Catalogue Entry: OTHE00025

Chapter 8: 'I Have Ever Been Studious in Divinity.'

Author: David Boyd Haycock

Source: William Stukeley: Science, Religion and Archaeology in Eighteenth-Century England (2002).

[Normalized Text] [Diplomatic Text]

[1] Stukeley, SS 1, p. 77.

[2] Sir John Clerk, 'Journey to London in 1727', the Clerk Papers, Scottish Record Office, quoted in Piggott (1985) p. 76.

[3] John Clerk to Roger Gale, 2 June 1726, SS 1, p. 186.

[4] Roger Gale to Stukeley, 7 December 1726, SS vol 1, p. 186.

[5] Stukeley (1980) p. 93.

[6] Ibid..

[7] Sir John Clerk, 'Journey to London in 1727', quoted in Piggott (1985) p. 76.

[8] Stukeley (1980) p. 93.

[9] Ibid..

[10] FM MS1130 Stu (1), unpaginated end note.

[11] Stukeley (1980) p. 92.

[12] Stukeley to Samuel Gale, 6 February, 1727, SS 1, p. 190; and 25 October 1727, in Stukeley (1980), p. 140.

[13] Stukeley to Samuel Gale, 25 October 1727, in Stukeley (1980) p. 140.

[14] Ibid..

[15] Stukeley to Roger Gale, 17 March 1728, SS 2, p. 262.

[16] Stukeley to Sloane, 24 September 1729, in Nichols (1817) p. 790.

[17] See Roger Gale to Stukeley, 6 February 1728, SS 1, pp. 200-2.

[18] Roger Gale to Stukeley, 14 June 1729, SS 1, p. 220.

[19] Hearne Collections 10 p. 165.

[20] Stukeley to Samuel Gale?, 1729, SS 1, p. 228.

[21] Ibid..

[22] Stukeley to Wake, 3 June 1729, in Stukeley (1980) pp. 141-2.

[23] Wake to Stukeley, 10 June 1729, in Stukeley (1980) p. 144.

[24] Stukeley to Sloane, 24 September 1729, SS 2, p. 265.

[25] Stukeley to Frances Stukeley, 16 October 1729, in SS 1, pp. 225-6.

[26] Stukeley to King, 19 June 1731, Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 401 f. 1. King (1669-1734) had published anonymously An Enquiry into the Constitution, Discipline, Unity and Worship of the Primitive Church (1691), and Stukeley offerred to show him 'the first part, of my enquiry into the religion of the Druids'. Stukeley knew Sir Robert Walpole, and visited him at Houghton. See Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 125 f. 36.

[27] Wellcome MS 4729. See Plumb (1960) pp. 316-8 for an account of the literally riotous Stamford election and Stukeley's involvement.

[28] Wake to Stukeley, 19 February 1730, in Nichols (1817) pp. 785-6.

[29] Thomas Burnet, De fide et oficiis Christianorum (London, 1727) p. 8, quoted in Rossi (1984) p. 39.

[30] Clarke (1712) pp. 241-2.

[31] Stewart suggests that his Arianism was also intimately related to the Newtonian concern with experimental practice. In the 'General Scholium' Newton had written that 'to discourse' of God 'from phenomena, surely belongs to Experimental Philosophy.' See Stewart (1996) pp. 130-1.

[32] Gale (1669) p. 346.

[33] See Cudworth (1678) 2, p. 312; Harrison (1990) p. 33. However, according to Stewart (1996) p.128 Cudworth himself was accused of fostering Arianism, Socinianism or deism.

[34] Stukeley (1743), p. 6.

[35] More (1662) 'Preface' p.1, quoted in Iliffe (1989) p. 30.

[36] Champion (1992) p. 109.

[37] Quoted in Champion (1992) pp. 109-10.

[38] See Greig (1993).

[39] Quoted in Sykes (1957) 2, p.153

[40] Clark (1985) p. 286.

[41] See Hunter (1995) pp. 308-22.

[42] See especially Force and Popkin (1990) for an examination of Newton's theology and its influence; Duffy (1976), Stewart (1981), Pfizenmaier (1997) and Dobbs (1991).

[43] Gjertsen (1986) p. 117.

[44] Stewart (1996) p. 127.

[45] Ibid. pp. 124-5.

[46] John Edwards Some Animadversions on Dr Clarke's Scripture-Doctrine, (As he Stiles it) of the Trinity (London 1712) p.27, quoted in Stewart (1996) p. 132; John Edwards Some Brief Critical Remarks on Dr Clarke's Last Papers… (London 1714) p. 40; quoted in Stewart (1996) p. 132.

[47] Force (1985) p. 23.

[48] Whiston in A Collection of Authentick Records Belonging to the Old and New Testaments (2 vols, London 1728) 2, p. 1077, quoted in Force (1985) pp. 140-1.

[49] Richard Baron, Preface, Cordial for Low Spirits, (3 vols, London, 1763) I, pp. xviii--xix, quoted in Snobelen (1999), pp. 388-9.

[50] Keynes MS 136, Stukeley to Conduitt, 26 June 1727.

[51] Stukeley Roy. Soc. MS 142 f. 67.

[52] See SS 1, p. 88 and Bod. MS Eng. misc. d. 459. f. 2. Force describes Stukeley as a 'close friend' of Whiston's: see Force (1985) p. 128.

[53] See Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 122 ff. 67-8. For Stukeley's record of this Society, see Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 122.

[54] Stukeley diary, 12 February and 11 June 1747, Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 126 ff. 48, 51v.

[55] Stukeley diary, 18 March 1751, Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 130 f. 42. Stukeley must have forgotten their meeting four years before.

[56] Anon., Will-with-a-Wisp (1714) 2-3, quoted in Snobelen (2000) p. 000.

[57] Mead to Stukeley, London, 4 April 1727, Bod. MS. Eng. misc. c. 114, f. 50. Emphasis mine.

[58] Hearne, 24 August 1732, Collections 11, pp. 100-1.

[59] Champion (1992) p. 101.

[60] Thomas Herne (not to be confused with the antiquary Thomas Hearne), An Account of All the Considerable Books and Pamphlets that have been Wrote on Either Side in the Controversy Concerning the Trinity, Since the Year 1712 (London, 1720).

[61] SoA Minute Book, SoA MS 265 f. 21.

[62] Hall (1720) p.14. Compare Hall's opinion with the first of Toland's Letters to Serena (1704), 'The Origin and Force of Principles'.

[63] Hall (1720) pp. 21-2, p. 26 and p. 32.

[64] See Stukeley BL Add. MSS 6182 f. 18r.

[65] Stukeley (1980) p.116.

[66] See Force and Popkin (1990) p. 120.

[67] Ibid.; Sykes (1957) 2, pp. 154-60; DNB under Jackson.

[68] Wake to Jean Alphonse Turrettini, February 1718, quoted in Sykes (1957) 2, p. 150.

[69] See Sykes (1957) 2, p. 168.

[70] Sykes (1957) 2, p. 152 and p. 263.

[71] John Potter to Wake, 18 September 1717, quoted in Sykes (1957) 2, p. 160.

[72] On Whiston, see Force (1985), Rousseau (1987), Duffy (1976), and Snobelen (2000).

[73] Manuel (1983) p. 30.

[74] Whiston, Sermons and Essays (1709), quoted in Force (1985) p. 107.

[75] Whiston (1717), p. 000.

[76] Ibid. p. 156.

[77] Ibid. p. 194. Whiston also drew examples from the Sibylline Oracles, and from Derham's Astrotheology, Ray's Of the Creation, and the 'General Scholium' of the second edition of Newton's Principia.

[78] Ibid. p. 271.

[79] Clarke (1716), pp. 256-6.

[80] In Of the Truth of the Christian Revelation; Whiston (1717) p. 272.

[81] Ibid. p. 289.

[82] See Piggott (1974), catalogue no. 439, p. 439. Whiston also caught the attention of Toland, who defended him as a writer criticized only because he 'wou'd generously risk life or reputation, an employment or a benefice, for the sake of truth and the public good'. He wondered how it was that Whiston was gernerally 'reckon'd mad, tho' no man in England writes more coherently?' See Toland (1718) p. 71.

[83] Whiston (1717) p. 289.

[84] SS 1 p.235.

[85] Stukeley to Roger Gale, 25 June 1730, in SS 3, p. 266.

[86] Anon. (1742) p. 1.

[87] Ibid. p. 8.

[88] Anon., A Letter to the Revd William Whiston A.M. Occassioned by his Publication of the Memoirs of His Own Life (London, 1750), 37-8, quoted in Force and Pokin (1990), p. 64. Indeed, John Keill in 1698 accused some of the ideas in Whiston's New Theory (1696) as atheistical; see Guerrini (1996), p. 299.

[89] Anthony Collins (1676-1729) had studied at King's College, Cambridge, and was a friend of Locke's. He published A Discourse of Freethinking in 1713, and ran a group with its own weekly journal, The Free-Thinker. It was Collins, along with Tindal, that Stukeley specifically warned his friend Pimlow against in 1734. See chapter 7.

[90] Stukeley to Wake, 3 June 1729, in Stukeley (1980), pp. 141-42.

[91] See Kuhn (1961), esp. p. 308.

[92] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 650. ff. iii--iv. Bod. MS Eng. misc. e.554 also contains drafts of a number of sermons by Stukeley also on the subject of the Trinity and its antiquity in the world.

[93] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 650 ff. 6-7.

[94] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 554 f. 185.

[95] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 323 f. 140.

[96] Excavations in 1999-2000 by the Archaological Departments of the Universities of Leicester, Wales College Newport and Southampton in the Longstones Field, Beckhampton, appear to have vindicated Stukeley's interpretation of the cove and the avenue of the 'tail'.

[97] Stukeley (1743) p. 8.

[98] Ibid. p. 56.

[99] Ibid.

[100] Stukeley Bod. Gough Maps 231 f. 31.

[101] Iversen (1961) p. 43.

[102] Tacitus, Annals, Book XI, 14, (Loeb Classical Library, London, 1969).

[103] Plotinus, Enneads, V 8.6 (Loeb Classical Library, London, 1984).

[104] Iversen (1961) p. 64.

[105] Stukeley (1980) p. 116. Richard Pococke, who had actually travelled in Egypt, did not agree with Warburton either. See Wortham (1971) pp. 42-3.

[106] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (3), unpaginated.

[107] See Godwin (1979) p.19, ref. to Oedipus Ægyptiacus, 2, i p. 133.

[108] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (3), unpaginated.

[109] Stukeley (1743) p. 59-61.

[110] Ibid. p. 62.

[111] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 323 f. 132.

[112] Ibid. f. 230.

[113] Stukeley (1743) p. 9

[114] Stukeley, FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 31. For a full elaboration of this relationship, see Haycock (1999). For those critics who might argue that these sacred gardens were the true temples of the Druids, Stukeley responded that circles of stone pillars were merely permanent replacements for trees. Thus the arches of Gothic cathedrals and the Corinthian pillars of ancient temples were simply modelled on the arboreal avenues found in nature. Modern archaeological excavations have shown that Stonehenge and Stanton Drew were preceded by wooden structures, whilst Aubrey Burl has recently written that Stonehenge was 'a replica in size and appearance of the early ring-beamed timber building' and was essentially 'carpentry in stone'. See Stukeley (1724), p. 64; Cleal et al (1995) pp. 63, 115; Burl (2000) p. 367

[115] Newton New College MS 361/2 f. 108.

[116] Romans (1:22-3).

[117] Newton New College MS 361/2 f. 108.

[118] Exodus 20:4

[119] Stukeley (1736) pp. iii--iv. See Reventlow (1984) p. 357.

[120] Ibid. p. 1.

[121] Ibid. p. 33.

[122] Force and Popkin (1990) p. 51; the quote comes from Whiston's 'Introductory Discourse' to his Astronomical Principles (1717) p. 95.

[123] Force and Popkin (1990) pp. 51-2.

[124] In his biography of Whiston Force repeatedly quotes a remark from Westfall's biography of Newton which is worth reproducing here: ''In [Whiston's] recollections, one catches a glimpse -- is it a true image or is it a mirage? -- of one of the most advanced circles of free thought in England grouped around Newton and taking its inspiration from him.'' Force suggests 'that Whiston's recollections are more of a true image than a mirage'. See Force (1985) pp. 111-2.

[125] Marshall and Williams (1982) p. 113. They cite Berkeley as an example, who expressed the idea that the same 'sublime truths … have been rationally deduced by men of the best and most improved understandings'. Berkeley, Alcipheron, or the Minute Philosopher (1732) in Works of George Berkeley (Oxford 1871) 2, pp. 36, 51, quoted in Marshall & Williams (1982) p. 112

[126] Edward Wells (1667-1727) and Humphrey Prideaux (1648-1724), both graduates of Christ Church, Oxford, are alternative examples of scholars who used methods and ideas similar to Stukeley, and whose books were in Stukeley's library. See Piggott (1974) p.431 cat. 214 & p.432 cat. 227 and 228. Shuckford's Sacred and Profane History reached a fifth edition by 1819. See reference to Shuckford in Stukeley's paper in the Roy. Soc. RBC MS 15.101 f.102, dated 19 November 1730.

[127] Shuckford (1728) 1, pp. xx--xxi.

[128] Ibid. pp. l--lvi.

[129] Ibid. p. 313.

[130] Ibid. pp. 313.

[131] Ibid. pp. 362-3

[132] For his conversation with Jackson see Stukeley's diary, 10 April 1752, Bod MS Eng. misc. e. 131 ff. 14, 41; in Bod. MS. Eng. misc. e.121 f. 63 Stukeley writes that in August 1752 'I was busy in writing the Memoirs of Sr Isaac Newtons life'.

© 2022 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

Privacy Statement

  • University of Oxford
  • Arts and Humanities Research Council
  • JISC