The Proof

Now although these interpretations by their analogy with one another & resemblance to the things signified, may seem plain enough, yet that nothing be wanting to establish them, I shall further show their consent wth ye scriptures, & also wth ye doctrine of the ancient |wth ye translation of the Chalde Paraphrast & wth ye received \ancient/ doctrin of ye Eastern| interpreters (of Dreams {sic} visions) as it is recorded by Achmet an Arabian out of ye ancient monuments of Ægypt Persia & India.[1] < insertion from the right margin of f 1r > For since these nations anciently bordering upon ye Iews \Hebrews/ had great affinity wth ym both in Language & manners, & therefore wee scruple not to learn frō them ye use of words & phrases in ye scripture, so \much less need/ we other not scruple in like manner to learn from them ye use of expressions & {types} in ye mysticall Language of ye Prophets. \figurative expressions wherin their severall nations were much/ better agreed yn in ye language of ye common people. For ye Prophets wthout doubt spake in a dialect then commonly known to ye more understanding sort of men, & many of their types & figures wch are unusuall & difficult to us appear by these records of Achmet to have been very familiar to those Eastern nations; at least among the interpreters. And therefore {illeg} <1v> therefore esteeming it pertinent to show ye consent of or interpretations wth ye doctrin of these interpreters next after their consent wth ye scriptures: I proceed. < text from f 1r resumes > For it is not to be doubted but that their doctrine anciently descended from men of real skill such as were Balaam, Numb 24: Pharaoh's Magicians & wise men, whose wisdom Moses hath set a value upon by counting it worth his learning Gen 41. Acts 7.22. Nebuchadnezzar's Caldeans & other Interpreter's amongst wch was Daniel who besides his extraordinary gift of Prophesy had also skill in all learning & understanding, in all Visions & Dreams Dan 1.17. And ye Magi wch came from ye East to worship or Saviour, who seem to be of ye same order wth ye rest. And therefore since God gave ye sacred Prophesies to be interpreted by humane skill, we cannot next after ye Scriptures have a better guide then ye established doctrine of ye ancient Interpreters. I call it established, ffor such ye exact consent of ye afforesaid three Nations in these {sic} records argue it to be, since there uses not to happen any such consent in doctrines wch severall nations or severall men in ye same nation frame according to their privat imaginations. [To wch consideration may their consent wth such interpretations as {sic} are to be collected out of scripture may be added as a pledge of <2r> their certainty |  legitimatenes in the rest. And for {sic} these reasons very great regard may be also had to ye Calde Paraphrast.] Wherefore chosing next after ye Authority of ye scriptures chosing \wth Grotius & {illeg} wth Grotius rather a[2] modern Interpreters/ rather to rely \rather/ upon ye skill \traditions/ of ye ancient Interpreters then upon ye suggestions of private Phantasy, I proceed. {sic}

1. The comparison of a Kingdom \or political world/ to ye Vnivers \World natural world/ /World\ may appear out of Isa 51.16 where ye \new/ founding of ye political {sic} world or Kingdom of ye Iews is exprest by planting ye Heavens & laying ye foundations of ye Earth. I have put my words in thy mouth & have covered thee in ye shaddow of mine hand yt I may plant ye heavens & say unto lay the foundations of ye earth, & say unto Zion, Thou art my people. \See the Calde Paraphrast./ In ye same sence is Heaven & earth to be taken in Isa: 1.2. Deut. {illeg}. Hagg: 2.21. &c

2. {illeg} [3] ] When Ioseph dreamed that ye sun Moon & eleven Stars should do obesance to him, Iacob interprets it of himself his wife & Sons comparing his Family to ye Vnivers as if it were a little Kingdom Gen 37.       The Sun immutably represents ye King, ye Moon the next in power to ye King, ye Planet Venus the Queen, the rest of ye greater stars the great men of ye Kingdom. Achmet. chap 167. \Ind. Pers. Eg./ Yet Lucifer wch is ye same with Venus does sometimes signify a King as in Isa 14.12, where ye King of Babylon is called by this name; suppose in respect of God or ye son of God \Christ/ the {illeg} King of {illeg} Kings.

3. Thou hast said in thine heart I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my Throne above ye stars of God. I will sit also upon ye mount of ye congregation in ye sides of ye North, I will ascend above ye heights of ye clouds, &c. This is spoken of ye King of Babylon exalting himself above all Kings & earthly dominions. Isa 14.13.     If a King <3r> see himself as it were above the heaven where the stars are, he shall find exaltation & a name above other Kings, Achmet. c. 162. If a King dream that he sits upon ye Clouds carried whither he will he shall rule over his enemies, & obtein victories & unexpected joy. Ach: c. 194.

4. There is nothing more usuall then to put ye Earth for ye Nations of ye Earth, or for ye common people of any great Kingdom: as in these expressions. Let all ye Earth prais ye Lord. He causeth the Earth & them that dwell therein to worship ye first beast Rev. 13.12. Hear o Heavens & give ear o Earth Isa 1 2. [Sing O Heavens, & be joyfull O Earth & break forth into singing o Mountains: for ye Lord hath comforted his people. Isa 49:13. &c.]

5. The Waters where the Whore sitteth are peoples & multitudes & nations & tongues Rev 17.15. I saw a Beast rise up out of ye Sea. i.e. out of ye aggregate of ye waters where ye Whore sitteth Rev. 13.1. How is Babylon become an astonishment among ye nations! the Sea (i.e. ye Kingdom of ye Persians \Medes/) is come upon Babylon she is covered wth ye multitude of ye waves thereof, her cities are a desolation &c Ier 51.42. {sic}     If any man dream he is Lord of the Sea he will be successor in the whole Kingdom. Ach. c. 178. Ind. Pers. Eg. |So ye Chalde Paraphrast for waters substitutes people in Ier 47.2 & Ezek 26.19 &c|

6. Hurt not ye Earth nor the Sea Rev 7.3. that is ye two sorts of people signified by the earth & ye sea, as is expounded in ch 12.12: Wo be to ye inhabitants of the earth & of ye Sea. ffor these are two sorts of people because ye Earth was hurt in ye first Trumpet & ye Sea in the second.

|Much after ye same manner ye Egyptians are usually distinguished \differenced/ from \There is much ye same difference usually put between ye Egyptians &/ other nations in ye old Testament.| < insertion from f 2v > Much after this manner the Egyptians in ye old Testament are usually distinguished from other nations.

< text from f 3r resumes >

7. They shall bring all your brethren unto my holy Mountain Ierusalem Isa: 66.20. O my Mountain <4r> {Mountain} in the feild i.e. Ierusalem Ier 17.3. Let thy fury be turned away from thy City Ierusalem thy holy Mountain Dan 9.16. Whilst I was presenting my supplication – for ye holy Mountain of my God, vers 20. [He carried me away in ye spirit to a great high Mountain & shewed me that great City ye holy Ierusalem Rev 21.10.] |So in Dan 2 The new Ierusalem extending its dominion over the earth is represented by a great mountain wch filled ye whole Earth.|       I will render unto Babylon – all ye evil that they have done in Zion – Behold I am against the o destroying Mountain saith the Lord wch destroyest all ye earth – thou shalt be desolate for ever Ier 51.24, 25, 26. Who art thou O great mountain? before Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain i.e. ye City Babylon Zech 4:7. The burden of Babylon wch Isaiah ye son of Amos did see: Lift ye up a banner upon ye high Mountain Isa: 13.2 I will lay the Land most desolate & the pomp of her strength shall cease, & ye Mountains (i.e. Cities) of Israel shall be desolate. Ezek 33.28.

< insertion from f 2v >

7. Of Ierusalem's being called a Mountain there are many instances, as in Zech 8.3: Ierusalem shall be called a city of truth & ye mountain of <3v> Lord of hosts, the holy Mountain. So in Dan 9.16. Let thy fury be turned away from thy City Ierusalem thy holy Mountain Dan 9.16. The like in Dan 9.20. Ier 17.3. Isa 27.13, & 66.10 &c.

So of Babylon. I will render unto Babylon — all ye evill that they have done in Zion — Behold I am against the O destroying Mountain saith ye Lord wch destroyest all ye earth — thou shalt be desolate for ever. Ier 51.24, 25, 26. Who art thou O great Mountain? before Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain. Zech 4.7. The burden of Babylon wch Isaias ye Son of Amos did see: lift ye up a banner upon ye high mountain. Chal. Par. upon ye City wch dwels securely. Isa 13.2.

So of Cities in generall: I will lay the land most desolate & ye pomp of her strength shall cease, & ye Mountains of Israel shall be desolate Ezek 33.28. Thou hast said, by the multitude of my Chariots am I come up to ye height of ye mountains Chal. Par. to ye strong holds of ye Cities. Isa 37.24

Sometimes a mountain is extended to signify ye whole dition of a city as in Dan 2.35 & Isa 11.9, much after ye same manner that a King is sometimes put for his kingdom.

8. And sometimes it signifies onely a Temple. Ierusalem shall become heaps, & ye Mountain –

< text from f 4r resumes >

8. Ierusalem shall become heaps, & ye Mountain of ye house as ye high-placesof ye Forrest: But in the last days it shall come to pass that the Mountain of ye house of ye Lord shal be established in ye top of ye Mountains & it shall be exalted above ye hills &c |i.e. above all other temples. Mica 3.12.| Micah 3.12. {sic}     A voice was heard upon ye high-places — Return ye back sliding children – in vain is salvation hoped for from ye hills & from ye multitude of ye Mountains: truly in the Lord or God is the salvation of Israel. Ier 3.21, 22.       The reason of this signification of a Mountain I suppose is because Idol-temples were usually placed upon the tops of Mountains <5r> as may appear out of Deutr 12.2: Ye shall utterly destroy all ye places wherein ye nations wch ye shall posses served their Gods upon ye high Mountains & upon ye hills: & And also because |of| ye Idols themselves were placed on high in their Temples, as is known: whence in Scripture these Temples \or rather their Altars/ are always \are frequently/ called high-places |greatnes of the buildings & height of their Altars whence they are frequently called high places in scripture.| [notwithstanding that they are sometimes in Valleys, as in Ier 7.31: They have built the high-places of Tophet wch is in ye Valley of ye Son of Hinnon.]

[I will make Ierusalem heaps & a Den of Dragons, Ier 9.11. The noise of the bruit is come – to make the Cities of Iudah desolate & a Den of Dragons Ier 10.22.] < insertion from the right margin of f 5r > The signification of {illeg}

9. That Dens & Rocks signify buildings is obvious from ye resemblance wch Dens have to their {sic} Rooms or to ye Cavities of their ruins, & Rocks to their outside. And moreover yt shall be dens forever Isa 32 \this is their meaning in scripture/ may {sic} appear by the following instances. The multitude of – < text from f 5r resumes > |The multitude of the City shall be left, the forts & towers shall be Dens for ever Isa 32.14. I will make Ierusalem heaps & a Den of Dragons Ier 9.11| [Is this house wch is called by my name become a Den of robbers? i.e. An Idol temple Ier 7.11] |See also Ier 9.11 & 10.22| |See also Ier 9.11 & 10.22.|

The pride of thine heart (O Edom) hath deceived thee thou that dwellest in ye clifts of ye Rock whose habitation is high, that saith in his heart who shall bring me down to ye ground Obad 3. * < insertion from the right margin of f 5r > * Although this be an allusion to ye high country of ye Edomites, yet I take it to be meant rather of their sumptuous buildings & Palaces then naturall rocks, becaus it is made a character of their pride, & it is no argument of pride merely to dwell in a high & rocky Country. In the same sense I understand also ye following places. Let ye wildernes & ye cities thereof lift up their voice the villages yt Kedar doth inhabit: let ye inhabitants of ye Rock sing let ym shout from ye top of ye mountains. (i.e. of ye Cities) Isa 42.{11} < text from f 5r resumes > Behold I am against thee (the house of David) O inhabitant of ye Valley & rock of the plain saith ye Lord; wch say, Who shall come down against us or who shall enter into or habitations? Ier 21.13. Behold I am against thee o destroying Mountain (i.e. Babylon) saith ye Lord — I will roll the down from ye rocks & make thee a burnt Mountain. Ier 51.25. They shall destroy the walls of Tyrus & break down her towers & I will also scrape her dust from her & make her like ye top of a rock. Ezek. 26.4, 14. ***

< insertion from f 5v >

*** 10. To these instances of common buildings may be added those {illeg} \two/ that follow of Temples. Is this house wch is called by my name become a Den of Robbers? i.e. An Idol-Temple. Ier 7.11 Are ye not ye children of transgression — in ye fire. See also Ier 19.5 & 32.35 that is under ye Idol Temples or high-places \of Topheth/ wch they built for that purpose in ye Valley of ye Son of Hinnon Ier 7.31 & 19.5 & 32.35. Other instances of this see in Def the comment on Def. 64. < text from f 5r resumes > Are ye not the children of {illeg} transgression, a seed of falshood, inflaming yorselves with Idols under every green tree, slaying the children in ye Valleys under the clifts of |ye| rocks? Isa 57.5: that is, under Idol-temples, as <6r> may appear by comparing this place wth Ier 7 31: They have built high places of Topheth wch is in ye Valley of ye son of Hinnon, to burn their sons & their daughters in ye fire. See also Ier 19.5 & 32.35 &c

The High-places of Aven, the Sin of Israel shall be destroyed, ye thorn & thistle shall come upon their Altars & they \[the Idols]/ shall say to the Mountains {&} cover us & to ye hills fall on us. Hosea 8. 10.8 The Lord alone shall be exalted in that day, & ye Idols he shall utterly abolish [gr. hide or bury them] & they shall go into ye holes of ye Rocks & into ye caves of ye earth for fear of ye Lord, Isa 2.9. In that day shall a man cast his Idols — to ye Moles & to ye Bats to go into ye clefts of ye Rock & into ye tops [gr. holes] of ye ragged rocks for fear of ye Lord, vers 21. Here ye Idols wch are to be hid in ye rocks are called by the name of Idols, but a little before they were spoken unto as men: Enter into ye Rock & hide thee |  ye in ye dust, vers 10. And therefore since these men here spoken unto are Idols & ye Rocks their Temples; by men hiding themselves in Rocks must be understood Idols shut up or buried in ye ruins of their Temples.

The same may be collected from ye reason of the thing. For the signification of Dens & Rocks is obvious from ye resemblance wch {illeg} they have to ye Rooms & outside of stone buildings, |or| to ye cavities & cragginess of their ruins. And Mountains must also \here/ signify great buildings becaus of their falling. And yt |\63)/ That| Idols may be called men is according to ye common way <7r> of speaking. ffor they are Images of Men, & as we are wont to call ye Image of a Beast a Beast & ye Image of a Bird a Bird, so we call ye Image of a man a man. Wherefore considering that to hide in Dens or holes of Rocks or to cover wth falling Mountains; that is to shut up in Buildings, or bury in the {sic} ruins of them is the proper way of destroying Idols, but not a proper way of destroying men: whenever men are said to be so hid or covered we must understand Idols thereby.

But because the establishing of this is of very great moment importance for interpreting ye sixt seal, it will not be amis to show further how much it is according to ye custom of ye Prophets to call Idols men: considering \representing/ them as men wherewith ye Church comits adultery & calling them by ye names of those nations whose Gods they are, as may be seen in these instances \And as this is ye common way of speaking so it is ye Language of ye scripturs./ Thou hast played ye Harlot wth many lovers yet return to me saith ye Lord – she defiled ye Land & committed adultery wth stones & with stocks. Ier 3.1, 9. I will destroy her vines & her figtrees whereof she said, These are my rewards yt my lovers have given me – – & I will visit upon her ye days of Baalim wherein she – went after her lovers & forgat me saith ye Lord. Hos: 2.12. Thou pouredst out thy fornications on every one that passed by — thou madest thy self Images of men & didst commit whordom wth them – thou hast committed fornication wth ye Ægyptians great of flesh – thy filthines was poured out & thy nakedness discovered through thy whordoms wth thy lovers & |  [even] wth all ye Idols of thy abominations Ezek 16.15, 17, 26, 37. <8r> Aholah – doted on her lovers on ye Assyrians her neighbours wch were clothed wth blew, Captains & Rulers all of them desirable young men, horsmen riding upon horses. Thus she committed her whoredoms wth them wth all them that were chosen men of Assyria & wth all on whome she doted, \[even]/ wth all their Idols. Ezek 23.5. And when her sister Aholibah saw this, – she doted upon ye Assyrians her neighbours Captains & Rulers clothed most gorgeously, horsmen riding upon horses, all of them desirable young men – & she increased her whordoms, for when she saw men pourtrayed upon the wall ye Images of ye Caldeans pourtrayed wth Vermilion girded with girdles upon their loins exceeding in died attire upon their heads, all of them Princes to look to, after ye manner of ye Babylonians – she doted upon them & sent Messengers unto them into Caldea & ye Babylonians came to her into ye bed of love \i.e. when she saw their Idols she doted upon them & sent for others to be made in their likeness & set up in her own land./ vers 11.

By these instances it may appear yt it is according to ye use of ye Prophets to represent Idols as men where with ye Church com̄its adultery, & not onely so but to call them by the names of those men whose Gods they are or whose likeness they bear, as Ægyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Princes, Captains, Rulers, horsmen, young men &c: not much unlike their being called in the sixt seal, Kings, & great men & rich men & Captains & mighty men & bond & free. See Def    .

11. The Lord hath annointed me – to give them the garment of prais for ye spirit of heaviness that they might be called the Trees of righteousness, the planting of ye Lord Isa 61.3. [The haughtiness of men shall be bowed down <9r> – for ye day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one yt is proud & lofty – & upon all ye oaks of Bashan Cedars of Lebanon that are high & lifted up, & upon all ye Oaks of Bashan & upon all ye high Mountains Isa 2.13. They shall march wth an Army & come against her with axes as hewers of wood, they shall cut down her Forrest saith the Lord, Ier 46.23. Howl {sic} fir-tree for ye Cedar is fallen becaus all ye mighty are spoiled: Howl O ye Oaks of Bashan for ye For defenced Forrest is come down. Zech 11.2.] How long shall ye Land Mourn, & ye herbs of every field wither for ye wickedness of them that dwell therein Ier 12.4. See also In Rev 9.4 The Herbs & green things & Trees are \{illeg} excepted from &/ put in opposition to ye men wch have not the seale of God in their Fore-heads \are excepted from the Herbs & green things & Trees/ See also Isa 10.19. & 14.8. & Ezek 31.8 < insertion from f 8v > The vineyard of ye Lord of hosts is ye house of Israel, & ye men of Iudah his pleasant Plant Isa 5.7. They shall march wth an Army & come against Ægypt wth Axes as hewers of wood, they shall cut down her Forrest Ier 46.22. Wickedness burneth as ye fire it shall devour ye Briars {sic} & thorns & shall kindle in ye thickets of ye Forrest — the people shall be as ye fewel of the fire. Wch last words explain ye rest. Is 9.19. How long shall ye Land mourn & ye herbs of every field wither for ye wickednes of them yt dwel therein Ier 12.4. The good seed \(whose blade is called Χόρτος)/ are ye children of ye Kingdom but ye tares are ye children of ye wicked one Mat 13.38. Every plant wch my Father hath not planted shall bee rooted up. I have planted Apollos watered &c.

< text from f 9r resumes >

The Calde Paraphrast for Oaks of Basan Isa 2.13 & Zech 11.2 substitutes Princes or Governours of Provinces: for Cedars Isa 14.8 rich men: for Firs Isa 37.24 Princes: & for Herbs a defenced Forest Zech 11.2 a Country of Valiant people their strength & defence.

If one dream that he waters & prunes |  dresses trees, he shall be a very great man & a nourisher of ye people. – If a King dream that he plants Trees he shall institute new magistrates. – If a plebeian dream that he gathers into his house ye leaves of trees, he shall obtein riches from great men proportional to ye leaves. Ach. {sic}. 151. [This Author is also very particular in suiting severall sorts of Trees to severall sorts of persons in c. 151. 165 & 200]

< insertion from f 8v >

The Chalde Paraphrast for woods sometimes substitutes Armies Isa 10.18, 34 & sometimes Cities or people Ier 21.14 & .9.18. And \so ye Indians, Persians & Egyptians interpret as/ Achmet in c 151 affirms: If one dream that he waters & dresses trees, he shall be a very great man & a nourisher of ye people. |And| If a King dream that he plants trees he shall institute new Magistrates. And if a plebeian dream yt he gathers into his hous ye leaves of trees, he shall obtein riches from great men proportionall to ye leaves &c. Ach. c: 151

< text from f 9r resumes >

What is ye Vine tree more then any tree, — shall wood be taken thereof to do any work? – As ye vine tree amongst ye trees of ye Forest wch I have given to ye fire for fewel, so will I give ye inhabitants of Ierusalem. |Ezek 15.2. Their vine is the vine of Sodom Deut 32.32.|

Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel & thy garments like him that treadeth ye winefat? I have troden ye wine-press alone – for I will tread them in mine <10r> anger — & their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments Isa 63.2, 3. See also Ioel 3.13. Lament 1.15. & Ier 25.30. The reason of this Hieroglyphic is ye resemblance between effusion of Blood & expressing ye juice of Grapes.

12. Becaus Herbs & other Vegetables signify men therefore such insects as destroy them signify armies of men wch in like manner prey upon countries. That wch ye Palmer worm hath left hath ye Locust eaten & that wch ye Canker worm hath left hath ye Caterpiller eaten – For a nation is come up upon my Land strong & without number – he hath laid my vine wast \& barked my figtree/ he hath made it clean bare & cast it away, the branches thereof are made white Ioel 1 4.6. See also Ioel 2.2, 25.     \ Locusts are generally referred to a multitude of Enemies —/ – If any King or Potentate see Locusts come upon a place let him expect a powerfull multitude of enemies there: & look what hurt ye Locusts do ye Enemy will do mischief proportionally Achm. c. 300. Ind. Pers Eg.

13 Wild Beasts also by reason of their feeding upon vegetables & preying upon one another signify armies. \Come ye, assemble all ye Beasts of ye feild, come to devour. Chalde Paraph. Those that stay with ye sword shall be assembled from all sides: Kings of Nations & their armies shall come – to spoile. Ier 12.9/ The burden of ye Beasts of ye South i.e. Armies \the Bands/ of Egypt Isa 30.6. I have given all these lands into ye hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon my servant, & ye Beasts of ye field have I given him also to serve him, & all nations shall serve him Ier 27.6. & 28.14 I will also send wild Beasts among you wch shall rob you of yor children & destroy your cattel & make you few in number & your high ways shall be desolate Levit 26.22.     In Ier 15.2, 3. Ezek 5.17 & 14.13, 15, 17 {sic}, 19, 21; there are described four distinct kinds of plagues to befall ye Iews, Famin, Captivity, Sword, & Pestilence whereof their captivity is described by Beasts passing through ye land & spoiling it & making it desolate: so <11r> that Beast wild beasts strictly signify \forreign/ armies wch destroy not so much by cruelty & bloodshed as \by bloodshed \the sword/ only as in civil wars/ \but/ by spoiling a country & carrying away the prey. The famin also is represented by in Ier 15.3. by doggs to teare, because of ye greediness of this Beast who usually leaves nothing behind him for others to feed upon & perhaps also becaus his tearing may represent ye gnawing of a hungry Stomach. And \in ye same place/ the Pestilence is represented by ffowls of ye heaven to destroy becaus ye infection of the Pestilence is in the Air & seizes a man from thence.

|14 Artemidorus another writer about ye interpretation of Dreams saith yt Froggs signify Impostor's & Scoffers lib 2. c 3.|

15 The Land is as ye garden of Eden before them & behind them a desolate wildernes Ioel 2.3. [The fruitful place was a Wilderness & all ye cities thereof were broken down Ier 4.26.] &c.

16 The Woman [i.e. ye Church] fled into ye Wildernes Rev: 12.6. He carried me away in the spirit into ye Wilderness; & I saw a Woman sit upon a scarlet coloured Beast full of names of Blasphemy Rev 17.3. Authors usually interpret ye Wilderness here of Gentilism spreading over the Christian World: in wch opinion is Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Ambrose, Hierom, Hilary &c as may be seen in Alcazar. And \perhaps/ ye name may well allude to ye woody & uninhabited places where Gentiles used to build their Temples, whence in Micah 3.12 they are called ye high-places of ye Forest |And I take it to be nothing els but ye Desolation, spoken of by Daniel & our Saviour, wch was to be made by setting up ye Abomination.|

17 First the King of Babylon Assyria hath devoured Israel, & last this: Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones, Ier 50.17. The Princes of ye house of Israel – eat ye flesh of my people & flay their skins from of them, & they break their bones & chop them in pieces, &c {sic} for ye pot, & as flesh wthin ye Cauldron i.e. by exaction & oppression Micah 3.3. So to signify the great wealth wch the <12r> \Kings/ of ye Medes & Persians should heap up, it is said to ye second Beast: Arise, devour much flesh. Dan 7.5. And ye spoiling of ye Ægyptians by ye Israelites is expressed by giving ye Leviathan to be meat for them in ye Wilderness, Psal 74.13. \See also Ezek 29.5/ And Achmet to ye same purpose saith if any one seem to find or eat ye flesh of Dragons he shall receive riches proportionally from some great King c 283. \Ind. Pers. Eg./ And if he eat ye flesh of a Scorpion he shall receive ye wealth of an enemy c. 285. |The like of ye flesh of other Beasts in c 269, 272, 274 &c| And if his own flesh seem to grow plump he shall grow rich proportionally c 87. And in generall he adds yt flesh does universally signify riches & gold.

| So the Chalde Paraphrast for: They shall eat every man ye flesh of his own arm Isa 9.20 translates: They shall prey every man upon ye substance of his neighbour. And \so/ for: The fatnes of his flesh shall wax lean Isa 17.4. \he translates/ The wealth wherein his glory consisted shall pass away.|

18 Wheresoever ye body is thither will ye Eagles be gathered together that {illeg} is where Luke 17.37. That is where ye bodies of ye saints are at ye coming of or Lord, thither will the Angels go to carry them up into the Air to meet ye Lord at his coming. Mat 24 31 & 1 Thes: 4.17. How fowls of ye Air are sometimes also put for infectious diseases see ye Notes upon Def 13

19. Islands have much the same respect to ye Sea wch Mountains have to ye earth, & therefore may in like manner signify Cities & Temples: And more especially ye last by reason of their being separate from ye rest of ye Earth as Temples are from common houses. Durant de Rit. Eccl. cath. l 1. c 3. sec 2.

< insertion from f 11v >

19. Since ye Sea & waters signify people ye extent of ye Sea will answer to ye extent of ye possessions of ye People {sic}, & Islands to parcels of ground exempted from their possessions for sacred uses: namely to ye Courts of Temples, & more especially to ye [Delubra or Quares wthin wch ye Idols were placed] \On] ye Altars wch were raised a little above ye ground as Islands above the sea./ And this interpretation is favoured by ye custom of ye old Romans to call those houses Islands wch were on all sides disjoyned from others: whereof ye far greater part of Rome consisted.

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20 If one dream he builds ships he shall grow rich proportionally to ye number of them. This Achmet c 180 relates as ye doctrin of ye Ægyptians & Persians & in ye same chapter adds this for ye Doctrin <13r> of ye Indians: If {illeg} one dream that he builds a merchant ship he shall gather an assembly of men to celebrate religious mysteries. The reason of this Emblem I suppose is that a Temple brings profit to a Priest as a ship to a Merchant & is also separate from other buildings as ships are from one another

< insertion from f 12v >

21 If a king dream |yt| he sees his ships sending out fire to burn other ships or Countries, he shall obtein victories over his enemies proportionall to ye strength & efficacy of ye fire. If he seem to see his own ships burnt it portends ruin to his forces. And if he seem to build a new Navy of many ships, proportio according to their number he shall again again rais forces more or less powerfull against his enemies. Achm c 181. Pers & Egyp {sic}.

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27 Behold I am against thee Pharaoh King of Egypt the great Dragon that lyeth in ye midst of his rivers – I will put my hooks in thy chaws & I will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto thy scales – & I will leave thee thrown into ye wilderness, thee & all the fish of thy Rivers. Ezek 29.4

22 \Egypt riseth up like a flood & his waters are moved like the rivers, & he saith, I will go up & will cover ye Earth, I will destroy the City & the inhabitants thereof. Ier 46.8./ Behold ye Lord bringeth upon them ye waters of ye River strong & many, even ye King of Assyria & all his glory: & he shall come up over all his channels & go over all his banks. And he shall pass to \through/ Iudah, he shall overflow & go over, he shall reach even to ye neck Isa 8.7     Behold waters \[Chal. Par. Peoples]/ rise up out of ye North & shall be an overflowing flood — & ye inhabitants of ye land shall howl at ye noise of ye hoofs of his strong horses &c Ier 47.2. Whence it appears yt armies wthin their own nation are like rivers wthin their Banks: \23/ But when they invade other nations they are overflowing floods.

The Ægyptians will I give over into ye hand of a cruel Lord — & ye waters

24 And as overflowing signifies excess of military power so ye drying up of waters must on ye contrary signify the decay & weakning of that power: of wch \signification take these instances./ |(2)| The Ægyptians will I give over into ye hand of a cruel Lord – & ye waters shall fail from ye Sea, & ye river shall <14r> be wasted & dryed up & ye — & ye brooks of defence shall be emptied & dryed up, & ye reeds & flaggs shall wither. Isa 19.5, 6. § \25/ Where note that as Trees & Herbs in Def     signify so here reeds & flaggs signify men.     |(1)| They shall draw their swords against Ægypt & I will make ye rivers dry & sell ye land into ye hand of the wicked. Ezek 30.12.

* < insertion from f 13v > * In Ezek 32.3. The Chalde Paraphrast for Rivers substitutes Provinces And ye Records of Achmet compare Rivers a sometimes to men & sometimes to riches wch flow to ye King as Rivers to ye Sea.

26 And in what sense soever Rivers are taken ffountains will most naturally signify Towns & Cities: as being the permanent heads of these flowing waters.

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Since Rivers signify Armies & wandering people Fountains by Analogy must signify Towns & Cities from whence those people spring.

The Sea resembles a great King (i.e. his wealth) & as all rivers run into it so ye wealth of ye world to him Achm: c 178.

50 If a king dream that there is an Earthquake in his City or Land it portends war of Nations & conspiracy against him. Achm: c 144 Ind. Pers. \Eg./ But ye shaking of Heaven & earth imports more then this, namely ye subverting Kingdoms & turning things as it were up side down. For of Haggai 2.6 where it is said: Yet once more & I will shake ye Heavens & ye Earth, &c St Paul gives this interpretation, that this Yet once more &c signifies ye removing of those things that are shaken Heb 12.27. And Haggai himself a little after makes ye same interpretation vers 22, where repeating the Prophesy he saith: I will shake ye Heavens & \the/ earth & I will overthrow the throne of Kingdoms, & I will destroy the strength {sic} of ye Kingdoms of ye Heathen &c. To ye same purpose see also Isa 13.13 & 14 16 & Ioel 3.16.

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28 The great stars relate to ye Nobles & ye rest of ye stars to ye whole world Ach c 167 Ind. Pers. Eg.

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29 Thou shalt ascend & come like a cloud storm, thou shalt be like a cloud to cover ye Land thou & all thy bands & many people wth thee Ezek 38.9. |(2)| A cloud shall cover Ægypt & her daughters shall go into captivity. i.e. a cloud of enemies, \or as ye Chalde Paraphrast interprets, A King wth his Army like a cloud/ Ezek 30 18. |(1)| A day of darkness & gloominess a day of clouds – a great people & a strong &c Ioel 2.2.    In these instan <15r> ces a cloud signifies onely numerous armies but it {sic} signification equally extends to any great multitude as may appear out of Heb 12.1: Wherefore seing we also are compassed about wth so great a cloud of Witnesses &c: Wch expression now grown proverbial was doubtles derived from ye Language of ye ancient Prophets & Wise men, or at least from the same grownds from wch they derived it: wch I take to be chiefly ye resemblance wch a numerous swarm of insects, as also ye dust raised by a great multitude \of people/, hath to a cloud.

| Sometimes clouds are put to a signify any kind of adversity, & by Interpreters they are applyed also to wisdom in regard of their sublimity.|

30 Nebuchadnezzar is represented by a tree Dan 4. And ye King of Assyria by a Cedar Ezek 31. In wch chapter also ye Kings & Princes of Israel & Iudah \are represented/ by Cedars, Fir trees & chesnut trees & ye holy land by ye garden of God. So in Isa 37.24 Thou (Sennacherib King of Assyria) hast said, by ye multitude of my chariots am I come up – – to ye sides of Lebanon & I will cut down ye tall Cedars thereof & ye choise Fir-trees thereof. See also Zech 11.2. Isa 2.13 & 10.\19/ 33, 34. Ier 22.7. Ezek 20.47 &c.

The Chalde Paraphrast for Cedars & firs substitutes Kings Princes & great men in Isa 14.8, & 37.24. & Ezek 31.5, 8. For Oaks of Basan Princes of Provinces Isa 2.13 Zech 11.2. For ye ffir & Mirtle Iust & good men Isa: 55.13, & for Briars & Thorns wicked men Isa 55 13 & 9.18. And so Achmet in c 151, 165 & 200 is very particular in sorting severall \kinds of/ trees to severall sorts of men.

31 It is usually supposed that ye Vices of nations were ye reason why in Daniel & ye Apocalyps they are represented by Beasts and although this may be sometimes allowed for a secondary reason \especially in the Apocalyps/ but I cannot think it ye authentic reason becaus a beast may as well be taken in a good sence as in a bad one. For christ is represented by a Lyon as well as Nebuchadnezzar, & some of ye 12 Tribes <16r> are characterised by Beasts in {illeg} Iacob's blessing as well as ye 4 Monarchies in Daniels visions. And therefore I must rather derive this Type from Armies whereby Kingdoms are usually founded & upheld {sic}. For since Armies are repre wild beasts by Def    , it is thence very naturall to put a Beast for a \any/ Kingdom wch was originated from Armies & frequently imploys \them/ like a \ravenous/ Beast to {illeg} prey upon its neighbours. And this the prophetiqꝫ doctrin of Iacob may teach us, who called Iudah a Lyon from his getting ye prey & being prince of ye Tribes, Issachar an Ass from his being in slavery, Dan a serpent from laying stratagems & Benjamin a wolf from ravening & devouring ye prey. And so ye descriptions of ye 4 Beasts of \in/ Daniel almost wholly respect their pugnaciousnes excepting what is said of the little horn. And in ye Apocalyps although ye two-hornd Beast be not represented pugnacious, yet its merchants (chap 18) supply the place of Armies, since they prey upon ye Kings of ye earth by their sophistical merchandise no less then ye other by force.

32. A Dragon signifies ye person of a hostile King, & serpents according to their bignes the persons of other greater or lesser enemies Achm: c 283. According to wch doctrin ye Apocalyptic Dragon is a very proper emblem as well of ye Roman Kingdom wch was so great an enemy to ye Church, as of ye Devil that arch-enemy to mankind. But there seems to be in this emblem a further mystery; namely to insinuate a comparison {sic} of ye oppression of ye Church under ye Roman Empire to ye Egyptian Bondage, as if that were a type of this. For it is observable that although ye Iews had many enemies yet none but Pharaoh is represented by a Dragon in ye old Prophets. And he is so represented as may be seen in Ezek 29.3. Isa 51.9. Psalm 74 13, & Isa 27.1. In wch last places Pharaoh in respect of ye overflowing Nilus is also called Leviathan as if he were a water Dragon like yt in ye Apocalyps who cast out of his mouth water as a flood. And so in Psalm 74 he is represented wth many heads like ye same Apocalyptic Dragon. But for ye fuller analogy of these two Dragons I must refer you to ye comment <17r> on Rev 11.8.

33 Heads are sometimes collaterall parts of a kingdom, as ye four heads of ye Leopard in Dan 7.6. But if ye kingdō be divided into both collaterall & successive parts, then may the successive parts be represented by Heads, as in ye Apocalyptic Beast whose seven heads appear to be successive by the saying that Five are fallen & ye other is not yet come Rev 17 10.

34 Horns if they appear together, denote collaterall parts of a Kingdom or of yt head of it upon wch they grow, as ye four horns of ye Gote Dan 8.8 & ye 10 horns of ye Beast Dan 7. Rev 17.12. But If ye Horns Heads & Body {sic} of a Beast be {illeg} considered strictly according to their relation one among another, ye horns as being ye most exalted member will chiefly respect Kings or successions of them, ye Heads ye Nobles & great men & ye Body ye rest of ye Kingdom. |But becaus a King is sometimes put for his Kingdom, thence it is that a horn is also sometimes used in ye same signification.|

35. Eyes being ye most pro chief organs by wch a man acquires knowledg, are ye most proper emblem thereof. And hence was yt ordin known Hieroglyphic of ye Ægyptians: A scepter wth an eye on ye top of it to signify ye policy & foresight requisite in a King.

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36. The signification of Mouth is plain from hence yt ye \4th/ Beast had a mouth speaking great things – even great words against ye most high, & should think to change times & laws, Dan 7 & wch \& they/ for a while \& they/ should be given into his hands \for a while/ Dan 1.20, 25.

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37 {sic}. Teeth I must signify great men becaus they are in ye head, & those souldiers becaus they are ye chief instruments wherewith a Beast fights. Hence to expres ye fortitude of ye fourth Beast, it is described wth great iron teeth. And so ye Locusts Ioel 1.6 & Rev 9.8 are represented wth gre teeth of Lyons. And probably the Author of ye fable of Cadmus had respect to this signification of teeth when he made ye Dragons teeth to be ye seed of armed Souldiers.

38 The feet very fitly represent common souldiers. For as they are the most active members, & ye lowest ꝑts of Beast, & serve {sic} to support him, & to move upon & <18r> to fight with: so Armies are much in motion, & ye lowest of ye people, & ye support of ye kingdom, & by them Kingdoms are translated to & fro, & they are ye members wherewith Kingdoms fight. This interpretation is also evident by ye Visions of Daniel. For ye ten horned Beast to signify ye use & power of his feet in fighting is represented wth nails of Bras & said to stamp with his feet what he devoured not wth his teeth: wch is as much as to say, yt what what {sic} ye Commanders left ye inferior souldiers spoiled. And so ye he-Goat stamped upon ye Ram & therefore fought wth his feet. And that of Ezek 32.2 Thou troubledst the waters with thy feet, the Chalde Paraphrast renders thus: Thou troubledst ye disquietedst the peoples with thy armies.

39 The tayle also, at least where feet are not considered may properly represent Armies, as being the train & hinder end as it were of a kingdom. Achmet c. 152 saith: If one dream he rides on Pharas (i.e. a generous steed) having a thick \set/ & long tail, he shall have a train of attendants or followers answerable to ye fulnes & length of ye tail, c 152. And by analogy the tail of a pugnacious Beast must be a train of souldiers. And this is confirmed in that ye Euphratean Horsmen were said to do hurt wth their tails, yt is to fight wth them, & therefore least that should seem improper their tails are described to be like serpents to represent them capable of fighting with them. And for ye same end ye Locusts are described wth stings in their tails {sic}.

40 Of ye Body of ye Beast see ye comment on Def 34

|Besides these there may be other ways of representing a kingdom, as if the Sea \a great fish/ be put for a King & num \lesser fishes/ for his subjects, or a great fish for a King & lesser fishes for his subjects| <18v> Ezek 29.4. or ye Sea for a King & rivers for his subjects &c


55. Gird thy sword upon thy thigh O most mighty, with thy glory & thy majesty, & in thy Majesty ride on prosperously Psal 45.4. The Hebrew is prosper & ride; wch ye septuagint translates, Go on prosperously & reign; & the Chalde Paraphrast, that thou mayst ride upon ye throne of ye Kingdom. In like manner riding is put for reigning in Deutr 32.13. Isa 58.14. Psal 66.12 And so ye woman's riding upon her Beast is interpreted her reigning over the Kings of ye Earth Apoc 17. And Achmet delivers it for the doctrin of ye Indians Persians & Egyptians, That a generous Steed denotes eminence & dignity, & vulgar horses inferior nobility & glory And if one dream he rides on a nimble & mettlesome hors, he shall acquire amongst ye people fame & great renown, & eminence & honour. – And if he seem to ride armed on a generous steed he shall obtein power & renown according to his armour. chap 233.

56. If one seem to hold a bow & Arrows he shall wth joy triumph over his enemies. Achm: c 249. Pers. Æg.

57 Some have supposed that ye Ballance in ye third Seal might be an emblem of famin, but wthout ground, there being no authority for it either in scripture or other authentic writings that I have met with for such an interpretation. There \are/ other ways of expressing famin; as by the tearing of Doggs Ier 15.3: & \when/ ye Ballance is frequently used to express justice |mentioned in scripture it is either with respect to Iudgment| as in Iob 31.6. \Psal 62.9/ Dan 5.27. \or to Iustice as in/ Hosea 12.7. Micah 6.11, Prov 16.11 &c. And therefore it is more likely that the Ballance should be appropriated to \judgment &/ justice: For further \further/ confirmation of wch we may further add ye doctrin of ye Indian Interpreters. |to the same sense is the Doctrin of Interpreters, wch runs thus.| If in a dream one see a Ballance poised in any place let him understand it of a Iudg. And if he have a caus & see ye ballance equally poised he shall obtein his right. — And if he see ye Ballance exact & clean let him know yt ye Iudg of that place is just, but if it be broken & out of order <20r> he is unjust. Achm: c. 15. \Ind./ The Author also further relates how they compare ye scales to ye ears of ye Iudg & ye weights to ye matter pleaded on both sides &c. – And adds that measures have ye like interpretation, but are to be understood of inferior Iudges.

58. Martyrdom is a kind of sacrifice, for ye sacrifices under ye Law were but a type of or Saviours death. And hence St Paul when his martyrdom approached said: I am now ready to be offered (gr: sacrificed) & ye time of my departure is at hand. 2 Tim 4.6. And to ye same sense is yt to ye Philippians: Yea & if I be offered upon ye sacrifice & service of yor faith, I joy.

The marriage of ye Lamb is come & his wife hath made her ready. Rev 19.7. To the same sense runs ye whole book of Canticles, &c.

59 The Temple of God is holy wch Temple ye are i Cor 3.17. What agreement hath ye Temple of God wth Idols? for ye are ye Temple of ye living God 2 Cor 6.16 The man of sin —– as God sitteth in ye Temple of God 2 Thes 2.4

60 The marriage of ye Lamb is come, & his wife hath made her self ready Rev 19.7. To the same sense runs ye whole Book of Canticles &c

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[4] 61. To assimilate sharp affliction to ye pains of a woman is sufficiently obvious whence if yt woman be ye Church her pains in travail must signify be an emblem of her persecution. Thus or Saviour in Mat 24.8, 9 & Mark 13.9 describing ye persecution of ye church calls them ὠδινας. So Isaiah \ch 66.7/ speaking of the Iewish church saith before shee travailed she brought forth before her pain came she was delivered of a man child. Which ye Chalde Paraphrast thus interprets Antequam veniat ei tribulatio redempta erit, antequam veniat ei tremor sicut dolores parturientis revelabitur Rex ejus. Ieremiah also in ch 30.6, 7 interprets this figure plainly. Ask \ye/ now, saith he, & see whither a man doth travail wth child: wherefore do I see every man wth his hands on his loins as a woman in travail, & all faces are turned into paleness? Alas for that day is great so that none is like it, it is even ye time of Iacobs trouble, but he shall be saved out of it.

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[5] 61 The Idolatry of ye Iews is almost every where in scripture called going a whoreing after other Gods See Isa 3. & Ezek 16 & 25 &c. And though all their neighbours were Idolaters more then they Church yet none but they are reproved for it under ye character of going committing whoredom. And the reason is plain. ffor as yt they were considered as married to ye true God, Ier 3.1, 8, 14 Hosea 2.1, 7 &c so ye other nations had as it were contracted wedlock wth fals Gods, insomuch that they are called ye Gods of those nations as ye true God was ye God of ye Iews. |Yet Nineveh is once called a harlot (Nahum 3.4.) but not for Idolatry.|

62 That Idolatry is sometimes termed Blasphemy may be seen in these instances. In this your Fathers have <21r> blasphemed me in that they have committed a trespas against me. For when I had brought them into ye Land – – then they saw every high hill & all the thick trees, & they offered there their sacrifice. Ezek 20.28. Your ffathers — have burnt incense upon ye mountains & blasphemed me upon ye hills. i.e. by invoking other Gods. Isa 65.7 And so in ye Apocalyps, although Blasphemy need not there be wholly limited to Idolatry, yet ye names of Blasphemy upon ye Whore's Beast are well interpreted by Grotius to be ye names of Idol-Gods by wch ye true God is blasphemed whilst men attribute that to them wch is due onely to him.

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66 {sic}. What is meant by ascending out of ye Abyss or bottomles pit may be seen in Rev 20: where ye putting an end to delusions & fals religions is exprest by shutting up ye Dragon in ye bottomless pit that he should deceive ye nations no more till ye thousand yeares should be fulfilled; & ye springing up of new delusions at ye end of that time, by his being let out again to deceive ye nations

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67 A Potion or Drunkenness sometimes signifies great affliction & misery. as in Ier 25.15. Ezek 23.33. Rev 14.10. And sometimes error as in Isa 29.10: They are drunken but not with wine, they stagger but not with strong drink, for ye Lord hath poured out upon you ye spirit of deep sleep & hath closed your eyes. And so \accordingly/ in Rev 17 by the inhabitants of ye earth being made drunk wth ye wine of ye Whores ffornication, must be understood their being infatuated & seduced to Idolatry by her delusions. For it is said in ch 18.23 that by her deadly poison Potion (ἐκ του φαρμακου) were all nations deceived. That {sic} is by the wine of ye poison of her fornication ἐκ του ὀίνου του θυμου, as it is called in vers 3 & 8. For θυμὸς signifies as well poison as wrath, & her Cup is to be supposed, as it were, a Philtre or love-Potion, such {sic} Whores were said to administer for inciting love, & for that end to compose it of such poisonous medicaments as might work by stupifying & infatuating those to whome they gave it.

68 Where ye Iewish Nation is represented as a Whore her <22r> threatned distress & desolation is often expressed by making her naked as in Ier 13.22, 26. Ezek 16.37 & 23.26 & Hosea 2.3 & the like of ye Virgin daughter of Babylon in Isa 47.3.

3 Thou hast said in thine heart I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my Throne above ye Stars of God, I will sit also upon ye mount of ye congregation in the sides of ye North, I will ascend above ye heights of ye clouds &c. This is spoken of ye King of Babylon exalting himself above all Kings & earthly dominions. Isa 14.13. Thy greatness [O Nebuchadnezzar] is grown & reacheth unto ye heaven Dan 4.22. And thou Capernaum wch art exalted unto heaven Mat 11.23. How hath ye Lord – cast down from heaven to earth ye beauty of Israel Lam 2.1.     If a king see himself as it were above ye heaven where ye stars are, he shall find exaltation & a name above other Kings Achm. c 162 \Ind. Pers. Æg./. By all wch it may appear that Heaven signifies any high & exalted estate, & earth a low one.

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41 That ascending up to Heaven in a cloud signifies great exaltation may appear by Def the notes on Def 3.

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42 And becaus clouds signify multitudes of people by Def 29 therefore ascending in a cloud will signify exaltation in or by a multitude, & riding on ye clouds ye subduing & reigning over much people. If a King dream that he sits upon ye Clouds carried whither he will, he shall rule over his enemies & obtein victories & unexpected joy Achm c 194. |Pers. Eg.|

43. And so covering y e sun with a cloud \or smoke/ will signify oppression of a King by advers armies. Thus God threatning the overthrow of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar saith: And when I shall put the out – I will cover ye Sun wth a cloud — & set darknes upon thy Land. wch ye Chalde Par: renders thus: I will A King wth his Army shall cover thee as a cloud wch ascends & covers ye sun. Ezek 32.7. The same is to be understood of obscuring a Kingdom by smoke as in Isa <23r> 14.31. Thou whole Palestina art dissolved for there shall come from ye North a Smoke &c.

44 I will caus your sun [O Israel] to go down at noon day, & I will darken ye earth in ye clear day, & I will turn your feasts into mourning Amos 8.9.      She [Ierusalem] hath given up ye ghost, her Sun is gone down while it was yet day. Chalde Par: Her Glory is passed away in her life time Ier 15.9.       Thy sun shall no more go down neither shall thy Moon withdraw it self, for ye Lord shall be thine everlasting light, & ye days of thy mouning {sic} shall be ended. Chal. Par. Thy Kingdom shall no more cease neither shall thy glory be taken away &c. Isa 60.20.      The day of ye Lord cometh cruel both with wrath & fierce anger to lay ye Land (i.e. ye Kingdom of Babylon) desolate, & he shall destroy the sinners out of it: for ye stars of Heaven & ye constellations thereof shall not give their light, & the Sun shall be darkened in his going forth, & the Moon shall not caus her light to shine — Behold I will stir up ye Medes against him Isa 13.10.     When I shall extinguish thee [O Pharaoh King of Egypt] I will cover the Heaven & make ye stars thereof dark, & I will cover ye Sun with a cloud, & ye Moon shall not give her light. All ye bright stars of heaven will I make dark over thee, & set darknes upon thy land – – For thus saith ye Lord God, the sword of ye King of Babylon shall come upon thee. Chal. Par. When I shall extinguish ye splendor of ye glory of thy Kingdom out of Heaven, tribulation shall cover thee &c. Ezek 32.7. When I Get thee into darknes O daughter of ye Caldeans, for thou shalt no more be called ye Lady of Kingdoms Isa 47.5. See also Ioel 2.10, Isa Darknes & sorrow Isa 5.30. See also Ioel 2.10. Ier 13.16 &c.

If one dream that he sees the Sun in Heaven wthout rays <24r> & light it betokens calamity & dishonour to ye King — If he dream that it is Eclipsed it betokens affliction & war to ye King. — If in his dream he see ye Sun Moon & Stars \gathered/ together wthout light, if he be one of ye Nobles that darknes betokens his own destruction; but if the King, he shall be invaded on all sides by war & fall into affliction Achm c 167. \Ind. Pers. Eg. And/ If one dream yt ye stars are very dim, cast down, scattered & cloudy, it betokens ye calamity of Princes Nobles & rich men Achm: c 168. |Pers. Eg.|

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45. Yet the celestiall bodies are not to be interpreted so strictly of \ye persons of/ Kings & Princes but that ye Sun & Moon may sometimes be used to signify in generall ye spendor {sic} & glory of a kingdom, for \in/ as much as ye sun is ye glory of ye world by {sic} & the Moon by night. For thus the Chalde Paraphrast interprets them in Ier 15.9, & Isa 60.20. And so where ye Woman is said to be clothed wth ye Sun, & ye Moon under her feet Rev 12, the Sun & Moon signify ye glory of ye righteousnes of Christ wherewith ye church must be clothed, & of her own righteousnes wch borrows she must put of but yet be supported by it as it borrows splendor from that sun & shines as it were by reflexion. And so where ye sun is turned into blacknes & ye moon into blood Ioel 2.31 & Rev 6.12 I had rather understand it in generall of ye splendor of ye Kingdom put out & the glory turned into bloodshed, then interpret it onely of ye King & ye next in dignity. For the perishing of those two persons infer not ye overthrow of ye Kingdom: whereas in Ioel the turning of ye into {sic} darknes & ye Moon into blood is made ye description of that universall overthrow of ye Gentile Kingdoms & mighty slaughter of all their Armies wch is to happen at ye great day of God almighty, as is at large described in ye next chapter.

As for ye Moons being turned into blood ye expression seems borrowed from ye dusky reddish colour of ye Moon in a partiall Eclips which is here rather alluded unto then the darknes of a totall Eclips, that by {illeg} ye great slaughter of ye nations may be exprest by calling it \the colour/ blood. ffor that this word was intended for an expression of their bloodshed is plain by the precedent sentence. I will shew wonders in ye Heavens & in the Earth, blood & fire & pillars of smoke (i.e. slaughter & war) To wch is subjoyned by way of explication: The sun shall be turned into darknes & the Moon into blood before the great & ye terrible day of ye Lord come.

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65 The falling of ye stars & departure of ye heavens according to ye precedent assigned signification of stars & Heaven precedent interpretation of stars & Heaven will signify the fall of great men & ye departure of ye glory of a Kingdom. And becaus Idols are sometimes considered as men by Def 63 therefore this emblem may be applyed either to a Kingdom of Idols or to a Kingdom of men, as the circumstances shall require. |Thus St Stephen calls ye Idol of Rempham a Star, saying: Ye {illeg} took up {illeg} ye Tabernacle of Moloch & ye Star of your God Rempham figures wch ye made to worship them. Acts 7.43.| It is indeed less usuall to represent Idols by the stars but it is more proper, becaus they being the Idols \Images/ of supposed celestial Gods, & \were/ thence in scripture called Gods & ye host of heaven: & the analogy between ye Vnivers & a kingdom will be more perfect when things {sic} host of \wch relate to/ heaven are represented by the heavenly bodies, & ye terrestriall parts of a Kingdom \which respect the earth/ by things on ye Earth then when they are confounded together: \Yea this ye scripture seems to insinuate when it calls Idols as well as stars the host of heaven/ And therefore we need not doubt to interpret stars of Idols & Heaven of their honour & dignity or rather of ye (high places where they were set up & of ye) \orbicular/ roofs of their Temples, whenever that interpretation will best agree wth ye circumstances. And thus it happens in this definition. For here the allusions to ye falling of Figs from a fig-tree & to ye rolling of a scroll together, do by striking ye imagination wth an Idea of local motion make it a more lively representation of ye ruining of a Kingdom of Idol-Gods then of a Kingdom of men. For ye stars falling unto the earth as figs fall from a fig tree do most lively represent falling Idols, & Heaven departing as a Scroll <25r> when it is rolled together, ye roof of a Temple gradually taken off, or cleaving asunder at its being thrown down.

As for ye use of this emblem there are but two places where it occurs, viz: Isa: 34.4 & Rev 6.13, 14: The first of these {sic} seems to respect that universall overthrow of ye Gentiles so often prophesied of in Scripture; at wch time Idolatry is to be universally & forever demolished, as may \hereafter/ appear by comparing Rev 9.20 & 11.15 with Isa 2.17, 18, 19 & Zech 13.2 &c. And concerning this place it is may {sic} be observed that the stars wch fall down are not called ye stars but ye host of heaven         wch is ye same name by wch Idols are often called \& therefore it may as well signify Idols as stars/. The other place is at ye sixt Seale when Idols were to be universally abolished but not for ever: of wch more hereafter.

64 In Def 10 & 63 we shewed yt ye Prophets put men for Idols, & Dens & Rocks of Mountains for their Temples: & ye reason of ye thing requires that here they should be thus interpreted. For Rocks & Mountains must here signify buildings becaus of their falling, & Men must signify Idols becaus to hide in Dens & Rocks of Mountains or holes of Rocks or to cover wth falling \mountains/ that is, to shut up in buildings or bury in the ruins of them is ye proper way of destroying Idols but not a proper way of destroying men. But ye use of these expressions will best appear out of scripture where they are appropriated to ye demolishing of Idolatry. The high places of Aven the sin of Israel shall be destroyed the Thorn & Thistle shall come upon their Altars, & they shall say to ye mountains cover us & to ye hills fall on us Hosea 10.8. The Lord alone shall be ex <26r> alted in that day & ye Idols shall he utterly *[6] abolish, & they shall go into ye holes of the Rocks & into ye Caves of ye Earth for fear of ye Lord Isa 2.19. In that day shall a man cast his Idols — to ye Moles & to ye Bats to go into ye clefts of ye Rock & into ye *[7] tops of ye ragged rocks for fear of ye Lord vers 21. Here the Idols wch are to be hid in the rocks are called by ye name of Idols but a little before they were spoken unto as men. Enter into ye Rock & hide thee in ye dust vers 10. And therefore since the men here spoken unto are Idols, & ye rock by men hiding themselves in rocks must be understood Idols shut up in their temples or buried in ye ruins thereof.

47. To expres ye ruin of old Babylon Ieremiah commanded Serajah saing: When thou hast made an end of reading this book thou shalt bind a stone to it & cast it into ye midst of Euphrates, & thou shalt say; Thus shall Babylon sink, &c Ier 51.63. So to expres ye ruin of new Babylon a mighty Angel took up a stone like a great Milstone & cast it into ye sea, saying: Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down &c. Rev: 18.21 {sic}. And to these two places ye casting of ye great Mountain into ye sea Rev 8.8 seems to allude: For \especially since/ that Mountain signifies also a City by Def      & I shall further show hereafter \not to mention here/ yt it is ye \very/ same city \wth new/ Babylon. And so by Analogy ye falling of ye great star upon the rivers Rev 8.10 must signify ye ruin of some great Prince. To wch purpose ye Indian Interpreters teach us: If one dream he sees ye stars fall into ye sea, let him understand thereby a slaughter of men to be caused by ye King, & if ye King have this dream he shall see a very great slaughter or mortality of his people. Achm. c: 170.

46. Since waters signify people, ye turning of them to blood must signify slaughter of the people. Thus ye desolation of Moab <27r> is exprest by saying: The waters of Dimon shall be ful of blood. Isa 15.9. Compare this with Def:    

69. Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel & thy garments like him that treadeth ye winefat? I have troden ye Wine-press alone – for I will tread them in mine anger & – & their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments Isa: 63.2, 3. See also Ioel 3.13 \Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles, Prepare war &c/ Put ye in ye sickle for ye harvest is ripe; come get ye down for ye press is full, for the fats overflow, for their wickedness is great. Multitudes, Multitudes &c Ioel 3.13. See also Ier 25.30 The lord – – shall give a shout, as they that tread ye grapes, against all ye inhabitants of ye Earth – he will plead with all flesh, he will give them that are wicked to ye sword. Ier 25.30 See also Lament: 1.15. Ezek 15.2 & Deutr 32.32.

The reason of this figure is ye resemblance between effusion of blood & expressing the juice of grapes.

48 Fire is put to signify war becaus men are represented by things combustible as Trees, Ships, Beasts &c; And as these things wast in ye fire so men are destroyed in war. And then this figure there is scarce any more frequently used in Scripture. Say to ye Forrest of ye South, {illeg} – Behold I will kindle a fire in thee & it shall devour every green tree in thee & every dry tree: the flaming flame shall not be quenched, & all faces from ye South to ye North shall be burnt therein Ezek 20.47. The house of Iacob shall be a fire & ye hous of Ioseph a flame, & ye house of Esau for Stubble, & they shall kindle in them & devour them Obad 18. In that day will I make ye hous of Governours of Iudah like a hearth of fire among the wood & like a torch of fire in a sheaf, & they shall devour all \the/ people round about. Zech 12.6 The strength of ye Battel – hath set him on fire round about yet he knew not, it burned him yet he laid it not to heart. Isa 42.25. The Lord called thy name a green Olive tree – – with ye nois of a great tumult he hath kindled a fire upon <28r> it. Ier 11.16. See also \Isa 66.15, 16./ Ier 21:14 & 48, 45, & Ezek 19.12 & 30.8 &c.

The Chalde Paraphrast for burning substitutes slaying Isa 42.25 & for fire & flame, armies \of enemies/ strong & powerful as fire Ier 11.16 & 48.45 &c.

If one dream |yt| he is burnt by a flame he shall perish in war Achm c 159. If a king seem to see ye Pillars of his Palace on fire, it signifies ye dominion of another & ye destruction of ye great ones wch he hath constituted. – And if he see his hair on fire he shall loos his people in war c 160. [If he seem to see |his| Ships sending out fire to burn other ships or countries, he shall obtein victories {sic} over his enemies proportionall to ye strength & efficacy of ye fire. If he seem to see his own ships burnt, it portends ruin to his forces c. 181.]

Sometimes fire signifies triall & purgation by consuming what is evil, as in Mal 3.2.

49 If one dream yt ye Sun hath scorched him much he will be punished by ye king proportionally to that scorching. Achm. c 167. \Ind. Pers. Eg./ This respects a single person, & hence it is easy to collect yt if a nation be \much/ scorched by ye Sun, ye affliction wch it portends must be through wars raised by the king; as well becaus burning or scorching denotes war by ye precedent Definition, as becaus there is no means whereby a king may afflict a whole nation so \easily & so/ much as by war.

50 If a king dream that there is an Earthquake in his city —

52. The four winds \of heaven/ strove upon the great sea. i.e. the wars of Nations whereby ye Beasts arose Dan 9.1. |The wind shall eat up all thy pastures & thy lovers shall go into captivity Ier 22.22.| < insertion from the right margin of f 28r > I will rais up against Babylon – a destroying wind Ier 51.1 Vpon Elam will I bring ye four winds from ye four quar <28v> ters of heaven & will scatter them towards all those winds, & there shall be no nation whither ye outcasts of Elam shall not come. For I will caus Elam to be dismayed before their enemies. Ier 49.36 < text from f 28r resumes > The wind shall carry them away & ye whirlwind shall scatter them Isa 41.16 I scattered them wth a whirlwind among all ye nations. Zech 7.14. See also The king of ye <29r> north shall come against him like a whirlwind, Dan wth chariots &c Dan 11.40. A great whirlwind shall be raised up from ye coasts of ye earth, & ye slain of ye Lord &c Ier 25.22 Chalde Par: Many people shall come \openly/ from ye ends of ye earth. So in Ezek 19.12 for: The East wind \dried up her fruit:/ ye Chalde Paraphrast substitutes, A King strong as a parching wind doth slay \slew/ her people

If a king see ye sea much troubled by wind from a known quarter he will be molested from by some nation from that quarter, but if he see ye sea calm he will peaceably injoy his kingdom. Achm: c       . If he seem to be taken up & carried to & fro by a wind from place to place by a wind, he shall undertake a long expedition wth success proportionall to ye strength & quickness of ye wind. c 165 Ind. If a King in a journey seem to be hindred by a wind, he shall receive a messenger from a remote Kingdom by wch he shall be troubled. c 166, Pers & Ægypt Eg.

53 The Lord thundred in ye Heavens & the highest gave his voice: Hailstones & coales of fire. Yea he sent out his arrows & scattered them, & he shot out lightnings & discomfitted them Psal 18.13. The Lord shall cause his glorious voice to be heard & shall shew the lightning down of his Arm with ye indignation of his anger & with ye flame of a devouring fire, wth lightining & tempest & hailstones. For through ye voice of ye Lord shall ye Assyrian be beaten down Isa 30.30. I will camp against thee round about & will lay – seige against thee —– & ye multitude of ye terrible ones shall be as chaff that passeth away, yea it shall be suddenly. Thou shalt be visited of ye Lord of hosts wth thunder & wth earthquake & great noise, wth storm & tempest & ye flame of devouring fire. Isa <30r> Isa {sic} 29.1, 6. The Philistins drew near to battel against Israel, but ye lord thundred wth a great thunder that day upon ye Philistins & smote them untill they came to Beth-car 1 Sam 7.10. See also 1 Sam 2.10 |&| Isa 28.2 & 60.15. So Ioel describing ye Battel of ye great day saith: The Lord shall roar out of Zion. i.e. Thunder with a roaring thunder. ch 3.16.

If one dream that hail falls on a place, he may expect a violent incursion of ye enemy; and {sic} if he dream yt ye hail hurt {sic} ye stalks of corn there shall be slaughter of men in that place proportionall to ye breaking of ye stalks. Ach c 191 Ind. Pers. Eg. If one dream he sees a Dragon struck with lightning, it portends war & ruin to some other King wch is an enemy to that country c 283 |ex Ind. Pers & Æg.|

As for ye mixing of fire with Hail, that figure may seem borrowed from ye Egyptian plague of thunder & Hail wth fire mingled. Exod 9.23. But I had rather suppose that it alludes also to ye frequent mixture of Hail wth lightning wch happens in hot countries although in or Northern regions it is unusuall.

54 My doctrin shall drop as the rain my speech shall distill as the dew, as ye small rain upon ye tender Herb & as ye showers upon ye grass Deutr. 32.2. He shall come down like rain upon ye mown mown grass, as showers water ye earth. In his days shall ye righteous flourish & abundance of peace so long as ye Moon endureth Psal 72.6. Break up your fallow ground, for it is time to seek ye Lord till he come & rain righteousnes upon you. Hosea 10.12. See also Isa 55.10. Hos 6.3 &c

Rain is to be interpreted of God's mercy & granting or prayers. Ach: c 171 Ind.

The same is to be understood of watering any place to make it fruitfull, or of giving water to drink. Whence water is often <31r> put for true doctrin & grace, & springs of water for eternall life. Iohn 4.14. Isa 12.3 & 44.3 & 58.11 &c

70. The harvest is ye end of ye world. Matt 13.39.

[1] See Mr Medes account of this book p

[2] Grotius. Mr M Dr Moor. &c.

[3] Dan 8.10

[4] A

[5] B

[6] * gr. hide or bury them.

[7] gr: holes.

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