Out of Cudworth

Democritus, as Laertius relates, was a great emulator of ye Pythagoreans & seemed to to {sic} have taken all his Philosophy from them, & held wth Leucippus that ye Ear ye earth was carried about ye Sun in a Vortex p 13.

The Pythagorick monads were atoms. ib.

Posidonius, an ancient & learned Philosopher, did (as both Strabo & Empiricus tell us) avouch it for an old tradition, that ye first inventor of atomical Philosophy was one Moschus a Phœnician, who as Strabo notes, lived before {ye Trojan} war. Perhaps this Moschus was yn that Mochus a Phœnician Phu|y|siologer {in Iamblichus} wth whose successors Priests & Prophets he a'ffirms {sic} yt Pythagoras sometimes {sojourning at Sidon} (his native city) had converst. p. 12.

Echphantus, Empedocles Pythagoreans & atomist{s} p 14, 15 Zenocrates {Heraclides} Ascl{epiades} Diodorus & Metrodorus c|C|hius atomists p 16, 17. The generality of Physiologers before {illeg} p{illeg} atomists holding all sense to be touch, resolving all sensible qualities {in}to figures & that there was no black & white wthout sight nor bitter & sweet wthout tast{e} p 9, 17

Thales \a Phœnician by extraction/ affirms yt God made all things out of water. He was a Phœnician by ex{traction} & seems to have had \thence/ his two principles of water & {divine} spirit moving upon it. {Sanchu} niathon puts a turbid dark chaos & a spir{it} {was affected} wth love towards its own princ{iples. Zeno} (also a Phœnician originally) tells us yt Hes{iod's Chaos was} water & yt ye material {illeg}as well as earth was made out of water {illeg} So ye new made heaven & earth or {illeg} Moses calls water. The spt of Gd saith he {moved} upon ye face of ye waters.

Preexistence & transmigration of Souls p 23, 38.

Aristotle (Met. l. 1, c. 3.) tells us yt the oldest Philosophers of all, they who first theolog{ised} made ye Ocean & Thetys Tethys to have been ye original of generation & for this cause ye oath of ye Gods is said to be by water (called by ye Poets Styx) as being that from wch they all derived their original. So Homer makes {ye} ye Ocean to be ye father {&} Thet Tethys ye mother of all ye Gods. {illeg} This Theology Arit{illeg}|o|phenes {sic} thus describes, as if at first there {was} nothing but Chaos. Then on this vast Abyss night spreading o're her black wings laid ye first eggs: whence sprang love (ye worlds prolifick source) wth golden wint|g|s: wch fluttering o're dark Chaos gendered all ye store of ye {illeg} \ye numerous store/ of Animals & Gods. p 120, 121. By night understand ye invisible deity whome {illeg} the Egyptians call             & paint wth an egg in his mouth & by Love ye spirit wch moved on ye face of ye wath|t|ers. Dr Cut|d|worth therefore is much mistaken when he represents this Philosophy as Atheistical.

Thales said that all things were full of Gods (as Aristot. de An. l. 1. c. 8 wri{illeg}|t|es) p 124. Perhaps by Gods he meanes worlds {illeg}

Anaximander \his scholar/ held infinite worlds coexisting & successively generated & corrupted \(Euseb Præp l. 1 p. 15 Plutarch)/ p 128. Anaximander|ri| opinio est Nativos esse Deos longis intervallis Orientes Occidentes, 3{illeg}|o|s innumerabiles esse mundos (Cic. de Nat. Deor. l. 1.) p 129.

Anaxagoras decryed for an Atheist merely because he held ye sun to be a globe of fire & ye moon to be an earth, that is denyed them to be animated Gods. p 129.

Putabat Herodotus Hesiodum et Homerum annis ante se 400 circiter Theogonian in Græcia primos prædicasse p 211.

The love wch formed ye world out of Chaos, the first principle in ye univers, ye active cause of things, the chiefest of Gods. p 212.

The world made out of preexistent material & immaterial substances. p 215, 216.

A good & an evil Principle, (ye son of God & Satan) called by ye Persians Oromasdes & Arimanius, by ye Ægyptians Osiris & Typhon. Theodosius in Photius calls ye Persian Arimanius, Sat{illeg}|a|nas. p. 222.

The millenium known to ye Persian Magi. p 223.

Both Laertius & Diodorus represent it as ye opinion of ye ancient Egyptians yt ye world was generated or had a beginning, as also yt ye sun moon & other parts of ye world were Gods. p 238.

Νυκτα Θεῶν γενετειραν, ἀεισομαι, ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν. p 248.

Noctem concelebro Genetricem Hominum Deum. Orpheus in his Hymn of night.

The Mus Araneus being blind is said to be deified by ye Ægyptians because they thought yt dark{ness} was older then light (Plutarch. Sympos l. 4, Qu. 5) pag 248

Orpheus saith he will sing concerning Chaos how all things were \made/ out of it & concerning ye much wise Love ye oldest of all & self perfect wch actually produced them all separating one thing from another. p 249.

The Ægyptians represented all their Gods not standing upon land but in ships upon ye water p 24{illeg}

Aristotle affirms that all before him did κοσμοποιεω, {illeg} that is all but a very few not worth naming p 250. The later Platonists & Chaldeans as well as Aristotelians held ye world eternal p 251, 252. The former Chaldeans that it was made p 3{illeg}

The Pythagorick principles are ye Orphick traditions. For what things Orpheus delivered mystica{lly} those {illeg} Pythagoras learned when he was initiated by Aglaophemus in ye Orphick mysteries. <1v> Pythagoras himself affirming as much in his book called ye Holy oration (wch yet perhaps not not {sic} Pythagoras's by|u|t writ by one of his scholars) p 296. Proclus upon ye Timæus.

Pythagoras as we are informed by Porphyrius & Iamblichus, learned something from all these four, from ye Ægyptians, ye Persian Magi, ye Chaldæans & Orpheus or his followers. And accordingly Syrianus wrot (MS. Coll. Caj. Cant. )|p|. 14) makes ye Orphick & Pythagorick principles to be all one & ye same.

It is Pythagorical to follow ye Orphick genealogies. For from ye Orphick tradition downwards by Pythagoras was ye knowledge of ye Gods derived to ye Greeks (Proclus in Timæum p 289) Cudw. p 299.

Orpheus {illeg} ye body a prison wherein ye soul is kept till its debts or faults be {e}xpiated (Plato) p 299.

Orpheus his Cosmogomia p 300. Suidas in Orpheo. Timotheus apud Cedrenum et in {Eus}ebij Chron

Orpheus his Trinity ib. & p 547.

Pythagoras his Trinity p 547.

Simplicius a zealous contender for ye worlds eternity makes Moses description of creation a tradition drawn from ye Egyptian fables. p 313. Simpl. {illeg} in Aristot. Phys fol. 268 col 1.

Egyptians excelled {all} other mortals in wisdome p 311. Herodot.         1 Reg. 4. 30

The Chal{æan Cosmo}gomia 312.

The Indian Brahmans saith Strabo agreed wth ye Greeks in this yt ye world was made {& shall} {be} destroyed p 312.

The Ægyptians were ye first authors assertors of ye soud|ls| immortality & of its Transmigration after death. (Herod. Euterp.) p 313. In what sence they & ye Pythagoreans asserted it p 313, 314. Vizt that ye soule was for offences banished & desended {sic} by way of punishment into these earthly bodies & some by way of further f|p|unishmt {sank} lower into ye bodies of Brutes, but vertuous & pious soules should after this life enjoy a state of happiness in celestial bodies.

That under ye religious rites & theology of ye Ægyptians, Persians, Syrians Indians & other nations was hidden a real learning & doctrine. p 314, 315

The Egyptians besides their sphinges had also Harpo{illeg}crates & Sigalions in their Temples wch were statues of young men pressing their lips wth their finger. p 316 vizt {illeg} vizt {sic} to signify yt ye young schollars of ye wise should first learn silence, as Pythagoras taught his schollars.

Chæremon & others acknowledg nothing before this visible & corporeal world ad|l|ledging for ye countenance of their opinion {illeg} such of ye Egyptians as talk of no other Gods but ye Planets & those sta{l}|r|s yt fill up ye Zodiack or rise together wth them, their Dæcanes & Horoscopes & robust Princes as they call them; whose names are also inserted into their Almanacks or Ephemerides together wth the times of their risings & settings & ye Prognosticks or significations of future events from them For he observed that those Egyptians who made ye Sun ye Demiurgus or Architec{illeg}|t| of ye world, interpreted ye Stories of Isis & Osiris & all those other religious fables into nothing but stars & Planets & ye River Nile, & referred all things universally into natural or inanimate nothing into incorporeal & living substances. |Hæc| Porphyrius in epistola ad Anebo sacerdotem Ægyptium — apud Euseb. Pr. Eu. l. 3 c 4. To wch Iamblicus answers that these stars were ye least part of ye Hermetical institutions &c.|,| But that is ye least part of those things he understood because &c p 317, 319.

A dispute between Theuth & Thamus King of Egypt concerning ye convenience & inconvenience of letters mentioned by Plato p in his Phædus. Cudw. p 321. |This Thamus Plato saith reigned in Thebes. p 340.|

{illeg} The destruction of ye world by fire & restauration thereof an Egyptian doctrine p 328.

Hermes acknowledged a δημιουργος λογὸς του πάντων δε σπότου set over this world as g{illeg}|over|nour, ye son of ye first being. p 330. Cyril. cont. Iul. {illeg} lib. 1 p 33.

The Egyptian Trinity p 413, 414, or rather p 353, 354

Saturn & Iupet {illeg} named together by Plato as ye oldest of ye Gods p 374.

The worship of ye Gods being prescribed in ye \Pythagorean/ golden verses, Laertius saith ye Gods of Pythagoras were ye Sun Moon & Stars. p 371.

Against Anaxagoras for holding ye Sun to be fire & ye Moon an earth Plato in his book of laws thus \lib 10 p 886./ complains. When you and I, saith he, endeaving {sic} by arguments to prove that there are Gods, speak of ye Sun & Moon Stars & Earth as Gods & divine things, our young men presently being principled by these new Philosophers, will reply, that these are nothing but earth & stones wch therefore cannot mind nor take notice of any humane affairs. p 381.


The harmony of ye stars in moving according to number & measure p 396, 397. The supreme God (signified by Sol wth his p|h|arp) being ye Coryphæus or præcentor.

Socrates in his \own/ Apology, \as/ written by Plato acknowledges ye Sun Moon & Stars for Gods. p 401

Plato's {illeg} Gods were most of them fiery yet he affirmed ye earth to be ye oldest of ye Gods. In his book ye {sic} Legibus \{illeg}/ he insists much upon ye Godships of ye Sun Moon & Stars. The protestations, saith he, & adorations that are used both by the Greeks & all Barbarians towards ye rising & setting Sun & Moon (as well in their prosperities as adversities) declare them to be unquestionably esteemed Gods. De Leg. 10 p.       (Cudw p 403.

Plato's trinity. His third person Psyche ye Sould|e| of ye world. p 406, 407, 551.

It hath been delivered down to us (saith Aristotel) th|fr|om very ancient times that ye Sta{rs} are Gods also, besides ye supreme Deity wch conteins ye whole nature. But all ye things were added hereto for \fabulously/ added hereunto for ye better per{suasion} of ye multi{tude} As for example that these Gods are of humane form or {like to other} Animals {or} such other things as are consequent hereupon (Arist. Met. l. 14. c 8) Cudw p 417. So Aristotel took all ye heathen Theology couched in fables, Allegories, & Hieroglyphicks devised only for promoting ye worship of ye Stars.

The Stoicks held that all ye Gods \(except Iove)/ were generated & that they shall all be {destroy}ed by fire they supposing them to be meltable as if they were waxen {& leaden} things {p} 425, 426.

The heathens, sometimes \ye Platonists/ made ye \animated/ world or soule thereof, (called by them {Psyche}) so{metimes} ye second God, omitting ye {illeg} νοῦς or λογὸς & sometimes ye third in their trinity of Gods F pag 462, 463, 465. For they conceived every Star & Planet to be animated & therefo{re} to be Gods & their divinity they placed in their anima's. And by Plato's Psyche they under{stood} the anima of ye earth extending far & wide.

Plato in his Cratylus writes that |of| ye first & most ancient in{habitants of Greece} That they seemed to him, like as other Barbarians at that time to have acknowledged no other Gods then such as were visible & sensible, as ye Sun, & ye Moon & the Earth & ye Stars & ye heaven, wch they perceiving to run round perpetually called them θεούς from θέω f|t|hat signifies to run: but that \wn/ afterwards they to {sic} took notice of {other} invisible Gods also, they bestowed the same name of θεοι upon them likewise. p 45{5}

Some thought ye soul of ye sun ye highest God, some ye soul of ye world or earth, some acknowledged an higher deity p 456.

The ancient Germans as Cæsar affirms, Deorum numero eos solos ducunt quos cernunt et quorum opibus {illeg} aperti juvantur, Solem, Lunam et Vulcanum. {illeg} Yet h{illeg}|e| is contradicted by Tacitus & others have recorded that they acknowledged a supreme God under ye name of Thau first & then of Thautes & Theutates. See Sched. de Dijs Germanis. p 4{28} Cudw p 459

When Pythagoras makes numbers ye essences | cause of all things, by numbers he means substantial Ideas. p 388 The Ideas of \Pythagoras/ Parmenides & Plato were Gods: vizt ye souls of ye stars &c p 553.

All ye heathen Philosophers except Democritus Leucippus & Epicurus & those who make attoms & Vacuum ye sole princil|p|le of all things supposed ye whole world to be a{re}|n| animal & governed by providence. And ye soule of ye world was by ye Stoicks & some others taken for ye highest Numen. p 462|1|, 462. \See p 499./ Some mady|e| ye world or its soul ye fir second God, some the third p 462, 463, 464, 465.

Pan ye universal Numen plays upon ye world as upon an instrument according to yt of Orpheus, Αρμονίαν κόσμοιο κρέκων φιλοπαίγμονι μολπῇ. p 483.

All ye Heathen Gods but one God in several appearances & respects. p 479 to

It was ye opinion of ye Iews that Idolatry began wth worshipping ye Stars p 465, 466, 467, 468.

Love ye second God {illeg} \framer of ye world/ called by Orpheus Phanes, by Pherecides Syrus Iupiter p 529

The Persians worshipped the elements but condemned all statues & Images & were against Gods in Temples p 538.

The Egyptians Philosophers f{illeg} said that ye Poets feigned Saturn Iupiter Iuno Mars &c to be so many persons existing to ye deception of their Auditors p 531

Go One God displaied & worshipped in ye several parts of ye world p 530, 538, 539.

All the Theology of ye Greeks from Orpheus. p 547.

The T{illeg}|rin|ity of Orpheus Pythagoras & other Heathens p 547, 8, 9, 550

Platos Psyche or third principle \or God/ (by Aristotle's testimony) the {illeg} soul of ye world sup{posed} \by Plato/ to be generated or created wth ye world p 552.

This whole corporeal world is made a god by the soule thereof. And ye Sun is al{so} a God because animated; as likewise are all ye Stars thereof Gods. [And a little after] <2v> That wch is to these Gods & Godesses the cause of their being Gods must needs itself be o|t|he elder God or Godess [vizt ye soul of ye world] Plotinus p 483 apud Cudworth p 593. |So yn ye {sou}|thi|rd {illeg}|had| {illeg} ye soule of ye world or Earth wch they yt supposed ye earth in ye centre supposed to be ye {soul} cause of all ye other soules &c.|

Plotinus made ye souls of men of ye same species wth ye soule of ye world|,| p {illeg}{sic} & therefore {in} like manner venerable. p 593.      Which doctrine was doubless {sic} ye ground of ye {heathen} dæmonology, as ye doctrine of ye soule of ye Earth or world was of their trinity. For I do not find that they assigned any other soule to ye earth yn yt of ye world.

{Quæ vero} traduntur a senioribus et antiquis in fabulæ figura dimissa posterioribus {qu}od Dij {sunt hi} et quod ipsum divinum continet naturam totam. Reliqua verò fabulose jam {adducta} sunt ad persuasionem multorum et ad usum qui ad leges conferens. Conformes {enim hominibus hos} & {ali}orum animalium quibusdam similes dicunt et his his {sic} altera consequentia & dictis similia. A quibus siquis separans id existimans quod primum Deos existima{verunt} primas subs{tantias} esse: divine uti dictum esse putabis &c. Arist. Met l 14 c {illeg} Ægyptijs \{Copthitis}/ Repha {Bo}ch{illeg}og. p 67) Ciun (ib.     Minerva Neith.


{illeg}lo {Copthitis} ({Psycho p 87}) Heron

{Homo duas habet animas quod} ipsa Mercurij sacra \scripta/ ostendunt) una est a primo intelligibili {participat etiam de potentia} opificis; altera vero nobis inditur ex circuitu cœlestium {mundorum ad quem} anima Deum speculatura revertitur. His positis, anima quæ nobis {advenit a mundis} mundorum quo obtemperat motibus: illa verò quæ ab intelligibili {illeg}blic de myst. Sect VIII cap. 6

{Iamblicus} Sec. 1 cap 17 & 19 & alibi docet Deos in cœlis conspicuos {illeg} \cum/ substantijs incorporeis {conn}ecti. Iulianus idem docet. Et Aristoteles de intelligentijs disserent|s|.

Per animam suam hic mundus Deus est; sed et sol Deus est quia animatus, et eadem de causa stellæ reliquæ sunt Dij. Plotinus p 483. Idem Plotinus (Eu. 5. l. 1 c. 2 animas humanas ejusdem esse speciei cum anima mundi et propterea similiter venerabiles esse dicit.

Othos et Ephialtes Neptuni Aloi et Hiphimedes Neptunis filiæ filij mira magnitudine dicuntur fuisse. Hi singulis mensibus novem digitis crescebant. Ita cum essent annorū novem, in cœlum ascendere sunt conati, qui aditum sibi ita faciebant. Montem enim Ossam super Pelion posuerunt &c Alij autem autores dicunt Neptuni et Hiphimedes filios fuisse Dianam comprimere frustra tentarunt. Hyginius Fab. 28.

Venus filia Iovis, Vulcanus Iunonis. Hyginus initio Fabularum.

(1{illeg}|4|9) Iupiter Epaphum filium suum ex Io pellice procreatum in Ægypto regnare jussit. Is oppidum primum Memphim & alia plura constituit et ex Cassiopæa uxore procreavit filiam Libymen a qua terra est appellata. |(\Fab/ 150).| Postquam Iuno vidit Epapho ex pellice nato tantam regni potestatem esse curat in vanatu ut Epaphus necaretur, Titanos hortatur Iovem ut regno pellant & Saturno restituant. Hi cum [in Gigantomachia] conarentur in cœlum ascendere, eos Iovis cum Minera {sic} et Apolline et Diana præcipites in Tartarum deiecit. Atlas|n|ti \autem qui/ dux eorum fuit cœli fornicem super humeros imposuit Hygin. fab. 149. 150.

Alcione Atlantis filia. {A}|H|ygin fab 157 Auta ut est apud Pausan in Bœot

Melite Busiridis filia Hygin fab 157.

Atlas ex Oceanitide \[i.e. ex Pleione Oceani filia]/ duodecim filias habuit, Hyades quin quarum nomina Phæsyla, Ambrosia, Co{illeg}|r|onis, Eudora, Polyxo et Pleiades septa|e|m. Earum nomina hæc sunt, Electra, Alcyone, Celæno, Merope, Sterope, Taygeta, & Maia ex quibus Electram negant apparere propter Dardanum amissum Trojam sibi ereptam. Hygin Fab 192.

Pan {l}|C|apricornus est. Hyg. Fab 196. Dij in Ægypto cum Typhonis imanitatem metuerent, Pan jussit eos ut in ferias f|b|estias se converterent quo facilius ejus|m| deciperent, quem Iovis fulmine postea fulmine interfecit. Pan deorum voluntate quod ejus {m}onitu vim Typhonis evitarant in astrorum numerum relatus; & quod se in capram eo tempore converterat, inde Ægocerus est dictus quem nos capricornum dicimus. Hyg. ib.

Orion cum Dianam violare voluit ab ea est interfectus Hygin. Fab. 195.

Venus ex ovo quod pisces ad ripam evolverunt et super quod columbæ considerunt {illeg} est. Hæc postea Dea Syria est appellata. Hygin Fab 197

Iovis in India Thebas (urbem centum portarum) condidit. Hygin. fab. 275.

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