Catalogue Entry: OTHE00020

Chapter 3: 'The Microcosm'

Author: David Boyd Haycock

Source: William Stukeley: Science, Religion and Archaeology in Eighteenth-Century England (2002).

[Normalized Text] [Diplomatic Text]

[1] See Cook (1986) p. 259 and pp. 210-11; Holmes (1982) p. 171. The College was also simultaneously in conflict with the Royal Society, apparently losing some face to the newer institution, in which physicians formed the largest single professional group. In 1696, for example, the College's officers had reprimanded Sloane for placing the Royal Society's imprimatur before theirs in his catalogue of Jamaican plants; Cook (1989) p. 265.

[2] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng.misc. e. 121 ff. 29-30.

[3] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng.misc. e. 667/a f. 11.

[4] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng.misc. e. 121 ff. 29-30. In the year Stukeley was admitted to the College there were forty-nine Fellows, three Honourary Fellows, six Candidates and twenty-seven Licentiates.

[5] See Conrad et al (1995) pp. 325-40.

[6] Mead (1748) pp. v--vi. This work was first published in Latin in 1704, as De imperio Solis ac Lunae in Corpora Humana et Morbis inde oriundis, and first appeared in English in Halley's Miscellanea Curiosa in 1708.

[7] Blackmore, (1725), p. xii.

[8] FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 127.

[9] Newton (1721) p. 353. Guerrini (1985) pp. 250-3.

[10] Mead (1748) p. iv. Whilst a similar such warning in a twentieth-century book might scare off the lay reader, the mathematical demands of Mead's book are in fact limited and undemanding. But his caution illustrates the novelty of such material in an early eighteenth-century work of physic.

[11] Robinson (1725) p. ix.

[12] See British Library MS 4432 f. 306.

[13] Bernard Mandeville, A Treatise of the Hypochondriak and Hysterick Diseases (2nd edn, London 1730) p. 182 (first published in 1711).

[14] James Annesley, Researches into the Causes, Nature, and Treatment of the More Prevalent Diseases of India, and of Warm Climates Generally (London, 1828), Vol. 2, p. 247. The belief that the planets affected health long preceded Newtonian medicine.

[15] Stukeley (1722) Preface 'To the Reader' (unpaginated).

[16] Ibid. pp. 3-6.

[17] DNB.

[18] Robinson (1725) p. 4.

[19] James Keill An Account of Animal Secretion, the Quantity of Blood in the Humane Body, and Muscular Motion (London 1708) Preface pp. ix, xxvii; quoted in Guerrini (1996) p. 300.

[20] Edward Barry, A Treatise on a Consumption of the Lungs (London, 1727), preface, p. xix.

[21] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 667/1 f. 11r.

[22] Royal Society JBC Vol. XI ff. 447-8.

[23] Ibid. ff. 449-50. Locke had similarly written that 'these speculations' on the science of the brain, 'however curious and entertaining I shall decline'. Quoted in Smith (1897) p. 125.

[24] Berkeley (1744), p. 70.

[25] Newton (1729), Vol. 2, p. 393.

[26] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 131.

[27] Ibid. f. 133.

[28] 'Mr Leibnitz's First Paper', quoted in Alexander (1956) p. 11.

[29] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 138.

[30] William Harvey, De Motu Cordis (1653 edn), quoted in Conrad et al (1995) p. 336.

[31] Conrad et al (1995) p. 339 and pp. 345-6. According to Descartes, the pineal gland in the brain was where the mind controlled the animal spirits, and thus the actions of the body.

[32] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) ff. 145-6, quoting from The Advancement of Learning III.3, and De Diaeta L.i.

[33] Ibid. f. 148. Stukeley's interest in the lungs and respiration reflects an increasing concern with the atmosphere as a cause of disease. See particulalry John Arbuthnot's posthumously published Essay Concerning the Effects of Air on Human Bodies (London, 1751), and Stephen Hales's important work on air-pumps and ventilators for ships and prisons.

[34] Ibid. ff. 148-9. Pitcairne had concluded in his 1693 'Dissertation upon the Circulation of the Blod in Born Animals and Embryons' that the inital force of the heart in embryoes must, like gravity, be directly endowed by God; see Guerrini (1996) p. 299.

[35] Gideon Harvey (1666) p. 15.

[36] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 153.

[37] Ibid. f. 157.

[38] Ibid. f. 174.

[39] Ibid. f. 176.

[40] Ibid. ff. 177-8.

[41] Ibid. f. 178.

[42] Smith (1987) p.124. See Chapter 6 for Hartley's correspondence with Stukeley on Newtonian religion.

[43] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 179.

[44] See Conrad et al (1995) p. 329.

[45] Berkeley (1744) pp. 71, 85: Berkeley also drew biblical analogies, noting that there were many passages in the bible 'that would make one think, the supreme being was in a peculiar manner present and manifest in the element of fire.'

[46] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 184. He would later write (in 1755) that 'muscular motion' was 'causd by electricity. the nerves are the conveyances of the electric fire, wh[ich] is subjected to the will … for the electric fire is the union betw[een] matte[r] & sp[iri]t.' Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 667/3 f. 25.

[47] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 187.

[48] Ibid. f. 141.

[49] Stukeley (1722) p. 1.

[50] Clark (1966) p. 525.

[51] Stukeley (1722) Preface 'To the Reader' (unpaginated).

[52] Ibid. The practice of publishing medical treatises in Latin was becoming increasingly outmoded: see Blackmore (1725), preface.

[53] Keill (1703) p. 66. Keill's book had reached its fifteenth edition by 1771. However Keill observed in the preface to his Animal Oeconomy (2nd edition, 1717) p. v, that 'The use of the spleen and Vena Porta is now no longer a mystery'. Apparently Keill had reached the opinion that the spleen 'served a function much like that of the portal vein in the production of bile', see Guerrini (1985) p. 257.

[54] Ray (1704) pp. 262-3.

[55] Gideon Harvey (1666), p. 17.

[56] Stukeley (1722) p. 25.

[57] Ibid. p. 10.

[58] Ibid. p. 33.

[59] Ibid. pp. 45-6.

[60] Ibid. p. 51.

[61] Ibid p. 53. The recorder of Stukeley's account of his dissection of the elephant given at the Royal Society in 1720 noted how the clitoris of the elephant 'is endued with two Muscles like the Erectores in Men.' Roy. Soc. JCB Vol. XII f. 46.

[62] Stukeley (1722) p. 66.

[63] Ibid. pp. 72-3.

[64] Robinson (1729) p. 297.

[65] Cheyne (1733) preface, pp. i--ii.

[66] Stukeley (1722) p. 73. See Porter (1993) 58-81.

[67] Quoted in Fraser (1992) p. 178, from a 1741 MS of Stukeley's in the Burbank-Fraser Collection, Texas Medical Center Library, Houston.

[68] Stukeley (1735) p. 14. Robinson also attempted to account for the melancholy association with the spleen, and its cure, through mechanical philosophy. The subtitle to his book stating 'Wherein all the Decays of the Nerves, and Lowness of the Spirits, are Mechanically Accounted for'.

[69] Keill (1717) p. iii.

[70] Stukeley (1722) pp. 73-5.

[71] Hearne 9 October 1722 and 10 September 1724, quoted in SS 1, pp. 169-70.

[72] Hearne, vol. 9, p. 99.

[73] Hearne's is one of the very few judgements of Stukeley's work as a physician we have from this period, and it is unfortunate that we cannot rely on his remarks. See chapter 9 for an assessment of Hearne's criticisms of Stukeley's antiquarianism.

[74] Stukeley (1980) p. 94.

[75] Stukeley (1735) p. 20. On Stukeley's gout see Fraser (1992); for a recent social and medical history of the gout, see Porter and Rousseau (1998).

[76] Stukeley (1735) p. 58.

[77] Ibid. p. 75.

[78] Fraser (1992) p. 175.

[79] Bod. MS Eng.misc. d. 719/4 f. 13v and Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 138 ff. 19-20.

[80] Royal Society JCB Vol. XII ff. 45-7.

[81] Phocaena, Or, The Anatomy of a Porposs Dissected at Gresham College; With a Preliminary Discourse Concerning Anatomy, And a Natural History of Animals (1680); Carigueya, seu Marsupiale Americanum; Or, The Anatomy of an Opossum Dissected at Gresham College (1698); Orang-Outang, Sive Homo Sylvestris: Or, The Anatomy of a Pygmie Compared with that of a Monkey, an Ape and a Man (1699). The ancient Greek physician Galen (AD 131-201) in De Usu Partium described the anatomy of the elephant and drew upon Aristotle's description of the animal, but it does not appear that Stukeley had read Galen's work on the subject.

[82] Stukeley (1722) pp. 89-90.

[83] Ibid. p. 90.

[84] Stukeley FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 170.

[85] Stukeley (1722) p. 106.

[86] Royal Society JBC XII f. 47.

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