Catalogue Entry: OTHE00019

Chapter 2: 'Soe Suitable to my Genius.'

Author: David Boyd Haycock

Source: William Stukeley: Science, Religion and Archaeology in Eighteenth-Century England (2002).

[Normalized Text] [Diplomatic Text]

[1] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 12.

[2] Ibid. f. 1.

[3] Ibid. f. 4. Stukeley was of the belief that his mother's family were descendants of the family of Anne Boleyn.

[4] Ibid. f. 5v.

[5] Ibid. ff. 5v, 6v.

[6] Ibid. f. 4.

[7] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 121 f. 9.

[8] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 9.

[9] Ibid. f. 9.

[10] Ibid. f. 11v.

[11] Ibid. f. 12.

[12] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 121 f. 11.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 12.

[15] Stukeley (1980) p. 123.

[16] Quoted in Johns (2000), p. 159.

[17] See Gascoigne (1990) pp. 208, 214-8.

[18] See Gascoigne (1984) p. 3, and Rousseau (1982) p. 206. Keill later went on to hold the Savilian Professor of Astronomy from 1712. According to Frank (1973) p. 240, after 1700 Cambridge University was 'consistently educating greater numbers of eminent scientists than Oxford; the cohort trained at Cambridge during the first three decades of the eighteenth century outnumbering its Oxford counterparts more than two to one.'

[19] Quoted in Westfall (1980) p. 209.

[20] Keynes MS 133, f. 10.

[21] Quoted in Westfall (1980) p. 209. See also Gascoigne (1984) pp. 2-3.

[22] Whiston's university lectures on astronomy and physics were popular, and were soon published as Praelectiones astronimcae (Cambridge 1707) and Praelectiones physico-mathematicae (Cambridge 1710) with English translations following in 1715 and 1716.

[23] Bentley (1710) p. 6.

[24] Anon. (1711) pp. 13-14.

[25] Stukeley, diary 27 July 1741, Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 125 ff. 15-6.

[26] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 27. Stukeley uses the word 'country' here in the more specific sense of 'county', i.e. that Newton was also from Lincolnshire; it is used elsewhere in this sense also.

[27] I am grateful to the curator of the Osborn Collection at Yale University Library, Connecticut, for providing me with a transcript of this letter, which is held in their collection.

[28] DNB.

[29] Gascoigne (1984) p. 21; Gascoigne (1988) p. 174.

[30] See Gascoigne (1988) p. 81.

[31] Masters (1831) p. 372.

[32] Clark-Kennedy (1929) p. 11.

[33] Frank (1973) p. 250.

[34] Hugo Grotius, Hugonis Grotti de Jure Belli ac Pacis Libri Tres (Paris, 1625).

[35] Samuel Pufendorf, De Officio Hominis et Civis Juxta Legem Naturalem Libri Duo (Sweden, 1673).

[36] John Wilkins (1614-1672), Of the Principles and Duties of Natural Religion (London, 1675).

[37] John Locke (1632-1704), An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding (London, 1690).

[38] Ignace Gaston Pardies (1636-1673), Short, But Yet Plain Elements of Geometry and Plain Trigonometry, Render'd into English, by J. Harris (London, 1701). A French Jesuit, Pardies had correspondences with Athanasius Kircher and Newton, and was in personal contact with Huygens. His Elemens de Geometrie was first published in 1671. (DSB).

[39] Euclides, The Elements of Euclid with Select Theorems out of Archimedes. By A. Tacquet. To Which are Added, Practical Corollaries. By W. Whiston.

[40] John Harris (?1666-1719), The Description and Uses of the Celestial and Terrestrial Globes; And of Collins's Pocket Quadrant (London, 1703) This short user's guide contains descriptions of the two globes with definitions of terms, and problems that may be solved by the globes, such as finding latitude and longitude of places and stars, finding the Sun and stars' rising and setting points.

[41] Jacques Rohault (1620-1675), Jacobi Rohaulti Physica: Latine Vertit, Recensuit et Uberioribus jam Annotationibus, ex Illustrissimi Isaaci Newtoni Philosophia Maximam Partem, Haustis… (Cambridge? 1697). Clarke's Latin translation of Rohault's Traité de physique (1671) was made to replace that made by Théophile Bonet in 1674. Rohault was a leading French advocate of Descartes, and his Traité was intended as an elementary synthesis of Cartesian natural philosophy, but Clarke's translation contained notes promoting the new philosophy of mechanics expressed in Newton's Principia, which had not by that date been accepted at Cambridge. Clarke's edition became the standard Cambridge textbook on Rohault, reached an expanded fourth edition in 1718, and was translated into English by Clarke's brother.

[42] Samuel Clarke, A Discourse Concerning the Being and Attributes of God, The Obligations of Natural Religion, And the Truth and Certainty of the Christian Revelation … Being 16 Sermons Preached at St Pauls 1704 and 1705, at the Boyle Lectures (4th edition, 1716) first published in two volumes (1706).

[43] Bernandus Varenius (1622-1650), Geographia Universalis (Amsterdam 1650). This work 'established a framework for physical geography capable of including new facts of discovery as they arose. The work became the standard geographic text for more than a century' (DSB). Newton's edition was first published at Cambridge in 1672, with an edition of Newton's version edited by Jurin published (also in Cambridge) in 1712. See A Compleat System of General Geography, Improved by Sir I Newton and Dr Jurin (English translation, 2 vols, London 1734). Stukeley observed in 1727 that Newton had to 'some measure imitated' Varenius's method 'in his own work', perhaps a reference to the various editions Newton published of his Principia and Opticks (Stukeley, Keynes MS 136).

[44] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 14.

[45] Stukeley (1980) p. 121.

[46] Quoted in Cook (1990) p. 414.

[47] Gascoigne (1990) pp. 210, 240-3.

[48] See Wellcome MS 4729.

[49] Gascoigne (1985) p. 396. The association of medicine and the new philosophy was not automatic, however. See Cook (1985) for a discussion of the Warwickshire doctor Henry Stubbe's pamphlet responses in 1670 and 1671 to Glanvill's Plus Ultra, which he perceived as attacking university-taught physic. Glanvill had argued that only the Royal Society could bring the experimental method necessary for successful curative medicine.

[50] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 14-14v.

[51] Ibid. f. 22.

[52] Newton (1721) pp. 350-3.

[53] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 121; according to Stukeley, Rolf was professor of anatomy at Cambridge University (SS 1, p. 39).

[54] Stukeley (1882) p. 42.

[55] Quoted in Gascoigne (1988) p. 161.

[56] Keynes MS 130.7, f. 1r. Frank (1973) p. 245. Wotton in 1694 defined chemistry as 'the Art of Dividing Bodies by Fire'. Wotton (1604) p. 183.

[57] Bod. MS. Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 16. Stukeley's posthumous sale catalogue of his books includes a manuscript described as 'Vigani's Course of Chemistry at Cambridge, 1705'; item 409 in Piggott (1974) p. 438.

[58] Clark-Kennedy (1929) p. 19.

[59] Stukeley (1980) p. 121. John Millburn has examined the history and significance of this orrery, and observes that whilst Hales's model 'certainly merits a place in the history of that instrument, if only a minor one', from his study of Stukeley's incomplete and uncertain drawing of their instrument he concludes that the latter's 'role in the history of orreries was clearly only a secondary one.' Millburn (1974) pp. 522, 527.

[60] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 27v.

[61] Ibid. f. 21.

[62] Ibid. f. 27v.

[63] Ibid. f. 17.

[64] Ibid. ff 22v--23v.

[65] Ibid. f. 26.

[66] Ibid. f. 26v.

[67] Ibid. f. 26v.

[68] Ibid. f. 25v.

[69] Ibid. f. 28v..

[70] Ibid. f. 30v.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid. f. 32; Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 667/1 f. 7.

[73] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 32.

[74] Ibid. f. 17.

[75] Ibid. f. 17v.

[76] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 113, f. 140v, February 1725.

[77] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 ff. 32, 33.

[78] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 121 f. 23; Stukeley (1980) p. 110.

[79] Stukeley SoA MS 283.

[80] SS 3, p. 129, 25 August 1735.

[81] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 666 f. 39v; Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 667/1 f. 7v.

[82] Stukeley (1736) p. vi. Stukeley dedicated Palaeographia Sacra 1 to Ellys. Ellys published three antiquarian treatises in Fortuita Sacra: Quibus Subiicitur Commentarius de Cymbalis (Rotterdam, 1727). Stukeley owned a copy of the book: see Piggott (1974) p. 433, catalogue item no. 258

[83] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 666 f. 15.

[84] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 121 f. 26.

[85] Stukeley (1980) p.126; Johnson to Stukeley, Spalding, 14 October 1719.

[86] Bod. MS. Eng. misc. e. 121 f. 28.

[87] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 34-34v; Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 666 f. 40v.

[88] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 666 f. 15v and 16r. These men, variously physicians, lawyers, noblemen and a portrait painter, were members of some if not all of the three principal societies Stukeley was involved with, and are all to be found in the DNB. The most important library was Rawlinson's, who was satirized by Joseph Addison in the Tatler as 'Tom Folio'.

[89] Stukeley (1980) p. 113 and p. 116, and also Nichols (1817) p. 799.

[90] Bod. MS Eng. misc. d. 459.

[91] Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 666 f. 3v.

[92] Quoted in Westfall (1980) p. 632.

[93] See Guerrini (1989), and Rousseau (1988) for discussions of Cheyne's career and his relationship with Newtonian philosophy; see Guerrini (1989) and Brown (1987) for discussions of the 'Newtonian physiologists' Pitcairne, Keill, Mead and Cheyne.

[94] Stukeley Roy. Soc. MS 142 f. 6; see also Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. e. 667/1 f. 11r.

[95] Stukeley (1980) p. 55.

[96] John Nichols, (1812-1818), ii, 592.

[97] Stukeley, SS 1, p. 99-100.

[98] Stukeley SS 1, p. 228; Stukeley MS Eng. misc. e. 126 f. 83.

[99] See Haycock and Rousseau (1999), and chapter 9.

[100] Stukeley Roy. Soc. MS 142 ff. 11-12.

[101] Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 533 f. 36r.

[102] See Rusnock (1996), esp. pp. 8-16.

[103] Stukeley Bod. MS Eng. misc. c. 323 f. 266.

[104] As Secretary himself between 1693 and 1712 Sloane had revitalized the Philosophical Transactions.

[105] Stukeley (1980) p. 100.

[106] Keynes MS 136, Stukeley to John Conduitt, 26 June 1727.

[107] Stukeley Roy. Soc. MS 142 ff. 16-7. See Westfall (1980) p. 688

[108] Stukeley Roy. Soc. MS 1423 f.12. On 15 April 1726, for example. Stukeley visited Newton, 'dind with him, & spent the whole day with him, alone.' It was on this occasion that Newton recounted the story of the falling apple.

[109] Schofield (1970) p. 19.

[110] Hunter (1981) p. 185.

[111] Westfall (1980) p. 697; Hunter (1981) pp. 185-6; Piggott (1970) p. 440, item 480.

[112] FM MS 1130 Stu (1) f. 126.

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