Amicus Plato amicus Aristoteles magis amica veritas.

Questiones quædam Philosophc|i|æ

Off ye first mater

Whither it be mathematicall points: or Mathematicall points & parts: or a simple entity before division indistinct: or individualls i.e. Attomes{.}

|1| Not of Mathematicall points since wt wants dimentions {illeg}|ca|nnot constitute a body in theire conjunction b{illeg}|e|cause they will sinke into ye same point. An infinite number of mathematicall points sin{illeg}|k| into one being a{illeg}|d|ded together & yt being still a mathematicall point is indivisible but a body is di{illeg}|v|isible. In fine a Mathematicall point is Nothing, since it is but an immaginary entity. &

Not of parts & Math: points; for such a point is either something or nothing. if something tis a ꝑt & so added betweene 2 ꝑts will make a line of 3 ꝑts. if nothing, then added betwixt two parts there is still nothing betwixt ye 2 ꝑts & consequently ye line consists of nothing still but 2 ꝑts. &

Not of simple entity before division indistinct. for this must be an union of ye parts into wch a body is divib|s|ible since those parts may againe bee united & become one body as they were before \at the creation./ Now ye nature of union (being but a modall ens) is to depend on its pts (wch are absolute entities) therefore it cannot be ye terme of creation, or first matter for tis a contradiction to say ye first matter depends on some other subject (except God) since yt implie|y|s some former matter on wch it must depende.


|2| homogeneis The first matter must be homogeneous & so either all hard or soft or of a midle temper if hard yn all ye ꝑts into wch it is divisible will be hard & of ye same constitution will all ye ꝑts be into wch it is divisible. so yt where there is plenitude of mater it will be of ye same temper ye first was & there will be no change in nature unles you will allow it either to arise from vacuities interspersed or from ye severall proportions yt quantity hath to its substance: Matter acquiring a harder nature by less quantity & a softer by more. likewise there will be no other way for rarefaction & {illeg} condensation.

If ye first way then ye body will be no such pcontinuū as to be wthout distinct \parts/ since it will be every where divided by interspersed inanitys

The latter will be in its due place be proved impossible

|3| Those things wch can exist being actually {seperate} are really distinct, but such are ye parts of mater.

|4| Suppose ye first matter one uniforme mass wthout ꝑts how should that body be divided int{illeg}|o| parts as we se now it is wthout admission of a vacuum. Suppose it be divided into two what will be betweene those two parts not body since it is all in ye {illeg}|t|wo halfes. But if it be said yt it was{illeg} first divided into smaller parts wee ask how came it so wthout less parts yn those into wch it was \at first/ divided or els vacuum to succed in theire rome as they came a peices. {illeg} Suppose ye would first matter were \divided/ as small as sand yn divide one of those sands a third sand cannot succed twixt 'em before they be at some distance unles they be at some dis there might be some smaler matter to run in & keepe out vacuum but to affirme this is to say ye first matter had very little parts be in it before it was divided. But againe |if| \now matter is divided/ two {illeg} parts of matter of ye least size. were seperateing & distant one from another ye space & halfe


Of Attomes.

It remaines therefore yt ye first matter must be attoms. And yt Matter may be so small as to be indiscerpible the excellent Dr Mo{illeg}|or|e in his booke of ye soules imortality hath pr{illeg}|o|ved beyond all controversie yet I shall use one argument to shew yt it cannot be divisible in infinitum & yt is this: Nothing can be divided into infinite /more\ parts yt|n| it can possibly be constituted of. But matter (i.e. finite) cannot be constituted of infinite parts. The Major is true for looke into how many parts ye a thing is divided those parts added agane make yt same whole th{illeg}|at| they were before; & so if any finite quantity were divided into infinite parts (& certainely it may if it be so far divisible) those infinite parts added would make ye same finite quantity they were before wch is again ye Minor; & It is plaine from hence yt an infinite number of extendid parts \& ye least parts of quantity must be extended/ make a thing infinitely extended & all ye parts yt qua this you cannot \be/ denyed if I can prove yt things infinitely extended have fine parts Now vacuum is infinitely extended & so \may/ matter be fansied to be. but if ye world were removed & vacuum came into ye roome of it yt very vacuum would not be infinite we can conceive of interspersed vacuities in \amongst/ matter but they are not infinite (though an infinite number of ym would be so) we see ye parts of matter are finite. & an infinite number of finite unites cannot be finite. To helpe yt conception of |ye| nature of these leasts, how they are indivisible how extended of wt figure &c I shall all along draw a similitude from numbers, comparing ciphers \Math: points/ to ciphers, indivisible extension, to unites: divisibility, or compound quantity, to number: i.e. a multitude of attomes, to a multitude of unites. Suppose yn a number of Mathematicall points were indued wth such a power as yt they could not touch nor be in one place (for if they touch they will touch all over, & bee in one place) Then ad thees as close in a line as they can stand together every point added must make some extension to ye lenght because it cannot sinke into ye formers place or touch it so here will be a line wch hath partes extra partes; {illeg} another of these points cannot bee added into ye midst of this line, for yt implys yt ye former points did not lie so close but yt they might lye closer. The distan\ce/ yn twixt each point is ye least yt can be & so little may an attome be & no lesse: now yt this distance is {illeg} indivisible (& therefore ye matter conteined in it) is thus made plaine: Wherever


Of a Vacuum & Attomes. pag 2

halfe theire diameter (they will not then touch, for yn their semidiameter will bee but as a \Math:/ point & theire diameter a two Mathematicall points together i.e. as nothing (for 2 nothings put together make a third nothing) & so yeleast parts of matter Mathematicall points wch is absurd) Vacuum will yn come betwixt if nothing else can, & no matter will come betwixt since ye diameter of ye least particle will be bee {sic} as big againe as yt space. If it be said yt matter {illeg} may move {ye} \over so little/ space in an instant & other matter succeed in an instant & so there needes no vacuum) I answer it may as well be moved throu\gh/ ye Vniverse in an instant for instantaneous motion is infinitely swift & will carry ye thing in wch it is as soon through an infinite space in an instant as well as though a finite space or ye breadth of an attome & I cannot conceive how so violent a motion should be stopt wthout some violent effect though in so little an agent what is saide of so little bodys may be said of greater As thus suppose two globes were to be seperated come together they must pas through all ye intermediate degrees of distan{illeg}ce before they can be joyned suppose they then be distant but halfe ye breadth of ye least partic{illeg}|l|e of matter there can be no matter betwixt ym since all matter is too big to interpose it sefe {sic}. Neither can ye two globes touch for yt implyes yt semidiameter of ye least attome hath no breadth but had it not breadth ye diameter could have none & so ye least particles of matter would be Mathematicall points. therefore A vacuum must interpose. But you may say {illeg} |Vnles yu say those attomes are as far divided as they ar divisible {illeg}| |yt| there are least parts of matter was is proved in ye chapter of attomes.

* i.e. so little yt theire can \not/ be a place too little for ym to creepe into & yn you will grant wt I pleade for i.e. indivisible particles. & you must grant too yt Attom{es} were either created so or divided by meanes of a Vacuū


Of Quantity

As a finite lines added in an infinite numbers to finite lines, make an infinite line: so points added twixt points infinitely, are equivalent to a finite line.

All superficies beare the same proportion to a line yet one superficies may bee greater yn another (yesame may be said of bodys in respect of surfaces) wch happens by reason yt a surface is infinitly in respect of a line, soe though \all/ infinite extensions beare yesame proportion to a finite one yet one infinite extension may be greate\r/ \yn another/ soe one angle of contact may exceed another, yet they are all equal when compared to a rectilinear angle viz wch is infinitely greater Thus {illeg} 20 {illeg} is double to 10 & 01 is double to 02 {illeg}, for multiply ye \2/ first & divide ye 2ds by 0, & there results 21 : 11 & 11 : 12. yet if 20 & 10 have respect to 1 they beare ye same relation to it yt is 1 : 20 :: 1 : 10. & ought therefore to bee considered equall in respect of an unite.

The angle of contact is to another angle, as a point to a line, for ye crookednes in one circle amounts to 4 right angles & yt crookedness may bee conceived to consist of an infinite number of angles of contact, as a line doth of infinite points.

Figure As ye point a to ye line a b so ye line a c to ye pgr a b c d:: pgr d b e f: ye parralelipipedon b g.

Tis indefinite \(yt is undeteermined {sic})/ how greate a {sphær} may be made how greate a number may be recconed, how far mattar is divisible, how much time or extension wee {c}an fansy but all ye extension yt is, e|E|ternity, ao are infinite {&} exceeds all number & is soe greate yt there can bee noe greater, but (finite) number is called indefinite in respect of a greater.


Conjunction of bodys.

Whither ye conjunction of bodys depend upon \be from/ rest: Neg: For yn sand by rest might make a sollid body be united sooner yn by a furnace &c Whither

Whither it be from ye close {conjunction} /crouding\ of all ye matter in ye world affirmatur. For ye aire (though its pressure bee but little in respect of yt, performed by ye purer matter of ye vortex (twixt & us) receding from ye center) & by its pressure to ye center & consequently crouding {illeg} all thing close together betwixt wch there is not aire to keepe y asunder it maketh y stick together, as ye 2 pollished sides of 2 marbles \ye {Lots} of water/ &c but this juncture can̄ot be very firme by reason yt ye pressure of ye aire is not verry strong as appeares by ye experiments of E Boyle. but ye pressure of all ye matter \made by reason of its indevor from ./ twixt o|| & us being farr greater (& it may be some other power by wch matter is kept close together&c) when 2 or 3 or more littell bodys once touch so as to admitt noe other matter betwixt them they must be held very fa{illeg}|st| together al ye matter about y pressing ym together but nothing striving to ꝑte ym. And when 2 of ye least particles touch wth very broad sides meete whos sides wth wch they touch one another are pretty broade & fitted to one anot touch close every where, those two may move together as one body & so may increase by haveing others joyned to ym in ye same manner. but if ye circumstant particles chanch to be held of from pressing ym {illeg} together as by some accident as those about (a) Figure Figure or be variously pressed as at (b) by ye bodys c & d they may be againe severed. yet in more compound body's there is no danger as for the least particles are so wedged togr: yt neither of these two chanches could undo ym as for ye firs {sic} it cannot to a whole body b{illeg}ut onely in some litte{illeg}|ll| ꝑte of it as some attome of a mans hand may chanch not to be touched by ye water into wch hee puts it. But this cannot happ to his <91r> whole hand.

Of Place

so yt those particles wch are pressed together may holde a particles wedged as it were amogst{illeg} {sic} ym so yt it {illeg} cannot fall away from ym thou{illeg}|g|h it it {sic} chanch not to be pressed to ym. ye second cannot happen at all for ye {illeg} neighbouring matter can onely \scarce/ press two touching paricles {sic} toward ye center or it may be a little awry but not from ye body to wch they adhere but let ye wors hapen yt can ye paticle {sic} may be wedged in amongst ye rest. But it may be yt ye particles of compound matter were created bigger yn those wch serve for other offices.


Of Place

Extension is related to places, as time to days yeares &c Place is ye principium individuationis of streight lines & of equall & like figures ye surfaces of two bodys becoming but one when they are contiguous becaus but in one place.


Of time & Eternity


The representation of a clock to goe by water or sand.


.1. By a line of tangents upon a suare {sic} ruler & a plum̄et to know \at one view/ whither ye stile of a diall bee true & thereby to erect a stile.

2. ye stile erected, by a plumb line \let fall/ from ye stile to find ye meridian line.

3. By ye sd ruler to find ye substilar & draw ye other hower lines. Note yt this may be done though ye wal bee not eaven &c.

To make metalline Globular dust for ye said clock instead of sand. Daube ye hollow cone B wth Figure pitch &c on ye inside, fire it. through wch fire (by ye helpe of ye tunnell A) cast ye filings of brasse or pewter &c wch molten into a globular forme may fall into the bason of water C.


Of Motion

That it may be knowne how motion is swifter or slower consider i That there is a least distance, a least progression in motion & a least degree of time. as lay two globes together yt so close yt they cannot come any nigher wth out touching yt is ye least distance, let ym be moved together yt is ye least degree of motion & tis performed in ye least part of time. There are so many parts in a line as there can stand Mathematicall points in a row wth out touching (i.e. falling into) one another in it & soe many degrees of motion along yt time. \as there can be stops & stays./ & there are soe many least parts of time in an hower as there can be Τὸ νὺν᾽ς. This ꝑoposition is proved as I proved a least part in Matter. 2 These leasts have no parts for yt implys yt they are yet divisible. |nei|the|r| prius nor posterius 1 not \least/ distance since it is passed over in an indivisible part of time & ther cannot be a different time ascribed to ye entrance of a thing into yt part of space & ye leaving of it. 2 not ye least degree of motion because too yt is performed in an indivisible ꝑte of time & is no sooner begun yn done 3 {illeg}|n|ot ye least moment of time because first & last imply severall parts of time. 3 The least degree of motion is equal to ye least degree of space distance & time |1| distance & not to more: because a thing moves in passing over but one of y. Nor to less, because ye least motion is over some distance. 2 Tis æquall to ye least moment in time, not to more, because in each degree of time wherein a thing moves there will be motion or else in all those degrees put together there will be none: not to lesse becaus no motion is done in an instant or intervall of time. But againe should two parts in motiō be but equall to one in space or time &c contra: yt one would be liable to have a prius accor{ding} to ye firt of ye two parts a midle according to ye {illeg}


Of ye Celestiall matter & orbes.

Whither Cartes his first element can turne about ye vortex & yet drive ye matter of it continually from ye to produce light. \& spend most of its motion in filling up ye chinkes betwix ye Globuli./ Whither ye least globuli can continue always next ye & yet ye globuli of ye \{illeg}/ come always from it to cause light & whither w{illeg}|h|en ye {illeg} is obscured ye motion of ye first Element must cease (& so whither by his hypothesis ye can be obscured) & whither upon ye ceasing of ye first elements motion ye Voxtex {sic} must move {illeg}|sl|ower. Whither \some of / ye fir{illeg}|st| Element comeing (as he confesseth from yt hee might find out a way to turne ye Globuli about their one {illeg} axe|i|s to grate ye 3d El{ement} into wrathes like screws or cockle shells) immediately from ye poles & other vortexes into all ye parts of or vortex wou/ld\ not impel ye Globuli so as to cause a light from the poles & those places from whence they come.


Of ye Sunn Starrs & Plannets |& Comets|

Whither move ye vortex about, as Des-Cartes {will} by his beames. pag 54 Pincip Philos: partis 3æ Whither ye vortex can carry a Comet towars {sic} ye poles &c Whence tis yt ye is turned about upon his axis Whither Chartes his reflexion will will {sic} unriddle ye mistery of a Comets bird.

Heb 1 chap: vers 2 by God made ye worlds by his son τους αιωνας      {illeg}The s spots are coloured sometimes like ye rainebow.

October 16 1618 in Scorpio appeared a comet ye tayle being extended twixt Spica virginis & Arcturus toward ye north pole it moved /went\ \passed/ into libra moveing from ye ye {sic} Ecliptick |to| ye Tropick of cancer from east to west or Northerly

On Saturday, Decembr 10th, 1664. By a sleighty Observation I found ye distance of of a Comet from ye {illeg} \center of ye/ Moone to be 9d, {illeg}|{4}|8, min. Its altitude 2|3|d, {illeg}|4|0m; or 4d.

The moons altitude 8d, 40m. Her place being Capric {26}d, 2m, or else {5}d.

The longitude of ye Moone.

On Satturday at {28}|30|min past 4 of ye clock in ye morning Decembr 17th 1664 A Comet appeared Whose distance from Sirius was 30d, 0'. from procion 38d, {illeg}|4|5'. There was little or noe difference twixt ye time of its & Sirius his self \its setting about 2' after him/ Soe yt its Right ascention was about 126d, 32'. & its declinacon Southward 31d. The length & its tayle was about 34d or 35d & pointed \below/ toward procion or almo{illeg}|st| to ye horizon North pole, cutting ye horizon at an angle of about 35 or 40d & ye Ecliptick at 47d.


Of Rarity & Density. Rarefaction & Condensation.

Corke may be pressed into 40 times less roome yn it naturally requireth & yet swim in water. By my tryall 48 times.

two bodys given to find which is more dense

Figure Vpon ye body Threds da & ce hang ye bodys d & e. & exactly twixt ym hang ye spring sbt \by a thred/ soe yt it have liberty to move to move {sic} any way. then compresse ye sping {sic} bs to bt by ye thred st. Then cutting |  clipping ye thred st ye spring shall cast both ye body d & e from it & they receve alike swiftnes from ye spring if there be ye same quantity of body in both otherwise ye body bo (being fastened to ye spring) will move towarsd{sic} ye body wch hath less body in it. wch motion may be observed by compareing ye motion of ye point (o) to ye point p & other points in ye /resting\ body qv.


Of Perspicuity & Opacity

Why though both a dry bladder & water {affect} are perspicuous yet a wet blader is not. though oyle bee les diaphaneous yn water yet it makes a paper more diaphaneous yn it.

Perspicuity is not effected ye same way in glass, christall water                      &c yt it is in aire, Aether, bladders paper

Why water is clearer yn Vapors


Of Fluidity Stability humidity Siccity


Of Softnesse hardnes Flexibility Ductility Tractility

Why flints doe breake upon a soft thing sooner yn a hard one.

Whither hard bodys stick together by branchy particles foulded together. Cartes.

Why ye Adamant dust is harder yn adamant.


Of Figure Subtility hebetude smothnes asperity


Of heate & cold

Whither things congeale for want of agitation from ye ethereall maters agitation. Cartes.

Whither doth air moved by light cause heate or light itselfe &c Why is a coale hoter yn flame but flame heates farther Why doth warme breath proceede out of an open mouth but cold out of a contracted mouth.

Why is breath or sweate seene in winter more yn in summer & why {illeg} vapors

Fire heates by heating ye aire because wind by blowing ye aire blows heate to a man

To make a crucible wch shall \to/ endure halfe a yeare a very strong fire lute it on ye outside (thick at ye B|b|ottom & thiner towards ye top) wth a mixture of tobaccopipe clay & salt of Tartar ( or Tartar may bee made use of but not wth so good successe) I think there must bee an equall quantity of each.

Whither may not water bee frozen by drawing ye warme aire from it out of Mr Boyls Receiver.

Snow put in a glasse & Salt or any quick dissolvent put into it \& well {illeg}|m|ixed wth it/ will cause vapors to settle on ye outside of ye glase & to freeze na{illeg}|y| warme water or heated sand powered into ye snow & well shaked together will {illeg} condense vapors on ye outside & perhaps congeale ym. Mr Boyle

Cold ({or an} because bodys condensed therewth moves down wards) tends farthest downwards as heat upwards.

Tis best to freze liquors at ye bottome for fear of breaking ye Glasse.

An frozen Egg will thaw much faster when immersed in water yn wn in ye ayre, & will freze ye water by its thawing, soe will frozen me{illeg} /chese meate, Glasse\

Why does water freeze first & most next ye Aire


Of Gravity & Levity

The matter causing gravity must pass through all ye pores of a body. it must ascend againe. |i| for else ye bowells of ye earth must have had large cavitys & inantys to conteine it in, \2/ or else ye matter must swell it. 3 ye matter yt hath so forcibly borne {down} ye earth & all other bodys to for ye center (unles you will have it growne to as gross a consistance as ye Earth is, & hardly yn) cannot if added to ye Earth gether be of a bulke so little as ye earth, for it must descend exceding fast & swift as appeares by ye falling of bodys, & exceeding weighty press\ure/ to ye Earth. It must ascend in another forme yn it descendeth or else it would have a like force to beare bodys {illeg} yt it hath to press ym downe & so there would bee no gravity It must ascend in a grosser consistence yn it descends because it may be slower & not strike boddys with g|s|o greate a force to impell ym upward 2 yt it may onely force ye outside of a body & not sinke into every pore & yn its densness will little availe it because it will yeild from ye superficies of a body wth ease to run in an easier channell as though it never strove against ym. if it should ascend thinner it can have onely this advantage yt it would not hit bodys wth so weighty a force but yn it would hit more ꝑts of ye body & would have more ꝑts to hit wth & hit wth a swifter /smarter\ force: & so cause ascension wth more force yn ye others could do descension. Wee know no body that {} not sinke into ye pores of bodys finer yn aire & it will sink into most if it be forcibly crouded in ye stream descending will lay some hould on ye streame ascending & so press it closer & make it denser & therefore twill rise ye slower. ye stream\e/ descending will grow thicker as it comes nigher to ye earth but will not loose its swiftnesse untill it find a much opposition as it hath helpe from ye following flood behind it. but when ye streames meete on all sides in ye midst of ye Earth they must needs be coarcted into a narrow roome & closely press together & find very much opposition one from another so as either to turne back ye same way yt they came or croud through one[2]


Of Heate & Cold.

Apples, Eggs, Cheeses, Men &c: frozen are {illeg} {illeg} vitiated by freezing but not soe much when thawed by water or snow as by fire. Frost will breake stones, crack trees, make ye Humor chrystall looke white.

A man cannot feele where hee is frozen & though frozen all over feeles onely a prickling in his recovery, hee may bee recovered being dipped in water or rubbed over wth snow, but not by a {illeg} Stove. Nay any frozen part is lost wch is thawed in a Stove. & ye fier pains us in warming or cold fingers. Frozen meate layd to thaw & roast by ye fire will bee raw in ye midst after many Howers.

Though frost change & destroy bodys (espetialy in ye thawing) yet cold preserves them.

T|I|ce (to wch noe fresh aire in ye Frezing could come ye botome of ye water being first frozen &c) is full of bubbles {like} \great as/ sands, shott, & pease, wch bubbles are fewer & lesse if ye water bee first purged of aire by ye receiver. And those bubbes in thawing shrink againe perhaps into as little rome as at first.

Cold shrinkes liquors, Oyle shrinke in frezing, water scarce shrinkes before frezing, but swells before & in frezing, & Ice is about one ninth or tenth parte greater yn water

Water & aire shut up in a glasse egg wth a shank. ye aire being in ye shanke was crouded into 19 times lesse rome by ye freezing of ye water till it broke ye glasse.

Cold will penetrate through Boyles Vacuum, Oyle of Turpentine, & a little through spirit of strong bryan & perhaps through hot mediums to freze water.


Of Reflection Refraction & Vndulation

Of violent Motion

Violent motion is made \continued/ either by ye aire or by motion or force imprest. or by the naturall gravity in ye body moved. Not by ye aire since ye aire {illeg} crowds more uppon ye thing projected before, yn behind, as must therefore rather hinder it but if ye aire helps it why doth ye thing at {last} fall for you may Figure observe in water yt a thing moved in it doth carry \ye/ same water behind it along wth it as in a cone or at least Figure ye water is moved from behind it wth but a small force as you may observe by ye motes in ye water supose (a) to be ye boddy moved: (b. d. e. f) to be ye water moving behind (a) to give it place. (r) ye water behind (a) following it & going along wth it. The{n} if ye water at (f) ran so violently against ye backsid of (a) it would beate away ye water at (r) with violence but yt water is moved very slowly from behind a. as you if it be moved away: as you may perceive by ye motes in ye water. againe this wil the like must hapen in aire if you say no I answer must yn move (a) forwards in water. So if hot leade drop into water yt ꝑte wch is behind {illeg} will be pointed ye fore ꝑte round wch would be otherwise if ye aire pressed as much on it before/hind\ as behindfore. thirdly how can ye aire continue ye motion of a globe on it {sic} axis. Fourthly <98v> in ye former figure ye aire is supposed to have ye same propensity to motion wch ye ball (a) is supposed to have that is will move no longer yn it is propelled on. yn I say ye water at (r) cannot move ye ball unles ye ball do at ye same time move (b) yt (b) may (g) & (h) & (g) may move (d) & (d) move (i) & (i) move (f) & f move r & force it to rush uppon ye ball & consequently at ye same instant (r) must ye ball, & ye ball move (r) wch cannot be. But suppose ye aire & ye ball were detained from motion by some outward agent, & yet kept ye same respect to one-another in situation as they did in the{illeg}|i|re flight: then as soon as they were both let loose againe ye aire would have as much power to move ye ball as it had when they were in theire former flight: If it be answered yt ye aire will be more compressed at (f) yn at ({illeg}|b|) & consequently when let loose againe it will dilate it self & so begin a new motion. I answer how comes ye aire to be more crouded behind ye ball then before since since {sic} (a) will communicate as much force on (b) as it receives from r & ye fore ꝑte of ye aire will croud no more on ye latter parts yn ye ball will croud on if it. Againe whence is it yt a {illeg} peice of leade will move faster then a peice o farther & wth more force yn a peice of wood of ye same bignesse since ye aire will have ye same influence on both.


Of Reflection undulation & refraction.

Why refraction is less in hot water yn cold

If a peice of silver be boyled (that is bee first brushed & yn decocted wth salt & tartar \& perhaps other ingredients/ it will looke very white, but burnish it wth a peice of steele & it will be a perfect speculum.

Whither ye backsid of a cleare glas reflect light in vacuo

Since there is refraction \in vacuo/ as in ye aire it follows yt ye same subtile matter in ye aire & in vacuo causeth refraction

Try Whither ye aire Glasse hath ye same refraction in Mr Boyles Receiver, ye aire being drawn out, wch it hath in ye open aire.

How long a pendulum will undulate in Mr Boyls Receiver? &c.


Of Fier

Whither flame will descend in Tor: vacuo or not. & what other Phænomena (as dilatacōn & transparence|y|) hath it.


Of Aer

Whither ye parts of air be les yn ym of light or no.

Whither it consist of branchy bodys not foulded together but lying upon one another {illeg} Cartes


The height of ye Atmosphere may bee known from Torricellius his experiment.

What is ye utmost \naturall/ dilatacon of ye aire may be known by Torricellius his Experiment

The velocity of air, wind, or water may be known by ye resistance wch a moveing body hath in standing air or water.


What quantity of angle ought a Wind mill saile to make wth ye wind. &c. in ye resolution of this must be considered ye ordinary velocity of ye wind & of ye saile (ye quantity of ye wind hitting ye saile i: e:) ye perpendicular breadth of ye saile to ye wind, & ye obliquity of ye saile to ye wind.


|Whither is salt or fresh water easlier {moved} & more pellucid. refracts more & easlier frozen.|

Of Water |& Salt|

Whither fresh water consist of long bending attomes \parts/ & salt of stiffe & long ones. ye first is false because it could never bee frozen. 2 they would twist & about one another so as they would not be fluid but onely soft. 3 they would ly too close together to admit light through them for being pliable they would fill up every corner & hence they would bee exceeding heavy. 4 they would not refract light so well, for beeing they would bee soft & so not firmely resist ye {illeg} pure matter as Glass doth & Cartes would have yt matter to passe swiftlier where it findes strongest resistance & refraction to be from hence yt ye matter passeth swiftliest wch therefore should bee in water. 6|5| twould scarce seperate salt so soone. & when if it seperate it by laping about it yn when it hath seperated as much as it can of one kind of Salt it could seperate no more of another wch is false 6 The aire being a stubborne body (because of branchy parts) would instantly quell there circular motion when they are rarefied. |Why water is clearer yn vapors.|

Whither burning waters & hot spirits be of small spericall {sic} &{illeg} ovall figud parts & have many such globulis as fire is of they are 1 because such are f easliest seperated in distilllations {sic} 2 because they are easliest agitated & so heate & enliven men 3 they must have many small & sollid attomes in ym because so easly fired.

Why doth hot water first contract it selfe (viz in cooleing) & yn dilate it selfe before & as it freezeth.

Why doth salt & snow freese other water. & why is heated water sooner frozen yn other raw water.

Whither be ther more vapors when ye aire is clearest.

How salt hinders corruption. {illeg}but fresh water helpes it.

Why (though salt bee heavier yet) it will mix wth water. & gather into graines at ye top of it

Whither water be salter at ye poles yn equater yn ye poles becaus tis there exhaled but may fall againe at ye poles. Cartes

Why salt water sea water is not so apt to quench fier & why it will sparkle in ye night but not if kept long in a vassell. why ye superficies of water is lesse divisible yn tis within = vid pag 47


Of Earth

Its conflagration testified 2 Peter 3d, vers 6, 7, 10, 11, 12. The wiked (probably) to be punished thereby |2| Pet: 3 chap: vers 7.

The succession of worlds, probable from Pet 3c. 13v. in wch text an emphasis upon ye word wee is not countenanced by ye Originall. Rev 21c. 1v. Isa: 65c, 17v. 66c, 22v. Days & nights after ye judgment Rev 20c, 10 v.


|Philosophy| Occult Qualityes

The nature of things is more securely & naturally deduced from their operacōns one upon another y upon or senses. And when by ye former Experiments we have found ye nature of bodys, by ye latter wee may more clearely find ye nature of or senses. But so long as wee are ignorant of ye nature of both soule & body wee cannot clearely distinguish how far an act of sensation proceeds from ye soule & how far from ye body &c.


Atraction Magneticall

|1| The motion of any magneticall ray may bee knowne by attracting a needle in a corke on water.

|2| Whither a magneticall pendulum is perpendicular to ye Horizon or not, & whither iron is heaviest wn impregnated, or when ye north pole or southpole is upmost. Coroll. A perpetuall motion Figure.

|3| Whither magneticall rays will blow a candle move a red hot copper \or iron/ needle, or passe through a red hot plate of copper or iron

|4| A perpetuall motion Figure.

|5| Whither a loadestone will not turne around a red hot iron fashioned like wind mill sailes as ye wind doth ym. Perhaps cold iron may reflect ye magn: rays |6| wth yt pole wch shuns ye lodestone.

|6.| A perpet: Motion Figure. Or, Figure



Figure Suppose a b ye pore of a Vegitable filled wth fluid mater & yt ye Globule c doth hitt away ye particle b, yn ye rest of subtile matter in ye pores riseth from a towards b. & by th{illeg}|is| meanes juices leaving dreggs in ye pores & yn wanting passage stretch ye pores to {illeg} make ym as wide as bef{illeg}|o|re{illeg} they were clogged. wch makes ye plant bigger untill ye pores are too narow for ye juice to arise through ye pores & yn ye plant ceaseth to grow any more.


Attraction Electricall & Filtration.

Whither filtration be thus caused. The aire beiing a stubborne body if it be next little pores into wch it can enter it will be pressed into y ({illeg}|unles| there|y| be filled by something else) {illeg} yet ther it will have some reluctance out wards like a peice of bended whale bone crouded into a hole wth its middle ꝑte forwards. if yn water whose (ꝑts are loose & pliable) have opportunity to enter yt hole ye aire will draw it in by strivei{ng} it selfe to get out. The aire too being continually shakē & moved in its smallest parts by vaporous particles every where tossed up & downe in it as appeares by its heate, it must needs strive to get out of all such cavity wch doe hinder its agitation: & this may be ye cheife reason {illeg} sponges draw up water. But in paper ropes hempe theds {sic} fiddle-strings betwixt whose particles there is noe aire or but a little & it so pend up yt it can n|s|carce get out the cause may be this. yt ye parts of those bodys are crushed closer together yn there nature will well permit & as it were bended like ye laths of crosbows so yt they have some reluctancy{illeg} against yt position & strive to get liberty wch they cannot fully doe unless some oth{er} bodys come betweene ym as aire or water but where aire cannot enter water will (as appeares in yt it will get through a bladder wch aire cannot doe &c) wherefore when opportunity offers it selfe by striving to get assunder they draw in ye ꝑts of water betwixt y


Of light |see pag 82|

Why light passeth easlier through white yn black paper. & yet more efficaciously reflected from it.

How light is conveyed from ye Sun or fire wthout stops.

Light is easlier admitted into black yn reflected from it, for hold a paper twixt you & light wth a black spot in it & it is blacker when towards you, yn when to ye light.

Light can̄ot be by pressiō {sic} for yn wee should see in ye night {sic} wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light about us becaus we are pressed downewards wee should se when we shut or eyes because or eye lids press ym or when we put or hands on or eys. The sun {illeg} would be long so long as we looke at ye same thing yt pression is ye same nay far greater. ther could be no refraction since matter ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways, ye * sun could not be quite eclipsed ye M\o/one & planetts would shine like sunns. A man goeing or running, would see in ye night. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. The whole East would shine in ye day time & ye west in ye ni{illeg}|ght| by reason of ye flood wch carrys or. Vortex a light would shine from ye Earth since ye subtill matter flows /tends\ from ye center. a * little body interposed could not hinder us from seing pression could not render shapes so distinct. There is ye greatest pression on {illeg} yt side of ye earth from ye or else it would not move about \in equilibrio/ but from ye , therefore ye nights should be lighest {sic}. Also ye Vortex is Ellipticall therefore light cannot {illeg} /come from the sone directly &c\

Whither ye rays of light may not move a body as wind doth a mill saile.

To know how swift light is. s|S|et a broade well pollisd looking glasse on a high steeple soe yt wth a Telescope 1, 2, 3, 10, or 20 miles of you may see yor selfe in it & having by you a great candle in the night cover it & uncover it & observe how long tis before you see the


Of Sensation

The senses of divers men are diversly affected by ye same objects according to ye diversity of theire constitution To them of Java pepper is cold.

If ye orifice of ye stomach be wounded it sooner dispatches a mā yn if ye head: ye former having greate sympathy wth ye heart deads it & stops it motion & so sence ceaseth: ye latter though it take away sence yet ye hearts motion is not impeded thereby.

The Common sensorium is either 1 ye Whole body 2 ye Orifice of ye Stomack 3 ye heart 4 ye brain 5 ye membranes 6 ye septum lucidum 7 Some very small and perfectly sollid particle in ye body 8 ye Conarion 9 ye Concurse of nerves about ye 4th ventrickle of ye braine. 10 The animall spirits in yt 4th ventricle.

A ligature being tied sence & motion will be twixt ye ligature & ye head but not downwards. A frogs brain being peirced it looseth both sence & motion but it will leape & have its sence though its bowells bee taken out.

Phisitians find ye causes of lethargies Apoplexies Epilepsies &c diseases yt seiz on ye Animall functions in ye head.

Vnles ye braine be peirced so deepe as to reach ye ventricles ye wound will not take away sence & motion

A man cannot see through ye hole wch a trepan makes in his head. Stones have beene found in ye glandular pinealis & it is invironed with a net of veines & arteries.

A Vertigo must be from ye turning round of ye spirits

The least weight upon a mans brain when hee is trepanned maketh him wholly devoyd of sensation & motion


Of Species visible

Figure S ye Globulus of light a b c a cone of subtile {illeg} matter wch it carrys before it the better to cut ye ether, wch serves also to reflect it from other bodys.

m l n ye parting of ye matter wch lieth so much ye close{illeg}r by how much it is nigher ye globulus. {illeg} f, h, ye matter pressing on ye backsid & consequently helping it forwards

qk, oqi, ye matter returning to communicate ye motion to ye globules wch it had before received of it. When it is reflected from i, k, i. e. when it hath given ye ball its motion againe tis either reflected toward i, k, by ye matter comeing from o & p towards q &c Or else it serves to swell ye matter at oqp & so is left in ye same condition yt ye globulus found it in.


Of Vision

There is required some permanency in ye object to perfect vison thus a coale whirled round is not like a coale but fiery circle or who can se a bullet pass by him. yet if ye eye keep motion {illeg} wth ye thing moved it sees it right One eye shutting or being perst ye pupill of ye other open both ye eyes being opened together, dilate, & cotract {sic}, & dilate. Vppon passion these spirits ebb & flow. Dymnesse may come from ye deficiency of these spirits, & ye Optick nerve ob\structed/

Rays fro{illeg}m ye same point in an object strikeing upon {illeg} several respective places in either /both ye\ eyes do seeme make ye object seeme two as when an aye is deprest viz: yn theire two axes respect not ye same point, in yt object. B{illeg} Things of ye darker color are easliest burned i.e. have loosest parts. A mans Eye struck sparkeleth.

The Eys being distorted a man may see ye same parte of ye same object, in two divers places \wth both eys/ at once or successively wth one eye after another, & also hee may see two divers objects wth one eye after another but in ye same place successively but not at once (wthout varying the posture of his eys or of ye object, but onely by covering |ye| one eye first & then ye {illeg} the other, or by being intent wth one eye first & then wth the other. wch is an argument either yt ye image in ye braine is painted on a superficies, or else yt ye Optick nerves at their meeting before they enter the braine doe sort their capilamenta & unite|i|ng there each capl|i|lamentum of the one eye to its fellow capilamentum of ye other eye. Soe yn|t| wn ye eyes conspire not towards ye same object but have divers pictures painted upon ye same capila correspondent capillamenta ye stronger picture at their meeting of those capillamen{ta} drownes ye weaker &c:

Quære: whither fantasy as well as sight is not done in plano? That whither wee can imagine two like things to bee one behind another as we can do them one beside another. Resp: Noe but wee can understand them so.

Quære: why doth ye forcible turning of ye eye one way wth ye finger make ye object seeme to move the other way but not ye voluntary turning of it.


Of Colours.

That darke colours seeme further of yn light ones may be from hence bee yt they beames loose little of theire force in reflecting from a white body because they are powerfully resisted thereby but a darke body by reason of ye loosenes of its parts give some admission to ye light & reflects it but weakly & so ye reflection from whitenes will be sooner at ye eye. or else because ye whit sends beams wth more force to ye eye & givs it a feircer knock.

Coulors arise either from shaddows intermixed wth light, or or {sic} stronger & weaker reflection or [arts of ye body mixed wth & carried away by light.

From some of these ariseth splendor & dullnesse

A shining colour though black reflecteth an Objects {illeg} rayes perfecter yn dull white one as black horne black pollished leather &c better yn white paper. & contrarywise. But pollished black shineth best

A window lying open to ye south will bee tincted wth ye colour of ye curtane. A paper written on put twixt ye eye & ye light ye letters towars|d||s| ye light looke dim ye light being refracted in ye paper after its' past ye inke: but ye letters on this side looke perfect ye light comeing streight to ye eye wthout any refraction

Why are coles black and ashes white.

No colour will arise out of ye mixture of pure black & white for yn pictures drawne wth inke would be coloured or printed would seeme coloured \at a distance/ & ye verges of shadows would be coloured. as therefore & lamb black & spanish whiteing would produce colours whence they cannot arise from more or lesse reflection of light or shadows mixed wth light.


Of Sounds

A man may heare ye beatings of his owne pulse.

In every sound ye eight above it but not below it seemes to bee heard. (for there being \is/ some more subtile, some more grosse matter in ye aire, & ye subtilest matter is prone to quickest vibrations, though ye motion of both proceede from ye same cause, as ye vibration of {illeg} a string or pipe \thus twiggs vibrate ofter yn branches/. Also these motions doe least check one ye other & are most congruous to ye string or pipes motion when ye ones vibrations are double in number to ye others. Hence a sound & its eight are never seperate. The greatest & grossest ꝑt of ye aire matter in ye aire will \doth/ comply wth ye strings motion for were it slower it could not give way to ye motion of ye string & it will scarce bee quicker by reason of its tenacious nature for one string struck \by ye mediation of ye air/ moves an unison string of another instrument better yn yt wch is an Eight above or below it & ye {illeg} string is easliest moved by ye air when its {illeg} motion can be most comformable to ye \motion of ye/ greatest ꝑte of ye aire. Nor can any considerable quantity of matter give move slower yn ye string because it gives way to ye strings \motion/ Hence ye & were there, yet it {sic} mot{illeg}|ion| \being/ 4 times slower yn |yt| \of/ ye subtilest matter can scarce bee perceptible. Hence each sound hath its concomitant 8th, & ꝑhaps {illeg} 15th & 22th to a good eare, above but not below it. Hence 8ths seeme to bee unisons. And And violenter breathing raiseth ye sound & sight or 15th not a 12th, or but seldom to a twelft.

Quære, In wt proportion ye sound decreaseth in its progresse from ye fountaine. viz: If ye sound bee (a) at ye distance (b) it shall be (a b bx x) at ye distance x.

Why doth ye sound of a Bell quaver or shake like a mans voyce? Because ye Bell vibrates sometimes directly somtimes obliquly towars a man

How swiftly doe sounds move, & whither are acute or grave sounds the swifter?

Sound {sic}, are much fainter in ye exhausted receiver then in the open Aire. Boyle Exper 27.


Of Odours & Sapors


Of Touching

A man hath beene deprived of his feeling. Sr K. Digby


Of Generation & Coruption

In winter expose ye liquor of decocted hearbes to ye cold aire & in ye morning under ye ice, there will apeare ye figure & colour of ye plant from wch it was taken from it may be ye ice keep those attomes from avolition.

There is an artificiall resurrection of plants from theire ashes. dissolved salt uppon its fixation returnes to its affected cubes. Figures of mineralls are regular: as Chistall {sic} Hexagonall: ye {illeg}|F|airy stone hemisphæricall. ye stone Asteria of a stellar figure. ye Misselto, & mosse grows upon other tress. A worme may turne to a Butterfly Tadpoles grow to frogs fly's eggs to be wormes & yn flys againe


Of Memory

Messala Corvinus forgot his owne name. One by a blow wth an stone forgot all his learning. Another by a fall from a horse forgot his mothers name & kinsfolkes. A young student of Montpelier by a wound lost his memory so yt he was faine to be taught ye letters of ye Alphabet againe. The like befell a Franciscan frier after a fever Thucidides writes of some who after theire recovery from ye greate pestilence at Athens {illeg} forgot ye names & persons of theire freinds & themselves too not knowing who they were or by wt names they were called.

Atque etiam quosdam cepisse oblivia rerum

Cunctarum, neque se possent cognos{illeg}|ce|re ut ipsi. lucretius

Dr Mores immort:

Things out of mind are remembred sometimes by meeting wth other things of like nature: as dreames never thought uppon in yt morning at ye time of awakeing are remembred by some actions of ye like nature met wthall in ye day time.

Forgetfullnesse ariseth sometimes out of ye want of thinking of things. Things seene & words heard at ye same{illeg} distance are distinctly remembred. So are distance & widenes or extension & bignesse. So are things wch enter not ye sences as meditations, thoughts, dreames, & yt a man hath remembred.

Meditations reminde a man of actions, & actions of meditatio. Colours, actions, sounds loud softly, high & low, Time as yt 2 things were done together or so long after one another reconing how long since such a thing done by counting ye time from one action to another untill ye præsent time.

A man cannot remember what hee never thought uppon as a blow or prick \or noise/ in his sleepe ye things & sounds wch hee heares & sees but minds not.

Objects from either eye or eare affect ye memory alike. The same thing seene or heard from divers places or distances acte alike on ye memor{y}

Things done in ye same time helpe ye memory of one another If memory bee done by characters in ye braine yet ye soule remembers too, for shee must remember those characters.


[3]Immagination. & Phantasie & invention

We can fancie ye thing wee see in a right posture wth ye heeles upward. Phantasie is helped by good aire fasting moderate wine.

but spoiled by {illeg} drunkenesse, Gluttony, too much study, (whence & from extreame passion cometh madnesse), dizzinesse commotions of ye spirits

Meditation heates {sic} y|e|oung brain in some to distraction in others to an akeing & dizzinesse

The boyling blood of youth puts ye spirits upon too much motion or else causet {sic} too many spirits. but could age make ye brain either two {sic} dry to move roundly through or else is defective of Spirits yet theire memory is bad.

A man by heitning his fansie & immagination may bind anothers to thinke what hee thinks as in ye story of ye Oxford scollar in Glanvill Van of Dogmatizing.

When I had looked upon ye Sun I shut my eyes & there appeared nothing untill I strongly fancied ye to be befo all light couloured bodys appeared red & darke coloured bodys appeared red blew. 2 If I looked on white paper wth my bare eye it looked red, but if I looked on it {wth} through a very little hole so yt but a little light could come to my eye from ye paper it looked greene .hence I guess yt

|3| after ye motion of ye spirits in my eye were almost decayed \that I could see all thing wth theire natū colours/ I shut it & could see noe colour or image till I heightned my fantasie of seeing & yn began to appeare a blew spot wch grew ligter by degress in ye midst untill it \was/ white & bright in ye midst next to wch were cicles {sic} of red, yellow, grene, blew purle, all wch were sometimes encompassed wth a darke greene or red. Sometimes ye whole spot would turne very blew sometimes most of it red. After I opened my eye againe, white bodys looked red & darke ones blew as if I was had newly looked on ye Sunne whence


Sympathy & Antipathie

To one pallate yt is sweete wch is bitter to another

The same thing smells gratefully to one displeasinly to another

Objects of sight move not some but cast others into an extasie

Musicall aires are not heard by all wth alike pleasure. The like of touching.


Of Oyly bodys

Whither they be oyly & consist of branchlike particles onely touching superficially & foulded together. Cartes.

That oyle (though thicker yet) mixeth sooner wth most bodys yn water & spreades quicklier when dropt upon bodys, may proceede from its branches taking hold like briers on all adjacent bodys whereas water \dropt/ is kept round by ye aire unlesse ye & crouded together unless ye pores of bodys lye open for its particles to drop into them &c


Of Meteors.

Whither fierce winds dry bodys by beating out ye moisture from other bodys Cartes Met:

Figure To measure ye height of ye clouds. Suppose (E) ye cloud (b) ye edge of it casting ye shaddow c. (d) ye man measuring it {illeg} & a ye Sunne. yn ∠ adb = ∠ dbc may bee found & likewise dc its sine, whence ye radius db or ye distance of ye cloude from ye man is easly found. Feb 19 16645 at night I observed a Halo about ye 22d 35" distant from the {illeg} it was Ellipticall & its long diameter perpendicular from \to/ ye Horizon verying below farthest from the . neare ye moone {illeg} were two rainbow ye diameter of ye 1st was 3d {illeg}|0|of ye 2d, 5 degr 30'. ye order of ye colours from ye Moone were white, blewish green red, yellow; blewish greene, red, yellow.


Of Water & Salt |flux & reflux of ye Sea|

insomuch yt what will swim in its surface will sinke in it

Why is salt of a s{illeg}|qu|are figure haveing a hollow & broade top & a narrow base. & why graines of salt will crack in ye fire but not if they be rubed first asunder.

Whither ye pleasant smell of white sall|t| & ye colour of black salt proceed from some other mixture. Cartes.

Whither salt is melted by suddaine \heate/ because there is water in it & not by a gentle fire because yt exhales ye water out by degrees /Cartes\

How oyle or spirits of salt (so sharpe yt they will disolve gold) is extracted out of salt. Cartes Met: of Salt.

Tides canot be from ye s influence for there they would be lest at new moones.

Whither water may be drawne out of a receiver like aire or not. |This may bee ye best way empty ye receiver|

To try whither ye Moone pressing ye Atmosphære cause ye flux & reflux of ye sea. Take a tube of above 30 inches filled wth water quicksilver, or else take a tube filled wth water wch is soe much longer yn 30 inches as ye quicksilver is weightier yn water & ye top being stopped ye liquor will sinke 3 or 4 inches below it leaving a vacuum (perhaps) then as ye aire is more or lesse pressed wthout by so will ye water rise or fall as it doth in a witherglasse by heate or cold. The same may \be done by/ compareing ye motions of ye water of 2 looking /weather\ glasses one wherof is wth in a vassell of water ye other not.

Observe if ye seas water rise not in mornings \days/ & fall at nights by reason of ye earth pressing from uppon ye night water &c. Try also whither ye water is higher in mornings or evenings to know whither or its vortex press forward most in its annuall motion


Of Mineralls

Why doth quicksilver sinke so readily into mettalls & into nothing else.

Foure ounces of copper, & one ounce of Tinglasse melted together compose a body coloured like Gold.

Brasse is Compounded of Copper & lapis Calaminariæ or fire-stones for {locks}, melted together

Pewter of tin & brasse.

Bell mettall of Tin one ounce & 3 ounces of Copp{er}

Mettall for reflections of may bee thus made: Melt throughly 3 pounds of Copper then take 4 ounces of \white/ Arsnick 6 ounces of Tartar & 3 ounces of Saltpeeter finely poudered together & put ym into ye melted copper & stirr ym well together wth a rodd of iron until they have done smoaking (but beware of ye pernicious fume for ye Arsnick is poyson) Then after a little blowing ye fire to make it as hot as before put in 6 ounces of Tin-gla{ss} 2 ounces of Regulus of Antimony & after another blast or two put in a pound of Tin & stirr it a very little & immediately cast it The Tinglasse makes ye mettall tough, & ye Antimony makes it fine & of a steele colour two much of will make it bleaw. The Saltpeeter opens ye poores of ye mettall to let ye filth evaporate & ye Tartar helpeth to carry it away. If this mettall must bee cast smo{oth} line the sand mold wth the smoake of a linke.

If there be metalls of equall weight there proportions are tin = 10000 Iron = 9250, copper 8222, Silver = 7161, leade = 6435, quicksilver = 5453 gold = 3895. Or if they bee equall the weight of gold is {10000} of quicksilver 7143, Of leade 6053, Of silver 5438, of copper 4737 of iron 4210, of tin 3895.


Of ye Flux & reflux of ye sea
earth water & vortices.

Note yt ye Earths diurnall motion is not helped by its vortex, for by ye same force it would move ye water \& air/ along wth it, or rather faster.

Try whither ye Earths /Seas\ flux & reflux bee greater in {illeg}|S|pring or Autume \in winter or Sommer/ by reason of ye s Aphelion & perihelion.

Whither ye Earth moved out of its Vortexes center bye {sic} Moones pression cause not a monethly Parallax in Mars &c

In ye Island Berneray scituated betwixt ye Islands Eust & Herris In ye tract of Islands west to scotland called by ye inhabitants ye long Island (Berneray is 3 m{illeg}|il|es long from east to west, & more yn one mile broade). foure days before & after ye full moone ye tide flood runs east & its ebb west (ye spring tides riseing 14 or 15 foot upright). but foure days before & after ye quarters (a southerly moone makeing there full sea) One ebb flood & ebb runns east ward from about 9h 30' to 3h 30' in ye day & in ye other 12 night howers the flood & ebb run west ward in ye summe 12 yeare when ye hath northerne declin{e} but in winter it runs westward in ye day eastward in ye night.

The Danube runns swiftest at noone & midnight & slowest at six of ye clock (as is perceived by ye motion & noyse of ye clackers in Mills) & yet there is noe ebb nor flow ye water keeping at a constant height. Also another \turbulent/ river          wch swimms into the Danube mixeth not wth it, nor swim they \like water & oyle/ one above (but besides) ye other.


Of v|V|iolent motion

|2| This motion is not continued by a force imprest because yt force must be communicated from ye mover either into ye moved either \by/ Some corporeall e|f|flux or incorporeall one or nothing. if by corporeall attomes we are still at a loss how those attomes must continue theire one motion. if by an incorporeall efflux it {illeg} must be by either spirit or some quality if by a spirit how comes ye spirit to {illeg}|be| so soone easly united to ye body & not to slip through it & when united to it how comes ye spirits to cease so soone & ye spit to leave it & hence every little attome must have soules in store to cast away uppon every body they meete wth. if a quality then qualitas transmigrat de subjecto in subjectum. & this quality cannot be ye motion of ye mover since it & ye mover are seperated at once from ye thing moved. In a word how can yt give a power of being moveing wch it selfe hath not.


Therefore it must be moved after its seperation from ye mover by it one gravity. Which will be cleare by seing whither there can be motion in a vacuum & what that motion is & so compareing it wth motion in pleno.

|1| That there may be motion in vacuo let us suppose (a b) to be a body as a peice of earth \Aire/ (c. d. e.) to be three globes, (f g h i) & all ye space about ye globes & that earth \aire/ to be inane now in ye chapter de vacuo w{illeg}ee have shewed that those Figure three globes would be really seperate & not touch one another. you will grant yt halfe ye globes are in places & halfe in vacuo & consequently may move, suppose yn yt halfe of (r) in ye earth \aire/ move towards (d) we aske whither that part in vacuo would move along wth it or stay behind & \be/ seperated frome it if ye first we have or desire if ye last wee ask what should seperate it from it not ye vacuum since yt is accounted nothing. but you may say yt it is not truly motion for ye upper ꝑte of r to be carried to (d) we answer yt where there is action (for such is ye passing of (r) to (d)|)| & where there are new respects acquired to other \ye same/ bodys there must be motion, but ye upper part of |(r)| hath neither ye same respect to ye aire wch nor to (d) wch it had before it began to pass towards d. but this but to quarrell wth ye termes If this {motion} \going of r to d/ be not motion I aske what it is. but this is onely to strive about termes & if it please you not to call it motion cal <114r> it what you will but it is yt which we aimed to prove & there is but this difference twixt it & motion in pleno. yt ye one is environed with such bodys {illeg} mater as is impenitrable & consequently yt mater must be crouded out of ye move|i|ng bodys way before or rather at ye same time yt ye body moves, it must needs impede ye motion by \to/ be continually thrusting against & resisted by ye body before it: but in vacuo it meetes wth nothing \impenitrable/ to stay it & {contein by then} tis true God is as far as vacuum extends but he being a spirit & penetrating all matter can be no obstacle to ye motiō of matter noe more yn if nothing were in its way Let mee aske why one should be motion more yn another since a vacuum ca in pleno motion is so stopped by one body rubbing uppon another & in vacuum it hath its liberty can ye same thing (viz \a/ being invironed wth bodys) at ye same time {illeg} give a being to motion & yet destroy it, wherefore to be in pleno cannot be essentiall to moc|t|ion. & if it were things would be more properly sade to move where there is most body or they find most resistance to theire motion & so more properly in water yn in aire &c. But it \is/ objected by Aristotle yt a Vacuum is uniforme & every where alike & a body hath ye same respects to a vacuum in all places alike but there is no motion with some mutation of circumstances {illeg}|An|d so in Vacuo no motion I answer as to or senses ye aire is uniform̄ And we judge a thing to be moved {illeg} \when/ we se it come nigher or d goe farther from some thing wch or senses can perceive & so we judge not a thing to be moved in respect of ye aire but of ye earth or some thing


Of Comets.

The motion of a Comet

Anno 1{5}|6|85.

Die mensislongitudelatid
At midnight926171248
longitudlat Septen:

Its beard was round about it.

Octob 8th {illeg} at 11h afternoone this comet was distant from {illeg}|th|e 3d star of 45d 1612{'} 11h 10m from scapula Pegasi 33d 43' 14. Therefor it longitude was 23d 9' 2". latitud 13d, 52', 9"

Anno 1618 A Comet appeared Stilo g|G|regor:

longitudolat: Bor:
Decemb 13
hor: 412 matu
≏ 17d, 42', 5''41d, 47', 40''
Dec 14d. 534h mat.≏ 15d, 41', 15''46 4 24
Dec 24d 412h mat: 20d, 44 258 33 37
Dec 11d, 612h mane≏ 23, 21, 037, 3, 50
Dec 2 day. ho 612 mat 8d, 23' 43''14, 12, 0

The motion of ye comet

from 2day to 11th day 26d 31'. From 11th to 13th; 6d 34' from 13th to 14th 2d 35' 50". from 13th day to 24th it moved 23degr 45' 54". The 1st day ye tayle was avers from exactly its \tayle/ reached beyond |  below ye {illeg} <115r> lower wheeles in ye \Great/ Beares belly & was in \a/ {illeg}manner ∥ to ym. But it declined a little \afterwards/ from toward \upwards/ Sometimes ye d|t|ayle declines from 20 or 30 degres east or westward. The tayle of this last Comet was sometimes 25d in length. The beard of it was so raire as yt starrs might be seene through it.

|1664.| Dec 9th old stile at 4 of ye clock in ye Morning ye latitude southward of ye Comet was 20d, its longit 182d. The length of its tayle 20d.

On fryday \before midnight/ Decembr 23d 1664 I observed a Comet whose rays were round her, yet her tayle extended it selfe a little towards ye w\e/e|a|st parallell to ye Ecliptick The it \selfe was not/ seene onely it looked like a little cloude The altitude of Sirius at ye time of observation was 16d, The comet was yn entering into ye whales mouth \at ye nether jaw/ being distant frō Aldeboran 23d 21' & as much from Rigel. Therefore ye longitude of it was {illeg} 48d 4'. its latitude 22d, 3', 44". At about 9h 24' at night

December 24th it appeared as on ye day before, being distant from Rigel 28d, 24'; from Aldeb: 24d 12{'} Sirius being 20d high yt is it was 10h 28' |  26' at night. whence its longitude was 44d 7' its latitude Northward \southward/ 18d 23'.

Dec 27th before midnight Sirius being 16d high ye distance of ye Comet from Aldeboran was 28d 11'. from Rigel 38d 36' 12. Its longitude was 37d. 4'. 13". <115v> its longitude was 37d, 4', 13". its latitude south 10d, 20', 4{illeg}{"} at 9h 8' at night.

The length of its tayle was about 11d being extended towards Aldeboran or a little below it parallell to ye Ecliptick. The tayle now perfectly manifested it selfe on yt west east side & ye began to discover it selfe, ye cloude being now dissipated. It moved \northward/ against ye streame of ye Vortex cutting it at an angle of about 45d or 46d. There was stil a very bright beard |  haire round about ye Comet & it seemed to bee nothing but bird raying for I could from ye center of it for I could not see ye limits of ye .

Dec 28th ye comet was distant from ye bright p in ye jaw of ye Whaile 5d 52'. from ye {middle} star \q/ in ye Whailes mouth 3d 43'. Covering ye Figure twixt |e| {illeg} ye 3d & 5t of ye Goate wth its haire but being rather above {illeg} it as in ye figure. Its tayle extending to ye 3d & 4th stars in ye section of ye bull

Dec: 29th when 'twas in ye meridian its altitude was 44d 13'. Therefore its declinacōn was 6d 30' Northward. It passed a little below ye c wch is below ye whales eye.

Dec: 30th, 15min past 7h at night. The right ascen of ye Comet was ye same wth ye c below the whailes eye its declinacon about 28' most /northern\


Ian 1st Sirius being 4|2|0d 50' high, or 21d high The comet had 4' in Alinicanthers more yn ye below ye whailes eye, 5' in Azimuths westward more yn yt in ye hinder ꝑte of ye head. Its tayle being 12d in length & extending towards ye 3 s below Suculæ under Aldeloran {sic}.

Ian 2d Sirius /Aldebor\ being Ian 2d Rigells Altitude being 25d 30' or lesse The Comet had ye same Azimuth wth ye in ye hinder ꝑte in ye Whailes head, being perpendicularly over it & distant from it 2d 41'.

On Tuesday Ian 10th at 10 of ye clock {illeg} \at night/ The comet was distant from the northerne following ye 1st of 6d 10'. from ye midle & brighter in ye north knot of ye fishes {illeg}|6|d {illeg}|8|'. Its tayle poynting towards ye biggest of ye 3 s in ye taile of but being very weake & ye star it selfe grown very dim.

On Munday Ian 23d at 8h at night The Comet was distant from ye middle bright in ye North knot of ye 3d 58'. & twixt yt & ye in ye Rams neck exactly. its tayle being scarse discernable. This comets motion was swiftest \& it nerest to us/ when it was in ye belly of Syrius its right ascention being 100d.


On Satturday {illeg} Aprill 1st 1665 There appeared anothe{r} Comet wch at 20' after 3 in ye morning was distant from ye Head of Andromeda 3d 29'. & From ye in ye left knee of Pegasus 16d, 18'. |being in or very neare ye Tropick {illeg} wth longitude 4d or thereabouts by the Globe.|

On Tuesday morning at 20' after 3 Apr: 4th ye Come{t} was distant from Andromeda's head, 8d, 26'. From ye Star in Cassiopeas {illeg}|Brest| \called Schedir/ 28d 22'. Being on yt side of them towards Perseus. Therefore it {mo}

On wednesday apr 5th at 20m after 3h ye Comet was distant from ye head of Andromeda 10d 40'. 28d. 58' from Cassiopeas brest.


[7]The firt {sic} matter attomes, mixt wth v

Of Motion.

ye joyn\in/g & meeting of ye two parts & posterius according to ye latter of ye two parts & so be \still/ liable still to divisibility wch contradicts ye notion of an indivisible part. But to explaine how these leasts have no parts.

An Artist will play a lesson not minding a stroke & sing neither minding nor missing a note a man may walke wthout thinking of it. &c

In a wheele divided into 24 parts by ye 24 letters. A cannot move before b nor b before c &c to z, yn z will not move untill A hath nor A till z ye reason is becaus a can have no place but b's nor yt till b {illeg} hath left it. If they move all together yn in ye instant yt b {illeg} leaves its place it is in't or not. if in't yn a can't move into't in ye same instant it leaves it if not in't yn it had left it before. A less & greater Symbol (dot in two concentric circles) in text in a wheele move equally swift {illeg} ye ({illeg} or els a \straight/ line drawne from ye center to ye cicumference would be in flected i. e. if some parts move faster yn others) yet ye greater circle passeth over more space.

A little wheele on ye same axis wth 2 large ones will pass over equall space wth equall revolutions. Glanvill When a snaile creepes a gale of spirits circuit from her head downe her back to her taile & up her belly to her head againe. Chartes defines motion 2â ꝑte Pr: Ph: to be The Translan{illeg}|t|ion of one part of matter or one body from ye vicinity of those bodys wch im̄ediatly touch it {illeg} & seem to rest, to ye vicinity of others.

The motion of ye Stomack in vomiting (though wholly against our will & therefore mee|r|ly mechanicall) by ye touch of a whale bone onely, doth much more illustrate ye {illeg} actions of brutes to bee mechanicall & independent of {illeg} soules, then Chartes his instance of winking at ye shaking of a freinds hand by ye eye.

How much longer will a pendulum move in ye Receiver then in ye free aire. Hence may bee conjecttured wt bodys there bee in the receiver to hinder ye motion of the pendulum.


[8]Of Attomes.

Division can be made a Mathematicall point or superficies may be betwixt ye parts divided /divisible\ but a point cannot be put or conceived in this little space to divide it. Add yn a \naked/ point {illeg} to any space in thi|e| line I ask {illeg} whither it bee in ye space wthout touching ye \any of ye/ other pointes yt make{s} ye line or not. if you say tis yn I answer yt a point wch would have resisted touching might have as well beene added before wthout an absurdity. If you say yn yt it must touch one of ye other points yt make ye line. I say yn yt that point is in ye same place wth ye point wch it touches, & so not in ye space wch you would have divided. how can yn yt space be divided into wch a mathematicall point cannot enter to seperate its ꝑts? & so how can an attom be divided wch is no larger yn to fill up yt space. It {sic} like manner (yt it may appeare \of/ how nigh kindred number & {illeg} Extension in matter is, in soe much yt nothing can be supposed of one, but may be so of ye other) suppose there were ciphers of such a nature & quality yt they will resist being ye same. {illeg}|L|ay ym together they will not turne all to one nothing since theire qualities require some distance or difference amongst ym betwixt each one of ym let ye first be a bare cipher, ad another will be different from yt & it can differ no less yn an unite ye third yn must differ from both of{sic} y & yt can be no lesse yn 2 units &c Every cipher thus qualified being different or distant from all ye former by ye quantitie of an unite if yn 11 such ciphers added make {illeg} ye difference of 10 unites {illeg}|to| make ye number of 10 see yn if you can ad another cipher thus qualified into ye midst of ym as betweene 5 & 6 ye cipher will be neithr 5 nor 6 for yn it would bee added too ym not betweene ym & so be ye same wth yt to wch it is added wch is against its nature. There is {illeg} no difference betweene {illeg} 5 & 6 where by it may not be ye same wth some other number and so therefore it cannot bee admitted into ye number 10 so {illeg} a naked cipher to ye number there is nothing twixt 5 & 6 (ye difference or distance of ye numbers /or space betwene ym\) in wch it can be therefore it must be either add to 5 or 6 / ye joyn <119v> (as may say of those \ye / numbred unites.) By yt way you may note yt tis not ciphers haveing power to keepe seperated or different from yt sort of being to wch it is added but ye actuall resistance of being one wth ym & therefore ye first ciper {sic} of ye multitude thus qualified will be still a plaine cipher because there is no former cipher whose nature it wth wch it should be one wth but yt 2d ciper refusing to be what ye first is makes ye unite or indivisible basis of number. So a Math: point is not extended by haveing power to resist conjunction wth another unles theire be another point wth wch it refuseth to be seperated, & yn there is distance betwixt ym two though indivisible & ye least yt can be yet ye basis of all other extensios {sic} & ye mould of attoms. I would not be mistaken as if I thought a point or Cipher (were|hich| are nothings) were capable of powers or qualities but b{illeg}|ec|ause I thought it a supposition easie to coceive of & fit for ye purpose I ventred upon it & though it be impossible yt ye thing should be so yet it is not so to conceive it: nay if attomes be so small tis necessary to conceive they are termined \& touch others/ by Math: points & superficies tho at so small a distance as is described here, though held asundr by ye attome & no power of theire owne.

Object: ye least extension is infinitely {illeg} larger yn a point & theirefore can conteine it & be divided by it

Resp: I confess it is so & therefore can conteine an infinite number of points but they must be all in ye borders or extreames \sides & outward superficies of it/ & yt can not point \make/ out a place for division: for ye least distance in yt whole attome is from one {par} extream to another it hath no inside, no midst, nor center but is it selfe ye but is it selfe all center inside & midst to ye invironing superficies & all it can do is to keep those points on eitherside it from touching You cannot put a point wthin it becaus it hath no inside set a point uppon it & yn it touches but its superficies {How} can a point yn be in ye Attom & distant from one extream & yet not in ye other. put a point to one extreame of it & lett it move into ye place where you conceive it might be wthout touching either side towards ye <120r> other extreame yn it is no sooner from one extreame but it is at ye other (because it is no soner out of one \extreame of a/ place (for it can \not/ be in a place) but it is in another & ye 2 extreames of it are ye termini of ye nighest & joyning parts of place) can it yn be where tis impossible for it to rest from motion nay if it should get from one extreame & not reach ye other yt would not be motion because ye least motion is over ye least distance & ye least distance is from one side to anothr in ye Attome. ye whole attom is all in ye same place

What ever can be objected against indefinite divisibility {illeg} in bodys may also bee objected against ye same in quantity & number. but if ye fraction 103 bee reduced to decimals it will be 3,33333333 &c infinitely. & what doth {illeg} every figure signifie but a ꝑte of ye fraction 103 wch therefore is divisible into infinite ꝑts


anothers streames wth much difficulty, & pressure & so be compacted & ye descending streame will keepe ym so by continually pressing ym to ye Earth till they arise {illeg} to ye place from whence they came, & there they will attaine theire former liberty.

The gravity of a body in divers places as at ye top & bottome of a hill; in different latitudes &c: may bee measured by an instrument of this forme Figure

The weight of water is to ye weight of quicsilver as 1 to 14. Water is 400 \(perhaps 2000)/ times heavier yn aire & gold 19 times heavier yn water.

Quæst: What proportion ye weights of two bodys \as gold & silver/ have have {sic} in divers mediums as in vacuo aere aqua &c: wch known ye weight of ye aire or water in vacuo \or the quantity of gold to ye silver/ is given &c: As if in aire ye Gold (a) is equiponderant to ye silver ({illeg}|z|) & in vacuo ye Gold (3a) is equiponderant to ye gold (a b) \ye weight {a} it being called b. And {illeg} in/ water ye gold (a) is equiponderant to ye silver (2z). let (c) bee ye weight of so much water \in ye aire/ as is equall to ye Gold a then is cza ye weight of so much water as is equall to ye silver az. And b - c : z - c za :: a : {illeg} z, for \Then/ ye gold & silver weighed in water their weights are diminished by ye weight of ye water whose place they conteine. Therefor 2az - 2cz = az - cz. Or a = c b - c is ye weight of ye gold a in ye water & b - cza is ye weight of ye silver (z) in it, & since b is equiponderant to 2z in it Thever {sic} b - c = 2b -2 cza or ab+ac2c = z. yt is 2c : b + c :: a : z. Or if (c) ye weight of water in ye aire is sought yn abzz-a = c. Thus might ye absolute weights of bodys i: e: their weights in vacuo bee found. as of air or ye Bodys \or fire/ in a hot furnace wthout flame {&c}

Try whither flame will descend in Torricellius vacuū


Figure In ye descention of a body There is to be considered ye force wch it receives every moment from its gravity (wch must be soe much ye lesse by how much the swifter a body is moved \least in a swiftest body)/ & ye opposition it receives from ye aire (wch increaseth in ꝑportion to its swiftnesse). {illeg} To make an experiment concerning this increase of motion let When ye Globe a is falne from e to f let ye Globe b begin to move at g soe yt both ye globes fall together at h.

According to Galileus a iron ball or 100 Florentine (yt is 78lb in London of Adverdupois weight) descends an 100 braces Florentine or cubits (or 49,01 Ells, perhaps 56 yds in 5" of an hower

Figure By this {figure it will} appeare how to weigh wthout {illeg} ye weight. And to tell exactly ye weight of bodys {at} ye first triall. But it will bee best to fix ye wheele & make ye armes cd & ac very long especially cd. This balance may bee of excellent use for |finding| ye proportions /severall weights\ of allayed or mint bodys {by there} \by their/ weight in aire & water as in /weight in severall mediums as in aire & water\(as of gold & coppor,) or to compare ye quantity of any two {given} bodys (as gold & stone) by their difference of weight in divers mediums. to compare ye weights of {illeg} bodys, viz to find wt proportion the weights of those bodys would have were they equall.

Try whither ye weight of a body may be altered by heate or cold, by dilatation or condensition, beating {illeg}, poudering, transfering to serverall {sic} places or ser|v|rall {illeg} heights or placing a \hot or/ heavy body over it \or under it/ or by placing magnetisme whither leade or its dust spread abroade, whither a plate flat ways or edg ways in heaviest, whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by refecting or refracting ym, if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these two ways

Figure Figure The gravity of bodys is as their solidity, because all body{s} descend equall spaces in equal {times} consideration being had to the Resistance of ye aire &c


Of colours

Try if two Prismas ye one casting blew upon ye other's red doe not produce a white.


If abdc be white & cdsr black yn eodc is red.

If abdc be black & edsr white yn eodc is blew.

If abdc be blew & edsr white yn eodc is blewer.

white& cdsrblewyn eyello /Red.\
blackblewGreene /blewer.\
blewblackGreene, or Red
If abdc bered& cdsr bewhiteyn eodc isblew.
blackblackerGreene or darke red

The more uniformely the globuli move ye optick nerves ye more bodys seme to be coloured red yellow blew greene &c but ye more variously they move them the more bodys appeare white black or Greys.


1 Note yt slowly moved rays are refracted more then swift ones

2dly If adbc be shaddow & cdsr white then ye slowly moved rays \coming from cdqp/ will be refracted as if they had come from eodc soe yt ye slowly moved \rays/ being seperated from ye swift ones \by refraction,/ there {illeg} ariset 2 colours kinds of colours viz: from ye slow ones blew, sky colour, & purples. from ye swift ones red, yellow            & from them wch are neither moved very swift nor slow ariseth greene but from ye slow & swiftly moved rays mingled ariseth white grey & black. whence it is yt cdqp will not bee /appeare\ red unless qsrp be darke because as many slow rays as come from cdqp & are refracted as if they came from eodc, soe many slow rays come from qsrp & are refracted as if they came from dqpc unless unlesse {sic} qsrp be darker yn dqpc

3dly That ye rays wch make blew are refracted more yn ye rays wch make red appeares from this experimnt If one hafe of ye thred abc be blew & ye other red Figure & a shade or black body be put behind it yn lookeing on ye thred through a prism one halfe of ye thred shall appeare higher yn ye other & not \both/ in one direct line, by reason of unequall refractions in ye 2 halfe lines differing colours.

4 Hence red|nes| yellow|nes| &c are made in bodys by sp stoping ye slowly moved rays wthout \much/ hindering of ye motion of ye swifter rays. & blew \greene/ & purple by diminishing ye motion of ye swifter rays \& not of ye slower/. Or in some boddys \all/ these colours may arise by diminishing ye motion of all ye rays in greater or lesse geometricall proportion.|,| for yn there will be lesse difference in theire motions yn otherwise


5 If ye particles in surface a body have not so greate an elastick power as to returne back ye whole motion of a ray. then yt body may be lighter or darker colored according as ye elastick particle virtues |of| that bodys parts is more or lesse.

6 If there be los|o|se particles in ye pores of a body wch by makeing ym very narrow or by \otherwise/ hindering ye elastick power of ye subtil matter whereby ye motions of ye rays are conserved yt body may have some colour, &c Figure

7 If a pore be too much stra|i|tned as at c e, so yt ye globulus must part ye matter towards b from ye matter towards d so yt ther be no subtil ma|t|ter on either side towards c or e, yn after \when/ some of yt narrow poore is behind it, there will be noe matter on either side it to presse it towards its hinder ꝑts so much as it is pressed before likewise it is forced to croude all before it all ye matter in ye pore towar so yt its \motion/ must needes be diminished if it had force to passe through but if it had not force enough to part ye matter & get through yn it would be reflected back wthout looseing any considerable ꝑts of its motion \as rays passing out of glass, into ye \aire/ whē their force is too much diminished by their obliquity they are reflected by ye aire wthout any loss of their motion/ & bodys full of such str{e}|a|ight passages in its pores must be of darke colours as blew glass whose pores may be straightned by ye loose \& too greate/ particles of ye tincture lying wthin ym. But if this pore were something bigger so as to let ye slowly moved particles ○s passe through wth losse of most or all theire motion, but letting ye swift ones scape freelier yn ye colour will be red, yellow &c: as in glasse it <123v> may be whose poores are full of smaller particles of |ye | tincture y those \pores/ of blew glasse are,

8 Though 2 rays be equally swift yet if one ray be lesse yn ye other that ray shall have \so much {illeg} lesse/ effect on ye sensorium as it has lesse motion yn ye other &c.

Whence supposeing yt there are {loos} particles in ye pores of a body {illeg} as {illeg} as \bearing proportion to/ ye greater rays, as 9 : 12: & ye less globulus is in proportion to ye greater as 2 : 9. ye greater globulus by impinging on such a particle will loose a 67th ꝑtes of its motion ye less glob: will loose 27 parts of its motion & ye remaining motion of ye glob: will have almost such a proportion to one another as {illeg} in quantity have. viz. 57 : 17 :: 9: 145 wch is almost 2 {ye less} glob. & such a body may {proove blew} & {purple}

But if ye particles on wch ye globuli reflect are equall to ye less globulus it shall loose its motion & ye greater glob: shall loos 211 parts of its motion & such a body may be red or yellow

Figure 9 If I presse my eye on ye left side (when I looke towards my right hand) as at a, yn I see a wch is circle of red as at c but wthin ye red is blew for ye capillamenta are more pressed at n & o & round about ye finger yn at a towards ye midst of ye finger. yt ꝑte of ye apparitiō at q is more languid because ye capillamenta at o are duller & if ye finger move towards e two much it vanisheth at q & appeareth semicircular but if I put my finger at e or {b} ye apparition wholly vanisheth. By puting a brasse plate betwixt my eye & ye bone nigher to ye midst of ye {tunica} retina yn I could put my finger I mad a very vivid impression <124r> But of an ellipticall figue because ye edge of ye plate wth wch I prest my eye was long & not round like my finger If I was in ye darke \& ye impression be very strong/ towards ye outside appeared a broade circle of purple next blew yn greene yn yellow, red \like flame/, yellow, greene, blew, purple wch growing from a very darke by degrees to a lighter colo blew ends in a greene in ye midst. The colours I suppose next ye flameing red looke something ye darker by reason of its splendor. And if ye experiment bee done in ye light so yt though my eyes were shut yet some rays got through my eye lids ye \outmost/ purple would appeare of a colour inclining to blacknes by reason I suppose of ye bordering light. also {illeg} if ye pressure was not very strong ye greene \& purple/ at a would not be preceived in ye darke but it would be something lighter in ye light yn yt in other places of ye eye as at v or w, & all ye other outmost colours wthout strong pression bee but {illeg} blew. but if ye presion be strong in ye light ye apparition will but little vary from wt it is in ye darke. beyond all ye colours as {illeg}|be|tweene o & e ye light is stronger yn in other places as at v or w, because ye pressure helpes ye motion from wthout but is not strong enough to turne it to colour

10 Heate a peice of steele glowing hot, hold it over some water untill it turne from a white to a red heate then immediately quench it yt it bee neither too brittle nor soft, by being quenched too \so far as you would harden for if it be quenched sooner it/ will bee too brittle if later too soft. Then makeing ye end bright hold it over a candle yt ye end may |be| halfe an inch out of ye flame, or lay it upon a hot iron, & these colours will follow one another towards ye end of it; viz: bright yellow, deeper & reddish yellow or sanguine, a fainter blew; & a deeper blew, If it be quenched in tallow when tis yellow tis fit for gravers, drills &c: If when ye light blew is on it it is fit \for/ springs for watches If when ye deepe blew is on it, it will bee very soft.


11 The colours succede in order according to theire more or lesse reflection of light viz: white, redd, yellow, blew, purple greene, black. Red, & purple paint theire colours far more manifestly yn blew, or greene.

Light reflected from a yellow to a blew body makes a greene

12 The sunne shineing through coloured paper or glasses \as also ye mixture of divers colours/ exhibits these colours viz yellow & blew make red

Yellow & red make Orange \or scarlet/ colour. Purple & red make scarle{t} Red & greene a darke orange Tauny. Red & blew make purple. Red & white by mixture make a Carnation

|12| ye yellow colour (made by a prisme) falling upon a blew makes a greene. blew falling upon red mak{es} a greene. It would be tried wt colours ye mixture of colours falling from 2 prismes would make.

13 Leade melted very hot & haveing ye scum taken of represents these colours viz: Blew, yellow purple, blew; greene, purple, blew, yellow, red; purple blew, yellow & blew, yellow, blew, purple, Greene mix{ed} yellow, red, blew, greene, yellow, red, purple, greene.

14 Motes in ye sunne in some positions appeare of divers colors.

15 Put as much common Sublimate into hot faire water as it can dissolve filter ye solution through cap paper yt it may be lympid. & into 2 spoonefulls of it, put about 5 drops of good limpid spirits of urine & it will be white like milke, to wch if you put in some rectified Aqua=fortis it will be transparent. more fresh spirit of urine will make it looke white but not so white as before,

16 Make a strong Infusion of broken galls in faire water filter it into a cleane violl ad more of ye same liquor to it till it be transparent. into it shake a convenient quantity of cleare but very strong solution of vitrioll & it will be black, then drop a little \cleare & strong/ oyle of vitrioll into it shakeing ye vessell well & ye liquor will become transpar{ent} wch againe will become black by ye affusion of a smal{l} quantity of a strong solution of salt of tartar.

Note, ye Corrosive liquors ( as oyle of Vitrioll) may clari{fy} |a| {illeg}liquors &|e| seperating & dividing its ꝑts. But precipitating liquors (as salt of tartar) by uniteing theire parts make them conspicuous & ye liquor coloured.


[9]Of Imagination

I gather yt my Phantasie & ye had ye same operation uppon {illeg} ye optick spirits in my optick nerve & yt ye same motions are caused in my braines by both.

Opening my eye & lookeing in ye darke upon ye like imaginations there appeared ye like panta{illeg}|s|me {sic} as when I shut it

|5| Lookeing uppon white paper there appeared (by meanes of a strong phantasie) first a spot something darker yn ye paper wch grew dar|blac|ker & dar|blac|ker until there seemed to be a dusky red spreading almost over all ye paper {sometime} this spot would be red & & sometime blew

|6| lookeing on a bright cloude there appeared ye same phantasm as when I looked on ye white paper \onely for ye most ꝑt blacker/ untill at last I was able to make this spot glitter in ye cloude \amidst ye dusky red/ whither I looke on ye paper or cloude like ye in a cloude so bight {sic} yt my eys watered.

|7| Imploying my selfe in other exercises for two or 3 howers \an hower before sed {sic} hee being wholy clouded,/ when I thought my eye was prety well restored I repeated all ye former experiment adding this to ym yt though I shut ye distemperd eye & opened yt wth wch I looked not on ye yt I could see ye pictured on ye cloudes or other white objects almost as plaine as if I had looked wth my distempered eye ye other being shut \& every where about appeared a dusky red & blacknesse./ & wth doeing thus I have made such impress on ye optick nerve ye {sic} let me looke wth wch eye I would offered itselfe to my vew unless I set my fantasie to worke on other things wch wth much difficulty I could doe

|8| If after I had thus seene s image wth my left well eye I shut it & opened my right eye all objects would appeare coloured as when I had seene But I could not perceive any such motion in ye spirits of my left eye for all objects appeared in theire right colours to it unless <125v> when I fixed my eye {illeg} on {illeg}|ym| for yn appeared

|9| when ye impresion of was not {illeg}|too| strong upon my eye I could easily imagine severall shapes to be {where} I usually appre as if I saw them in ye s place, whence perhaps may be gathered yt ye tendere{st} sight argues ye clearest fantasie of things visible. & hence something of ye nature of madnesse & dreame{s} may be gathered

|10| When I had beene thus affected 2 days ye same \white wall/ If I looked not over nigh it where it was shadowed looked blew, where it was lesse shadowed looked red inclining to d|w|hite where it was lightest by ye rays of ye reflected fm a wall uppon it it looked white, at yt time I had beene in a darke rome for 2 or 3 howers & my eyes were made tender thereby so ye motiō made in ym would be easlier conserved & consequequently {sic} more unifo|r|me.


Of God

Were men & beasts &c made by fortuitous jumblings of attomes there would be many parts uselesse in them {illeg} {illeg} here a lumpe of flesh there a member too much some kinds of beasts might have had but one eye some more yn two & ye two eyes.


Of Light[10]

the candle in the glasse appears & disappeare.


Of ye Creation {is use}.

The word ב ברא wch Gen i.i. is interpreted to create something out of nothing is used Gen ye 1st v.21 where tis saide God created greate Whales \&c/, but ye matter out of wch it they were {before} \created/ did {illeg} exist before neither is it ment of creating ye soule {illeg} or forme of ye whale, for yt is not ye whale alone. & there may be but one kind of irrationall soule wch joyned wth severall kinds of bodys make severall kinds of beasts, for setting aside ye different shape of theire body beasts differ from one another but in some qualitys wch wch are called instincts of nature. now as in men whose soules are of one kind some love hate feare &c one thing some another & few men are of ye same temper wch diversity arises from {illeg} theire bodys (for all theire soules are alike) so why may not ye severall tempers or instincts of divers kinds of bea{re}|st|s arise from ye different tempers & modes of theie bodys they differing from one another more yn one mans body from anothers.. \To suppose then that God did crate {sic} divers kind of soules for divers kinds of beasts is to suppose God did more than He needed/ How yn can ye soule of ye whale be called ye whalle since before it be joyned wth ye whale tis as much ye soule of a horc|s|e & this creating yn of whales & severall other creatures must be noe but modifying matter into ye body of a whale & infusi{ng} an irrationall soule into it. Eccles: 33 ves 10 Adam was created of ye earth.

Whither Moses his saying Gen ye 1st yt ye evenig|ing| {sic} & ye morning were ye first day &c do prove yt God created time. Coll 1.16 or heb 1 ch 2 v τους ἀιωνας ἐποίησεν expoūded, he made ye worlds. prove yt God created time


Of ye soule

Were ye soule nothing but modified matter & did memory consist in action (for it can thus consist in nothing else) wee could never call things into or memory for so long as yt action continews we must thinke of & remember yt phantasme & when yt action ceaseth & not before yn wee may cease to thinke of & remember yt p\h/antasme but how shall we call this thing into memory ye action being done & we haveing no principle wth in us to begin such a motion againe wthin us. &c

If sence consisted in reaction we should perceive things doubele or we should never se any thing before us but there would be some apparition behind us for let this perceiving body be what it will supose ye conarion it cannot be so much pressed on one side \by ye spirits/ but it will press upon ye spirits on ye other side as consequently they will presse upon it &c.

Hobbs. part 4th chap 1st. Motion is never ye weake{r} for ye object being take away for yn dreames would not be so cleare as sence. but to men wakeing things past appeare ob={scurer} then things present because ye organs being moved by other prsent objects yt {may} at ye same time motion /those phantasmes\ is|are| lesse predominant. {sic} /Resp: Then we\ should never forget any thing. 2 Phantasmes are præd{illeg}|omi|nant from ye strenght of there motion causing ym if yn there be no other cause of sence yn motion but if ye motion causing present & past phantasmes be alike strong ye effect must be ye same equall & so there would be no differences betwix sence & phantasie. all things wch wee ever perceived would be alike in our phantasie & wee should thinke of almost an immense multitude of objects at once. &c


Of ye soule

Memory is a faculty of ye soule (in some measure for \else/ how can divers sounds, or words excite her to divers unless by memory she app \thoughts/ or 3. 4. 5 or more words beg{illeg}|e|t ye same thought in her. Perhaps shee remembers by ye helpe of characters in ye Braine, but yn how doth shee remember ye signification of those characters.

Quæe {sic}. 1 Why Objects appeare \not/ inver|s|t, Resp: t|T|he mind or Soule cannot judge ye image in ye Braine to be inversed unlesse shee perceived externall things immediately {illeg} wth wch shee might compare yt Image.

2. Why doe appeare to bee wthout our body? but paines, hunger thirst &c wth Resp: Because ye in ye image of things delineated in the braine by sight, ye bodys image is placed in ye midst of ye images of other things, is moved at or command {towars} & from those other images. &c {illeg}:

3. But why are not these objects then judged to bee in the braine Resp: Because ye image of ye braine is not painted there, nor is ye Braine perceived by ye soule it not being in motion, & probably |ye| soule perceives noe bodys but by ye helpe of their motion. But were ye Braine perceived together wth those images in it wee should thinke wee saw a body like the braine encompasing \& comprehending our selves/ ye starrs & all other visible objects. &c


Of Quantity

If Extension is indefinite onely \in greatness/ & not infinite yn a point is but indefinitely little & yet we cannot comprehend any thing lesse. To say yt extension is but indefinite (I meane all ye extension wch exists & not soe much onely as we can fasy {sic}) because we cannot perceive its limits, is as much as to say Gods perfection & ors differ but {illeg} indefinitely because wee is but indefinitely perfect because wee canot apprehend h|H|is whole perfection


Of Sleepe & Dreames &c

How is it yt ye Soule so often remembers her dreames by chanch otherwise not knowing{illeg} shee had dreamed, & thence whither she by perpetually employed in sleepe. whither dreames are of ye body or soule. Why are they patched up of many fragments & incoherent passages.


Of colours vide pag 69

17 Substances belonging to ye vegetable or Animall Kingdome when lightly burned are black, when througly burned are white. As Ivory being skilfully burnt affords painters one of ye deepest{illeg} blacks they have &c. But mineralls are to bee excepted from this rule, For Allablaster {sic} if never so much burnt will turne no darker then yellow. Leade being calcined \with a strong fire/ turnes into minium which is red, & this miniū by burning turnes darker but never to a white colour. Blew, but unsophisticated Vitriol when tis burnt a little by a slow heate to friability, is white being further burnt turnes Grey, Yellow, red, & when perustum it turnes to a purple.

18 \Take/ Rectified oyle of Vitriol mixt by degrees wth a convenient quantity of ye essentiall oyle of wormewood (wch was drawne over wth stove of water in a limbec) & warily distill ye mixture in a retort, thei|r|e will bee left behind a greate quantity of dry & very black matter

Or becaus ye essentiall oyle of Winter-savory is clearer yn yt of wormewod|o||d| mix it by degrees wth about an equall quantity of oyle of Vitrioll these two cleare liquors distilled as before leave a good quantity of {illeg}|black| matter.

19 Gold & silver melted into a lumpe & dissolved by Aqua fortis ye pouder of gold falling to ye bottome appeares not yellow but black though neither ye gold silver nor Aquafortis be so, & silver rubbed on other bodys colours ym black.

20 Most bodys precipitated from ye liquor into wch they were dissolved are white, but not all.

21 The scrapeings of black horne lookes white.

22 Sulphur adust is not ye cause of blacknesse as Chimists hold, for common sulphur be either melted or sublimed turnes onely red or yellow. And \ye plant/ Camphire though very inflamable & consequently sulphureous by burning turnes to noe colour but white &c. But yn wt causeth blackness in sulphur adust.

23 A Candle looked on through blew glasse appeares greene.

24 {illeg}|P|ouder of blew bise mixed wth a greater quality of yellow orpiment makes a greene but ye particles by a microscope are discovered to retaine theire blewness & yellownesse.

25 The steame of clear Aq: Fortis, or spirit of niter is red, &c.


26. A feather or black ribband put twixt my eye & ye setting sunne makes glorious colours.

27 |An| Acid Spirits \& juices & salts/ as Spirit of salt, or |of| Vinegar, or \of/ Vitriol or Lemmon juice, or Oyle of Vitrioll, or Aqua fortis

being droped into diversly coloured liquors & especiall{y} blew ones turne ym to red ones (as syrrup of violets impregnated wth ye tincture of ye flowers, \juice of/ blew bottles or coneweede, juice of ripe privet berrys,          ) it turnes them commnly to a red colour. But |sulphureous salts which are either Vrinous & volatile salts of Animall substances| Volatile Salts (as Spirit of Hartshorne, |of| Vrine, |of| blood, of Sal=Armoniack                               ) {illeg} or \Lixiviate/ Vnctuous or Alcalizate \& fixed/ Salts \made by incineration/ (as ye solution of Salt of Tartar, of pot ashes, of common wod|o||d| ashes, of lime=water, Oyle of Tartar,                     ) doe change ym to a Greene. |as ye red juice of bucthorne berrys|

28 Yet \either/ a Lixivious liquor, or urinous salt being poured on a solution of blew vitrioll in faire water makes it yellow & ye precipitated corpuscles retained ye \yellow/ colour when they |29| were falne to ye bottome.

29 A {great}|just| quantity of Oyle of Tartar pow|u|red into a strong solution of french verdigrease turnes it from greene to blew; a Lixivium of pot ashes turnes it to a lighter blew, & spirit of Vrin, or Harts-horne make other blews.

30 {One graine} of c|C|ochineel dissolved in spirits of urin & yn by degrees in faire water, imparted a discernable colour to {illeg} 125000 graines of faire water.

31 Most of ye Tinctures wch chimists draw \wch abound wth minerall or Vegetable Sulphur/ turne red; & \both/ Acid & Alcalizate salts in most sulphureous or oyly bodys produce a red. & blew is more commonly turned to red yn red to blew

32 Fully satiate good common sublimate wth water filter it through paper yt it be cleare, put a spoonfull of it into a cleare glasse drop in 3 or 4 drops of oyle of tartar well filtred & it will be of an Orange colour. but 4 or 5 drops of oyle of Vitriol dispersed about ye glasse by shaking it, makes ye liquor pellucid againe


32 Some tinctures (as yt of Amber made wth Spirits of wine) appeare red or yellow as ye vessells they fill are slender or broade but cochineel dissolved as before, &{c} other liquors never looke otherwise yn Red \or of a carnation/ &c.

33 White bodys are com̄only sulphureous.

34 Oyle of Tartar generally precipitates Metalline bodys corroded wth acid salts.

35 Tinge water wth faire red rose leaves into wch drop a little Minium disolved in spirit of vinegar & it will be of a muddy greene, but drop \in/ a little Oyle of Vitrioll wch though an acid Menstruum yet it will præcipitate ye leade in ye forme of a white pouder to ye bottome leaving ye rest of ye liquor above of a good red almost like a Rubie

36 Oyle or spirit of Turpentine will not mix wth water & it & water shaken together apeare white.

37 Some very corrosive \& acid/ liquors will præcipite some others, as oyle of Vitrioll præcipitates \divers/ bodys dissolved in Aqua fortis or \spirit of/ wine vinegar, wch precipitated bodys are usually \very/ white

38 Bodys will scarcely be precipitated by Alcalizate s{illeg}|al|ts yt are not first diso|s|olved in acid Menstruums

39 A leafe of Gold held betwixt ye eye & ye light appeares blew.

40 Acid salts rather dilute yellow & white juice yn turns {sic} y to red,

41 Gentle heates in chimicall operations rather produce rednesse yn other colours {illeg}|in| digested menstruums not onely sulphureous (as spirit of wine) vid: sec: 31. but saline as Spirit of Vinegar

42 Alcalizite salts are wont to precipitate wt acid salts dissolve

43 An Acid salt doth seldom restore a Vegitable substance to ye colour of wch an Alcalazite deprived it.

44 The acidity of spirit of vinegar is destroyed by working on Minium, (or perhaps on Crabs claws)

45 Put some solution of Minium into a spoonefull of ye fresh tincture of logwood to turne it \deeply/ purple <134v> precipitate 12 ye leade wth spirit of sa{c}|l|=armonick wch precipitacon \as well as ye supernatant liquor/ looks {illeg} purple (by reason by reason {sic} of ye predominance of ye tinged particles over ye white) yn power in some spirit of salt warily & ye precip{:} by Sal=Ar: is of a violet colour at ye botome, ye precip{:} by spirit of salt is white \& carnaco{illeg}|n|/ in ye midst, & ye top yellow or red.     vide sec 35

46 That ye colour of a body bee altered by a \cleare/ liquor tis commonly required yt it have salt yet faire water powred on ye grey & friable calix of powdred Vitriol melted by a gentle heate till {illeg} it colour change & ye liquor being set by in a close violl for some days it will tune to a vitriolate colour

47 Take Lignum Nephriticum (ye infusion of wch in faire water is good against ye kidn stone of ye kidneys) put a handfull of thin slices of it into 3 or 4 pound of pure spring water after it hath infused there a night put ye water into a cleare violl, & if you see ye light through it it appeares of a golden colour (excepting \sometimes/ a sky coloured circle at ye top) but if ye infusion was too strong ye liquor will then appeare darke & reddish. But if ye liq your eye is twixt ye liquor & light it appeares ceruleous: & Acid salts destroy ye blew colour & sulphureous saltes restore it againe, wthout making any change in ye golden colour. Which may bee usefull to ye {illeg} finding whither bodys abound more wth acid {illeg}|or| sulphureous Salts.

48 The same may be done by Spirit Sirrup of Violets {illeg} impregnated wth ye tinture of ye flowers. For an acid salt turnes it from blew to red but sulphureous one from blew to greene. vide sec 27.

49 Haveing found yt a sulphureous salt is predominant in a body it may be knowne whither yt salt be {illeg} Vrinous (i. e. volatile salts of anim{al} <135r> or other substances wch are contrary to acid ones) or Alcalizate in ye 32d sec. that is into sublimate disolved |in| faire water put an {illeg} Alcaly & it turnes it to an Orange Tauny, but urinous (or salsuginous) salts turne it to a pure white

50 ye same liquor viz oyle of Vitriol) powred into a lixivium in wch crude {illeg}|a|ntimony has beene newly boyled turnes it from a cleare to \a/ yellow colour, wch sec: 32 turned a yellow to a cleare one.

51 There be flat peices of \a/ certaine kind of glase wch exhibits ye Phenominon of lignum Nephriticū.

[1] vide pag 54

[2] pag 67

[3] vid: pag: 75

[4] vide pag 26 & 49.

[5] vide pag 26 \47/

[6] vid pag 21

[7] vid pag 10

[8] vide pag 3.

[9] vide pag 43.

[10] see pag 32

© 2024 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

Privacy Statement

  • University of Oxford
  • Arts and Humanities Research Council
  • JISC