, light & darkness, \days & nights,/ dark\e/ning smiting or |set| setting of ye sun moon & starrs, \Eclipsing or/ turning ye Moon into blood, falling of ye starrs, New Moons, Sun's \days & nights, scorching wth ye Sun's/ heat ef &, burning wth fire, {illeg} a flaming sword

Chap. 4
Of Meteors, {illeg} \vizt/ Clouds, riding on ye clouds, covering ye Sun wth a cloud and wth smoke, Winds, Whirlwinds, Thunder lightning hail overflowing rain, moderate rain, Dew, living water & want of rain.

Chap 5
Of things terrestrial vizt dry land, sea, rivers, floods, wilderness, embittering of waters, turning them to blood, overflowing of a sea or river, drying up of waters, ffountains, Mountains, Islands, dens & rocks of mountains & hiding men in them, \Cities houses/ & ships.

Chap. 6
Of living things, vizt Trees, \hearbs, reeds,/ & other \terrestrial/ vegetables, Inse Locusts & other insects, wild beasts, Birds, & ffishes,|.| & \& of/ the Trees of life & Paradise of good & of knowledge, of good & evil, the old Serpent & {illeg} worshipped {God} Beasts.

Chap. 7
How ye several parts of the world are put for several Kingdoms \kingdoms are signified by several parts of the world/, as by the heaven, the earth, the sea, a river, \a City a species of/ animals, or of vegetables, & how or \any/ one animal or vegetable put for ye \whole/ species, as a lyon a Goat a Dragon a Whore, a Frog, \a spirit/ a Vine, A|a| Lamb, a {sic} Seraphim, a Cherubim <4r> & that evil spirits Dæmons or Devils are often used for maladies and distempers & for affections or dispositions of |the tempers & dispositions of men in body| body {sic} or mind, good spirits for good & vertuous dispositions & evil spirits & devils for evil spirits maladie And of the trees of life & knowledge & the old Serpent & Beasts worshipped.

Chap. 8
Of ye parts of a|n| beast animal, |vizt| the head or heads & taile, ye horns, ye eyes, \& seeing, the/ mouth, & {illeg} speaking \& eating/, ye voice loud or faint, |ye| hairs, feathers, wings, arms, feet, nails, teeth, serpentine taile, & bones.|,| & of the times of their life & actions

Chap. 9
Of a man \or womā in various circumstances, as/ wth a crown, \or on horsback, or wth a/ sword, or Bow, \wth/ weights & measures, cloathed or naked, or wth a wine or holding or dring|k|ing a cup of wine, or drinking it. Of a wound, pa a sore & pain pain in travel, birth of a child & pain|death| of man or beast.

Chap. 9
Of a man or woman in various circumstances, as wth a crown or on horsback, or wth a sword or bow, or wth weights & measures or cloathed in white or in other apparrel or naked, or holding a cup of wine or drinking it, or with a wound or sore or in pain. Of |or| \Also of/ pained in child-birth, of a new born child\or bearing a manchild:/ & of the death of man or beast, & of worshipping \them &/ their images.

Chap. 10
Of ye parts of ye temple.

|Ch. 11.|

The Second Book
Concerning the Prophesies of Daniel.

The third Book
Concerning the method of ye Apocalyps & the Allusions therein to ye law & history of ye Iews.

The fourth book
Concerning \{this}/ the {illeg}|Per|sons \& things prophesied of/ in ye Apocalyps, vizt ye 7 Angells two Prophets Witnesses, \whore/ Dragon, ten horned \two/ Beasts & their horns. \3 Horns pluckt up/ |{10} 7 Horns remaining Horns & their churches.|

The fift Book
Concerning the history of the Apocalyps.

Chap1. The ten horns
2 The first six seals opened & six heads of ye Dragon & Beast des{ented}
3 The seventh head & seven Trumpets & Vials.

These ffigures interpretations of ye Prophetick figures are most of them evident out of scripture & w|t|hen rest

Now the harmony of these interpretations {I} are {illeg} \one amongst another/ is such that if \only/ some of them be \were/ proved out of scripture \& ye Eastern Interpreters/ the rest will /would \be/\ proved {one instance} by their relation they have to these. I shal go over them in order.

{illeg} Tis an ordinary {thing} \figure/ to understand a {illeg} polity or kingdom by a City & then the foundations \streets/ are the primitive citizens The as body of the people, \the foundations the primitive citizens/ the Wall Walls the military power, \&/ the Gates ye Civil Civil go Magistrates the streets Gates & Walls signify & windows windows str windows & streets signify as do ye body, heads, horns &|e|yes & body of a beast.

{illeg} \The nature of ye serpent {was}|being| no more changed by ye one {illeg} \Decree/ yn yt of ye bow by ye other./ Tis agreed that Eve was deceived by ye Devil & that ye Serpent was only a symbol of the Deceiver.|{;}| [Now to make the sign littally {sic} \really/ punished for ye crime of the thing signified is absurd & therefore [the curs of the Serpent must be understood literall really of ye Devil & only mystically of ye \only & not of ye be spoken of/ the serpt] tis not to {be} understood that ye serpent] & therefore to make make ye serpent {illeg} \really/ metamorphised in a litteral sense \in a litteral sence/ & condemned to creep on his belly & eat dust because the Devil had offended is to punish one thing for anothers fault & make ye signe suffer \in a litteral sense/ for ye crime of the thing signified wch is absurd & unagreeable to ye nature \& design/ of Parables. For When ye ancient sages would have one thing to be represented by another they feigned a metamorphosis of ye one into ye other & thence came all the \ancient/ Metamorphoses recited by Ovid & other writers. {illeg} \This was their way of making Parables &/ Moses in this Parable of ye Serpent speaks in the language of ye ancient wise men.

As water of life given to ye thirsty & wine given to drink in ye Eucharist signify the doctrine of truth g{iven} by wch men are nourished to life eternal so the wine of fornication signifies \in this Cup/ [in ye golden cup of ye {illeg} Whore of Babylon] \must/ signifies|y| the cup o doctrine of idolatry by wch as with a Philter she entices her lovers & {illeg} to commit \spiritual/ fornication with her & makes them err{illeg} from ye truth & & reel to & fro like drunken men & become furious in their inordinate affections & fornica passions towards their spiritual mistress. For drunkenness is the type of error |& confusion \|& therefor| the wine \{illeg} Philter/ by wch she d{ecei} inebriated the nations is afterwars {sic} called her sorceries/ by wch she deceived them|. They are drunken but not with wine, they stagger but not with strong drink For ye Lord hath poured out upon you ye spirit of deep, sleep & hath closed your eyes – & ye vision of all is become unto you as a book that is sealed – Wherefore, saith ye Lord, forasmuch as this people draw near to me wth their eyes mouth & wth their lips do honour me but have removed their heart far from me & their fear d|t|owards me is taught by the precept of men: therefore behold I will proceed to do a marvelous work among this people &c. Isa. 29.9, 11, 13. Which is as much as to say that I Israel understood not the Prophets Moses & ye Prophets were to Israel as a book that is sealed up so that they could not unde could not understand them \consulted them could not not/ but {illeg} worshipping|ed| God followed \as they were taught by/ ye precept of men & {illeg} by \imbibing &/ swallowing this precept became drunk & staggered & slept in their errors like men grown senseless with wine; \for wch reason God would destroy them./ ffor To ye same purpose \it is that/ Isaiah in another place saith, The Princes of Noph are deceived, {illeg} they have also seduced Egypt – the Lord hath mingled a perverse spirit in the midst thereof; & they have caused Egypt to erre in every work thereof as a drunken man staggereth in his vomit. Isa. 19.13, 14. And so where God gives the Banque ye cup of \|to the {sic}| nations the/ wine \cup/ of his wrath \fury/ to drink it & Ier that they may be \mad &/ drunken & spue & fall & rise no more because of ye sword wch he will send amongst them Ier. 25. the meaning is that he will send amongst them the spirit of delusion \giddiness & madness/ whereby they shall be gathered to battel \& therein reel & spue up their / & perish. {illeg} & in the same sense he makes great Babylon drink ye wine of his fury in ye Apoc. |The Whor The Golden Cup fu in ye hand of ye whore of Bab. is sad {sic} to be full of abominations & filthiness of her fornication & this filthiness is often {illeg} \a little before/ called the wine of her fornication, that is the doctrine of her ido her idolatry.|


will shake, saith he, ye heavens & ye earth & I will overthrow ye throne of Kingdoms. v. 21: a|A|nd so also by ye Apostle Paul, This yet once more, saith he, signifyeth ye removing of those things wch are shaken – yt those things wch cannot be shaken may remain: wherefore we receiving a kingdom wch cannot be moved Heb. 12.20, 27. \And hence the overthrow of the kingdom of Babylon is represented by shaking the heavens & removing the earth out of her place & darkning of the Sun Moon & stars, & termed a punishing {illeg} ye World for their evil. Isa. 13. And so the desolation of Israel is represented # < insertion from higher up the right margin > # by a Chaos. I beheld, saith Ieremiah the heavens earth & lo it was without form & void; & ye heavens & they had no light. I beheld ye mountains & they trembled – For thus saith ye Ld ye whole land shall be desolate. Ier. 4.23 < text from f 5r resumes > / Of the same kind is yt world {sic} in ye Apocalyps chap 12 Rejoyce ye heavens & ye yt dwell in them wo to ye inhabitants of ye earth & sea, chap 12 & again, I saw a new heaven & a new earth; for ye first earth was past away chap. 21 & in Isa. Hear O heavens & give {illeg} ear o earth Ch. 1.2 |And \so/ where God saith, \All ye {illeg} host of heaven shall be dissolved for/ My sword shall be bathed in heaven, (Isa. 34.5) & Debora, They fought from heaven, the stars in their courses fought against Sisera (Iud. 5.20) the heavens are humane & ye stars are men. And as for \ye/ earth, there is nothing more usual then to understand ye nations by it \as in these expressions/. Let all ye earth praise ye Lord \rejoyce./ Psal. 97.1. He causeth ye earth & them that dwell therein to worship ye first Beast. Apoc. 13.2. Whence Moses describes ye desola{illeg}tion of Israel by a conflagration of ye earth Deut. 32|

2. This signification of heaven & earth is further confirmed by ye significations of ascending & descending. Thou hast said in thine heart: I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above ye stars of God, I will sit also upon ye mount of ye congregation in ye sides of ye north. I will ascend above ye heights of ye clouds, &c. This is spoken of ye King of Babylon exalting himself above all Kings & earthly dominions Isa. 14.13. Thy greatness, O Nebuchadnezzar, is grown & reatcheth unto ye heaven Dan. 4.22. \The little horn waxed great even to the host of heaven Dan. 3.11./ And thou Capernaum wch art exalted unto heaven Mat. 11.23. How hath ye Lord – cast down from heaven to earth ye beauty of Israel Lam. 2.1. \I will raise a fort against these & thou shalt be brought down & shalt speak out of the ground & thy speech shall be low out of the dust Isa 29.4 So when we say God is in heaven & Christ came down from heaven we meane not that God is in one place more than in another but that he is high in power & dominion, the great king, & that Xt at his incarnation descended from his former dignity greatness |or (as St Paul expresses it) he emptied himself of the form of a & took upō him ye form of a servant.| For this kind of language was familiar to the ancient orientall nations. If a king/ If a King see himself, as it were, above ye heaven where ye stars are, he shal find exaltation & a name above other Kings. Achm. c. 162. ex. Ind. Pers. Æg. By all wch it may appear yt heaven signifies any high & exalted estate & earth a low one. |And hence the kingdom wch (according to Daniel) is to succeed ye four Monarchies on earth is sometimes in ye new Testament called ye kingdom of heaven Matt. 13.31, 33.|

3. And whilst ascending & descending signifies rising & falling in honour & power all other local motion in ye world natural must signify analogous \suitable/ translation from one office dignity condition & station to another in ye world politick. {illeg} \So in Isaiah 22, the captivating of Iudah \Shebna governor of the {illeg} Temple/ is termed driving him from his station or (as ye Chalde Paraphrast renders it) from his place, & ye substituting Eliakim into his Office & afterwards {illeg}ing \deposing/ him |is|compared to ye fastening of a nail in a sure place & the removing of that nail. So if/ if mountains or or sands or Candlesticks be moved out of their places it signifies their being translated from their former dominion dignity or condition. And when ye woman flees into ye wilderness to her place prepared of God she flees to her place of honour & reigning therein. Apoc. 12. \So Isaiah puts a place & name in House of God for a dignity or office there ch 56.5 ✝ < insertion from the right margin of f 5r > ✝ And when we say that Christ sits at the right hand of God we meane that he is next to God in dignity < text from f 5r resumes > ffor this language of putting places for Offices & dignities is familiar even to the western nations./

4. \ So shaking the parts of ye world natural signifies ye {illeg}|shak|ing of ye like \analogous/ parts of ye world politick/ If a King dram yt there is an earthquake in his city or land it pretends {sic} war of nations & conspiracy against him. Ind Pers. & Æg. in Achm. |This is the doctrine of the Indians, Persians & Egyptians recorded by Achmet| c. 144. And \And In/ \And in/ scripture earthquakes & shaking of heaven and earth signify something more. \such a shaking as to overthrow kingdoms: as in Isaiah,/ I will camp against thee round about, & I will lay seige against thee wth a mount, and I will raise forts against thee & thou shalt be brought down – thou shalt be visited of ye Lord of hosts wth thunder & wth earthquake & wth great noise Isa. 29.3, 6. And where Haggai <6r> saith, Yet once more & I will shake ye heavens & ye earth, Paul gives this interpretation, This yet once more signifies ye removing of those things yt are shaken.

5. What is meant by passing or rolling away of heavens may be understood by this place of Isaiah. < insertion from f 5v > ‡ The indignation of the Lord is upon all nations & his fury upon all their armies he hath utterly destroyed them \he hath utterly destroyed them/ he hath delivered them to ye slaughter – the mountains shall be melted wth their blood & all the host of heaven shall be dissolved & the heavens shall be rolled together all as a scroll & all their host shall fall down as ye leaf falleth from ye vine & as a falling figg from ye figg-tree. ffor my sword shall be bathed in heaven &c Isa. 34.2, 3, 4. < text from f 6r resumes > The indignation of ye Lord is upon all nations – he hath utterly destroyed them he hath delivered them to ye slaughter & ye mountains shall flow wth their blood, & all the host of heaven shall be dissolved & ye heavens shall be rolled together as a scrowl & all their host shall fall down as ye leaf falleth off from ye vine & as a falling figg from ye figtree. ffor my sword shall be bathed in heaven, behold it shal come down upon Idumea [yt is, say ye Iews, upon ye Roman Empire] & upon ye people of my curse to judgment. The sword of ye Lord is filled wth blood [ye two edged sword of his mouth] it is made fat wth fatness wth ye blood of Lambs & Goats wth ye fat of the kidneys of rams [yt is, saith ye Chalde Paraphrast, wth ye blood of Kings & Rulers wth ye fat of kidneys of Princes] for ye Lord hath a great slaughter in ye land of Idumea. Isa 34.2. Here ye heaven wch passeth away is yt wherein ye sword is bathed & consequently a heaven of great Men, \For these men are the/ ye Lambs & Goats & Rams wch ye Chaldee Paraphrast well interprets Kings & Princes. ffor such is ye signification of ye Goat & Ram and other great Beasts in Daniel. In ye same sense also doth heaven and earth pass away \& the stars fall down/ in ye Apocalyps ch. 20.11 & 6.14.

< insertion from f 6v >

Chap. III.
Of things celestial, vizt the Sun Moon & stars light & darkness, darkning smiting or setting of the Sun Moon & Stars, Eclipsing or turning ye Moon into blood falling of the stars & New Moons.

The signification of the Sun Moon & stars is manifested by these instances. The Sun immutably

< text from f 6r resumes >

6. The signification of ye Sun, Moon & Stars is manifested by these instances. When Ioseph dreamed yt ye Sun Moon & eleven stars should do obeysance to him, Iacob interprets it of himself his wife & sons, comparing his family to a little Kingdom Gen. 37. And Sextus Empirius saith yt ye Egyptians assimilate ye sun to ye King & to ye right eye, & ye Queen Moon to ye Queen & to ye left eye, & ye five Planets to Lictors or staffbearers, & ye fixt stars to ye rest of ye people Sext. Empir. adv. Mathem. l. 5, p. 114. l. The Sun immutably represents ye King, ye Moon ye next in power to ye King [suppose ye Pontifex Maximus] ye Planet Venus ye Queen, ye rest of ye greater Stars ye great men of ye Kingdom Achmet Cap. 16 ex Ind. Pers. & Ægypt. Yet Lucifer (wch is Venus) in Isaiah (chap. 14.12) is put for ye King of Babylon suppose in respect of ye ffather. In ye beginning of ye Apocalyps ye Sun {sic} of Man is represented a <7r> Yet Achmet is mistaken in ye doctrine of ye Egyptians about ye Moon, for they referred ye Moon to Isis; & Sextus Empirius[1] tells us more truly yt ye Egyptians assimilate ye Sun to ye King & to ye right eye & ye Moon to ye Queen & to ye left eye, & ye five Planets to Lictors or C Staffbearers, & ye fixt Stars to ye rest of ye people. The scriptures in like manner refer ye Moon to ye Queen & Venus or ye Morning Star to ye Prince next ye King. ffor Lucifer in Isaiah (ch. 14.12) is put for ye King of Babylon, suppose in respect of ye King of heaven; & in ye Apocalyps for Christ, suppose in respect of God ye ffather. And when Ioseph dreamed yt ye Sun Moon & eleven Stars should do obeysance to him, Iacob interprets it of himself his wife & eleven sons comparing his family to a little Kingdom, & his wife as Queen to ye Moon. Whenever Christ is represented by ye Sun (as in Malachy where he is called ye sun of righteousness, & in the Apocalyps where his face is as ye sun,) 'tis to denote him King, & then ye Church being his wife or Queen is ye Moon & ye Bishops are ye Stars. So in ye beginning of ye Apocalyps where his face is as ye Sun, ye seven stars are put for ye Angels or Bishops of ye Churches, & of ye same kind are those stars wch ye Goat in Daniel, & |ye| dragon in Iohn, cast down from heaven. \In Apoc. 19 an Angel standing in the Sun is put for the ruling part \or Clergy/ of Christ's Ch Kingdom, {illeg} cloathed wth ye regal authority of Christ. For Angels in this Prophesy are \mystical bodies of/ Bishops & Bishops are Kings & Priests as Melchizedeck was./ In Apoc 12 you may conceive ye Sun wherewith ye woman in heaven is cloathed to be Christ walking in ye midst of ye Candlesticks or Churches, her crown of twelve Stars to be ye Bishops set over her, ye Moon under her feet to be ye illuminated body of inferior Christians, yt is ye Church of ye Laity spiritually illuminated by her teachers & governours, & ye woman her self to be ye illuminateing body of Superior Christians or ye body of ye Clergy who teach & govern. ffor they are ye light of ye world, ye shining body of Christ whereby ye rest are illuminated. And as ye Moon here signifies ye inferior people who are enlightened & governed, & ye Sun comprehends ye more glorious body of governours, so in any other kingdom ye King & people may be considered as \Lord & wife or/ Sun & Moon. ffor at ye opening of ye sixt seale Apoc. 6.12, ye Moon wch there became as blood is called ye whole Moon to shew yt she is composed of a multitude. And hence I conceive it is yt ye times whilst ye times of ye woman & two witnesses is|are| recconed by solary days & years, those of <8r> ye lay people called ye Beast & ye Nations in ye outward court are recconed by ye Lunary periods of months. ✝ < insertion from f 7v > ✝ If ye world politic or Kingdom considered be an aggregate of many Kingdoms ye sun is ye aggregate of all ye Kings considered as one King & ye Moon of all ye people. ffor Daniel calls ye four Beasts four Kings & yet ye third & fouth were aggregated of many single Kings wth their Kingdoms & Iohn calls ye eighth \last/ head of ye Beast ye eighth head King & yet it was aggregated of tenn Kings with their Kingdoms. And whilst ye third part of ye Sun was {illeg} \smitten &/ darkened at ye sounding of ye fourth Trumpet, Apoc 8.12, you may understand yt ye sun there was not a single person but an aggregated King. < text from f 8r resumes > I have sometimes suspected yt|wh|ether ye Moon under ye womans feet might not refer to the religion of ye Iews, or else to yt of ye heathen, but upon second thoughts I am satisfied yt ye Sun Moon & Stars in one & ye same vision must refer to one & ye same mystical heaven.

7. Now ye reason why ye body of governours & teachers are cloathed wth ye Sun for enlightning ye Lunary multitude will best appear by ye significations of light. ffor ye Iews called their Doctors & teachers Candles, & Lamps, \& lights & their doctrine light/ & so Christ saith of his disciples. ye are ye light of ye world, & Iohn of Christ yt he is ye true light wch lighteth ever man yt cometh into ye world: & Belshazzar of Daniel yt light & understanding was found in him Dan. 5.14. 'Tis spoken also of ye glory of Rulers & Kingdoms in describing their fall by darkness, as in ye following instances Send out thy light and truth; they shal lead me Ps. 43.3. Thy word is a Lamp to my feet & a light unto my paths Psal. 119.105. The commandment is a lamp & ye law is light Prov. 6.23. A law shal go from me & I will make my judgment to rest for a light to ye people Isa. 51.4. Tis spoken also of ye glory of Rulers & kingdoms in describing their fall by Darkness, as in ye following instances.

I will cause your sun [O Israel] to go down at noonday, & I will darken ye earth in ye clear day, & I will turn yor ffeasts into mourning Amos 8.9. She [Ierusalem] hath given up ye ghost, her sun is gone down while it was yet day. Chal Par. Her glory is passed away in her life time. Ier. 15.9. Thy sun shall no more go down, neither shal thy moon withdraw her|it|self, for ye Lord shal be theine {sic} everlasting light, & ye days of thy mourning shal be ended. Chal. Par. Thy kingdom shal no more cease, neither shal thy glory be taken away, &c. Isa. 60.20. The day of ye Lord cometh cruel both wth wrath & fierce anger to lay ye land (i.e. ye Kingdom of Babylon) desolate & & he shal destroy ye sinners out of it: for ye stars of heaven & the constellations thereof shal not give their light, & ye Sun shal be darkned in his going forth, & ye Moon shal not cause her light to shine. |– And I will shake the heaven & the earth shall remove out of her place Isa| Behold I will stir up ye Medes against him Isa. 13.10. When I shal extinguish these [o Pharaoh King of Egypt] I will cover ye heaven & make <8v> <9r> ye stars thereof dark, & I will cover ye Sun wth a cloud & ye Moon shal not give her light. All ye bright stars of heaven will I make dark over thee, & get darkness upon thy land. – ffor thus saith ye Lord God, ye sword of ye King of Babylon shal come upon thee. Chal. Par. When I shal extinguish ye splendor of ye glory of thy kingdom out of heaven tribubulation shal cover thee, &c. Ezek. 32.7. Get thee into darkness O daughter of ye Chaldeans, for thou shall no more be called ye Lady of kingdoms. Isa. 47.5. Darkness & sorrow Isa. 5.30. See also Ioel 2.10. Ier. 13.16. &c.

If one dream yt he sees ye Sun in heaven without rays & light, it betokens calamity & dishonour to ye King – If he dream yt it is eclipsed, it betokens affliction & war to ye King – If in his dream he see ye Sun Moon & Stars gathered together without light, if he be one of ye nobles yt darkness betokens his own destruction, but if ye King he shall be invaded on all sides by war & fall into affliction. Ind. Pers. & Ægypt. in Achmet. c. 167. And if one dream yt ye Stars are very dimm, cast down, scattered & cloudy, it betokens ye calamity of Princes Nobles & rich men. Pers. & Ægypt. in Achm. c. 168.Symbol (double wavy line) in text Where ye Sun is darkned & ye moon turned into blood (as in Ioel 2.31, Apoc. 6.12) it alludes to ye eclipses of ye Sun & Moon: ffor in those Eclipses ye Sun is black & ye Moon of a dusk red colour. The signification is still ye same: for blood is ye type of death, & ye death of a body \politick/ of Men is ye dissolution thereof by ye ceasing of ye government. The falling of the stars from heaven (as in Isa. 34.4, Apoc. 6.13) alludes to ye Meteors vulgarly called falling stars & signifies ye fall of Princes & great Men. The new moons are of a contrary signification to Eclipses of ye Moon & signify ye restauration of a dispersed people. Where ye Iewish new Moons were celebrated wth Trumpets, intimating yt their return from captivity should be accompanied with war.

|Day & night is sometimes put for the time of life & death Iohn 9.4 but|

< insertion from f 8v >

Chap. IV.
Of ffire & Meteors, Clouds, riding on the clouds, covering the Sun with a cloud or wth smoke, Winds, Whirlwinds, Thunder, Lightning, Hail, Overflowing rain, moderate rain, Dew, living water & want of rain

ffire is put to signify war – – –

< text from f 9r resumes >

9. ffire is put to signify war because \bodies of/ men are represented by things combusta|i|ble as \by/ trees, ships, Beasts, & as these things wast in ye fire so Men are destroyed in war. Then this figure there is scarce any more frequently used in scripture. Say to ye fforest of ye South – Behold I kindle a fire in thee & it shal devour every green tree in thee & every dry tree: ye flaming flame shall not be quenched, & all faces from ye South to ye North shal be burnt therein Ezek. 20.47. The house of Iacob shal be a fire <10r> & ye house of Ioseph a flame, & ye house of Esau for stubble & they shall kindle in them & devour them Obed {sic}. 18. In yt day will I make ye governours of Iudah like a hearth of fire among ye wood & like a torch of fire in a sheaf & they shall devour all ye people round about Zech. 12.6 |My determination is to assemble the Kingdoms to pour upon them mine indignation even all my fierce anger: for all the earth shall be devoured wth ye fire of my jealousy Zeph 3.8. So \also \also Peter describes the// Moses describes the desolation of Israel \& Peter the ruin of the Kingdoms of the world/ by a conflagration of t the earth (Deut. 32.22 \2 Pet 3.10./) & the wars whereby mankind is kept out of Paradise he \Moses/ signifies by Cherubims (wch are armies) with ye flames of a sword {illeg} wch turned every way to keep ye way of ye tree of life Gen. 3.24.| The strength of ye battel – hath set him on fire round about, yet he knew not it burned him, yet he laid it not to heart Isa. 42.25. The Lord called thy name a green olive tree – wth ye noise of a great tumult he hath kindled a fire upon it Ier. 11.16. See also Isa. 56.15, 16. Ier. 21.14 & 48.45, & Ezek. 19.12 & 38 30.8. &c.

The Chalde Paraphrast for burning substitutes slaying Isa. 42.25 & for fire & flame armies of enemies strong & powerful as fire Ier. 11.16 & 48.45 &c. |Also for flame he puts a sword. Isa. 50.11.|

If one dream yt he is burnt by a flame he shal perish in war Achm. 159 ex mente Ind. If a King seem to see ye pillars of his palace on fire, it signifies ye dominion of another & ye destruction of ye great ones wch he hath constituted – And if he see his hair on fire he shall loose his people in war c. 160 ex mente Pers. et Ægypt. If one dream yt ye Sun hath scorched him much he will be punished by ye King proportionally to ye scorching Ind. Pers. & Ægypt. in Achm. c. 167. This respects a single person. Where a nation or people is scorched by ye Sun ye punishment can scarce be any otherwise {Achm} then by ye King making war upon them, or raising a persecution against them. So when ye Palmbearing multitude come out of great tribulation, & 'tis said yt ye Sun shall not light on them any more nor any heat, for – God shal wipe away all tears from their eyes, this heat plainly represents ye tribulaton Apoc. 7.16, 17. And so when ye ten Kings burn ye whore wth fire 'tis to be understood yt they consume her by war Apoc. 17.16. And ye like of ye Sun's scorching men {in\wth/} fire & great heat so as to cause ym to blaspheme God Apoc. 16.8, 9. And what ye burning fire \Sun/ signifies here, a torch of fire signifies in Za|e|chary Behold I will make Ierusalem a cup of trembring {sic} \un/to all ye people round about, when they shall be in ye siege both against Iudah, & against Ierusalem – In yt day will I make ye governour of Iudah like a hearth of fire among ye wood, & like a torch of fire in a sheaf; & they shall devour all ye people round about. Zech. 12.

10 That a cloud is a multitude may appear by these instances. Thou <11r> shalt ascend & come like a storm, thou shalt be like a cloud to cover ye land thou & all thy bands & many people wth thee, Ezek. 38.9. A day of darkness, & gloominess, a day of clouds, a great people & a strong &c Ioel. 2.2. A cloud shal cover Egypt & her daughters shal go into captivity. i.e. a cloud of enemies or as ye Chalde Paraphrast interprets it a King wth his army like a cloud Ezek 30.18. \And so God threatning the overthrow of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar, saith: & when I shall put thee out – I will set darkness cover the sun with a cloud & set darkness upon thy land: {illeg} that is saith ye Chalde Paraphrphrast A King wth his Army shall cover thee as a cloud ascends & covers the Sun, Ezek. 32.7. The like signification of smoke see in Isa. 14.31 & Apoc 9.2./ In these instances a cloud signifies only numerous armies, but its signification equally extends to any great multitude as may appear out of Heb. 12.1: Wherefore seing we are also compassed about wth so great a cloud of witnesses &c.: wch expression now grown proverbial was doubtless derived from the language of ye ancient Prophets & wise men; or at least from ye same grounds from wch they derived it: wch I take to be chiefly ye resemblance wt|c|h a numerous swarm of insects, as also ye dust raised by a great multitude of people, have to a cloud.

Hence riding on a cloud signifies reigning over people. If a King dream yt he sits upon ye clouds carried whither he will, he shal rule over his enemies & obtain victories & unexpected joy Pers. & Ægypt in Achm. c. 164. So descending & ascending in a cloud is descending and ascending in a multitude. Apoc. 10.1, & 11.12.

11. Of winds put for wars take ye following instances. The |{illeg} Clouds being people, the winds wth arise from their commotion must signify the commotion & wars of one nation against another in ye quarter of the wind. Thus the| four winds of heaven strove upon ye sea. i.e. ye wars of nations whereby ye Beasts arose. Dan. 9.1. The wind shall eat up all thy pastures & thy lovers shall go into captivity Ier. 22.22. I will raise up against Babylon – a destroying wind Ier. 51.1. Vpon Elam will I bring ye four winds from ye four quarters of heaven & will scatter them towards all those winds, & there shall be no Nation whether ye outcasts of Elam shall not come. ffor I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies. Ier. 49.36. The wind shall carry ym away & ye whirlewind shall scatter them. Isa 41.16. I scattered them wth a whil|r|lwind among all \ye/ nations Zech. 7.14. The king of ye north shall come against him wth a whirlwind, wth chariots &c. Dan. 11.40. A great whirlwind shall be raised up from ye coasts of ye earth, & ye slain of ye Lord &c. Chald. Par. many people shall come openly from ye ends of ye earth Ier. 25.32. So in Ezek. 19.12 for T|t|he east wind dried up her fruit, ye Chalde Paraphrast substitutes: A king strong as a parching wind slew her people. In like <12r> manner in ye Apocalyps ye four winds wch hurt ye earth & sea are ye wars of ye four first Trumpets.

If a King see ye sea much troubled by wind from a known quarter he will be molested by some nations from yt quarter, but if he see ye sea calm he will peacebly {sic} enjoy his kingdom Ind. Pers. & Egypt apud Achm c. 178. If he seem to be taken up & carried from place to place by a wind, he shall undertake a long expedition wth success proportional to ye strength & quickness of ye wind Ind. c. 165. If a King in a journey seem to be hindred by a wind he shall receive a messenger from a remote kingdom by wch he shall be troubled. Pers. & Ægypt. c. 166.

12. Thunders is ye voice of a cloud & therefore \signifies/ ye voice of a multitude. In allusions to ye loud noise of Drums & Trumpets it signifies a battel wth victory on yt side wch thunders. So lightning is fire, & fire is war: A|a|nd hail (in allusion to ye stroke of weapons) is also the tempest of a battel, as you may see by these instances.                The Lord thundred in ye heavens & ye highest gave his voice: Hailstones & coals of fire. Yea he sent out his arrows {illeg} and scattered ym & he shot out lightnings & discomfitted ym. Psalm. 18.13. With hailstones of mighty battel he power he made ye battel to fall violently upon ye nations Eccles. 46.6. The Lord shal cause his glorious voice to be heard, he shal shew ye lightning down of his arm wth ye indignation of his anger, & wth the flame of a devouring fire wth lightning & tempest & hailstones. ffor through ye voice of ye Lord shal ye Assyrian be beaten down Isa. 30.30. I will camp against thee round about & will lay – seige against thee – & ye multitude of ye terrible ones shall be as chaff yt passeth away, yea it shall be suddenly Thou shalt be visited of ye Lord of hosts wth thunder, & wth earthquake, & wth great noise, wth storm and tempest, & ye flame of devouring fire Isa. 29.1, 6. The Philistines drew near to battel against Israel, but ye Lord thundred wth a great thunder yt day upon ye Philistines & smote ym until they cme to Beth-car, Sam. 7.10 See also, Sam. 2.10 & Isa. 28.2 & 60.15. So Ioel describing ye battel of ye great day saith, The Lord shall roar out of Zion, i.e. Thunder wth a roaring thunder ch. 3.16. And in ye same sense are thunder lightning & hail constantly used in ye Apocaplys ch. 8.5|6|, |7| & 11.19 & 16.18, 21.

If one dream yt hail falls on a place he may expect a violent incursion of ye enemy; & if he dream yt ye hail hurt ye stalks of corn <13r> there shall be slaughter of men in yt place proportional to ye breaking of ye stalks Achm. c. 191, ex Ind. Pers. & Ægypt. If one dream he sees a Dragon struck wth lightning, it portends war & ruin to some other King wch is an enemy to yt country c. 283, ex Ind. Pers. & Ægypt.

As for ye mixing fire wth hail, Apoc. 8.6 yt figure may seem borrowed from ye Ægyptian plague of thunder & hail wth fire mingled exod. 9 23. But I suppose it alludes also to ye frequent mixture of hail wth lightning wch happens in hot countries, although in our northern regions it is \less/ unusuall.

An overflowing rain refers also to war as you may see by this instance. I will call for a sword against him throughout all my mountains – & I will rain upon him & upon his bands, & upon ye many people yt are wth him an overflowing rain & great hailstones, fire & brimstone. Ezek. 38.22. |ffor overflowing waters signify invading people as shall be presently explained. ‡ But moderate rain – – –| < insertion from f 13v > ‡ But moderate rain & dew & water for ye life of \whereby/ vegetables & animals \are nourished/ called living water & water of life, signify ye graces & gifts of ye holy spirit & doctrine of truth whereby men are nourished to everlasting life. My doctrine shall distill drop as rain, my speech shall distill as ye dew, as the small rain upon the tender grass herb & as the showers upon the grass. Deut 32.2. It is time to seek ye Lord till he come & rain righteousness upon you Hos. 10.2. Paul planted, Apollo's watered, 1 Cor. 3.6. Ho every one that thirsteth come ye to ye waters – incline your ear & come unto me, hear & yor soul shall live Isa 55.1, 3. They have forsaken me the fountain of living waters & hewn out cisterns, broken cisterns that can hold no water Ier. 2:13. \The fear of the lord is a fountain of life Prov. 14.27 & 13.14 Vnderstanding is a well-spring of life to him that hath it Prov. 16.22/ The water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life Iohn 4.14. |He that beleiveth in me shall never thirst Iohn 6.35. He shall baptize you with the Holy-ghost. Matt. 3.11 I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh Ioel. 2.28 & Isa. 44.3. If any| If any man thirst let him come unto me & drink. He that beleiveth on me out of his belly shall flow rivers of living waters [that is out of his mouth in prophesying or preaching ye gospel,] for this he spake of ye spirit which they that beleive on him should receive. Iohn. 7.38. Living water shal go out from Ierusalem Zech 14.8, even a pure river of water of life to water the tree of life growing on the banks thereof. Apoc 22.1 Ezek 47.1. |from the under the threshold of the Temple Ezek 47 out of ye throne of God & of of the Lamb Apoc 22 that is ye law of God into from ye Tem|Ark|ple into all nations. Isa. 2.3.| These have power to shut heaven that it rain not in the days of their prophesy Apoc. 11 that is to make ye country of ye gentiles Beast become a spiritually barren wilderness. \/ < insertion from the right margin of f 14r > \that is/ a region wch brings forth no \barren of/ saints. Ephraim is smitten, {illeg} smitten their root is dried up, they shall bear no fruit: yea though they bring forth, yet I will |I| slay even the beloved fruit of their womb. Hos. 9.16. < text from f 13v resumes >

|Chap. V.
Of things terrestrial, vizt dry land, Sea, Rivers, ffloods, ffruitful regions, wilderness embittering of waters, turning them to blood, overflowing of a sea or river, drying up of waters, ffountains, mountains, Islands, Dens & Rocks of mountains & hiding men in them, Cities, Houses & ships.|

These are the significations of ye heavens & the things therein The earth general parts of ye earth below are dry land & waters & both these are put for inferior people. ffor \waters where they are not described {illeg} of life signify people./ Dust & waters in general signify people in general, & a region of dry land \Territory/ a Sea, a River, a flood \are put/ for a body politick or kingdom of such people. He remembreth we are dust. Psal 103.14. He gave them as ye dust to his sword & as ye \driven/ stubble to his bow Isa 41.2. I exalted thee out of ye dust 1 King. 16.2. Psal. 113.7. Who can count the dust of Iacob & the number of ye fourth part of Israel. Num 23.10. \Chaldea shal be a spoile –/ Tthe hindermost of the nations, shal be a wilderness, a dry land & a desert. Ier 50.10, 12. Wo to the multitude – – – ✱ – – – < insertion from f 13r > Wo to ye multitude of many people wch make a noise like ye noise of ye seas & to ye rushing of nations yt make a rushing like ye rushing of mighty waters. The nations shall rush like ye rushing of many waters Isa 17.12, 13. The waters of Mirrim shall be desolate Isa. 15.6. Ier. 48.34. The waters where ye Whore sitteth are peoples & multitudes & nations & tongues Rev. 17.15. I saw a Beast rise out of ye sea i.e. out of the aggregate of ye waters where ye whore sitteth Rev. 13.1. How is Babylon being an astonishment among ye nations! ye Sea (i.e. ye kingdom of <14r> ye Medes) is come upon Babylon; she is covered wth ye multitude of the waves thereof, her cities are a desolation &c. Ier. 51.42. If any man dream he is Lord of ye Sea he will be successor in ye whole kingdom Ind. Pers. Ægypt. in Achm. chap. 178. So ye Chalde Paraphrast for waters substitutes people in Ier. 47.2, & Ezek. 26.19 &c, & for Rivers Provinces in Ezek 32.2 & people Isa 18.7. < text from f 13v resumes > Provinces in Ezek. 32.2 & people Isa. 18.7

When a prophesy refers (as is usual) to more kingdoms then one, the Land & Waters are put for ye people of several regions & their dominions. So in the above cited place of Ezekiel where God threatens to rain upon Gog & his people wth an overflowing rain, the rain overflowing the earth is put for ye people of Israel overpowering the people of Gog. In Ier. 57.42 the Kingdom

And as Land & Water signify people so their qualities signify ye qualities of yt people. \Gardens \Forests/ & fruitfull regions represent signifies|y| {illeg} happy & flourishing people &/ a dry & barren land signifies either a nation wasted by war or the Church made desolate by persecution so as to become a country spiritually barren. ‡ Egypt shall be a desolation & Edom shall be a desolate wilderness for ye violence against ye Children of Iudah \but Iudah shall {dwell for ever}/ Ioel 3.19. Chaldea shall be a spoile, – the hindermost of ye nations, a wilderness a dry land & a desert Ier. 50.10, 12. The fruitfull place was a wilderness & all the cities thereof were broken down. – ffor thus saith ye Lord the whole land of Iudea shal be desolate. Ier. 4.26. Thy holy cities are a wilderness. Zion is a wilderness, Ierusalem a desolation Isa 64.10. So in ye <14v> Apocalyps ye Holy Ghost City troden down by ye Gentiles in whose region it rains not in the days of ye prophesy of ye two witnesses (Apoc. 11.) is afterwards by reason of this barrenness desolation & spirituall barrenness called a wilderness Apoc 17.

The bitterness of waters signifies aff als affl affliction of the people & that \also/ chiefly by war & persecution. And if the bitterness be such as to kill living things it signifies the mystical death of kingdoms by war, that is the dissolution of their bodies politiqꝫ. For bitterness of a people refers chiefly to war the|ir| affliction of a people by war or persecution. The Egyptians made ye lives of ye Children of Israel bitter with hard bondage Exod. 1.14. We are in bitter captivity Esther 14.8. They shall be devoured wth burning coales & with bitter destruction – the sword withut & terror within Deut. 32.24. The affliction of Israel [i.e. under their enemies] was very bitter 2 King 14.26. The ways of Zion do mourn – all her gates are desolate her Priests sigh her virgins are afflicted & she is in bitterness. Her adversaries are ye chief &c. Lament. 1.4. Shall ye sword devour for ever & knowest thou not that it will be bitterness in the latter end? 2 Sam. 2.26. Strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it; the city of confusion is broken down. Isa 24.9. And to aggravate this bitterness the expressions of Gall & wormwood are sometimes used. So Ieremy lamenting Ierusalems captivity, saith, He hath compassed me wth Gall & travail – He hath filled me with bitterness, he hath made me drunken wth wormwood – And I said my strength & my hope is perished from ye Lord, remembring mine affliction the wormwood & the Gall Lament 3.5, 15, 19. Her end is bitter as wormwood Prov. 5.4. They have walked after Baalim – therefore thus saith ye Lord I will feed this people with wormwood & give them water of Gall to drink. Ier. 9.15. See also Ier 23.15 & 8.14 & Deut 29.18 & 32.32. And so in ye Apocalyps the great star burning as it were a Lamp (that is consuming by war) is called wormwood, & ye waters on wch it falls (that is the people) are said to become wormwood to express their bitter affliction by those wars & many men are said to dye of the bitterness of those waters to express the dissolution of one or more bodies politiqꝫ of men by those wars Apoc. 8.11.

When a prophesy refers (as is usual to more kingdoms then one the land & waters are put for ye people of several regions & dominions. So in ye above cited place of Ezekiel where God threatens to rain upon Gog & his people with an overflowing rain, this rain & ye {hostile} earth wch it overflows, are ye ye fertile people \the {illeg}/ of Israel \the {illeg}/ of Gog In Ier. 57.42 the kingdom of Israel & Go the people of Israel & the army of Gog & the \invaded/ people of Israel invaded by that army. In Ier 57.42 the kingdom of Babylon – – –

< text from f 13r resumes >

13. ffor ye land & water are frequently put for ye people of several regions considered in prophesy, & their overflowing waters signify ye people of ye waters invading & overflowing those of ye earth.

There is nothing more usual then to put ye earth for ye people of ye earth, as in these expressions. Let all ye earth praise ye Lord Psal.     He causeth ye earth & ym yt dwell therein to worship ye first Beast Apoc. 13.2. And in ye same sense is ye dust of the earth used. He remembreth we are dust Psal. 103.14. He gave ym as ye dust to ye|his| sword & as ye driven stubble to his bow Isa. 41.2. I exalted thee out of ye dust 1 King. 16.2. Psal. 113.{illeg}|7|. Who can count ye dust of Iacob & ye number of ye fourth part of Israel yt is of ye common people Numb. 23.10.

So waters are also used for ye common people & a sea or a river or flood \The waters as/ for a body politick or kingdom of such waters.


In Ier. 57.42 ye kingdom of Babylon is compared to ye earth & yt of ye Medes to ye sea overflowing it by an invasion. How is Babylon, saith he, become an astonishment among ye nations! ye sea (i.e. ye kingdom of ye Medes) is come upon Babylon, she is covered wth ye multitude of ye waves thereof her cities are a desolation &c. So in Isa. 8.7, ye kingdom of Iudah is represented by ye earth & yt of Assyria by an overflowing River. Behold ye Lord bringeth upon ym ye waters of ye River strong & many, even ye King of Assyria & all his glory; & he shall come up over all his channels & go over all his banks, & he shall pass through Iudah, he shall overflow & go over, he shall reach even to ye neck, Ier And in Ier. 46.8. Egypt is a swelling flood & other nations are ye earth, Egypt riseth up like a flood & his waters are moved like ye river, & he saith, I will go up and will cover ye earth, I will destroy ye city & ye inhabitants thereof. And in Ier 47.2 the like representation is made of a Northern Nation invading Philistia. Behold waters [yt is, saith ye Chalde Paraphrast, peoples] rise up out of ye north & shall be an overflowing flood, & ye inhabitants of ye land shall howl at ye noise of ye hoofes of his strong horses &c. And to ye same purpose you may see Isa. 28.17 & 30.28. So then Seas & Rivers within their banks are kingdoms within their own countries, but when they overflow they are invaders of ye neighbouring earth. And ye like signification & distinction of ye earth & waters is observed in ye Apocalyps where ye nations are distinguished into ye inhabitants of ye earth & sea, ch. 12, & ye Angel sets his right food on ye sea, & his left foot on ye earth ch. 10; & ye four winds hurt ye earth at ye sounding of ye first Trumpet, & ye Sea at ye sounding of ye second, & ye ten horned Beast rises out of ye sea & ye two horned out of ye earth. This earth & sea is ye Kingdoms of ye Dragon & Beast. While ye Beast is one entire kingdom he is represented by ye sea, but after his division into ye ten kingdoms signified by his horns he <15r> is called ye Rivers at ye sounding of ye third Trumpet, & ye many waters in ye wilderness. And so ye flood wch ye Dragon cast out of his mouth since it is a body of water divided from ye Dragons body it must signify a kingdom split out of his kingdom by ye division thereof.

Now as overflowing of waters signifies excess of power & people & invasion of other kingdoms, so drying up of waters signifies ye decay of military strength & ye access of ye regions of ye waters to ye dominions of ye earth. They shall draw their swords against Egypt – & I will make ye rivers dry & sell ye land into ye hand of ye wicked Ezek. 30.12. The Egyptians will I give over into ye hand of a cruel Lord – & ye waters shal fail from ye sea, & ye rivers shall be wasted & dryed up – & ye brooks of defence shall be emptied & dryed up, & ye reeds and flaggs shall wither Isa. 19.5, 6. A sword is upon ye treasures of Babylon & they shall be robbed, a draught is upon her waters & they shall be dried up. Ier 50.38. I will dry up her Sea & make her springs dry & she shall become heaps, an astonishment without an inhabitant. Ier. 51.36, 37. And in ye same sense is ye water of ye great river Euphrates (yt is of ye kingdoms seated upon it) dried up yt ye way of ye king of ye ear|s|th may be prepared Apoc. 16; & also the water of ye red sea & rivers of Egypt to make way for ye return of Israel from captivity. The Lord shall utterly destroy ye tongue of ye Egyptian Sea & with his mighty wind [of war] shall he shake his hand over ye River [Nile] & shall smite it in ye seven streams & make men go over dry shod. And there shall be an high way for ye remnant of his people wch shall be left from Assyria, like as it was to Israel in ye day yt he came up out of ye land of Egypt. Isa. 11.15, 16.

The like is to be understood of springs & fountains, as in Hosea where Samaria is called a fountain dryed up. Though Ephraim saith he, be fruitfull among his brethren, an East wind [or war from ye east] shall come, the wind of ye Lord shall come up from ye wilderness, & his spring shall become dry & his fountain shall be dried up – Samaria shall become desolate, for she hath rebelled <16r> against her God, they shall fall by ye sword &c. Hos. 13.15, 16.

14. Mountains because height is a type of dominion are ye cities, wch beare rule, & plains ye lower people. Of Ierusalems being called a Mountain there are many instances, as in Zech. 8.3. Ierusalem shall be called a city of truth & ye mountain of ye Lord of Hosts ye holy mountain: & in Dan 9.16. Let thy fury be turned away from thy city Ierusalem thy holy mountain. The like in Dan 9.20, Ier. 17.3, Isa 27.13 & 66.10, & other places & also where ye mountain of Gods house is put for Mount Zion & Zion for Ierusalem.

So of Babylon: I will render unto Babylon – all ye evil yt they have done in Zion – Behold I am against thee O destroying Mountain saith ye Lord, wch destroyeth all ye earth; & I will stretch out mine hand upon thee & roll thee down from ye rocks, & will make thee a burnt mountain – thou shalt be desolate for ever Ier. 51.34 24, 25, 26. Who art thou O great mountain? before Zerubbabel, thou shalt become a plain Zech. 4.7. The burden of Babylon wch Isaias ye son of Amos did see: lift ye up a banner upon ye high mountain Chal. Par. upon ye city wch dwells securely Isa. 13.2.

So of cities in general. I will lay ye land most desolate & ye pomp of her strength shall cease, & ye mountains of Israel shall be desolate Ezek. 33.28. Thou hast said by ye multitude of my chariots am I come up to ye height of ye mountains Chal. Par. to ye strong holds of ye cities Isa. 37.24.

And because cities are called mountains wth respect to their dominion, therefore mountains include also ye dominions of cities, as may be seen in Dan 2.35, & Isa. 11.9 where a mountain fills ye earth. And so in ye Apocalyps it is to be conceived yt the mountains & Islands are moved out of their places (ch. 6.14) & flee away (ch. 16.20) in respect of dominion whether civil or religious.

For Islands because they are ye inhabited & most elevated parts of ye sea, \& frequently of a mountanous form (as Tenariff, St Hellens, Sicily)/ signify in ye sea what Mountains do on ye land. ffor Islands are sea Mountains & high Islands (as Tenariff, St Hellens, Sicily) are high Mountains of ye Sea. So at ye sound of ye second Trumpet when a great <17r> mountain burning wth fire was cast into ye sea. Apoc. 8.8: it is to be conceived yt ye mountain was an high Island. ffor ye plague of yt Trumpet fell upon ye sea & ye fire or war wherewith yt mountain burnt was a part of yt plague. ffor an high mountain to rise out of ye sea & or tumble into ye sea is of contrary significations & equally respects a sea-Mountain or high Island in both cases; ye fall of a city of ye earth being represented not by a mountain falling or rolling down into ye sea but by its becoming a plain Zech 4.7. This I take to be ye signification of Islands of ye sea. ffor such Islands are commonly rocky & mountanous. But when flat & made by ye drying up of waters they signify ye cities or provinces of ye waters low in power & made subject to ye dominion of ye earth. I will destroy & devour at once, I will make wast mountains & hills & dry up all their herbs [yt is consume their people] & I will make ye rivers [yt are the provinces or kingdoms of ye waters] Islands & will dry up ye pools. Isa. 42.15.

15. Mountains being cities, its very proper to represent \houses & more especially/ the sumptuous stone buildings of Temples & Palaces by dens & rocks of mountains: their walls being ye rocks of Mountains politick, & their inside ye Dens whe{ther}\re/ men represented in prophesy by wild Beasts resort. The multitude of ye city shall be left, ye forts & towers shall be dens for ever Isa. 32.14. Let ye inhabitants of ye Rock sing, let them shout from ye top of ye mountains (i.e. of ye cities) Isa. 42.11. Behold I am against thee (ye house of David) O inhabitant of ye valley & rock or [i.e. palace \or strong hold/] of ye plain, saith ye Lord; wch say: who shall come down against us or who shall enter into our habitations? Ier. 21.13. These instances seem to respect common buildings, those yt follow are of Temples. The high places [or Temples] of [|ye| Idols called] a[2] Aven ye sin of Israel shall be destroyed, ye thorn & thistle shall come upon th Is this house wch is called by my name become a den of Robb Is this house wch is called by my name become a den of Robbers? i.e. an Idol Temple Ier. 7.11. Are ye not ye children of transgression, a seed of falshood, inflaming yorselves wth Idols under every green tree, slaying ye children in ye valleys under ye clifts of ye rocks? Isa. 57.5. yt is under ye Idol Temples, or high places of Tophet wch they built for yt purpose in ye valley of ye son of Himmon. <18r> Ier. 7.31, & 19.5, & 32.35. The high places [or temples] of [ye Idols called] a[3] Aven, ye sin of Israel, shall be destroyed, ye thorn & thistle shall come upon their Altars & they [ye Idols] shall say to ye Mountains, cover us, & to ye hills fall on us, yt is to ye tops of ye mountains & hills wch their wise called \their/ ye rocks & \cover their/ dens Hos. 10.8. The Lord alone shall be exalted in yt day & ye Idols shall be utterly [4] abolisht, & they shall go into ye holes of ye rocks & into ye caves of ye earth for fear of ye Lord, Isa. 2.19. In yt day shall a Man cast his Idoles – to ye Moles & to ye Bats to go into ye clifts of ye rocks, & into [5] tops of ye ragged rocks for fear of ye Lord; vers. 21. Here ye Idols, wch are to be hid in ye rocks, are called by ye name of Idols but a little before they were spoken unto as men. Enter into ye rock & hid {sic} thee in ye dust, vers. 10. And so in ye Apocalyps they are represented by men & their temples by Dens & rocks. The Kings of ye earth & ye great men & ye rich men, & ye chief captains, & ye mighty men, & every bondman, & ever freeman hid themselves in ye dens & in ye rocks of ye mountinas; And said to ye mountains & rocks, Fall on us & hide us [the tops of] the mountains [wch covered ye dens] & to ye rocks fall on us & hide us Apoc. Apoc: {sic} 6.15. < insertion from f 17v > ✝ For that Idols are men should be put for Idols is according to ye common way of speaking. For Idols are ye images of men, & as we are wont to call ye Image of a Beast a Beast & ye image of a Bird a Bird so we call ye image of a Man a Man. And as this is ye comm̄on way of speaking so it is ye language of ye Scriptures. Thou hast played ye harlot wth many lovers yet return to me saith ye Lord – she defiled ye land & committed adultery wth stones & wth stocks. Ier. 3.19. I will destroy her vines and her figtrees whereof she said, These are my rewards yt my lovers have given me – & I will visit upon her ye days of Baalim wherein she – went after her lovers & forgot me saith ye Lord. Hos. 2.12. Thou pouredst out thy fornications on every one yt passed by – thou madest thy self Images of Men & didst commit whoredom wth them – thou hast committed fornication with ye Egyptians great of flesh – thy filthiness was poured out & thy nakedness discovered through thy whoredoms wth thy lovers even with all ye Idols of thy abominations Ezek. 16.15, 17, 26, 37. Aholah – doted on her lovers, on ye Assyrians her neighbours wch were cloathed wth blew, Capitains & Rulers all of ym desireable young men horsmen riding upon horses. Thus she committed her Whoredoms wth them wth all them yt were chosen Men of Assyria & wth all on whom she doted, [even] wth all their Idols. Ezek. 23.5. And when her sister Aholibah saw this – she doted upon ye Assyrians her Neighbours Capitains & Rulers, cloathed most gorgeously horsmen riding upon horses, all of ym desirable young men – & she increased her whoredoms, for when she saw men por|ur|trayed upon ye wall, ye Images of ye Chaldeans pourtrayed with vermilion girded wth girdles upon their loins exceeding in died attire upon their heads, all of ym Princes to look to after ye manner of ye Babylonians, she doted upon ym & sent messengers unto them into Chaldea, & ye Babylonians came to her into ye bed of love: i.e. when she saw their Idols she doted upon them & sent for others to be made in their likeness & set up in her own land vers. 11.

By these instances it may appear yt it is according to ye use of ye Prophets to represent Idols as men where with ye Church commits adultery, & not only so but to call them by ye Names of those Men whose Gods they are, or whose likeness they bear, as Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Princes, Capitains, Rulers, Horsmen, young men &c. not much unlike their being called \in the Apocalyps/ in ye sixt seal, Kings & great Men, & rich Men & Capitains, & mighty men & bond & free. Apoc. 6.15.

15 Houses by land & ships by sea signify families assemblies & societies of men. So ye house of Bethuel Gen 28.2. of Ierubbaal Iud. 8.35. of Millo Iud 9.6, 20. \of Saul & David. 2 Sam. 3.1/ of Ephraim Iud 10.9 of Saul Ioseph Iud. 1.22 of Levi Psal 135.20. &c are their f of Iudah 2 Sam 2.4 of Israel, 1 King. 20.31 &c. are their ffamilies, Tribes, & Kingdoms. And the house of God Heb. 10.21. {illeg} 1 Tim. 3.15 & of Christ Heb. 3.6 is the Church or Assembly of Christians. And when a House is \thus/ taken in a mystical sense, the stones <18v> & utensills thereof are the men in the mystical fabrick. Ye also as lively stones are built up a spiritual house 1 Pet. 2.5 \Eph. 2.19, 20./ The stone wch ye builders disallowed the same is made ye head of the corner Psal 118.22. 1 Pet. 2.6, 7. Isa. 28.16. If a man In a great house there are not only vessels of gold & of silver but also of wood & of earth & some to honour & some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge himself from these he shall be a vessel unto honour. 2. Tim. 2.20. Rom 9.21, 22, 23. So Ieremy represents ye Iews by a potters vessel chap. 19.

And as houses at land so ships at sea signify assembled|ies| of men: ships of war being bands of soldiers & Merchant ships being societies & congregations of men assembled \under Priests/ to worship their God |religious religious societies subject \governed/ by Priests|, such as are the parrochial Churches & c|C|ongregations of Christians, or ye like assemblies of the Heathens or Mahometans in their several places of worship. Temples If a King dream that he sees his ships sending out fire to burn other ships or Countries he shall obtein victories over his enemies proportional to ye strength & efficacy of ye fire. If he see his own ships burnt it portends ruin to his forces: & if he seem to build a new navy of ships many ships, according to their number he shall again raise forces more or less powerful against his enemies Achm. c. 181 ex Pers. & Ægypt. So \the ships/ in ye second Trumpet Apoc 8.9 seem to signify So in ye Apocalyps a (ch. 8.9) the ships destroyed in ye wars to wch ye 2d Trumpet sounds \(ch. 8.9)/ must signifie {illeg} armies: but merchant ships belong to refer to spirituall trafick. ffor If one dream yt he builds a Merchant ship he shall gather an assembly of men to celebrate religious mysteries Achm. ex Ind. c. 180 {illeg} The merchant city mystically called Tyre shall turn to her hire & shall commit fornication wch all ye kingdoms of ye world & her merchandise & her hire shall be holiness to ye Lord. It shall not be treasured nor laid up for her merchandize shall be for them that dwell before the Lord [that is for the Priests] to eat sufficiently & for durable clothing Isa. 23.17, 18. So then Sea Merchants are Pr Priests, {their} ships are their {illeg} c|C|ongregations or Parishes & their merchandise is the hire wch the fornicating City (or mystical body of these Priests) receives of th her lovers, that is ye {illeg} \profits/ of their Priesthood. And in this sence are the Merchants \of Babylon/ wth their ships & merchandiz|s|e I in ye Apocalyps chap 18 to be understood.

Chap. VI
Of living things vizt Trees Hearbs reeds & other vegetables, Locusts & other Insects, Wild Beasts Birds & ffishes, the trees of life & knowledge, the old Serpent, \a Forest/ a Garden \a {illeg} Paradise/ & a Wildernesse.

To put trees for men is a very usual figure – – < text from f 18r resumes > ffor yt men are put for Idols will appear more fully hereafter.

15. Ships are sea houses or if you please sea towns, & merchant ships \are/ trading houses or towns, & consequently must signify houses Temples & their Parishes where\ever/ Priests are ye merchants. If one dream he builds ships he shall grow rich proportionally to ye number of them. This Achm. c. 180 relates as ye doctrine of ye Egyptians & Persians & in ye same chapter adds this for ye doctrine of ye Indians. If one dream yt he builds a merchant ship he shall gather an assembly of men to celebrate religious mysteries.

So war ships must signify tents, ye habitations of an army. If one dream a King dream yt he sees his ships sending out fire to burn other ships or countries he shall obtain countries victories over his enemies proportional to ye strength & efficacy of ye fire. If he see his own ships burnt it portends ruin to his forces. And if he seem to build a new navy of many ships according to their number shall again raise forces more or less powerfull against his enemies. Achm. \c./ 181. ex. Pers. et Egypt.

16. To put trees and other vegetables for men is a very usuall figure. <19r> The Lord hath anointed me – to give ym ye garment of praise for ye spirit of heaviness yt they might be called ye trees of righteousness ye planting of ye Lord Isa. 61.3. \The same Prophet having told a Parable of Gods Vineyards, afterwards thus interprets it/ The vineyard of ye Lord of Hosts is ye house of Israel & ye Men of Iudah his pleasant plant Isa. 5.7. They shall march wth an army & come against Egypt wth axes as hewers of wood, they shall cut down her forrest Ier. 46.22. \The people shall be as ye burnings of lime As thorns cut up shall the people be burnt in ye fire Isa 33.12./ Wickedness burneth as ye fire, it shall devour ye briars & thorns & shall kindle in ye thickets of ye forrest, ye people shall be as ye fewel of ye fire wch last words explain ye rest Isa. 9.19. Howl fir tree for ye cedar is fallen because all ye mighty are spoiled. Howl O ye oaks of Basham, for ye defenced forest Zech. 11.2. How long shall ye herbs \land/ mourn & ye herbs of every field wither for ye wickedness of ym yt dwell therein. Ier. 12.4. \The{illeg} Lord {illeg} will cut off from Israel head & tail, branch & rush in one day Isa 9.3|1|4. Neither shall there be any work for Egypt wch the head or tail – branch or rush may do. Ier|sa| 19.15. They were as ye grass of ye feild & as corn blasted before it be grown up. Isa 37.27. Psal. 37.2 2 Sam 23.4, 6./ The good seed (whose blade is a plant) are ye children of ye kingdom but ye tares are ye children of ye wicked one Matt. 13.38. Every plant wch my ffather hath not planted shall be rooted up. I have planted Apollos watered &c. |So in ye Apocalyps trees & herbs are put for men ffor ye Locusts there feed not upon realy green things but upon men Apoc. 9.4.|

The Chalde Paraphrast for woods sometimes substitutes armies Isa. 10.18, 34, & sometimes cities or people Ier. 21.14 & 9.18. \& for Cedars Oaks & such like trees, Kings & Princes Isa. 2.13/ And ye Indians, Persians & Egyptians teach: If one dream yt he waters & dresses trees he shall be a very great man & a nourisher of ye people. And if a King dream yt he plants trees he shall institute new Magistrates. And if a Plebeian dream yt he gathers into his house ye leaves of trees he shall obtain riches from great men proportional to ye leaves. Achmet. c. 151. And if one dream yt hail hurt ye stalks of corn there shall be slaughter of men in yt place proportional to ye breaking of ye stalks c. 191. |And that thorns denote pervers & evil men Ach c. 213.|

So in Isa. 19.6 & Ier. 51.32. reeds & flaggs of rivers & things sown by ye brooks are put for ye men of Kingdoms represented by waters.

17. Because Herbs & other vegetables signify men, therefore such insects as destroy ym signify armies of men wch in like manner prey upon countries. That wch ye Palmer worm hath left hath ye Locust eaten, & yt wch ye Canker worm hath left hath ye caterpillar eaten – ffor a nation is come upon my land strong & without number – he hath lain my vine wast and barked my figtree, he hath made it clean bare & cast it away, ye branches thereof are made white. Ioel 1.4, 6. See also Ioel 2.2, 25.


Locusts are generally referred to a multitude of enemies – If any King or Potentate see Locusts come upon a place, let him expect a powerfull multitude of enemies there: & look what hurt ye Locusts do ye enemy will mischief proportionally Ind. Pers. Egypt in Achm. c. 300. |So fflies & Bees are by the Chalde Paraphrast interpreted of hostile armies Isa. 7.18.|

Wild Beasts also by reason of their feeding upon vegetables & praying upon one another signify Kingdoms of ye earth wth their armies. A particular Beast as in Daniels prophesies, signifies a particular kingdom, and Beasts in general kingdoms in general. Come ye, assemble all ye Beasts of ye field, come to devour (Chald. Par. Those yt slay wth ye sword shall be assembled from all sides: Kings of Nations & their armies shall come to spoil) Ier. 12.9. The burden of ye Beasts of ye South, i.e. ye bands of Egypt Isa. 30.6. \Where are the Princes of the Heathen become & such as ruled the Beasts of \upon/ the earth, they that had their pastimes with the fowls of the air? Baruch 3.17/ I have given all these lands into ye hands of Nebuchadnet|z|zar King of Babylon my servant, & ye Beasts of ye field have I given him also to serve him, & all nations shall serve him. Ier. 27.6 & 28.14. I will also send wild beasts among you wch shall rob you of your children and destroy yor cattel & make you few in number & yor high ways shall be desolate. Levit. 26.22. \So {illeg}|Ezekiel| representing the captivity of ye Iews by a flock of sheep scattered upon all the face of the ear earth, saith this flock became a prey & meat to every beast of the feild because there was no sheepherd. Ezek. 34./ In Ier. 15.2, 3. \& 16.4/ Ezek. 5.12, 17 & 14.13, 15, 17, 19, 21; there are described four distinct plagues to befall ye Iews, ffamine, Captivity, Sword & Pestilence whereof their captivity is represented by Beasts passing through ye Land and spoiling it & making it desolate: so yt wild Beasts strictly signify forreign kingdoms wch destroy not by ye sword only as in civil wars but by spoiling a country & carrying away ye prey. \So Isaiah ch. 5.29 Isaiah compares such kingdoms to Lions wch lay hold on ye prey & carry it away safe so yt none may deliver it./ The pestilence & famine are in Ier. 15.3 represented by ye doggs to tear & ye fowls of heaven \to devour/: ye doggs in ye towns to tear ye carkasses of those yt drop down dead & want burial, & ye fowls in ye fields to destroy|voure| ye corn & thereby create a famine, these fowls \thence/ signifying ye armies of enemies. wch eat up \& destroy/ provisions, & thereby create a famine. So in |the Apocalyps killing wth ye sword & wth hunger & wth death & wth beasts of ye earth is put for killing wth civil wars & with famin & with pestilence & wth forreign nations Apoc 6.8. And in| Isa. 18.6. ffowls of ye Mountains & Beasts of ye earth are people of ye cities & nations; & in ye same sense Beasts & ffowls are to be understood in Daniel: Wheresoever ye Children of Men dwell ye Beasts of ye field & ye ffowls of ye heaven [yt is ye kingdoms of ye world represented by ye earth & heaven] hath he given into Nebuchadnezzars hand & made him ruler over them all, Dan. 2.38. \And in Ezekiel: All the fowls of heaven made their neasts in his boughs & under his branches did all the beasts of ye field bring forth their young & under his shadow dwelt all great nations. Ch. 31.6. And in Ier 12 How long shall/ < insertion from f 20v > the land mourn & every the Herbs of every field wither, for the wickedness oth of them that dwell therein? The Beasts are consumed & the Birds because they said He shall not see or last end. Ier 12.4. My heritage is unto me a speckled bird, the birds round about her are against her. Ier. 12.9. The eagle wch thou sawest come up from the sea is ye kingdom signified by thy brother Daniel wch was seen in the vision of thy brother Daniel 2 Esdras 12.11. My hand ✝ < insertion from the right margin of f 21r > My hand hath found as a neast the riches of the people, & as one gathereth eggs that as I gathered are left Isa. 10.14. Here a birds moving her wing & {illeg} opening her mouth is put for a kingdoms making war. And in the like sense the fowls of heaven are called to ye supper of ye great God in ye Apocalyps chap 19. < text from f 20v resumes > < text from f 20r resumes > And in Hosea, In yt day I will make a covenant for them wth ye Beasts of ye field & wth ye ffowls of heaven & with ye creeping things of ye ground [yt is wth ye Princes <21r> & people of ye whole world] & I will break ye bow & ye sword, & ye battel out of ye earth, & will make them to ly down safely. Hos. 2.18. So in Isa. 11.6, Beasts are men where tis said yt ye wolf shall ly down wth ye Lamb & ye Leopard shall ly down wth ye Kid & ye Calf & ye young Lyon & ye ffatling together & a little child shall lead ym & ye cow & ye Bear shall feed, f|t|heir young ones shall lye down together, & ye Lyon shall eat straw like ye ox, & ye suckling child shall play on ye hole of ye Asp, & ye weaned child shall put his hand on ye cockatrice; they shall not hurt nor destroy in all my mountain ffor ye earth shall be full of ye knowledge of ye Lord. These last words explain ye rest & shew ye peaceable state of Christs Kingdom to be here spoken of {by} ye Prophets in other places described more plainly saying yt they shall beat their swords into plowshares & their spears into pruning hoo{illeg}|k|s & nation shall not lift up sword against nation neither shall they learn war any more Isa. 2.4. Micah. 4.3. Of Beasts of ye earth & fowls of ye heaven being put for ye people of nations & Kingdoms you may farther see Dan. 4.12, 14. Ezek. 17 23 & 29.5 & 31.6, 13 & 32.4. 39.17. So in ye Apocalyps ye ffowls of ye heaven wch are called to a great supper of ye great God are men represented a little before by ye armies {in heaven} as you may understand by comparing ye place wth Ezek. 39.17.

Fishes are also generally put for men. I will make you ffishers of Men M. 4.19. I will send for many ffishers & they shall fish them, & after will I send for many hunters & they shall hunt them Ier. 16.16. I will take away your posterity wth fishhooks Amos. 4.2. Thou makest men as fishes of ye sea – they take up all of them with ye angle & catch ym in their net. – Shal they therefore empty their net & spare continually to slay ye nations? Habak. 1.14, 15, 17. \In/ Ezek. 29.4, 5, The King of Egypt is represented by a water dragon or Crocodile & his people by ye fishes of ye river Nile. In Hosea. 4.3 Zeph. 1.3. & Ezek. 38.20, where ye Beasts of ye earth, ye ffowls of ye heaven & ye ffishes of ye sea are either sacrificed or destroyed by wars, its nonsense to understand any thing by these creatures but Men. And so in ye Apocalyps ye creatures in ye Sea wch have life are Men ch. 8.9.

|# That the Tree of life with its fruit signifies great & good works &c.| < insertion from the right margin of f 21r > # These are ye significations of vegetables & animals unless when by some peculiar epithite or circumstance they be diverted to some other signification as by calling a Tree ye Tree of life or knowledge or a Dragon ye serpe or serpent ye old serpent or the see two pages above Devil or by making any Beast the object of worship. For ye Tree of life wth its fruit &c. See two pages above. < text from f 21r resumes > < insertion from the right margin of f 19r > |Insert two pages be\low/ what concerns the Tree of life| |X But the tree of life wth its fruit signifies grace & good works, as is manifest both \because it nourishes to life eternal &/ because it grows upon the banks of ye river of living water (Ezek 47 & Apoc 22) wch water is ye spirit & the word or law of God. & because Solomon interprets the Tree of life to be wisdom (Prov. 3.18) & wholsome doctrine (ch {illeg} (15.4) & the fruit or works of ye righteous (ch. 11.30) And {Thus} Christ speaks of eating the fruit {of}| <19v> this tree where he saith My meat is to do the will of him that sent me & to finish his work. Iohn 4.34. & This fruit is the bread of life & the hidden Name of the flesh of Christ to be eaten by each, concerning wch Christ saith: My I am the bread of life; he that cometh to me shall never hunger & he that beleiveth on me shall never thirst. Iohn 6.35. And again And again: I am the br He that beleiveth on me hath everlasting life. I am the bread of life. Your fathers did eat Manna in the wilderness & are dead. This is the bread wch cometh down from heaven that a man may eat thereof & not dye. I am the living bread wch came down from heaven. If any man eat of this bread he shall live for ever: & the bread that I will give is my flesh wch I will give for the life of the world. – whosoever eateth my flesh & drinketh my blood hath eternal life & I will raise him up at ye last day. vers Iohn 6.35, 47, 54. The fruit of ye tree of life & the river of ye water of life (Apoc. 22 & Ezek 47) is this \mystical/ flesh & blood of Christ to be eaten & drunk by faith. ffor this flesh & blood is mystical & signifies (Iohn 6.63) & signifies the spiritual riches of Christ \that is ye doctrine of his birth & passion/ as the flesh of ye Whore of Babylon {illeg} & such like temporal bodies signifies their temporal wealth so the flesh of Christ signifies the spirituall riches of his incarnation & passion, {illeg} the acquiring \of wch/ by faith is typified by eating the Eucharist.

And as the tree of life is mystical so is ye tree of knowledg of good & evil. |ffor these are relatives by way of opposition the one being the trees of life & death: \/ < insertion from higher up f 19v > ✝For ye tree of knowledge is ye tree of death. In ye day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt dye. < text from lower down f 19v resumes > & therefore since the one is ye law of God the other must be the {lusts} inclinations of the flesh.| To eat ye fruit of this trees {sic} signifies the acquiring of some forbidden unhappy knowledg or other, but what that knowledge was is difficult to say. Tis called the knowledg of good & evil, that is of happiness & misery, because it brought misery, & \of both. For the knowledge of both. For/ happiness is never so well understood as when tis lost. Tis the opinion of ye Iewish Doctors that Adam eat of this fruit by knowing his wife ffor this y is the phrase wch Moses uses for carnal copulation. Adam knew his wife (Gen. 4.1 Cain knew his wife vers 17) Adam knew his wife again (vers 25.) And \Also/ the consequence of eating this fruit was that Adam & Eve were both ashamed of their nakedness & began to cover their shame with aprons; that Eves conception should be multiplied & she should bring forth children in sorrow & that her desire should thenceforth be to her husband; & that Adam |should till ye ground in| should till the ground in ye sweat of his brows & eat of it in sorrow. wch came to pass |all wch were the natural consequences of their knowing one another. For Adam began then to till the ground in the sweat of his brow & eat of it in sorrow| when his seed {illeg}|became| too many to be nourished by the spontaneous fruits of ye earth. & so was ye consequence of knowing his wife And further, tis added immediately after this sentence that Adam called his wife Eve because she was ye mother of all flesh Gen. 3.20: whence it follows that he knew her in Paradise before this sentence. \‡ Twas the an opinion also of &c/ < insertion from f 20r > ‡ Twas an opinion also of the Iewish Doctors that Adam was an Hermaphrodite & by consequence that ye formation \of Eve/ out of his rib was a mystical description of her birth out of his body loins. And in such a parabolical description of things it may seem also yt God prohibited them the tree of knowledg by making ye {illeg} By her eating first & tempting Adam in exprest yt shee lusted first. ffor eating signifies as well lust as ye external act. For the Tree of life & the tree of knowledge are (as I said) of a contrary nature < text from f 19v resumes > Now if this opinion be true it must be said that in Eves minority when she first |after God had created man male & female & called their name Adam, & Eve was yet a minor new {being}| come forth of Adams body \body \being/ formed \only/ of so {being} much of his flesh & bone as God took out of him/, he was forbid to violate her: & that when she was grown up & become ripe for {illeg} copulation \& the inhibition was not yet revoked/ she lusted first & tempted Adam \before the inhibition was revoked/ & that this is represented by her eating & giving him to eat, the eating signifying as well the lust as the external act. The tree of life & ye tree of knowledge seem to be \of a/ \are of a/ contrary nature, The {illeg} fruit of ye one being \so that by knowing one you may know the other. For the/ one lead-||ing to life, ye other to death \on ye day that thou eatest thereof thou shall dye/. And therefore since the fruits of ye one are \{illeg}/ such thoughts & actions as lead to life, the fruits of ye other may be not only such actions but also such thoughts as lead to death. \But what truth there is in the Iewish opinions of the Iewish Doctors I leave to be considered/ Concerning ye tree of life tis said that the fruit shall be for meat & the leaves for medicine \healing of the nations/ Ezek 47.12. Apoc 22. By wch it should seem that the fruit taken inwardly signifies inward grace & faith by wch men {illeg} are saved & |yt| the leaves applied outwardly are external good works by wch means of wch the nations live in peaceably & happily together. And if this be so, then eating the forbidden fruit will rather signify the admission of lust into ye mind then the commission of ye external act.

A Dragon or serpent, if called ye old serpent or ye Devil signifies the spirit <20v> of error delusion & inordinate affections reigning in the world. ffor spirits good or evil are sometimes put for the tempers dispositions & persuasions of mens minds \much after ye manner that we often take death for a substance./ Hereby, saith Iohn, we know that he abideth in us by the spirit that he hath given us. Beloved beleive not every spirit but try the spirits whether they |are| be of God, because many fals Prophets are gone out into the world. Hereby know ye the spirit of God; Every spirit that confesseth that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God & every spirit that confesseth not that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God, & this is the spirit of Antichrist whereof ye have heard that it should come & even now already is in the world. 1 Iohn 4. The spirits of God of fals Prophets & of Antichrist are here plainly taken not for any substantial spirits but for ye good or evil dispositions & true or fals perswasions of mens minds; & the spirits of all men who confess not that Iesus Christ is come in the flesh is called in the singular number the spirit of Antichrist, & said to be come into the world as if it were an evil spirit wch was to reign therein & deceive all the followers of AntiChrist. And such an evil spirit is the Dragon in the Apocalyps. ffor he is there called the old serpent the Devil & Satan & therefore came into the world when \at/ the deceived|ption| |of| Eve & hath ever since reigned in it & must reign till he shall be shut up in the bottomless pit. This is that Prince of the Air of whom Paul calls the spirit of the world 1 Cor. 2.12 & of whom he saith: In times past ye walked in sins according to the course of the course of the world according to ye Prince of ye air power of the air the sirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience Eph. 2.2 This is that adversary the Devil wch as a roaring Lion walketh about seeking whom he may devour. 1 Pet. 5.8. By this Devils being cast into the bottomless pit \& shut up/ that he should deceive the nations no more for a thousand years you may know that he is the spirit of delusion reigning in the hearts of men & by his being there called the old serpent you may know that he is that same serpent wch deceived Eve. For that old serpent was to continue till ye seed of the woman should bruise his head, that is till Christ should vanquish & slay him, wch is {illeg} not yet {illeg} done. \He still reigns & must reign/ till ye end of ye world. & ye doing of \wch/ at that time is described in ye Apocalyps \there/ where \But then/ the Word of God \(wth his army/ vanquishes|ing| the wicked nations & causes|ing| the Dragon \Old serpent/ to be thrown first into ye bottomles pit & then into ye lake of fire, & recovers to the son's of Adam that Paradise wth ye tree of life wch their father had lost. For this is the Victory by wch the Dragon \serpent/ ceases out of ye \bruises his head \by this victory// effectually, & by destroying him & thereby restores to mankind that Paradise wth the tree of life wch their father Adam by the subtilty of \at the entrance of/ this serpent had lost into the world had lost. So then the old Serpent was no more a real serpent then ye Dragon in ye Apocalyps is a real Dragon or then then {sic} the Beasts in Iohn & Daniel are real Beasts. Tis only a symbol of the spirit of delusion & therefore ye must be the sentence curs of this serpent for deceiving Eve must be interpreted accordingly. & so \Whence/ I conceive it will amount to no more then this, That because this Devil \Spirit/ had deceived Eve he should be represented by, & symbolically be{illeg}\come/ the most acursed of all beasts, \even/ the serpent which eats dust & goes upon its belly. He that considers well the Parable of Gods setting the rainbow in the heavens will find no difficulty in this of the serpent: the nature # < insertion from f 21v > # of the serpent being no more changed by this decree \in this parable/ then that of the Bow in {illeg} that other. For tis agreed that Eve was deceived by the Devil & that the Serpent was only a symbol of the Deceiver, & therefore to make the serpent really metamorphised & condemned to creep on his belly & ea because the Devil had offended is to punish one thing for anothers fault, & \to/ make ye signe suffer in a litteral sense for the crime of the thing signified: wch is absurd & unagreable to the nature & designe of Parables. When the ancient Sages prepared \would have/ one thing to be represented by another, they framed a Metamorphosis of the one into the other, & thence came all the ancient Metamorphoses recited by Ovid & others. This was their way of making Parables, & Moses in this Parable of the Serpent speaks in the language of ye ancient sages wise men, being skilled in all the learning of the Egyptians.

From this figure of putting serpents for spirits & spirits or Dæmons for distempers of ye mind, came ye vulgar opinion of ye Iews & other eastern nations that mad men & lunaticks were possessed with evil spirits or Dæmons. Whence Christ seems to have used this language not only as a Prophet but also in compliance wth ye Iews way of speaking: so yt when he is said to cast out Devils it cannot be known by this place those Devils may be nothing but diseases unles where it can be proved by the circumstances that they are sp substantial spirits. For the cure of a Lunatiqꝫ is called language of \{illeg}/ casting out a spirit is used for ye cure of a Lunatiqꝫ Matt 17.15, 18, 19.

Now whilst the earth with its trees & vegetables are put for nations the Prophet uses a garden or a well a \a Garden or other/ watered & fertile region for a happy & flourishing people & a dry barren & desolate wilderness for the country of an oppressed wasted & captivated people & beasts in this wilderness for hostile kingdoms wch invade & wast them this a country. So the King of Tyre whilst in a flourishing condition is said to be in Eden the garden of God Ezek. 28.13 & Ephraim like Tyrus to be planted in a pleasant place, but afterwards when he is smitten by the enemy, to have his root dry\ri/ed up. Hos. 9.13, 16. So in Ezek 31.9 where God saith, I have made the king of Babylon fair by the multitude of his branches so that all ye trees of Eden ar that were in the Garden of God envied him: the trees in this Garden \(as the Chalde Paraphrast interprets)/ are the Kings of the eastern nations whereof the Babylonian is the chief & their flourishing kingdoms are the Garden. But when Babylon is to be laid wast the Prophet saith, Chaldea shall be a spoil, the hindermost of the nations a wilderness a dry land & a desart. Ier 50.10, 12. So Ioel describing the invasion of Zion by a mighty army foreign army saith, The land is as the Garden of Eden before them & behind them a desolate wilderness. Ioel 2.3 And so God threatens to make Nineveh a desolation & dry like a wilderness a place for beasts of the nations to lye down in. Zeph. 2.13, 15. After this manner do the prophets consider Iudæa as before their captivity as a fertile region & during their captivity as a wilderness. The fruitfull place was a wilderness & all the cities thereof were broken down at the presence of the Lord & by his fierce anger: for thus hath ye Lord said, The whole land shall be desolate Ier. 4.26. Many Pastors have destroyed my Vineyard, they have troden my portion under foot they have made my pleasant portion a desolate wilderness Ier. 12.10. Thy holy cities are a wildernesse, Zion is a wilderness, Ierusalem a desolation. Isa. 64.10. But when they return from captivity their wilderness becomes a <22v> paradise & their vanquished enemies a wilderness. The Lord shall comfort Zion, he will comfort all her wast places, he will make her Wilderness like Eden & her desart like the garden of the Lord Isa. 51.3 This land that was desolate is become like the garden of Eden & the wasted & desolate & ruined cities are become inhabited Ezek. 36.35. In that day the mountains shall drop down new wine & the hills shall flow with milk & all the rivers of Iudah shall flow wth waters & a fountain shall come forth of the house of the Lord & shall water the valley of Mittim. Egypt shall be a desolation & Edom shall be a desolate wilderness for the violence against the Children of Iudah, because they have shed innocent blood in their land: but Iudah shall dwell for ever Ioel. 3.18, 19 And the same language is used in the Apocalyps: for there the Holy City troden under foot by the Gentiles in whose region it rains not in ye days of ye prophesy of the two Witnesses Apoc. 11, is by reason of this desolation & spiritual barrenness called a wilderness \{illeg}/ barrenness called a Wildernesse Apoc. 17 & the nations wch make desolate that city are represented by a Beast in ye Wilderness. But after ye end of those times when the Beast is destroyed & the Saints begin to reign, their new state is represented by a Paradise wth a river of ye water of life to water it & the tree of life growing upon the banks of the river Apoc. 22.1, 2 & 2.7. The golden age of the first world was a Paradise wch man lost by the fraud of the old serpent & out of wch he has been ever since \is still/ kept by ye flaming sword: but when ye head of that serpent shall be bruised, then shall man recover Paradise & the nations shall beat their swords into plowshares & learn war no more. So then the wilderness in ye Apocalyps is according to ye language of the Prophets the \holy City or/ Church of God troden under foot by the waters. And this unfolds ye language of Daniel where he speaks of taking away the daily sacrifice & placing the Abomination wch maketh desolate, that is \so long as it continues /the idolatry\/ then maketh the Church a Wilderness. For this Abomination is the fornication of ye great Whore {illeg} \in ye wildernesse thence/ called the Mother of \Harlots &/ abominations of ye earth Apoc. 17. became a \desolate/ Wilderness till the end of the captivity a desolate wilderness during the captivity.

Chap. VII
How several kingdoms are signified by several parts of the world, as by the heaven, the earth, the sea a River, a species of animals or vegetables, or any animal or vegetable put for the whole species; as a Lion, \a Goat,/ a Dragon, a Goat, a Whore, a Frog, a Seraphim, a Cherubim.

< text from f 20v resumes >

From this figure of putting serpents for spirits & spirits for dis or Demons for distempers of the mind, came the vulgar opinion of the Iews & other eastern <21v> nations that mad men & lunaticks were possessed with evil spirits or Dæmons. Whence Christ seems to have used this language not only as Prophet but also in compliance with the Iews way of speaking: so that when he is said to cast out Devils it cannot be known by this phrase above without the concurrence of other convincing circumstances what \whether/ the Devils were substantial spirits or only diseases.

< text from f 21r resumes >

18. When ye world politic consists of \several/ kingdoms, & by consequence those kingdoms are signifyed by ye several parts of ye world natural: its expr <22r> reasonable {illeg}|to| conceive yt if vegetables or any sort of animals be put for any kingdom, ye tallest trees & ye largest strongest & stoutest Beasts Birds or ffishes be put for Kings & Princes, & other vegetables or animals be put for other men according according to their conditions.

So Nebuchadnezzar is represented by a very large tree Dan. 4 And ye King of Assyria by a Cedar Ezek. 31. In wch Chapter also ye Kings & Princes of Iudah Israel & Iudah are represented by cedars, ffirtrees, & Chesnut trees, & ye holy land by ye garden of God. So in Isa 37.24. Thou (Sennacherib King of Assyria) hast said, by ye multitude of my chariots am I come up – to ye sides of Lebanon, & I will cut down ye tall Cedars thereof, & ye choise ffirtrees thereof. See also Zech. 11.2. Isa. 2.13 & 10.19, 33, 34. Ier. 22.7. Ezek 20.47 &c. The Chalde Paraphrast for cedars & ffirs substitutes Kings Princes & great Men in Isa. 14.8 & 37.24 & Ezek. 31.5, 8. ffor oaks of Basan Princes of Provinces Isa. 2.13, Zech. 11.2. ffor ye fir & mirtle just & good Men Isa. 55.13 & for Briars & Thorns wicked men Isa. 55.13 & 9.18. And so Achmet. in c. 151, 165 & 200 is very particular in sorting several kinds of trees to several sorts of men.

In like manner Ezekiel representing ye kingdom of Egypt by ye river Nile wth all its ffishes, puts ye Crocodile or water Dragon for Pharaoh, & Achmet tells us yt, A Dragon signifies ye person of an hostile King, & serpents according to their bigness ye persons of other greater or lesser enemies. If a Dragon appear to a King in a dream, he shall be troubled wth ye rumor of another King. If any one happen upon a very great golden Dragon adorned on his back wth scales as it were with Iewels & make him his own: he shall obtain a kingdom & dominion over ye people. Achm. c. 288 Ex Ind. Pers. Ægypt. So Daniel & Iohn put several great Beasts for several Kings & not only for Kings but also for their Kingdoms, ye kingdome being ye mystical body of ye King. In prophesy its very usual to put a singular for a plurall & one thing of any kind for ye whole Species: as a great Dragon for ye species of Dragons & Serpents; a plant for ye species of plants; a ffrogg for ye whole species of ffroggs; & in that respect also a single beast or tree is usually put for a body politiqꝫ. And \it/ is usually done when ye tree or beast has some quality analogous to ye <23r> quality of the men. So Iacob calls Iudah a Lyon from his getting the prey & being Prince of ye tribes, Issachar an Ass from his being in slavery, Dan a Serpent from his laying stratagems & Benjamin a Wolf from his ravening & devouring: a singular being put for a plural. \So Micah represents warlike Zion by a beast with a horn of iron & hoofs of brass. Arise & thresh o daughter of Zion & I will make thine horn Iron & thine hoofs brass & thou shalt beat in pieces many nations. Mic. 4.13./ When vegetables or animals are spoken of in general they signify men in general: but when any single tree or beast is described it signifies either a king wth his mystical body of ye kingdome or some other body politiqꝫ: the sacred prophesies where they are mystical respecting only great things & seldome or never descending to ye consideration of single persons alone wthout respect to their mystical bodies.

\19/ When therefore bodies politiqꝫ are to be represented according to their qualities, such animals are chosen as are most fit to do it. So in Daniel the first of ye four Empires was fitly represented by a Lyon becaues of his being head of the Empires & king of ye Beasts of ye earth politiqꝫ (Dan 2.38 Ier. 27.7) & preying upon the kingdoms (Ier 50.17) the second by a Beare from \because of/ his voraciousness of riches signified by flesh \(Dan 7.5) & because of ye fierceness & plenty of Bears in Persia,/ the third by a Leopard because of his quick & fierce motions, (Dan 8.5, 6, 7) & the fourth by a strange monster because of his strangely mixt power & government (democratical & monarchical civil & ecclesiastical) wherein he was divers from all the other kingdoms. And \So again/ in ye prophesy of ye Ram & Goat the Persians are denoted by the Ram because of their great riches whereof Rams (according to ye doctrine of ye Eastern nations as Achmet informs us) were a type, & the Greeks are represented by the Goat for this reason amongst others because they were to take away ye dayly |partly, because ✝[6] Caramus founded the Kingdom of Macedon by following a flock of Goats & thence gave ye name of Ægea to ye regal city & of Ægeadæ to the people & partly because the Greeks were to take away the daily| sacrifice & place the abomination & {illeg} by consequence to be ye most remarkable \of Daniels Kingdoms/ for Idolatry. ffor a Goat is a very salacious animal \& like Priapus was worshipped, saith a[7] Diodorus, for his genital part in honour of generation); The/ & lechery is ye type of Idolatry. {illeg} \{illeg} The/ Mendesij in Egypt |{illeg}| worshipped Goats \& Pan & the b[8] Egyptian Priests succeeding in their fathers Priesthood were first initiated to this God/ & ye|hence| whole ye Theology of ye Heathens was of \much of/ Pan, Sylvanus, Faunus, Sileni & Satyrs wch are Goats deified, & {illeg} in scripture Goats & satyrs are put for idols & \fals Gods &/ unclean spirits or Devils such as ye Heathen worshipped as you may see in \ye Hebrew of/ Levit 17.7 \(Deut 32.17 & 2 Chron. 11.15/ in ye Hebrew, & by comparing Isa 13.21, 22 34.14 wth Apoc. 18.2. Whence Goats are put for wicked men Matt 25.32 & for heathen \Kings &/ kingdoms Isa 14.9 & 34.6. Ezek 34.17 for Idolaters Zech 10.3 & for heathen kings & kingdoms Isa 14.9 & Ezek 34.17. & 39.18.

And as a salacious \lecherous/ Goat is ye type of an idolatrous kingdome so a whorish woman is ye \usual/ type of an idolatrous Church. \Nor is there any type more frequent then this./ The \Church/ is ye wife of God (Ier 3.1, 8 Hosea 2.1, 7) & for her to worship other Gods is to forsake her husband & go a whoring after other Lovers Isa 3. Ezek 16 & 25. Whence it is that no sort of people whatever besides an apostate church of God are \mystically/ represented in prophesy by a whore. ffor none else are even considered as God's wife.


Now as impure Goats signify both Idolaters & their Gods so also do serpents. For a[9] because of the sprightfulness o fiery nature \quick & vigorous motions/ & long life of this animal, the ancient Egyptians (being so taught by Theuth or Mercury the founder of their Theology) reputed the nature of serpents divine; & represented|ing| an immortal divinity thereby, And accordingly b[10] they called them \{illeg}/ Αγαθοδαίμονας Happy Dæmons or Dæmon-Gods & Cneph the universal spirit & c[11] worshipped them & d[12] about their Gods {capped} upon their {heads} a Cap {illeg} \or diadems/ \on the heads of their Gods/ they painted the king of serpents the Basilisk, as a symbol of divinity. So also e[13] on the Diadems \heads or Diadems/ of their Kings they formed a Serpent as a symbol of sacred majesty: & the f[14] Kings themselves they represented also by serpents, signifying a vigilant King by a watchfull serpent, & a king of ye whole wo{illeg}|r|ld by a serpent bent \turned/ round, the head biting the tail, wth a great house somtimes painted in ye middle for a symbol of ye habitable world: Thus \as/ Horus relates;|,| who adds that to represent a king ruling over a part of the world they paint a part of a serpent signifying a King by ye animal & his rule over a part by a part of ye body; but a Governour of the Vniverse they represent by the perfection of the animal, painting a whole serpent: And so also wth them, saith he, it signifies the spirit wch pervades the whole world. This is ye spirit Cneph, & the original of thie Hieroglyphick seems to be their painting g[15] the orbs of the Planets by serpents thus turned round. ffor the Planets were ye most ancient of all the heathen Gods, idolatry beginning wth the adoration of the starrs. \The h[16] same spirit they painted also by a serpent extended at length through ye mist {sic} of a circle./ The Egyptians feigned also T{h}yphon (whom they took for an evil spirit, the principle of all evil & mischief) to have been k[17] transformed into a Crocodile or water Dragon: whence perhaps sprang ye fables of ye serpent Python; for Python & Typhon are the same. And {illeg} \hence perhaps/ ye eastern interpreters of dreams in later ages referred ( serpents to enemies (as Achmet informs us) & interpreted Dragons of \hostile/ kings & other serpents of other enemies great or little according to ye magnitude of the serpents. From all wch you may understand why the King of Egypt is so often in scripture represented by a Dragon & also what is meant by the Dragon in ye Apocalyps. For this Dragon by his being crowned & h giving his throne & power & great authority to ye b|B|east is manifestly a kingdom, & by his persecuting the woman & her seed is an enemy to God's people & by his being called that old Serpent & the Devil & Sattha|a|n who deceiveth the whole world he together wth his mystical body of evil Angells signifies the heathen Dæmon-Gods collectively called the Devil. severally called Devils & collectively the Devil. Whence it follows that the Kingdom signified by this Dragon must be Idolatrous. In the armies of the Roman Empire <25r> both before & after the Empire became Christian, a flying \a[18] a flying/ Eagle was in the standart of every Legion & a Dragon on the standart of every c|C|ompany & in every Legion there were ten Companies & by consequence ten Dragons. These Dragons as b[19] Ammianus describes them were of a purple colour & so fastened to the top of a long pike, as, like weathercocks, to turn their tails from the wind & to hiss by means of the wind blowing into their jaws opened wide. The bearers of these two sorts of standarts were \thence/ called Aquiliferi & c[20] Draconarij. And to these two signs badges of ye Roman Empire, I conceive the Eagle in Edras & both ye great Eag ye second book of Esdras chap 11 & 12 & both the Eagle great Eagle & the great red Dragon in ye Apocalyps chap 12 do plainly allude. For this Dragon is by all interpreters applied to ye Roman Empire.

There is yet another symbol of Idolaters. For Froggs signify both spirits of Devils & societies of men actuated by such spirits in preaching & working miracles for seducing their worshippers of ye Beast & his image. Apoc. 15.5. Artemidorus an interpreter of dreams saith that (lib. 2, cap 3) saith that ffroggs signify impostors & scoffers, & Arius Montanus (De arcano serm.) that being un in being unclean animals & loquacious they signify ffals Prophets. So Grotius (in Apoc 16.13) Ranaæ et impuræ sunt et in cæno versuntur & coaxant nullo cum fructu. Ignaros legis Ranis comparat etiam schemos Rabba. Origen in his 4th Homily on Exodus compares ffroggs to Poets who wth an empty & vainglorious cant as wth ye noise of ffro & song of ffroggs have introduced fables into the world. ffor that animal, saith he, is profitable for nothing but to make a noise wth vile & petulant clamours. So Aristotle in his Physiognomonicks saith that they whose sides are turgid & as it were blown up, are loquacious & foolish bablers & are referred to ffroggs. And Tzetzi (in Chiliadis 8 Historia 201) that Aristophanes in Βατράχοις by ffroggs understands clamorous & unseasonable talkers who glory not wth reason & judgment, but wth senseless & foolish voices after the manner of ffroggs. And that this interpretation was anciently received among ye Oriental nations is manifest by the Fable (related by Ovid & others) that when {illeg} Latona came to ye fountain Mele to drink, the Lycij for hindring her & railing at her with {ill} much ill language railing at her were turned to ffroggs, & so, saith Ovid, they continued litigious & impudent.

Litibus exercent linguas, pulsoqꝫ pudore &c.

And to ye same purpose it is that Horus (lib. 2 Hierogl. c. 96) tells us that amongst the Egyptians a Frogg was ye symbol of an impudent man. So then Froggs in ye Apocalyps signify loquacious & clamorous seducers.

When the natural animals are do not sufficiently answer to king <26r> doms the Spirit of Prophesy frames others wch do {illeg} Such is ye Leopard wth four heads & four wings in Daniel & ye Beast wth seven heads & ten horns in Iohn & ye Cherubims & Seraphims in ye other Prophets. These \last/ are usually taken for orders of Angels but really are only Hieroglyphicks formed like animals & signifying people. Ezekiel calls ye Cherubims wch he saw, living creatures; & the four Cherubims o Seraphims of Isaiah are called four Beasts or living creatures by Iohn. That these animals are hieroglyphics you may know both by the relation wch they have one to another a Cherubim being composed of four Seraphims joyned in one body, & by the constant respect \they have/ to the four quarters of the heavens without changing their posture, \& also by their many wings & eyes & The four faces. ffor a Cherubin wth four faces & a Beast wth many heads are figures of the same kind. The four/ Seraphims are figures taken from the Standarts or banners of the four squadrons of Israel encamped in the Wilderness & thence \& so are \also/ the four faces of a Cherubim & thence both Cherubims & Seraphims/ are used as the Hieroglyphicks of armies. Whence Ezekiel saith that the noise of the wings of the Cherubims is as ye noise of great waters (that is of much people) & the voice of their speech as ye noise of an host. The name Seraphim signifies things wch are fiery & burn other things, that is \wch/ destroy them by war, & the name Cherubim (if originally taken from כו רב) \signifies/ much burning; & accordingly \for/ \& accordingly/ Ezekiel[21] describes his Cherubims like burning coals of fire & like the appearance of lamps & of a flash of lightning. Now to burn fire, in ye language of ye prophets, is war & to burn is to consume by war; & therefore \fiery/ Cherubims & Seraphims \are warlike & signify /being fiery animals\/ signify such bodies of men as de consume others by war, that is armies warlike bodies of men, that is armies. Hence Moses to signify that man is kept out of Paradise by war, places before ye Garden Cherubims & the edge of a flaming sword turning every way to keep ye way of ye tree of life. Paradise is g\u/arded by fiery Beasts & a flaming sword that is (in ye language of the Prophets) by armies & the sword of war. Hence also God is seated upon ye wings of ye Cherubims to signify that he is the Lord of Hosts the King of Israel ffor sitting or riding upon Beasts is the type of reigning over people.

Chap. 8
Of the parts of an animal, vizt ye head or heads & tail; the horns; ye eyes & seing; the mouth, & speaking & eating, the & speaking, the voice, loud or faint; the hairs, feathers, wings, arms, feet, nails, teeth, serpentine tail, & bones; & of the times of their life & actions.


quality of ye Men. So Iacob calls Iudah a Lyon from his getting the prey & being Prince of ye tribes, Issachar an Ass from his being in slavery, Dan a serpent from his laying stratagems & Benjamin a Wolf from his ravening & devouring: a singular being put for a plurall. ffor w|W|hen ever vegetables or animals are spoken of in general, they signify Men in general: but when any single tree or beast is described, it signifies either a King wth his mystical body of ye Kingdom, or some other body politiqꝫ: ye sacred body prophesies where they are mystical, \respecting \only/ great things & seldome or/ never descending to ye consideration of single persons |alone without respect to their mystical bodies.|

20 Now when ye Body natural of any animal is put for any body politiqꝫ ye several members of ye one are fitly put for ye several \analogous/ parts of ye other & particularly ye head & tail as two extremes are put, ye one for \the Court consisting of/ ye governours & honourable Men & ffamilie|y|s of |ye| Kings & ye other for ye other vulgar f|and| base people. So Princes Rulers & Leaders are frequently called ye heads of ye people Num. 17.8, & 25.15. Ios. 22.14. Iud. 10.18 & 11.8, 9, 11. Isa. 7.8, &c. And so are kings 1 Sam. 15.17. Psal. 18.43. Isa. 7.8 & conquerors, Thou hast kept me, saith David, to be head of ye heathen; a people whom I knew not shall serve me, strangers shall submit themselves unto me, as soon as they hear they shall be obedient unto me Psal. 18.43. So also are ye houses or ffamilies of Kings: Thus saith ye Lord unto ye Kings house of Iudah. Thou art Gilead unto me & ye head of [ye forrest politiqꝫ] of Lebanon, yet surely I will make thee a wilderness & cities wch are not inhabited – & they shall cut down thy choice cedars &c. Ier. 22.6. And so in general are ffamilies, people, Courts & Nations wch rule over others. \So where Isaiah saith \of Iudah/: ffrom ye sole of ye foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it: the Chalde Paraphrast interprets: ffrom the lower people to ye Princes. Isa. 1.6. So where Moses |In the same sence is Moses to be understood where he| saith to Israel, The Lord shal smite thee in the knees & in ye leggs wth a sore botch wch cannot be healed, from the sole of thy foot unto the top of thy head Deut 28 35. For the sore here spoken of is a plague of war as is manifest by the context./ So Moses saith to Israel: Thou shall lend unto many nations & thou shalt not borrow. And ye Lord shall make thee ye head & not ye tail & thou shalt be above only & thou shalt not be beneath; if thou wilt hearken up|n|to ye commandments of ye Lord – otherwise ye stranger yt is within thee shall get up above thee very high & thou shalt come down very low: He shall lend to thee & thou shalt not lend to him; he shall be head & thou shalt be ye tail. Deut 28.12, 44. The Lord will cut off from Israel head & tail, branch & rush in one day. The ancient & honourable he is ye head & ye Prophet yt teacheth lyes he is ye tail Isa. 9.14, 15 & 19.15. So also ye Captains are said to be in ye head of ye people Deut. 20.9, & ye rear <28r> of an army is called ye tail Iosh. 10.19. If one dream he rides on Pharas (yt is a generous steed) having a thick set & long tail he shall have a train of attendants or followers answerable to ye fullness & length of ye tail. Achm. c. 152. ffrom all wch it is easy to understand yt ye army of Euphratean horsmen whose tails were like unto serpents & had heads signify an army of both hors & foot, their tails representing ye train of ye Army on foot & ye heads of ye tails being ye commanders of ye foot. ffor with their tails they did hurt (Apoc. 9.19,) & all fighting Men refer to armies. And for ye same reason ye tails of ye Locusts like scorpions wth stings in ym Apoc. 9.5, 10 & ye tail of ye Dragon wherewith he drew ye third part of ye stars to ye earth must signify their armies. ✝ < insertion from f 27v > ✝ Tis true that the parts of Nebuchadnezzar's Image from the head to the foot rose up gradually out of the ea refer not to ye office & dignity of ye things signified but to ye order of time: but this is singular & seems to argue that ye Image at its first appearance rose up gradually, f a{d}|s| the beasts of Daniel & Iohn did, out of the earth or sea.

So then a head signifies the governing part of a Kingdom. And therefore when a beast has more heads then one they must signify a distinction or division of ye Kingdom into so many Dynasties Dominions or particular Kingdoms, or in Daniels language, into so many Kings, whether collateral or successive. So the three heads of the Eagle in 2 Esdr. 12.22, 23 are there interpreted to signify three kingdoms, & the four heads of Daniel Leopard – < text from f 28r resumes > And when any Beast has more heads then one they must signify so many Kings or ffamilies \kingdoms/ of kings or Dynasties in the Kingdom \a distinction or division of the Kingdom into so many subordinate Kings Dominions or Dynasties/ whether collateral or successive. So \the three heads of the Eagle in 2 Esdr. 12.22, 23 are interpreted to signify three Kingdoms, &/ ye four heads of Daniel's Leopard are ye four Kings or Kingdoms into wch ye Greek Empire was divided towards ye four winds Dan. 11.4, as is also signified by ye four horns of ye Goat \wch the Angel calls four Kingdoms/. And so ye seven heads of the Apocalyptick Dragon & Beast being successive {illeg} \signify a distinction of this \their/ Kingdō into/ seven successive Kings or ffamilies of Kings \Dominions/ or Dynasties. of ye Kingdom signified by ye Dragon & Beast Apoc. 17.10 |For the Angel calls them seven Kings Apoc 17.10 & describes some of them successive, Apoc. 17.10.| ffor as ye seven ears of corn & seven kine & ye three bunches of grapes & three baskets in ye dreams of Pharaoh & his servants signify successive years & days, so may ye heads of a Beast be interpreted of successive times. Some interpreting ye \Apocalyptick/ Beast of ye Roman Empire take ye seven heads to be seven \forms or/ sorts of government, Kings, Consuls, Decemviri, Tribunes of ye Soldiers wth Consular power, Dictators, Emperors, & a seventh wch they are not well agreed upon. But this is wholy against ye use of ye word. ffor heads signify Kings & governours not forms & sorts of government |the Kings themselves not the modes or forms of Kings, & become new ones as often as there arise new Kings whether the {illeg} \{these} new ones/ agree wth or differ from any of the former in form. Different forms may argue different Kings & heads: but the same fforms will not argue distinct & separate reigns to be ye same head. ffor the Leop{ards} heads were \all/ of the same form & yet different Kings {illeg}| < insertion from f 28v > Now the head signifying the honourable part of the kingdom, the severall parts of the Head, as the horns eyes mouth & teeth must refer to the honourable men of several faculties together wth their mystical bodies of their proper attendants & ministers; & the rest of ye body wth the tail & feet to ye rest of the people. A Horn therefore signifies the captains & martial great men of ye Kingdom invested wth their mystical bodies of soldiers & united under one {Captain} general Commander. ffor as it is the highest part of ye head so it is a fighting member wherewith a Beast or Kingdome pushes its enemies & defends it self. So Ezekiel comparing Israel to a flock of Rams & ye Heathen kingdoms to Goats & describing the dispersion of ye one by the other saith, Ye have pusht all the diseased with your horns till ye have scattered them. Ezek 34.21. And Zedekiah made him horns of iron & said to ye King of Israel, with these thou shalt push the Assyrians untill thou have consumed them 1 King. {illeg} 22.11. Arise thresh o daughter of Zion: I will make thy hoofs brass & thy horns iron & thou shalt beat in pieces many people Micah 4.13. Hence {illeg} God is called the horn of David & Christ the horn of Israel to save them from their enemies (Psal 18.2. Luke 1.69, 71.) But as \{also} properly/ a horn is a \is considered as the/ member of a Beast or Kingdom it must referr|s| to martial men; So the horn of a King 1 Sam 2.10 Psal 89.24 & of a kingdom Ier 48.25 Lam. 2.3, 17 is their military force as the contexts shew. And Moses tells you expresly that a horn signifies an army. The glory of Ioseph, saith he, is lift the firstling of his bullock & his horns are like the horns of a wild bull: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth & they are the ten thousand of Ephraim & they are the thousands of Manasseh. Deut 33.17 < text from f 28r resumes > Had these \aforesaid/ forms \of the Roman Empire/ succeeded one another in order so yt there had been but six changes of government ye opinion would \might/ have been more plausible \reasonable/: but while there were more then twenty changes, ye government by Tribunes Consuls & Dictators being often revived; to number ye heads not by ye changes of government but by ye variety of sorts or modes, so as to take all ye government by Consuls both before & after those by Decemviri <29r> Tribunes & Dictators for but one head & all that by Tribunes both before & after many Consuls \&/ Dictators for another & all that by Dictators set up now & then by fits for a third is a fansy wch I shall must leave to them to maintain who serve an Hypothesis. For they may as well tell me that all the Kingdoms which succeeded Alexander in the Greek Empire were but one head of the Leopard because they differed not in form of government. And besides this some of those governments were past long before the Roman dominion began to be considered in the world \ Prophesy/ or to make any figure in the world & the government by Dictators Kings Dictators & Emperors are monarchical & differ in nothing but the name. Every King leading an army is an Emperor & every Emperor ruling a peole is a king, & every Dictator is a King during his Dictatorship. The Greeks called ye Roman Emperors βασιλε{illeg}ις Kings, & we the Kings of Persia Emperors & Charles ye great changed ye name of King for Holy Emperor without any change at all of the form or mode of the government of his kingdom. The Pope gave him nothing but a new name.

Porphyrius to elude & overthrow the authority of Daniel's prophesy appointed his fourth Beast to ye successors of Alexander the great: wch being allowed, & that heads signify what we have affirmed, the Leopard would have no heads at all, & the fourth Beast would have four \unless heads signify something else then we have affirmed./. But this opinion of Porphyrius, as tis contrary to the constant opinion of all the ancient churches, so it hab|s| been so effectually confuted by several writers, & the fourth Beast so plainly shewn to be the Roman Empire that I do not think it pertinent to spend words about this mattter. According to Porphyrius the Leopard's four heads & {illeg} \wings/ wch ought to signify \so many/ kingdoms can signify nothing \there being but one kingdom of ye Greeks during ye reign of Alexandr/: the fourth Beast wch ought to be fierce & terrible & strong above the three former \Dan 7./ will be weaker then they Dan 8 & 11: the ten horns wch ought to be ten kingdoms will be but ten <30r> single Kings or rather twelve, there being so many Kings of Egypt & Syria before ye reign of Antiochus Epiphanes: the little horn wch ought to have been of a different kind from the rest & to have rooted up three of the|m| former horns \& reigned changed times & laws three years and an half/ will be of the same kind with the rest as root up none of them \& p{ermit no} \change/ the laws only three years 1 Mac. 1.54 & 4 52/: & the fift Kingdom wch was to be greatest & stand for ever & ruin the fourth, will either be that of the Maccabees wch was contemptible & of short continuance & did not ruin the fourth, or that spiritual one of the Christians which began allmost 200 years after the little horn was vanquished & some years after that Beast was also ceased & so ruined neither. And besides these absurdities the ten horned Beasts of Daniel & Iohn will be different, whereas Iohn tells you that his Beast was like unto the Leopard & his feet as ye feet of the Bear & his mouth as ye mouth of the Lion Apoc. 13.2. He names Daniel's three first Beasts in order backward & to shew that ye Apocalyptic Beast is of their kindred & the fourth of them he assimilates him to them & puts him in the fourth place in the room of Daniel's fourth. He was like the Leopart|d| that is fierce & terrible: his feet were as the feet of the Bear that is flat & fitted to stamp things with in fighting as a Bear doth: his mouth was as ye mouth of the Lion that is armed wth great {illeg} teeth & long teeth to tear & devour as a Lion doth: And by partaking of all these qualities he was neither Lion, Bear nor Leopard but a strong monster of a different species: & besides this he rose out of the sea, & had ten horns, & reigned 42 months or three times & years & an half, & was cast into the lake of fire & the time of his end {wch} was when the Word of God came in heaven wth many crowns on his head to rule ye nations wth a rod of iron & reward the saints in judgment. All wch things are the manifest character of Daniel's fourth Beast. ffor that Beast was dreadfull & terrible & strong exceedingly & had great iron teeth & brake in pieces & stamped the residue wth his feet, & was divers from all the Beasts that were before it & rose out of the great sea & had ten horns & reigned wth his little horn three times & an half & was cast into the burning flames & the time of his end was when the judgment was set & the books were opened & ye Son of man came in ye clouds of heaven to receive an universal & everlasting dominion that <31r> nations should serve him. In short the fourth Beast agrees in all things to ye Romans in nothing to ye Greeks & therefore the heads & wings of the third Beast must be applied to Alexander's successors. For those successors even Daniel himself in two other prophesies divides into four Kingdoms answering to these heads & wings, Dan. 8.8, 22 & 11.4. So then th Heads are a type of Kingdoms.

Now the

Now the head signifying the honourable part of ye kingdom, the several parts of the head as the horns, eyes, mouth & teeth must referr to the honourable men of several faculties together with their mystical bodies of their proper attendants & ministers, & the rest of the body with the tail & feet to the rest of the people. A Horn therefore signifies the Captains & martial great men of the Kingdom invested wth their mystical bodies of soldiers & united under one general Commander. ffor as it is the highest part of the head so it is a fighting member wherewith a Beast or Kingdom pushes its enemies & defends it self. So Ezekiel comparing Israel to a flock of Rams & the heathen kingdoms to Goats & describing the dispersion of the one by the other saith, Ye have pusht all the diseased with your horns till ye have scattered them, Ezek. 34.21. And Zedekiah – made him horns of iron & said to the King of Israel – With these thou shalt push the Assyrians untill thou have consumed them 1 King. 22.11 Arise, thresh o daughter of Zion: I will make thy hoofs brass & thy horns iron & thou shalt beat in pieces many people, Micah 4.13. Hence God is called the horn of David & & Christ the horn of Israel to save them from their enemies (Psal. 18.2. Luke 1.69, 71.) but properly a hor{illeg}|n| is considered as ye member of a Beast or Kingdom & refers to martial men. So the horn of a King 1 Sam. 2.10, Psal. 89.24 & of a Kingdom Ier. 48.25, &|L|am. 2.3, 17 is their military force as the contexts shew. And Moses tells you expresly that a th|H|orn signifies an Army. The glory of Ioseph, saith he, is the firstling of his bullock & his horns are the horns of a wild bull: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth, & they are the ten thousands of Ephraim & they are the thousands of Manasseh, Deut. 33.17.

So then a horn is an Army & the horn or horns of <32r> a people or kingdom is the army or armies thereof, /including the supreme Commanders whether Princes Kings or Emperors.\ And when the horns of any people are numbred, they signify so many distinct & independant armies, that is the armies of so many several Tribes or Principalities or Kingdoms in that people, & by consequence \therefore/ rise & are broken of not with the Commanders Princes & Kings but with the standing \military/ forces of those Tribes Principalities or Kingdoms, that is \& by consequence/ with the Kingdoms themselves. So in Zech. 1.19, 21, the four horns wch scattered Iudah seem to signify the armies of ye four Monarchies represented in Daniel by four Beasts. And so in Daniel & Iohn the number rise & fall of the Kingdoms in any Beast is signified by the number rise & fall of that Beast the horns of that beast, \For/ the horns are called Kings & interpreted of Kingdoms, that is with Now th respect to their military powers.

For thô Beasts & their heads & horns are all of them called Kings yet there's a considerable difference in ye reason of their significations. ffor a Beast |includes| both ye head & body of ye Kingdom, a Head the Horns Eyes & Mouth of the Kingdom but not the body & a Horn neither the body nor ye eyes & mouth. Where there is no difference considered between the common people of several kingdoms, there those kingdoms may be represented by one & the same body & tail of a beast with so many several heads as there are kingdoms; as was done in Daniel's Leopard. Where there is no difference considered in the mind & counsel of several kingdoms, there it is not necessary that the Beast wch signifies them should have several Heads. He may have but one head with so many horns on it as there are kingdoms; as in the cases of the Goat & ten horned Beasts of Daniel & Iohn. ffor the horns of Iohn's Beast received power as Kings the same hour with the last head of that Beast & therefore grew all upon that head. They had one mind (Apoc 17.    ) & therefore one head & one blaspheming mouth of that head (Apoc 13     ) was sufficient for them all. But the eleventh horn of Daniel's Beast being divers from the other ten, has therefore eyes & a mouth peculiar to himself as if he had a different soul. Which shews sufficiently that a horn doth not properly include the <33r> eyes & mouth of a Kingdom as a head doth unless they be exprest. A Beast is the whole Kingdom, his head the whole governing part thereof & his horns the whole military part of the government, & all these are kings because they include both the powers & persons of kings. For a horn being the highest part of the head doth not only signify the martial force but also the height & glory of the Kingdom. Whence the exalting of a horn is put for the exalting of a Kingdom as in 1 Sam. 2.10. Psal. 89.17 & other places. And accordingly Daniel represents the growth of his Goat in might & glory by the growing up of its little horn to heaven. And for this reason a Horn includes the person of the King not only as soveraign Commander of the military force but also as the highest person in the kingdom. So then a horn signifies properly the aggregate of men wherein the military power & dominion of a kingdom is seated including the person of the King: & therefore the number of horns in any Beast signifies the number properly the number of supreme military Dominions in any great body of men represented by a Beast, & the rise & fall of Horns signifies the rising & falling of such Dominions & by consequence of Kingdoms.

Some hearing the horns of Daniel's Beasts to be called Kings have taken them for Kings in the language of the vulgar, that is for single persons: wch they could never have done had they understood the language of the Prophets. The single persons of Kings are not the forces of Kingdoms. They are not the members wherewith Kingdoms fight & push one another & therefore cannot be the horns of their kingdoms. Daniels Kings are Kingdoms or at least the \such/ ruling power|s| \thereof/ |as| wch by the ordinary figures of Rhetorick may be called Kingdoms. The four Beasts are Kings in his language & yet by his own interpretation they are Kingdoms. His Ram with two horns is called the Kings of Media & Persia & yet t Dan. 8.20 & yet the Ram neither signifies single persons nor were the Kingdoms of Media & Persia subject to any more then one King when the Goat brake his two horns. Those horns therefore signify the dominions or kingdoms of Media & Perisa without any respect to ye person of the King. His Goat is also called the King of Greece vers 21 & yet was a Kingdom conteining many Kings represented by his horns, four of wch are expressly interpreted of Kingdoms vers 22: & the first & last must be of the same kind thô called Kings. For in one & the same <34r> prophesy & in one & the same sentence of that Prophesy to make interpret one horn of a kingdom & another of a single person is such a liberty as is never allowed in common speaking nor can be allowed in the scriptures without making them a {case} of straining to serve an hypothesis. Tis by this shamelesse liberty of multiplying the signification of words & types that Interpreters have made the scriptures seem so uncertain & hard to be {illeg} understood & therefore he that will understand them truly must not admit it. If the great horn was the first King tis in respect of the following st horns & therefore they are the also Kings & if these Kings are Kingdoms then Kings here signify Kingdoms & so the first & last horn may|ust| be kingdoms as well as the other four. All these Kings are of a kind because numbered together, for equivocals are never connumerated. To call a man the first King & kingdoms the next kings is against all rules of speaking. When the first horn was broken off the four next stood up for it & therefore are of the same kind: for the person of Alexander ye great was not succeeded by kingdoms but by persons & his kingdom by kingdoms. Compare this prophesy with that of Dan. 11.4, & the interpretation will be evident. ffor the breaking of the great horn is there called the breaking of the Kingdom & dividing it towards the four winds of heaven; & therefore this horn is not the person of Alexander the great but his a Kingdom. So then the two horns of ye Ram & the five first horns of the Goat were kingdoms; & there is the same reason of the last; This horn is usually taken for Antiochus Epiphanes, but not truly. ffor the Abomination of desolation \here/ spoken of by Daniel was placed not by Antiochus but by ye Arms wch stood up out of him & these were \Dan. 11.31./ that is by a kingdom wch arose up out of his kingdom as I shall shew hereafter. for ye horns are all of a kind. But what kingdom is signified by this last horn I shall describe hereafter. So then by the consent common consent of D Moses Daniel & other Prophets, horns signify not ye p signify not single persons of kings but their military powers dominions & kingdoms.

Some reading that in the Apocalyps, that the ten <35r> horns gave their kingdom to the Beast have fansied the Beast to be a kingdom distinct from his horns & the horns alone without their body politiqꝫ represented by the Beast to be complete kingdoms: wch is altogether against the tenour of the Prophetic language: for this is to deprive the Beast of his martial forces & make the|is| armies to be kingdoms distinct from himself. Tis to make him fight with the armies of other kingdoms & push with horns wch are not his own. The ten horns in giving their kingdom to the Beast did not give away their Kingdom from them selves to another King, but each gave his kingdom to the body politic compounded of them all & by this gift their kingdom became the Kingdom of the Beast without ceasing to be their own. Should ten men agree to become Merchants & found a c|C|ompany, each might be said to give his estate or any part thereof to the Company thó there were no c|C|ompany distinct from them selves. And the case is the same of wth the ten horns.

If it be said that the Beast is distinguished from his horns as another King where he & the Kings of ye earth & their armies war against the Word of God & against his army Apoc. 19: I answer that there are other Kings of the earth besides the ten horns; ffor \as/ the Dragon was then in being Apoc. 16.13 & 20.2 & the Kings of the east whose way was prepared to this battel Apoc. 10.12. The horns went with the Beast into the lake of fire as members of his body, but the Kings of the earth were (politically) slain with the two edged sword Apoc. 19.21. |For| T|t|hese Kings are the rest of Daniels Beasts which had their dominions taken away & their natural lives prolongued when the fourth Beast was given to ye burning flames, Dan. 7.12. ffor when the stone cut out of the mountain fell upon the feet of Nebuchadnezzar's Image it brake in pieces all the four Monarchies together, the gold & the silver & the copper & the iron Dan. 4.35, 44 45. So then from these objections there is no reason why we should depart from the tenour of the prophetic language. And thus much of Horns

Eyes are the light of the body & having much the same signification wth c|C|andles or Lamps they referr to skill understanding & instruction. They are therefore in bodies <36r> in bodies politiqꝫ Counselours & Politicians, & in bodies Ecclesiastiqꝫ Teachers Seers & Bishops. So ye Egyptians to signify yt understanding & policy ought to be in Kings painted a King by a Scepter wth an eye in ye top of it. But policy being common to all kingdoms 'tis scarce noted in sacred prophesy. There eyes inferr always to religion. So in ye Apocalyps ye four Beasts are full of eyes to represent their understanding and quicksightedness in spiritual mysteries. And ye Lambs seven eyes are called ye seven spirits or Angels of ye Churches; & signify their Bishops also represented also by ye seven Lamps. So ye seers or Prophets and Teachers of Gods people under ye Law & ye Bishops of ye Synagogue are to be accounted their eyes, & ye eyes of ye little horn of Daniels fourth Beast are fals seers Teachers & Bishops of yt horn. Achmet tells us yt from ye doctrine of ye Indians yt ye eyes are ye faith sentence & light of ye mind: so much as any man dreams to lose of his eyesight, so much viciousness he shall have in his faith. And if any one dreams yt he applies a medicine to his eyes whereby he may see better, he shall direct his heart towards God & be solicitous of another life. Achm. c. 52. Whence you may understand ye meaning of ye advice given to ye Church of Laodicea to annoint hey {sic} eyes wth eyesalve yt she may see.

23. A \Speaking & hearing are put for commanding & obeying. I have obeyed ye voice of ye Lord 1 Sam. 15.20, that is his commandment. I spake unto you but & ye would not hear but rebelled agt ye commandmt of ye Lord Deut 1.43. Ier. 29.19 &c. Whence a Mouth – –/ mouth refers to a Lawgiver either civil or sacred accordingly as ye Beast is a body politiqꝫ or ecclesiastiqꝫ \that is to a King or Prophet/. Thus besides ye mouth of Daniels fourth Beast common to all ye kingdoms signified by ye horns (Dan. 7) ye little horn has another mouth proper to himself to signify his having a legislative power of such a kind as none of ye other horns have. And what yt power was is described plainly. He had a mouth speaking very great things vers 20, even great words against ye most high & [thereby] wore out ye saints of ye most high & thought to change times & laws & they were given into his hand for a time. ver 25. This he did by ye power of his mouth, wch \power/ must be a legislative one & yt in matters of religion, becasue times & laws were given into his hand to change ym in opposition to God & ye saints \This Horn is therefore a fals Prophet./. So where ye Image of ye saints Beast Apoc. 13 is said to speak, & cause yt as many as would not worship the Image should be killed; it must be by some \command or/ law yt <37r> they were killed, and ye Image is not ye Officer yt killed ym, but ye author of their being killed, yt is ye lawmaker, It spake & caused ym to be killed yt would not worship it, yt is it spake wth authority so as to cause them to be killed yt would not obey its voice. Speaking & causing here are ἕν διὰ δυοιν. So where ye two horned Beast spake as ye Dragon, & ye ten horned Beast had a mouth speaking great things & blasphemies it is to be understood of ye Laws they made.

The strength or weakness of ye voice signifies power or debility. Thou shalt be brought down & shalt speak out of ye ground & thy speech shall be low out of ye dust & thy voice shall be as one yt hath a familia {sic} spirit out of ye ground, & thy spirit shall whisper out of ye dust. Isa. 29.4. They shall lay hold on bow & spear, they are cruel & have no mercy, their voice roareth like ye sea Ier. 6.23. See Isa 5.29, 20 & Ier. 51.51. If one dream yt his voice is become weak & small his life shall be full of grief & affliction Achm. ex Ind. c. 50. If one dream yt his voice is increased, his children shall become prosperous, & if he dream yt he is hoarse he shall be contemned of his servants. Achm. ex. Pers et Ægypt. c. 51.

|24| That ye people of a kingdom are to be understood of \by/ ye hair of any Animal is apparent in Ezekiel whe|o|re by his hair divided into three parts he represents ye people of Ierusalem chap. 5. If a King dreams yt his hair becomes gray, his people shall become weak – if he dreams yt his hair is neat & copious, his people shall have joy & security by victory Achm. ex Pers. c. 21. If a King dreams yt his hair comes off in combing his people shall be weakned, & if he dreams yt he cuts off his hair, his army shall be diminished according to the measure of his hair cut off. Achm. ex Ægypt. c. 22. If a King dreams yt he colours his har, he shall study to adorn his people by lying. Achm. ex Pers & Ægypt. c. 38. So in ye Apocalyps ye hairs of ye Son of man white as snow represent his people cloathed in fair linnen clean & white: wch linnen is ye righteousness of ye Saints Apoc. 19.8. And so ye feathers of birds are put for their people 2 Esdras 11 & Ezek. 17.3, 7.

Whence \spreading /stretching\ forth of/ wings signify ye stretching forth of ye people of a kingdom into several regions \by invasion or conquest/. The stretching out of ye wings of ye King of Assyria shall fill ye breadth of thy land O Immanuel Isa. 8.8. He shall gather together ye dispersed of Israel Iudah from ye four wind|g|s of the earth <38r> Isa. 11.12, & 24.16. He shall fly as an Eagle & spread his wings over Moab Ier. 48.40, & 49.22. So it is to be conceived yt ye four wings of ye Leopard in Daniel are ye extent of ye kingdom into ye regions of ye four kingdoms signified by ye heads of yt Leopard. |If wings be numbered they signify the same number of Kingdoms. ffor as is evid{ent} by the Leopard in Daniel whose wings & four wings & four heads signify on{e & ye} same thing. So where two wings of a great eagle are given to the woman to {fly} into the wilderness it is to be those wings are to be taken for two \it implies a division of {illeg}|a| Kingdom into two/ kingdoms.|

25 The fighting members of a \pugnacious/ Beast as teeth, nailes, feet & serpentine tailes are evidently enough ye types of armies & squadrons of armies, so ye fourth Beast in Daniel is represented wth great iron teeth & nailes of brass, for devouring & breaking & tearing in pieces, & so ye army of Locusts Ioel. 1.6 & Apoc. 9.8 are represented wth teeth of Lyons. And probably ye author of ye fable of Cadmus had respect to this signification of teeth when he made ye Dragons teeth to be ye seed of armed soldiers. So Daniel's fourth Beast stamped things wth his feet & for yt end had his feet armed wth nailes of brass & his He Goat stamped upon ye Ram; & therefore also fought wth his feet. \And Micah represents the daughter of Zion by a beast fighting wth horns & hoofs. Arise & thresh o daughter of Zion: I will make thy horn Iron & I will make thy hoofs brass & thou shalt beat in pieces many people. Micah 4.13./ And yt of Ezekiel 32.2 Thou troublest ye waters with thy feet ye Chald. Paraphrast renders thus, Thou disquietest ye peoples with thy armies. |But a man's teeth signifies|y| those of his family & kindred & ye hands & feet of \private/ great men are their servants. Achm. c. 41, 113, 114, 115. Yet \his arm signifies strength & power &/ the \arm or/ arms of a king are put for ye martial power of a kingdom. |They made them cease by arm & power Ezra 4.23.| They \[Moab & Amon &c.]/ have been confederate against thee. Assur also is joyned with them: they have been an arm to ye children of Lot. Psal. 83.5, 8. His arm shall rule for him Isa. 40.10. Mine arms shall judge ye people Isa. 51.5. I will strengthen the arms of ye King of Babylon & ye arms of Pharaoh shall fall down Ezek 30.25. That is, saith ye Chalde Paraphrast, I will strengthen the Kingdom of ye King of Babylon & the Kingdom of Pharaoh shall cease. And in ye same sense Daniel in his last prophesy {illeg} \sometimes/ uses the phrase. She shal not retain ye power of the arm neither shal he stand nor his arm & \Dan. 11.6/ the arms of the so{uth} shall not withstand| < insertion from f 38v > vers 15. And arms shall be overflown with a flood from before him vers 22. And out of him arms shal stand up vers 31. T In all these places arms signify military power. & in the last of these places they are the little horn of ye Goat wch took away the daily sacrifice & by consequence a kingdom. |Whence breaking breaking a mans arms signifies enfeebling & vanquishing him Psal. 37.17. Ezek. 30.24.|

The parts of Nebuchadnezzars Image refer not from ye head to ye foot refer not to ye \office &/ dignity of ye things signified but to ye order of time: but this is sin kind of interpretation is singular & seems to be I suspect it had its seems to argue that ye Image at it {sic} first appearance rose up gradually out of ye earth as the beasts of Daniel & Iohn did out of ye earth or sea.

< text from f 38r resumes >

26 The bones of a Beast refer to \ye/ strength & fortified cities of ye Kingdom & ye flesh to ye riches: So where Ieremiah saith, He hath sent fire into my bones & it prevaileth against them: The Chalde Paraphrast renders, He hath sent fire [yt is war] into my cities & subdued them Lam. 1.13. So where Ieremiah saith of Iudah that Nebuchadnezzar hath broken his bones Ier. 50.13, ye meaning is yt Nebuchadnezzar hath expugned his fenced cities. And where ye second of Daniel's four Beasts had three ribs in {illeg}|the| mouth between ye teeth it seems to respect ye imperial cities of three kingdoms Media Persia & Babylonia. Concerning flesh Achmet saith If any one seem to find or eat ye flesh of Dragons he shall receive riches proportionally from some great King c. 283 ex Ind. Pers, Ægypt. And if he eat ye flesh of a scorpion he shall receive ye wealth of an enemy c. 285. The like of ye flesh of other Beasts in c. 269, 272, 274 & c. And if his own flesh seem to grow plump he shall grow rich proportionally c. 87 ex Ind. And in general he saies ye Indians teach yt flesh does universally signify riches & gold. So ye Chal. Par. for: They shall eat every man ye flesh of his own arm Isa. 9.20 translates: They shall <43r> prey every man upon ye substance of his neighbour. And so for: The fatness of his flesh shall wax lean Isa. 17.4. he translates: The wealth wherein his glory consisted shall pass away. So to signify ye great wealth wch ye Kings of ye Medes & Persians should heap up it is said to ye second Beast: Arise, devour much flesh Dan. 7.5. And ye spoiling of ye Egyptians by ye Israelites is expressed by giving ye Leviathan to be meat for ym in ye wilderness Psal. 74.13. See also Ezek. 29.5. And so in the Apocalyps where ye ten Kings hate ye whore & eat her flesh & burn her with fire, 'tis to be understood yt they seize her wealth & consume her by war. And ye like of ye ffowls of heaven being filled wth ye flesh of Kings & Captains & mighty men &c. Apoc. 20. And ye same is to be understood in ye tradition of ye Iews of their feasting in ye day of the Messiah on two great Beasts Leviathan & Behemoth, these Beasts being ye types of Kingdoms.

|‡ Whilst short lived Beasts are put in sacred prophesies for long lived Kingdoms| < insertion from f 39r > ‡ Whilst short lived Beasts \are put/ in sacred prophiesies for long lived Kingdoms its necessary that the short times of their lives measured by ye heavenly bodies should be put for ye longer times of Kingdoms. So where \in/ the Apocalypt|s|ic |where ye| Locusts continue five months & ye woman is Beast 42 months & ye woman is fed 1260 days [& ye witnesses prophesy lie dea prophesy all that time & lye dead 3 days & an {sic}] the since these short lived creatures are put for long lived bodies politiqꝫ \(as we shall presently shew)/ the short times of these creatures must in reason signify much longer times of those bodies. Whence ye ancients {sic} sages had more sorts of days weeks months & years then one. They had their vulgar years & their great years, vulgar months & great months, weeks of days & weeks of years, natural days & days mystical. |And therefore where the Prophesy its \things/ prophesied of are mystical its proper to understand their times in a mystical sense.| Where ye Tis impossible that ye |in ye short time of three natural days & 12 Whence in ye scriptures we| they of the peoples & kindreds & tongues & nations should see ye dead bodies of ye two witnesses, {illeg} & they that dwell upon ye earth should rejoyce over them & make merry & send gifts to one another because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on ye earth. Tis impossible Tis impossible that in \ye short time of/ three natural days & an half the peoples, Kindred, tongues & nations that make up ye Beast, should see the dead bodies of ye two witnesses & they that dwell on ye earth (all yt worship him chap. 13.7, 8) rejoyce over them & make merry (that is by feasting) & send gifts to one another because of ye Prophets tormented them that dwell on ye earth. Tis inconsistent wth ye wisdome & majesty of sacred Prophesy to pass over all ye long afflictions & persecutions of ye several churches & predict maj wth great solemnity {the} how the Church of Smyrna shall suffer a tribulation of ten days if those days be only natural ones. Tis altogether impossible that within ye 1290 & 1335 days in Dan 12, wch extend from ye setting up the abomination \Dan 11.31/ to ye end of ye prophesy & |to| Daniels ye resurrection & \of Daniel wth ye dead/, unless those days be mystical, all the vicissitudes there described concerning ye valour & sufferings of ye saints, the King that should do according to his will & the Kings of ye south & north & their sucessive conquests & fall & ye after this ye great time of great trouble should be comprehended.

Know therefore that in sacred prophesy |a| days are con \is/ put for any long per intervals time & both days & times in the plural number are put for years. So Christ calls his life time his day Iohn 8.56 & every man's life time his day (Iohn 9.4) & Iob the life time of the wicked his day (Iob 18.20) # < insertion from f 39v > # Iob. 18.20 & Ieremy interprets ye day of the visitation of Babylon to be the time thereof Ier. 50.27, 31 & in the Psalms the day of temptation in ye wilderness is interpreted to be forty years Psal 95.8, 9, 10 & Ezekiel calls ye time of Iuda's prosperity the day of their pride Ezek 10.56 & ye time of Iuda's captivity & distress is called the day thereof Obad. 11.12, 13, 14. Lament. 1.12 & ye latter times are frequently called the latter day & ye time of the last Iudgment the day of judgmt < text from f 39r resumes > – – – – figuratively as well as other things are & the time of judgment fig the day of judgment. So then times days are times & Now t{illeg}|im|es in ye pl. number were \according to the language of /Daniel & Iohn are\ used by the eastern nations for/ years as you may see in Daniel & Io years. ffor Daniel uses 7 times for seven years (chap. 4) & {illeg} \both he/ a time times & Iohn use th|r|e time|s| times & \& an/ half a time for 3 years & an half, as you may see in Iohn \ye Apocalyps (ch. 17)/ where three time a time times & half a time are put equal \equipollent/ to 1260 days. Apoc 12. Tis true that days are sometimes used for longer times as where the six days of ye week are by ye Iews put for taken for a type of ye worlds continung six thousand years. And so ye six days of ye Creation may signify not only six years but even six thousand years as ye Tyrrhenian Historian in Suidas [in voce τυ᾽ρρ῾ηνία] sa affirms, or any other \six/ long times. ffor ye history of ye creation is not in all things litteral. In that Paradise the flaming sword & trees of life & knowledge may be as much figurative descriptions of something we now understand not as the tree of life is in the Paradise to come, & in a parabolical description of ye creation a day may be used figuratively as well as other things are \especially since there was no light till ye end of ye first day nor sun till the fourth –/ . \/ < insertion from f 39v > \to make natural days./ The evenings & mornings of Moses respect all parts of ye earth alike so that it was evening all over ye earth in ye beginning of each day of Moses & morning all over it in the end of each day: & therefore his evenings & mornings were not nat natural ones. ffor had they been natural ones it would have been morning in one part of ye earth when it was evening in another.

Tis also true that \the Egyptian & Persian/ interpreters of dreams take every hour of ye night for ye space of one or two years (Ach Ægypt & Per Achmet c. 34) but at wch recconning a day|s| will signify a longer period|s| of time|s| then a year|s|. But yet Suidas Grammaticus tells us \also/ that ye Egyptians called a day a year. And in sacred prophesies – – – < text from f 39r resumes > But in sacred prophesy where there there {sic} no manifest reason to ye contrary days or times are generally taken for years. In Luke 13.32 Christ thus foretells <39v> his death & resurrecton a good while before it happened: Go & tell that Fox that Behold I cast out Devils & do cures to day & to morrow & ye third day I shall be made perfect. In Amos 4.4 three days are in the Hebrew put for three years. In Isa 61 2 & 63.4 a day & a year are used one for another. In Num. 14.34 40, days are made a type of 40 years. In Ezek 4.5, 6 40 days & 390 days are used as types of so many years. In Iona 3.4 some conceive the Prophesy of 40 days to have been fulfilled at ye end of 40 years. In Gen. 29.27 & Dan. 9 weeks are put for sevens of years & so in all ye Prophesies of Daniel & Iohn to take days for years is much more agreable to ye nature of the things there prophesied of them to take them for natual days.

27 To put a man crowned for a King is an obvious figure & to put a man riding on a beast for a Ruler or King is a figure as manifest. Gird

And whilt {sic} ye Prophets put days for years, a short time in their language is a long time in ye language of ye vulgar: as for instance in ye following passages in ye Apocalyps. Behold I come quickly \& my reward is wth me to give every man according as his work shal be./ He that testifieth these things saith surely I come quickly. The Devil is come down unto you having great wrath because he knoweth that he hath but a short time. Where the seventh ffive are fallen & one is & ye other is not yet come & when he cometh he must continue a short space. It was said unto ye martyrs under the Altar that they should rest yet for a little season, untill &c. their bretheren wch should be killed as they were should be fulfilled. The Revelation of Iesus Christ wch God gave unto him should be to shew unto his servants things wch must shortly come to pass. Repent or else I will come unto thee quickly & remove thy Candlestick out of its place. Repent or else I will come unto thee quickly & fight against them with the sword of my mouth. I gave that woman Iezabel space to repent of their fornica < insertion from f 42r > tion & she repented not. All these expressi sayings are of a kind & signify long times in ye language of ye vulgar tho represented short ones in the language of the Prophesy: Which same Interpreters not understanding have run into many errors. Christ endeavoured to put his disciples perpetually upon ye watch \{illeg} & {illeg} &c) {sic}/ & therefore always exprest himself about his second coming in such a manner as to interpr as that they might not \{illeg}/ /not\ think it far off. Watch therefore saith he for ye {know} not what hour your Lord doth come Matt. 24.42 & 25.13 Marck 13.35. {illeg} of his \{expectation} of his/ second coming that they might be constantly upon ye watch. Watch therefore, saith he, for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. Mat. 24.42, & 25.13. Marc. 13.35 If therefore thou shalt not watch I will come on thee as a thief & thou{illeg} shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee Apoc. 3.3. And for this reason he tells them plainly that it was not for them to know the times & seasons wch the father hath put in his own power Act. 1 & always <42v> exprest himself in so that they might so about his second coming that they might not think it far off. If a man keep my sayings he shall never tast of death Iohn 8.51, 52. He that beleiveth in me shall never dye Iohn 11.26. Your fathers did eat manna in ye wilderness & are dead: this is the bread wch cometh down from heaven that a man may eat thereof & not dye. Iohn 6.50. What if I will that he tarry till I come? Iohn 21. There be some standing here wch shal not tast of death till they see ye son of man coming in his kingdom Mat. 16.28. All these sayings are of a kind & respect the second death but seem designed to make ye unwary disciples expect an end of ye world before some then alive should dy naturally. ffor which reason he tells them also Ye shall not have gone over the Cities of Israel till ye son of man be come & this generation shall not pass away before all these things be fulfilled, & in the Apocalyps \for the same reason he/ describes all ye times short wch precede his second coming, & \putting every where/ represents the years by days putting \always/ days for years & a \a very/ little \time or/ season for a long space time. ffor many hundreds of years many ages putting every where \days for years &/ a short space or little season for many ages. All wch ways of speaking did not only put ye first Christians upon an expectation of Christs coming quickly but quickly \in their age/ but also has entrapt some later Interpreters of scripture & put 'em upon applying these prophesies to the sige siege of Ierusalem \by the Romans/. Whereas I dare confidently affirm that there is not one prophesy \prophesy or text/ in scripture concerning the coming of Christ but what is meant of one of his two personal comings. When he saith, there be some standing here which shal not tast of death till they see the son of man coming in his kingdom: he speaks of eternal death, as is manifest both by {illeg} ye analogy of this text wth others mentioned above & by the context: W for in ye words immediately before he was speaking of life & death eternal & of his coming in glory wth his Angels to reward every man according to his works. When he saith this generation shal not pass away untill &c he means the progeny or natiō of the Iews, or more stricktly, this wicked & adulterous generation, this this {sic} faithless & pervers generation, this generation of vipers, this generation by wch the son of man shal be rejected, as they \Iews/ are termed in other places. When all these things shal be fulfilled then shall this generation pass away by ye final & total conversion of Israel, & not before. And when he saith Ye shal not have finished the cities of Israel till ye Son of man be come: if this be applied to ye siege of Ierusalem I answer that if the disciples had not finished those cities before this siege, they have not yet finished them. ffinishing is here put for a total conversion of Israel wch is not yet come to pass You may know the sense of the place by the context. ffor in the context before, are these words \Christ had said:/ He that endureth to ye end shal be saved & in that after he adds, there is nothing covered {but}|that| shall not be revealed & hid that shal not be known, & therefore was speaking of his coming to ye last judgment. So then these three passages do not enforce the application of the second coming of Christ to tha|e|t siege of Ierusalem & if these do not I know not I know no other that can, & without necessity the significations of the prophetic phrases are not to be multiplied.

< text from f 39v resumes >

Chap. IX.
Of a man or woman in various circumstances, as with a crown or on horsback or wth a sword or bow, or with weights & measures, or cloathed in white or other apparrel or naked, (or holding a cup of wine or drinking it,) or wth a wound or sore, or in pain or pained in childbirth or bearing a Manchi Man-child. And of the death of man or Beast.

To put a man crowned – – – – –


Chap. X

The signification of man crowned is obvious,

That a king is signifi

27. That \To put/ a man crowned signifies \for/ a King is \an/ obvious |figure:| |&| that \to put/ a {illeg} man riding on a beast is \for/ signifies by {illeg} \also/ a Ruler may appear by these instances \or King is so evident a figure as manifest./ Gird thy sword upon upon thy thigh O most mighty wth thy glory & in thy majesty ride on prosperously Psal. 45.4 The Hebrew is prosper & ride; wch ye septuagint translates, Go on prosperously & reign & the Chalde Paraphrast, that thou mayst ride upon the throne of the Kingdome. In like manner riding is put for reigning in Deut. 32.13 Isa. 58.14 Psal. 66.12 And so ye woman's riding upon her Beast in ye Apocalyps is by ye Angell expresly interpreted her reigning over the Kings of the earth Apoc 17 And Achmet delivers it for ye doctrine of the Indians Persians & Egyptians That a generous steed denotes eminence & dignity & vulgar horses inferior nobility & glory – And if one dream he rides on a nimble & mettlesome hors he shall acquire amongst the people fame & great renown & eminence & honour – And if he seem to ride armed on a generous steed he shall obtein power & renown according to his armour chap. 233. |Whence ye four horsmen in Apoc. 6. are four Rulers or Kings, & their horses are their Kingdoms.|

That|e| significations of a|A| sword & a bow are plain |manifestly denote a warrior & a conqueror as may appeare by these instances.| Gird thy sword upon thy thigh O most mighty – & in thy majesty ride prosperously – thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things: thine arrows are sharp in ye heart of the Kings enemies Psal 45.3, 4, 5 \\So in the Apocalyps/ Power was given to him that sat upon the hors to take peace from the earth & that they should kill one another & there was given him a great sword. Apoc 6.4. And out of ye mouth of him that sat upon ye hors goeth a sharp sword yt wth it he should smite ye nations. Apoc. 19.15./ If one seem to hold a bow & arrows he shall with joy triumph over his enemies. Achm. c. 249 ex Pers. et Ægypt. He yt sat on ye white hor Behold a white hors & he yt sat on him had a bow & a crown was given unto him & he went forth conquering & to conquer. Apoc. 6.2.

Some have supposed that the Balance in the third Seal might be an emblem of famin, but wthout ground there being no authority in scripture or in any other authentic writings that I have met with for such an interpretation. There are other ways of expressing famin, as by ye tearing of dogs, & where a ballance is mentioned in scripture, it is either wth respect to Iudgment as in Iob. 31.6. Psal. 62.9. Dan. <41r> 5.27, or to Iustice as in Hosea 12.7, Micah 6.11, Prov. 16.11 &c & therefore is the embleme of a Iudge For to this sense is also the doctrine of interpreters wch runs thus. If in a dream \says Achmet the Indians/ one see a Ballance poised in any place let him understand it of a Iudge. And if he have a cause & see ye ballance equally poised he shall obtein his right – And if he see ye Ballance exact & clean let him know yt ye Iudge of that place is just, but if it be broken & out of order he is unjust. Achm. {illeg} c. 15. ex Ind. The author also further relates how they compare the scales to ye ears of ye Iudge & the weights to ye matter pleaded on both sides &c. And adds that measures have the like interpretation but are to be understood of inferior Iudges.

Nakedness being shamefull & ignominious is put for shame confusion & reproach & splendid cloathing for reputation, honour, & glory \& power/ & sometimes for those things wherein glory was is founded, as for righteousness \& good works/ if ye garments be white, or for royal dignity if they be {illeg} purple scarlet or purple. {illeg} The interpretation of garments, say the Persians & Ægyptians, belongs to honour & glory – And if a King cloath any of his nobles wth his own garments & ye garment be purple he shall confer upon him more glory & power & trust him wth his secrets: but if ye garment be of another kind he shall grant him less honour according as the garment is – \And if a King seem to have a new tincture of purple made, he shall triumph over his enemies –/ And if any one seem to have lost his garments, this imports misery accordingly as the garments were pretious. Achm. c. 158. ✝ < insertion from f 40v > ✝ And in like manner ye Indians say: If any one seem to be suddenly made naked & that his secret parts appear openly before ye people his secret thoughts shall be laid open & he shall be affected wth reproach & grievously vexed. Achm. c. 116. And \They say also/ that Apostolick habit is interpreted of a man's faith & if his habit be white his faith shall be proportionally pure, l. c. 157 but if sordid, he is impure. Achm c. 157. < text from f 41r resumes > So in ye scriptures nakedness is sometimes taken for sometimes for want of honour & g power & glor honour glory & power as where Babylon or Ierusalem are for their whoredoms made desolate & naked by their enemies, Isa 47.{illeg}3. & Ezek. 16.37, 39 & 23.{illeg}10, 29, that is, say ye Chalde Paraphrast & 70 Interpreters, exposed to shame confusion & reproach; & sometimes for wickedness, as where Moses saith, Thy camp shall be holy that God see no naked thing in thee & turn away from thee Deut. 23.14. In|And| |in| the Apocalyps white cloathing (ch. 3.18 & 7.9 &c) is interpreted the righteousness of the saints (ch 19.9) & the whore's being made naked of her scarlet apparrel & royall orna <41v> ments by the tenn Kings ch. 17 signifies their casting \depriving/ her down from |of| regal glory & majesty. to a weak contemptible & ignominious condition |So St Paul uses cloathing for good & bad works Colos. 3.8, 9, 10, 12 Ephes. 4.22, 24, & Christ a wedding garment for holiness \righteousness/ Matt. 22.11. To ye same purpose see also Isa. 59.6, 17 & 61.3, 10 & Psal. 73.6 & 109.18, 19, 29 & Iob. 29.14|

The golden cup in the hand of the Whore of Babylon is said to be full of abominations & filthiness of her fornication & this filthinesse is a little before called the wine of \the fury of/ her fornication wherewith she inebriates the inhabitants of ye earth & so is a Philtre or love-cup. Now as water of life signifies given to thirsty men signifies & wine given to drink in the Eucharist signifies ye doctrine of truth by wch men are nourished to life eternal: so the wine of fornication in this Cup must signify the doctrine of idolatry (or as ye Apostle Paul calls it), the doctrine of Dæmons \& lying miracles/) by wch as wth an enchanted Philtre she entices her lovers to commit spiritual fornication with her, & makes them erre & reel to & fro like drunken men & become furious in their inordinate affections & passions towards their spiritual mistresse. For drunkenness is the type of error, & this \her/ Cup of enchantments by wch she inebriated the nations is afterwards called her sorceries by wch she de deceived them. all nations. They are drunken, saith Isaias of Israel, but not wth wine they stagger but not with strong drink. For ye Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep & hath closed your eyes – & the vision of all is become {illeg} unto you as a book that is sealed – – – Wherefore saith the Lord, forasmuch as this people draw near to me wth their mouth & wth their lips do honour me but have removed their heart far from me & their fear towards me is taught by the precept of men: therefore behold I will proceed to do a marvelous work among this people &c Isa. 29.9, 11, 13. Which is as much as to say that Moses & the Prophets were to Israel as a book that is sealed up so that they consulted it not, but worshipped God as they were taught by the precept of men, & by imbibing & swallowing became this precept became drunk & staggered & slept like men grown senseless wth wine, for wch reason God would destroy them. So then to deceive \men/ by fals doctrine is to make them drunk in ye language of the Prophets, & ye wi by consequence ye wine of fornication is seduction to idolatry. \So also to deceive by fals counsels {illeg} in civil affairs is to make drunk/ And in general to deceive is to make \men/ drunken is to deceive them {sic}. The Princes of Noph are deceived they have also seduced Egypt – the Lord hath mingled a perverse spirit of error in the midst thereof, & they have caused Egypt to erre in every work thereof as a drunken man staggereth in his vomit. Isa. 19.13, 14. So where God gives several nations the wine cup of his fury to drink that they may be mad & drunken & spue & fall & rise no more because of the sword <42r> which she will send amongst them (Ier. 25.) the meaning is that he will send amongst them the spirit of error distaction {sic} & madnesse whereby they shall be gathered to battel & therein reel & spue up their possessions & perish. And in the same sense God makes great Babylon drink the worshippers great Babylon \in the Apocalyps/ drink the wine of his wrath {but} in ye because she had made all nations drink the wine of the wrath \fury/ of her fornication. He causes her people to be deceived by \For in recompense of her \deceiving men by/ {sorceries} or fals miracles he causes/ three |He causes three| unclean spirits like froggs to deceive her people {illeg} \For in recompense of his {sic} deceiving men by sorceries {illeg} that is by fals miracles & {illeg} he causes/ |by fals miracles & gather| them to the battel of the great day, & {illeg} inebriates them till they reel & spue up their dominions & fall \& the cities of these nations fall/ {illeg} And thus in the cup wch shee hath filled he fills unto her double & the cities of these nations fall. For in recompense of her deceiving men \all nations/ by sorceries he causes three unclean spirits like froggs to deceive her people by |&| fals miracles & thereby to gather them \by fals miracles/ to the battel of the great day wherein they stagger & fall.

< text from f 43r resumes >

28 A wound or sore if not of a single person but of a people or kingdom signifies a stroke or plague by war famine or pestilence, but chiefly by war. ffor smiting a people or nation is ye ordinary scripture phrase for smiting ym wth ye sword: & ye proper effect of smiting is a wound: wch if it be not bound up & soon healed grows putred, ulcerate, very painful & sometimes incurable. To bind up & heal is to restore a kingdom. Whence if after smiting it be not soon restored & healed, its desolation will be fitly represented a putred & painfull sore. So then by a wound if described great but not of a putred or ulcerate kind we are to understand only a violent & sudden smiting by a prevailing enemy: but if not bound up, if ulcerate, noisome or painfull, a durable & tedious as well as vexatious desolation; & if we shall find these phrases used by ye Prophets, Despise not ye chastisement of ye Lord Almighty, for he maketh sore & bindeth up, he woundeth & his hands make whole. He shall deliver thee in six troubles yea in seven shall no evil touch thee. In famine he shall redeem thee from death & in war from ye power of ye sword. Iob. 5.18, 20. Again in 2 Cron 6 28, 29 Solomon in dedicating ye Temple prays thus for Israel. If there be dearth in ye land, if there be pestilence, if there be blasting or mildew, Locusts or Caterpillers; if their enemies besiege them in ye cities of their land: whatsoever sore or whatsoever sickness there be, then what prayer or what supplication soever shall be made of any man <44r> or of all thy people Israel, when every one shall know his o{illeg} \own/ sore & his own grief, & shal spread forth his hands in this house. Then hear thou from heaven &c. In ye Lamentations ch 3.12, ye Prophet Ieremy introduces Ierusalem thus bewailing her captivity in Babylon: He (God) hath made me desolate, he hath bent his bow & set me as a mark for ye arrow, he hath caused ye arrow of his quiver to enter into my loins. So in Ier 10.18, 19. Thus saith ye Lord, behold I will fling out ye inhabitants of ye Land at this once & I will distress ym yt they may find it so. Wo is me for my hurt, my wound is grievous, but I said truly this is a grief & I must bear it. My tabernacle is spoiled &c. Thus also Isaiah Chap. 1.5, 6, 7. describes ye desolation of Iudah, They have provoked ye holy one of Israel into anger, they are gone away backward. Why should ye be stricken any more? Ye will revolt more & more. The whole head is sick & ye whole heart faint, ffrom ye sole of ye foot even to ye head there is no soundness in it, but wounds & bruises & putrefying sores: They have not be {sic} closed neither bound up neither mollified with ointment. And then describing what was thus stri|c|king|en| for their revoltings, what yt sickness of ye head & heart, those grievous wounds bruises & sores from ye foot to head made by yt stricking {sic} wch had not been bound up nor anointed, he adds in ye next words Your country is desolate, yor cities burnt wth fire, yor land strangers devour in yor presence & it is desolate as overthrown by strangers. In like manner Moses in Deut. 28.35 prophetically proscribes ye long captivity & dispersion of ye Iews into all nations by a botch yt cannot be healed from ye sole of ye foot to ye top of ye head. So again in Ier. 30.11 &c. Though I make a full end of all nations whether I have scattered thee, yet will I not make a full end of thee but I will correct thee in measure & will not leave thee altogether unpunished. ffor thus saith ye Lord thy bruise is incur
able & thy wound is grievous. There is none to plead thy cause yt thou mayst be bound up. Thou hast no healing medicines. All thy lovers have forsaken thee. They seek thee not. ffor I have wounded thee wth ye wound of an enemy with ye chastisement of a cruel one for ye multitude of thy iniquity because thy sins were increased. Why criest for thine affliction? Thy sorrows is incurable for ye multitude of thine iniquity. Because thy sins were increase {sic} I have done these things unto thee. Therefore all they yt devour thee shall be devoured, & all
<45r> thine adversaries every one of them shall go into captivity & they yt spoil thee shall be a spoil & all yt pray upon thee will I give for a pray. ffor I will restore health unto & heal thee of thy wounds saith ye Lord becasue they called thee an outcast, saying This is Zion whom no man seeketh after. Thus saith ye Lord, behold I will bring again ye captivity of Iacob's tents &c. Thus also in Isa. 30.26, His return from captivity is called ye day yt ye Lord bindeth up ye breach of his people & healeth ye stroke of their wound. ffor wch expressions ye Targam Ionathan hath In die qua reducet Deus captivitatem populi sui & infirmitatem plagæ ejus sanabit. And to ye same purpose it is yt ye Prophet Nahum chap. 3 19, describing ye siege & final desolation of Neneveh by ye sword concludes in these words There is no healing of thy bruise: thy wound is grievous: All yt hear ye bruit of thee shal clap their hands over thee. Thus full is ye consent of ye prophets in their use of this phrase. So in ye Apocalyps ch. 16 in ye fift vial at whose pouring out ye kingdom of ye Beast became full of darkness yt is obscured by a cloud of invading enemies its said yt they of this kingdom blasphemed God because of their pains & of their sores. And so in ye first vial ye grievous & noisome sore wch fell on ye worshippers of ye Beast (if we will keep to ye use of the phrase) must signify a grievous & tedious plague of war falling on yt Kingdom. But ye wound of ye Beast wth a sword being not described a putred ulcerate noisome or painful sore, but a wound healed again, as if it were heaed whilst a green wound, will properly signify only a sudden & remarkable smiting yt kingdom & conquering it (for the wound was deadly) & ye restitution of it soon after to its former state, without any vexatious & tedious harassing & wasting ye conquered subjects in ye middle time.

Pain of a nation signifies ye same thing wth a sore as you may see in ye passages quoted in ye last Paragraph, & in these: Why is my pain perpetual, & my pain incurable wch refuseth to be healed? Ier. 15.18. wch words are of Iersusalem lamenting her long captivity & dispersion. Again, Babylon is suddenly fallen & destroyed, Howl for her take Balm for her pain, if so be she may healed. We would have healed Babylon but she is not healed. Ier. 51.8. There shall be no more a Prince in ye land of Egypt – I will make Pathros desolate – I will pour out my fury upon Sin ye strength of <46r> Ægypt, & I will cut of ye multitude in No. And I will set a fire in Ægypt. Sin shall have great pain, & No shall be rent asunder & Noph shall have distresses dayly. The young Men of Aven & of Phibeseth shall fall by ye sword. Ezek 30.16. So in ye Apocalyps c. 16.10. They gnawed their tongues for pain & blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains & their sores. And Apoc. 21.4. Neither shall there be any more pain, yt is no more war upon ye saints, no more persecution. To wch purpose also the expressions there yt there shall be no more sorrow nor crying & Apoc. 7.17. God shal wipe away all tears from their eyes: like yt of Isaiah Chap. 25.8. He shall swallow up death in victory & ye Lord God will wipe away tears of all faces & ye rebuke of his people will he take from of all ye earth. To wch place ye two former in Apoc. 7 & 21 seem to referr.

And becasue pain & dolour is used to signfy ye labouring of a nation under an enemy, & God used to deliver up his people into ye hands of their enemies for Idolatry, hence it is yt among ye Hebrews ye words עצבים, \&/ {illeg}, molestia, dolores צירים dolores & תפלצת horror &        terrores, were used as ordinary names for Idols, as you may see in Ier. 22.28 \Hos. 4.17/. Psal. 106.36. Isa. 45.16. 1 Kings 15.13.{illeg} Ier. 50.38 & other places.

But to express ye pain & misery of hostile desolations ye neater, it is ofter represented by ye pains of a woman in travail. And sometimes this pain is put to express ye terror & consternation at ye evil approaching. Behold a people cometh from ye north country – we have heard ye fame thereof, our hands wax feeble anguish hath taken hold of us & pain as of a woman in travail. Go not forth into ye field nor walk by ye way for ye sword of ye enemy & fear is on every side. Ier. 6.22, 24, 25. To ye same purpose see Isa. 13.8. Ier. 48.41 & 49 22 & 50.43. But here we are to conceive ye dread of ye evil approaching to beare Ap|an|ology {sic} wth ye fear & fainting of a woman at her pains approaching, & ye evil it self wth ye real pain. And because ye Church of God is frequently compared to a woman, therefore is this figure us{illeg}ed to express ye affliction of ye Church under her enemies. Thus our Saviour in Matt. 24.8, 9 & Mark 13.9 describing the <47r> future persecutions of ye Church calls them ἱοδινας. So Isa. ch. 66.7; speaking of ye Iewish Church, saith, Before she travailed, she brought forth, before her pain came she was delivered of a Manchild: wch ye Chalde Paraphrast thus interprets: Antequam veniat ei tribulatio redempta erit, antequam veniat ei tremor, sicut dolores parturientes, revelabitur Rex ejus Ieremiah also in Ch. 30.6, 7 interprets this figure plainly: We have heard a voice of trembling of fear & not of peace. Ask ye now, saith he, & see whether a man doth travail wth child. Wherefore do I see every man wth his hands upon his loins as a woman in travail; & all faces are turned into paleness? Alas for yt day is great so yt none is like it. It is even ye time of Iacobs trouble, but he shall be saved out of it. – And strangers shall no more serve themselves of him. So in Micah ch. 4.10. Why dost thou cry out aloud? Is there no King in thee? Is thy Counsellour perished? ffor pangs have taken thee i|a|s a woman in travail. Be in pain & labour to bring forth o daughter of Zion like a woman in travail: for now thou shalt go forth out of ye city & thou shalt dwell in ye field, & thou shall go even to Babylon. There shalt thou be delivered. There ye Lord shal redeem thee out of ye hand of thine enemies. To ye same purpose see Isa. 26.17 & Ier. 22.23. And so in ye Apocalyps ye Church being represented by a woman, whose seed kept ye commandments of God & have ye testimony of Iesus to signify her being under a great persecution she is described crying & in pain to be delivered. ffor \yt/ this pain & crying signifies a persecution, & yt a very violent one, is further exprest by her being cloathing {sic} wth ye Sun ye most hot & fiery of all things, & by ye Dragon's standing before her & drawing ye third part of ye stars of heaven wth his tail & casting them to ye earth: yt is by her being agitated wth vehement war, for so fire always signifies; & by ye Dragon's being her adversary, & wth his army dragging and casting down ye saints of heaven, whence upon ye ensuing victory over ye Dragon 'tis added yt they overcame him by ye blood of ye Lamb, & by ye word of their testimony, & loved not their lives unto ye death.


And as pain in travail signifies labouring under a persecuting enemy, so delivery signifies redemption from ye hand of the enemy, ye pains then ceasing, & ye new born child signifies ye new kingdom brought forth upon her delivery: as you may see in ye places last cited: Labour to bring forth o daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail – Thou shalt go even to Babylon There shalt thou be delivered: there ye Lord shall redeem thee from ye hand of thine enemies. Ier. 22.23. Here after the pangs of desolation & captivity, her delivery at Babylon is expressly called redemption from ye hand of ye enemy, & what was yt but ye redemption wrought by Cyrus conquering ye proud enemy, & setting ye miserable Iews at liberty? And what was ye Infant ye daughter of Zion brought forth but ye new born body politiqꝫ of ye Iews led back from Babylon under Zerubbabel? So again in Isa. 26.17 speaking of ye long captivity & final redemption of Israel: Thou hast removed [ye nation] far unto all ye ends of ye earth. Lord in trouble have they visited thee, they poured out a prayer when thy chastning was upon them. Like as a woman wth child yt draweth near ye time of her delivery, is in pain & cryeth out in her pangs, so have we been in thy sight, O Lord, we have been wth child, we have {illeg} been in pain, we have as it were brought forth wind we have not wrought any deliverance in ye earth, neither have ye inhabitants of ye world fallen. Thy dead men shal live – Come my people – hide thy self as it were for a little moment untill ye indignation be overpast. ffor behold ye Lord cometh out of his place to punish ye inhabitants of ye earth &c. All wch wth what follows in ye next chapter is as much as to say, yt ye dispersed Iews were wth child of a new polity & laboured as a woman in travail by ye fall of their enemies to work themselves deliverance & bring it forth, but brought forth nothing: but at length when ye indignation was over God should overthrow their enemies & restore Israel. But in Isa. 66.7 ye Prophet is much more plain. Your brethren yt hated you, yt cast you out for my names sake [i.e. ye Gentiles wch dispersed & <49r> long hated you & were converted to Christianity] said, Let ye Lord be glorified; but he shall appear to your joy & they shal be ashamed. A voice of noise from ye city, a voice from ye Temple, a voice of ye Lord yt rendeth {sic} recompence to his enemies. Before she travailed, she brought forth, before her pain came she was delivered of a Manchild. Who hath heard such things? Who hath seen such things? Shall ye earth be made to bring forth in one day, or shal a Nation be born at once? ffor as soon as Zion travaileth she brought forth her children. Shall I bring to ye birth & not cause to be brought forth? saith ye Lord: shall I cause to bring forth & shut ye womb? saith the Lord thy God. Rejoyce ye wth Ierusalem & be glad wth her all ye yt love her: rejoyce for joy wth her all ye yt mourn for her, yt ye may suck & be satisfied wth ye brests of her consolations: yt ye may milk out & be delighted wth ye abundance of her glory. ffor thus saith ye Lord, I will extend peace to her like a river, & ye glory of ye Gentiles like a flowing stream: then shall ye suck &c. Here ye woman is Zion as ye Church first labouring under affliction, then rejoycing after deliverance, & her Man-child is ye nation brought forth by her deliverance those who first mourned for her & then rejoyced wth her all ye sons of ye Church first in affliction & then in prosperity. The woman & her child are one & ye same people represented by a Woman as they are ye Church of God, {illeg}|&| by a Man-child as they are a Nation or kingdom new born by victory over their enemies, & differ only in their Rulers & authority, ye one having spiritual rulers in things spiritual, ye other civil Rulers in things civil. And in like manner in ye Apocalyps by ye Man-child of wch ye woman in travail was delivered is to be understood not a single person but a Kingdom brought forth by ye Church at her delivery from persecution & consisting of ye same persons wth ye woman, but under different Governours & a different government. A woman & her child are things of ye same kind & therefore as ye one here represents a multitude so should ye other: this a body politiqꝫ & chiefly ye rulers thereof most properly signified by a Male, as yt a body ecclesiastick usually signified by a female.


There are yet other aggrevations of affliction as to call it Bitterness. The Egyptians made ye lives of ye Children of Israel bitter wth hard bondage Ezod. {sic} 1.14. We are in bitter captivity Esther 14.8. They shal be devoured wth – burning coales & with bitter destruction – ye sword without & terror within Deut. 32.24. The affliction of Israel [i.e. under their enemies] was very bitter 2 King. 14.26. The ways of Zion do mourn – all her gates are desolate, her Priests sigh, her virgins are afflicted & she is in bitterness. Her adversaries are ye chief &c Lament. 1.4. Shall ye sword devour for ever? Knowest thou not yt it will be bitterness in ye latter end? 2 Sam. 2.26. Strong drink shal be bitter to them yt drink it: ye city of confusion is broken down. Isa. 24.9. And to aggrevate this bitterness ye expressions of Gall & Wormwood are sometimes used. So Ieremy lamenting Ierusalems captivity, saith; He hath compassed me wth Gall and travail – He hath filed me wth bitterness, he hath made me drunken wth wormwood – And I said my strength & my hope is perished from ye Lord, remembering mine affliction, ye wormwood & ye Gall Lament. 3.5, 15{sic} 19. Her end is bitter as wormwood. Prov. 5.4. They have walked after Baalim – therefore, thus saith ye Lord – I have filled Is will feed this people with wormwood, and give them water of Gall to drink. Ier. 9.15. See also Ier. 23.15 & 8.14. & Deut. 29.18 & 32.33. And so in ye Apocalyps ye great star burning{illeg} as it were a Lamp (yt is consuming by war) is called wormwood, & ye waters on wch it falls (yt is ye people) are said to become wormwood to express their bitter affliction by those wars, & many men are said to dye of ye bitterness of those waters, to express ye dissolution of one or more bodies politick of men by those waters Apoc. 8.11.

Death is used for the \of bodies politiqꝫ is their/ dissolutions. of bodies politiqꝫ \signified by living creatures/ {illeg} So where the \army of/ Locusts torment men without killing them, the meaning is that they not that they kill none of their people but only that they make war upon them wthout dissolving their kingdom \Apoc. 9/. And so where all living creatures in ye Sea died Apoc 16.3 & all that all were killed that would not worship ye Image of ye Beast chap. 13.15 that killed |& the Beast was mortally wounded by a sword & revived, the death is plainly| by a dissolution of their bodies politiqꝫ or ecclesiastiqꝫ. And in the same sense the two witnesses, the third part of men, \the third part of the creatures in the Sea,/ the martyr <51r> Antipas, {illeg} \{illeg}/ the fourth Beast in Daniel were slain & the Dragon in Isaias[22] are slain. And the mortal woun

[1] Sext. Empir adv. Mathem. l 5. p. 114. l.

[2] a yt is, iniquity

[3] a yt is, iniquity

[4] ✱ gr. hide or bury them.

[5] ✱ gr. & vulg. lat. holes

[6] ✝ Iustin. l. 7.

[7] a Diodor. l 1 p 55.

[8] b Diodor. ib.

[9] a Sanchoniathon et {illeg} Philo Biblius


b Heliogabalus Ægyptios Dracunculos Romæ habuit, quos illi Agathodæmonas appellant Æl. Lamprid.

Phœnices serpentem αγαθοδαίμονα vocant, quemadmodum et Ægyptij {illeg} Cneph appellant Euseb. lib. 1 Praep. Evan cap. 7.

[11] c Aspides ab Ægyptijs vehementer coli tradidit Phylarchus Hist. l. 12 et ex eo Ælianus l. 17 de An. c. 5. Of the Babylonians, Indians & others worshipping Dragons & Serpents see ye apocryphal history of Bel & the Dragon, & Maximus Tyrius dissert. 38.

[12] d. Horus Hierogl. 1.

[13] e. Diodor. l. 1. Aelian l. 6 de Animal. c. 38.

[14] f. Horus Hierogl. 56, 57, 58, 60, 61.

[15] g. Clemens Alexander Strom l. 5 p 555.

[16] h. Philo Bibl. apud Euseb.

[17] k. AElig;lian. Hist. l. 10 c. 21.

[18] a Primum signum totius Legionis est Aquila quam Aquilifer portat, Dracones etiam per singulas cohortes a Draconarijs feruntur ad prælium. Modestus de vocab. rei militaris. & Vegetius de re milit. l. 2. c. 13. Vide etiam Vegetiū l. 2, c. 6, 7 & l. 3 c. 5. Vexilla horrendis Draconum hiatibus super summas hastas elatis involantia ac pertractus contextis squammis distinctos ventilata jucundissimum simul et formidulosum spectacu\lu/m oculis præbent. Greg. Naz. Orat. 1

[19] b Ammianus lib 16 in descriptione pompæ qua Romam ingressus est Constantius, de signis militaribus loquens, at Alios, inquit, purpureis subtegminibus texti circumdedere Dracones, hastarum aureis gemmatisqꝫ summitatibus illigati, hiatu vasto perflatiles, & ideo velut ira percili sibilantes, caudarumqꝫ volumina relinquentes in ventum. Idem eodem libro, in descriptione prælij cujusdam, ait: Quo agnito per purpureum signum Draconis summitati hastæ longioris aptatum &c.

[20] c \{conferens}/ Vexillum Græcis dicebatur Δρακόντειον & Signifer, Δρακοντειοφόρος & Δρακονάριος. Gloss. Signiferi dicuntur qui signa portant quos nunc Draconarios vocant. Modestus de voc. rei mili

[21] Ezek. 1.

[22] Isa. 21.

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