<1r>

seats: who fleeing from them in two parts to the side of the Danube, the one part supplicates Valens to receive them into his dominions & protection, promising obedience: but being admitted into Thrace, the next year through famin & oppression they are provoked to rebell spoile the country, & under the conduct of Fritigern put to flight the Roman forces which came to suppress them. In the mean time the other part also pass the Danube without leave under the conduct of Alatheus & Saphraces [the Guardians of their young King] & side with the other Goths against the Romans, many of the Hunns & Alans also being invited to joyne with them.

When Valens heard of these troubles, he made peace with the Persians & led his army against this new enemy but was overthrown by them neare Hadrianople with a very great slaughter, scarce the third part of his army escaping & himself being burnt in a cottage whither he fled for safety. And after this they raged up & down Thrace & Mœsia & the neighbouring Provinces from the very walls of Constantinople to the roots of the Italian Alps, harasing & spoiling all places & captivating or killing many of the inhabitants. This was in the year 378 But the next year Theodosius being made Emperor instead of Valens, set upon them & repulsed them in severall battels with very great slaughter. But then falling sick at Thessalonica the Barbarians again break into the neighbouring regions depopulating all places as before:[1] which Gratian hearing of sent Baudo, Arbogastes & Vitalian against them, whereof Baudo & Arbogastes expelled those which had invaded Macedon & Thessaly, & Vitalian represt Fritigern in Achaia & Epire, & Alatheus & Saphraces in Pannonia, & towards the end of the year 380 made peace with them in the name of the Emperors, granting them Thrace <2r> to inhabit as before. This I have described the more particularly becaus it was the irruption which historians account to have been the cause of the dissolution of the Empire. Sub mortem Valentiniani in Orientis regno Gothorum gens sedibus suis pulsa per omnes se Thracias infudit armisque urbes et agros vastare feraliter cœpit. E Valens ab hostibus circumventus in prædio quo ex bello trepidus confugerat exustus est: quæ pugna initium mali Romano Imperio tunc et deinceps fuit. Ruffin in calce Euseb. l 11. c 13. ** < insertion from f 1v > ** Hunnos Gothi, transito Danubio fugientes a Valente sine ulla fœderis pactione suscepti sunt qui tribuit ejs terras Thraciarum ad habitandum, arbitratus præparatum solatium ab eis habere contra omnes Barbaros: hac pro re milites de {cæteris} negligebat et eos qui dudum contra hostes elaboraverant Imperator despiciebat - Hoc ergo fuit initium ut in illo tempore Romana Respublica calamitatibus subderetur. Barbari namque cùm Thracias tenuissent, licenter Romanorum vastabant Provincias, &c Paulus Diaconus Hist. Miscell. l 12. c 14.

This war Idatius in his ffastus consulares describes thus. Valente 5 et Valentiniano Coss (i.e. AD 376) victi et expulsi sunt Gothi ———— —— vide alteram pag. —— < text from f 2r resumes > Valente 5 et Valentin. coss. (A.D. 376) victi et expulsi sunt Gothi a gente Hunnorum et suscepti a Romanis. Proximo anno rebellarunt. Annoque tertio 5 Id August. Valens vincitur a Gothis et toto anno per diœcesim Thraciarum et Scythiæ et Mœsiæ Gothi habitarunt simul et eas prædaverunt deinde usque ad portas urbis constantinopolitanæ venerunt. Ausonio et Olybrio coss (AD 379) Theodosius fit Augustus 14 Kal Feb. Ipso anno multa bella Romani cum Gothis commiscuerunt, deinde victoriæ nunciatæ sunt adversus Gothos Alanos atque Hunnos 15 Kal. Decemb. Proximo anno Gratiano 5 et Theodosio Aug. Coss. victoræ nunciatæ sunt amborum Augustorum. Et ipso anno ingressus est Theodosius Constantinopolin 18 Kal. Decemb. [] Antonio et Syagrio Coss (A.D. 382) universa gens Gothorum cum Rege in Romaniam se tradiderant 5. Non. Octob. [nempe biennio post initam pacem.] Idatij fast. Cons. < insertion from f 1v > post initam pacem. To the same purpose speake Ierom Prosper Marcelline & Victor lamenting the war of Valens & expressing how Theodosius overcame the Goths Huns & Alans in many & great victories. And Zosimus when he had newly described this war, adds: Eodem tempore (scilicet quo Gothi a Vitalione reprimerentur) Theodosio quidam alij quoque prosperi casus accidere: Nam Scyros & Carpodacos permistos Hunnis ultus est et prælio superatos Istrum trajicere suasque sedes repetere compulit. Hinc igitur militibus animorum fiducia redire, paululumque videri de rebus adversis superiorum temporum respirare Princeps, et agricolis exercendarum operarum suarum jumentis ac pecoribus liberi pastus copia fieri, ac Theodosius quidem Imperator in hunc modum acceptis detrimentis mederi visus est. Zos l 4.

This was the Change which Theodosius on a sudden wrought in the Empire which was so great that Claudian de 4 Consulatu Honorij writes

Nulla relicta foret Romani nominis umbra

Ni pater ille tuus jamjam ruitura subisset

Pondera, turbatamque ratem, certaquelevasset

Naufragium commune manu &c

So Orosius: [3] Cùm Gratianus afflictum ac penè collapsum reipublicæ statum videret, eadem provisione qua quondam legerat Nerva Hispanum virum Trajanum per quem respublica reparata est, legit et ipse Theodosium æquæ Hispanum virum, et restituendæ reip. necessitate apud Syrmium purpuram induit . <2v> induit, Orientisque et Thraciæ simul præfecit Imperio. - Itaque Theodosius Alanos Hunnos et Gothos incunctanter aggressus magnis multisque prælijs vicit. Vrbem Constantinopolim victor intravit et ne parvam ipsam Romani exercitus manum assidue bellando deterreret fœdus cum Athanarico Rege Gothorum percussit. Athanaricus autem continuo ad Constantinopolim venit, diem obijt. Vniversæ Gothorum gentes Rege defuncto, aspicientes virtutem benignitatemque Theodosij Romano sese Imperio dediderunt. In ijsdem etiam diebus, Persæ qui Iuliano interfecto, alijsque Imperatoribus sæpe victis, nunc etiam Valente in fugam acto, recentissimæ victoriæ satietatem cruda insultatione ructabant, ultro Constantinopolim ad Theodosium misere legatos, pacemque supplices poposcerunt. Ictumque tunc fœdus est, quo universus Oriens usque ad nunc tranquilissime fruitur. This Orosius writ in the year 417 as is manifest by his last Chapter.

Whilst these things were doing in the Eastern parts &c -

< text from f 2r resumes > <3r>

Whilst these things were doing in the eastern parts, Gratian (who lately succeded his father Valentinian) was impolyed in defendi{ng} Gallia from the incursion of the Alemans.[4]Of these he slew about thirty thousand in battel with their King A.D 377 & made them supplicate for peace. But then hastning eastward with his army with intention to have assisted Valens against the Goths: in his absence the Alemans make a new irruption. Whereupon creating Theodosius Emperor & sending him against the Goths, he returned back into Gallia & spent the two next years in war with the Alemans, which he concluded victoriously about the same time that the peace was made with the Goths. Gratiano 5 et Theodos. Aug. coss. (A.D. 380) victoriæ nunciatæ sunt amborum Augustorum. Idatij fast. Sub hoc tempore Gratianus Alemannis Galatas (Gallos scilicet) occidentales adhuc infestantibus, ad paternam imperij sortem reversus est quam ipsi fratrique ipsius gubernandam reliquerat: cum prius Illyricos et Orientis Imperium Theodosio commisisset. Res autem illi ex voto contra Alemannos ut et Theodosio contra Istrum accolentes Barbaros confecta est. Illos quidem bello subegit, hos in amicitiam populi Romani supplices recepit: a quibus acceptis obsidibus firmata pace Thessalonicam venit Sozomenus l 7. c 4. This was so difficult a war ut Valentinianus, saith Ammian,[5]versando sententias multiformes anxia sollicitudine stringebatur reputans multa et circumspiciens quibus commentis Alemannorum & Macriani regis frangeret fastus sine fine vel modo rem Romanam inquietis motibus confundentes. Being thus at his wits end, he first[6]sollicited the Burgundians to his aid & then[7] attempted to take away the life of Macrianus by treachery, & afterwards plotted to raise civil wars among the Alemans by setting up another king among them against Macrianus: all which practises were far from the custom of the Romans. But yet at length his son Gratian as was said brought things to a happy issue by conquering the enemy.

< insertion from f 2v >

For the history of the wars with the Scots in Brittain, with the Moors in Afric & with the Sarmatæ & Quadi in Pannonia (all which were concluded before the year 380) I refer you to Ammian Marcelline. And besides these you may see in Iornandes mention made of an incursion of the Vandals out of Pannonia into Gallia: which Vandals, as <3v> the same Iornandes relates, had been received into Pannonia by Constantine, & lived there in perfect obedience to the roman laws like other subjects for about 40 years before this commotion. And now they were soon repulsed by Gratian & forced to return to their obedience again in Pannonia. This was when Theodosius lay sick at Thessalonica.

To these I may add also a commotion threatned by the Burgundians, a[9] who in the year 380 being invited by Valentinian against the Alemans & disobliged by breach of covenant, went back in anger & after three years returned again with almost eighty thousand to the side of the Rhene with intention to have invaded the Empire. But Valentinian b[10]sending Gratian against them their incursion was stayed for the present. Yet they returned not back but seated themselves by the River untill the appointed time. Ierom at the end of Eusebius's Chronicle expresses the action thus. Anno 374 Burgundionum octoginta fermè millia, quot nunquam ante, ad Rhenum descenderunt. And this I thought fit to mention here becaus though not an actual war yet it is a preparation to those wars that are hereafter to break forth & therefore may be recconed among the winds that are at present checked.

I have now shown you how the winds rose after the death of Constantine & blew more & more from every qter upon the Empire till they almost {overturnd} it, but then were - blew & were checked by the Angels in every quarter, & so the Empire by the ceasing of these warlike blusterings & noises reduced to an universal tranquility, & silence: which commencing at the year 380, shows that we must date the seventh Seale from thence. And this being established, you shall hear in the next Proposition how the winds are again let loos in order to blow upon the Empire till they consume it.

Prop
The first Trumpet begins with the invasions of Grece & the Eastern regions A.D. 395. The second with the invasion of Gallia & Spain AD 407. The third with the invasion of Afric AD 427. And the fourth with the wars in Italy AD 536.

< text from f 4r resumes >

Prop
The first Trumpet begins with the Visigothic wars A.D. 395. the second with the Alemanic wars A.D. 407. The third with the Vandalic wars A.D. 428 & the fourth withthe Ostrogothic & Lombardic wars A.D. 536.

As the four first seales were introduced by the four beasts which stood about the four quarters of the throne: so these four Trumpets are introduced by the four angels which stand at the four corners of the earth. Now whereas these hold the four winds which were to blow in those quarters we <5r> we are to understand their preserving the four quarters of the earth in peace by restraining for a time the four wars which were to infest them & therefore by the four winds we must understand so many wars which were to be in the four quarters of the Earth, & those successive becaus as I signified above they are the wars of the four first trumpets. As for the order of their succession we may learn it from their analogy with the four Beasts, namely the first an East wind, the second a west wind the third a south wind & the fourth a north wind, for in this order the beasts succeed one another. And becaus the Roman Empire is the scene of this Prophesy we must reccon the center of that Empire, that is the Metropolis Rome, to be the center of the winds.

Symbol (X in a square, with two small circles immediately to either side) in text

< insertion from f 5v >

Symbol (X in a square, with two small circles immediately to either side) in textOf the fire of the Altar cast on the Earth, & the consequent noises.

Having premised these things of the winds, I should now proceed to describe the wars of the Trumpts which they signify. But first there are some other wars between them & the half howers silence to be taken notis of. ffor the fire of the Altar which the Angel with his censer cast on the earth (Def       Psal & the consequent voices & thundrings & lightnings & shaking (Def       ) are all expressions of war. Now this war has these four characters. ffirst it is the war which puts an end to the time of silence 2 Because the wars of the Trumpets are expressed by winds which lie still during this war, therefore this war must be of a different kind. Suppose the difference be that this is civil & the other with a forreign enemy; ffor winds blowing upon an Empire are the most proper representative of wars made by invaders. 3 This is to be such a war as is accompanied with the overthrow of some dominion. ffor so the shaking signifies. 4 It is to be in a time which has a very great affinity with the time of silence; so that both those times together may make one uniform revolution, excepting so far as they are discriminated by this war in the latter part of it. And the reason of this is becaus both together make up the whole time expressed by the performance of divine rights in chap 8 & by the sealing of the Saints in chap 7.

These are the characters of the war which is to precede the Trumpets & these lead us to the memorable civil wars of Theodosius with Maximus & Eugenius. ffor those put an end to the peace signified by the half howers silence, & were civile, & overthrew the Dominions of Maximus & Eugenius, & together with the time of silence made up that singular & pretty uniform period of time during the reign of Theodosius, which ended with the division of the Empire & new irruptions of the Barbarians.

Now these wars I reccon to begin about May or Iune A.D. 388. ffor between that & the year 380, I cannot meet with so much as one battel fought within the Empire. Gratian indeed in the year 383 when Maximus first rebelled led his Army against him, but having formerly disobliged his soldiers a[11] they fell off from <6v> him & Maximus,[12] insomuch that after the Armies had been only five days within sight of one another, he fled out of despair without giving battel, & in his flight was b[13] slain at Leyden by the treachery of Andragatius: & Maximus succeeded in his part of the Empire, residing at Trevirs & ruling over Gallia Spain & Brittain by the consent of Theodosius & Valentinian.

After this there came in the year 386 a great hand of the Thuringians under the conduct of Odotheus from remote norther regions to the side of the Danube. But Theodosius hearing beforehand of their coming, lead his Army against them, & getting intelligence of their councell about passing the river, [14] set upon them unawares in their passage with such ships as he had in readiness & destroyed most of them upon the river. This indeed was a battel but not within the Empire, nor did the enemy otherwise then captivated come within the bounds of the Empire to disturb its tranquility: & therefore we are not to look upon this as an interruption of the time of silence. We may rather esteem it a wind checked in its first indeavour then suffered to blow.

The next year Maximus being desirous to inlarge his dominion into Italy, whilst he pretended peace led his Army secretly over the Alps: & Valentinian surprised by the unexpectedness of the action left his dominions to the invader, & fled by sea to Theodosius. Whereupon Theodosius prepared for war & the next year advancing towards Italy, first meets with Maximus at Sciscia & in a set battel beats him there, & then pursuing him towards Italy, meets & beats his Brother Marcellin at Petavion in another battel. After which he goes to Aquileia whither Maximus was fled & besieges him there, & sends Arbogastes into Gallia against his son whom he had

[15] created Cæsar & left at Trevirs; & within a while both of them are slain, the soldiers of Maximus delivering him bound to Thodosius. This was a manifest & notable civil war & therefore the period of the half howers silence. And the war with Eugenius & Arbogastes was like this: which being ended, Theodosius now sole Emperor, fell sick at Millain & left the Empire in e[16] an universal tranquility, divided between his sons giving the East to Arcadius & the west to Honorius.

This I take to be the revolution of time expressed by the performance of holy rites: which being explained I now proceed to expound the Trumpts. And with them I shall jointly consider the Vials becaus they are collaterall & both together make up one complete prophesy, the one supplying what is sometimes wanting in the other.

< text from f 5r resumes >

<6r> & the earth is that people which takes part with the woman against the Dragon, at length swallowing up the waters which the Dragon casts out of his mouth, & consequently is at enmity with the Dragon, that is with the Roman Empire/ The people of the Empire are signified by the watry Element as by the waters which the Dragon cast out of his mouth, the many waters where the whore sitteth & by the sea out of which the ten horned beast arose, & therefore the Earth must be the enemy to the Empire because, as I intimated above, the inhabitants of the earth & Sea ch 12 are two sorts of people, & the winds which hurt this earth & sea are the wars between them whereby they are alternately hurt. Conceive therefore that the compas of the Empire is this political Sea & that the round about it are the earth which bounds & comprehends it as the natural Earth does an inland Sea: for this similitude I suppose was the ground of the figure. And that this hail storm falling on the earth will signify

We are therefore to begin this Trumpet at the break{ } <7r> forth of those violent wars which were restrained in the second year of Theodosius & this is soon after his death. ffor in that very year Alaric first with a great army of Goths & other Barbarians brake out of Thrace into Macedon sparing neither towns nor men. And going thence by Thessaly into Achaia, he rased all cities in his way but Thebes & Athens. Then rushing into Peloponnesus he laid wast Corinth Argos & Sparta, & from thence he betook himself into Epire where he continued the same depopulations

The next year going out of Epire he overan Achaia, & for four yeares together continued to wast it & Epire & the neighbouring provinces with fire & depopulation. And when he had thus for five years together harassed the East he passes into Dalmatia & Pannonia & depopulates also those regions./ The most sad state of this time, the storm still raging, Saint Ierom who then lived, laments thus in his third Epistle written about this time which was something more then twenty years after the irruption in the reign of Valens. Viginti et eo amplius anni sunt cum inter Consantinopolin et Alpes Iulias quotidie Romanus sanguis effunditur. Scythiam Thraciam Macedoniam Dardaniam Daciam Thessaliam Achaiam Epiros Dalmatiam cuctasque Pannonias, Gothus Sarmata Quadus Alanus Hunni Vandali Marcomanni vastant trahunt rapiunt. Quot Matronæ, quot virgines Dei et ingenua nobiliaque corpora his belluis fuere ludibrio? capti Episcopi interfecti Presbyteri et diversorum officia Clericorum: subversæ Ecclesiæ, ad Altaria Christi stabulati equi, martyrum effossæ reliquiæ ubique luctus ubique gemitus, & plurima mortis imago. Romanus orbis ruit & tamen cervix nostra non flectitur. Quid putas animi nunc habere Corinthios, Athenienses, Lacedæmonios, Arcadas, cunctamque Græciam quibus imperant Barbari? So Synesius in his oration to the Emperor Arcadius, speaking of his father Theodosius saith Ille supplicantes (scil. Gothos) erexit et belli socios ascivit & civitate donavit, et omnium bonorum participes fecit et partem Romani agri ijs attribuit. At illi, quod Pater tuus mitem se ijs præbuit, nos in hunc usque diem derident. Sed id primus fecerat Valens.

<8r>

The second Trumpet.

The next Trumpet hath these two main characters: that the wars which it introduces are to be a western wind that is in the regions westward of Rome; & that during this wind a great mountain burning with fire is to be cast into the sea, that is (by Def      ) a great a[23] City b[24] consuming by war to be cast down & sink in the midst of that c[25] people signified by the sea, disturbing the waters. by its fall And no doubt this City is Rome the metropolis of the third part of the great political sea whose banks are the adjacent nations, its bottom the dition of the empire, & its waters the people. For it is this City which is every where in the Apocalyps called the great city.

** < insertion from f 9v > & by its fall to disturb the waters. And no doubt this City is Rome the Metropolis of the third part of the political Sea whose bottom is the dition of the Roman dominions & its waters the people, & its banks the circumjacent nations. For it is this City which is every where in the Apocalyps called the great city.

** I said that Rome was the Metropolis of the third part of the Roman Sea: for the understanding of which you are to know that Theodosius at his death divided the Roman dominions into two Empires between his sons Arcadius & Honorius making Constantinople the seat of the Eastern Empire & Rome of the Western, & that the western is about the third part of the whole. ffor dividing the whole into three equall parts according to the length of it; Mesopotamia Armenia, Syria Arabia & Palestine amount to about one third part: Egypt, Asia, Thrace, Grece, & Illyricum to another: & Afric Pannonia, Italy, Gallia, Spain & Brittain to the third. And the two first are the Provinces of the eastern Empire & the third of the western And hence you may understand why that which is here called the third part of the sea is in the second Vial called the Sea: for as it is a distinct Empire it is a Sea by it self, although but the third part of the whole Roman Ocean.

By the third part of the Sea we are therefore to understand the western Empire whose waters were smitten at the fall of the <10v> Imperial city & became blood &c: & consequently we are to look only within the compas of this Empire for the effects of this Trumpet.

Now for the event -

< text from f 10r resumes > <10A>

Impp. Arcadius & Honorius AA. Messalæ PF. P.

Saturianorum conjurationem armis sumus, ut oportuit, persecutio: Sed aliquoties {immineret} panæ evitatione ad diversa semet latibula contulerunt. - Dat XIII Kal. August Theodoro V.C. Conss. (399.     6 Cod. Theod. Tit 19 De Saturianis

Ευνεσίου Κυρηναίου Κατάστασις ῾ρηθεισα ἐπὶ τη μεγίστη των βαρρων ἐφόδω, ἡγεμονεύοντος Γενναδίου, καὶ Δουκὸς ὄντος Ιννοκεντίου Titulus est Catastaseos.

Eo tempore hanc incursionem memorat Synesius Ep 130 ad Symplicium quo Simplicius Magister militum erat Id quo accidit AC. 396 ut docet lex lex 56 de cursu publico (8 Cod. Theod. Tit 5. lex 56.) & Lex 28 de Prætoribus. (6. Cod. Theod. Tit 4 De Prætoribus lex 28) Idem & in id tempus refert quo Gennadius Præfectus Augustalis fuit ηγεμονεύοντος Γενναδίου ut habet inscriptio Catastaseos. At quia discimus ex l 1. de Alexandr pleb. Primatib. (14 Cod. Theod. Tit 27 De Alexandr. pleb. Primati 6. lex 1.) Gennadium hunc præfectum Augustalem fuisse (P F. Augustalis AD 396.

Indic 11. Honorio 4 & Euthychiano Coss.(398) Gildo comes idemque Paganus qui mortuo Theodosio Principe Africæ præerat - Africam nititur obtinere. Frater ejus Mascezel cognita ejus vesania relictisque duobus apud Africam filijs in Italiam venceat. Gildo utrumque fratris filium dolo trucidat. Mascezel fratris scelere cognito cum quinque millibus suorum contra Gildonem cum 70 millibus armatorum sibimet obviantem infestus accedit Gildonemque parricidiam fugavit. Gildo fugiens pria se manu strangulavit.

Indic 12 Theodoro et Eutroio Coss (399) Gaina Comes apud Constantinop. ad bellum civile barbaros {illeg} occultè hortatur, Vrbeque digreditur. proximo anno bellum navale contra Gainam Tyrannum inter Chersonnesum & Hellespontum gestum est. Multitudo ibidem Gothorum cæsa vel reversa sunt. Gaina evasit, sed mense febr. sequenti occiditur. Hæc e Marcellini Chron. Idem ponit exilium Chrysostomi anno 403. Sed Chronol. Cod. Theod. ad an 404

Illyricum erat in Occidente ut testatur Olympiodorus apud Photium.

Ruffinus occiditur 5 Kal Decemb Arcad et Honor coss. ut testatur Zosimus l 6 Socr l 6. c 1. Sozom l 8. c 1. Oros l 7 c 36. Marcellin & Chron Alexandr alijque.

Gildo Comes Arcad 4 & Honor 3 Coss (i.e. 396.) Gildo per Africam sub finem autumni, veniente Hieme, teste Claudiano de bello Gildonico Tirannidem arripuit

Tribigildi in Phrygia Pisidia et Pamphylia motus primi huic anno Honor 4 et Eutich Coss AC 398 congruunt ut e plerisque Arcadij constitutionibus hoc anno editis colligit Gothofredus in Chron. Cod. Theod.

Gildo in Africa verno hujus anni 398 tempore debellatus est: de quo Claud in bello Gild: Quam veniens induxit hicus ver perculit hostem. vide Marcellin chron et Zosim l 5.

Gainas superiore anno (400) victus, cum per Thraciam Istro transito in patriam reverti cogitaret ab Hulde Hunnorum duce cæsus est ineunte anno 401. Marcel Chron. Chron Alexandr

Gothi Alarico duce Pannonia Norico Rhetiaque superatis in Italiam brumæ tempore summa celeritate pentrarunt. Prudentius l 2 adv. Symmachum: Claudian de Bell. Get

<11r>

Now for the event: In the beginning of the year 407 when the Eastern wind began to be allayed there brake forth another very vehement & pernicious irruption in the west ffor the Alemans, Burgundians, Vandals & Alans with great multitudes of other Barbarous nations out of Germany all at once overflow Gallia, wasting it with fire & sword & rapine, which desolations Saint Ierom in <12r> his eleventh epistle hath thus partly expressed & partly hinted. Innumerabiles et ferocissimæ nationes universas Gallias occuparunt; quicquid inter Alpes et Pyrenæum est quod Oceano et Rheno includitur Quadus Vandalus Sarmata, Alani, Gepides, Heruli, Saxones Burgundiones, Alemanni, & (O lugenda respublica) Pannonij vastarunt. Magunciatum capta atque subversa est, et in Ecclesia multa hominum millia trucidata. Vangiones longa obsidione ducti; Rhenorum urbs præpotens, Ambiani, Atrebates, Morini, Tornacus, Nemetæ, Argentoratus translati in Germaniam, Aquitaniæ novemque populorum Lugdunensis et Narbonensis Provinciæ, præter paucas urbes populata sunt cuncta. Non possum absque lacrymis Tolosæ facere mentionem, quæ ut hucusque non rueret, sancti Episcopi Exuperij merita præstiterunt. Ipsa Hispaniæ jam jamque petituræ quotidie contremescunt. Roma Vitam auro redimit.

After Gallia had been thus wasted for two or three years the Vandals Alans & Suevians pass into Spain & overrun that country also with the like desolations, & at the same time the Franks break into Gallia Lugdunensis; & the Picts & Scots also a while after, that no part of the west might be free, a[26]invade Brittain, forcing many of the inhabitants to fly into that part of France which from them is to this day called Brittain.

Whilst this torrent overwhelmed the west; Alaricus with his Goths, leaving their seats in Pannonia to the Huns, invades Italy & beseiges Rome & thoug at first bought off, yet renuing the seige after two years takes it in the year 410 when it had been first so much wasted by famin & Pestilence that Saint Ierom in Epist 16 saith Fame perit antequam gladio: et vix pauci qui caperentur inventi sunt. Ad nefandos cibos erupit e uriculium rabies & sua invicem membra laniarunt: dum mater non parcit lactenti infanti, et suo recipit utero quem paulo ante effuderat. And Zosimus l 5 Famem (ceu consentaneum erat) pestis comitabatur, omniaque plena cadaveribus erant. Cumque non possent extra urbem sepeliri cadavera quod omnem exitum hostes observarent: Vrbs sepeliri cadavera quod omnem exitum hostes observarent: Vrbs ipsa mortuorum sepulchrum erat: adeo quidem ut alioqui etiam solitudo in urbe foret, siquæ nulla fuisset alimentòrum penuria, <13r>

< insertion from the right margin of f 13r > Castinus in Hispaniam cum exercitu mittitur A.C. 422.[28]

Iwo puts Theudemir between Pharamund & Clodio, but that can't be for Castinus who slew him A.C. 422 was sent with an army into Spain to make war upon the Barbarians there & A.C. 424 fled to Boniface in Afric. A.C. 425 was banished & A.C. 428 Codio began.

< text from f 13r resumes > < insertion from f 12v >

- inhabit; a[29]but being arrived there he begins to invade & spoile the neighbouring regions: whereupon Honorius sends Constantius with an army against him who after two years war expelled him almost out of Aquitain & drove him upon spain. Then in the year 415 Honorius makes a league with the Goths & sends Constantius with an army into Spain to recover that country from the Vandals Alans & Suevians, & with him the Goths joyn forces which caused a very fierce war in those regions for about 8 or 9 years together wherin the Kingdom of the Alans was ruined & the Goths possessed themselves of a great part of Spain, & were also readmitted into Aquitain upon compact for their good service done in those the Emperors wars. Yet after this, Honorius dying they turn again upon the empire, but are repulsed a[30] & a peace concluded in the yeare 427.

The wars in Aquitain from the beginning of the invasion, you may hear Prosper thus lamenting

< text from f 13r resumes >

<14r>

< insertion from f 13v > < text from f 14r resumes >

The third Trumpet.

The western Empire being now rent into many kingdoms, & those pretty well setled under their new lords: there breaks out a war in the southern quarter which is the quarter of the third wind. For the Vandals AC 427 passing out of Spain into Afric, invade & with all kind of calamities afflict those regions untill by degrees they subdued it. ⊛ < insertion from f 13v > ⊛ The calamity of Afric in the first two or three years of this invasion when the Vandals had newly beaten the forces of Boniface & began to beseige him in Hippo; b Possidius Bishp of Calama who was present to these miseries thus laments in his Oration upon the Death of Saint Austin. Brevi, inquit, consequenti tempore, divina voluntate & potestate provenit ut manus ingens telis armata et bellis exercitata immanium hostium Vandalorum et Alanorum commixta secum habens Gothorum gentem aliarumque diversarum gentium personas ex hispania partibus transmarinis navibus Africæ influxisse & incisset: universaque per loca Mauritaniam etiam ad alias nostras trans eus Provincias & regiones, omni sæviens crudelitate & atrocitate, cuncta qua potuit expoliatione, cædibus alijsque innumerabilibus & infandis malis depopulata est, nulli sexui, nulli parcens ætati, nec ipsis Dei sacerdotibus & ministris, nec ipsis Ecclesiarum ornamentis seu instrumentis vel ædificijs. Et hanc, pergit, ferocissimam hostium grassationem et vastationem ille homo Dei (Augustinus) - profundius considerans, solito amplius fuerunt ei lacrymæ pane {illeg} die et nocte, amarissimamque & lugubrem cæteris suæ senectutis jam pene ducebat et tolerabat vitam. Videlicet enim illi homo dei civitates excidio perditas pariter cum ædificijs, villarumque habitatores alios hostili nece extinctos, alios effugatos atque dispersos <14v> dispersos, &c. [32] So Victor in his history written many years after Invenientes saith he pacatam quietamque &c. < text from f 14r resumes > Invenientes, saith Victor,[33] pacatam quietamque Provinciam, speciositatem totius terræ florentis quaquaversum, impietatis agminibus impendebant, deastando depopulabantur incendio & homicidijs totum exterminantes. Sed nec arbustis fructiferis omninò parcebant: ne fortè quos antera montium, aut prærupta terrarum, vel seclusa quæque occultaverant, post eorum transitum illis pabulis nutrirentur: et sic eadem atque iterum tali crudelitate furentibus, ab eorum contagione nullus remansit locus immunis. - In ædificijs nonnullis magnarum ædium vel domorum ubi ministerium ignis minus valuerat, tectis admodum despicatis pulchritudinem parietum solo æquabant ut nunc antiqua illa speciositas civitatum nec quia fuerit prorsus appareat. Sed et urbes quamplurimæ aut raris aut nullis habitatoribus incoluntur. Nam & hodie siqua supersunt subinde, desolantur. Nor did the mediterranean Islands escape their fury: For Marcelline saith A.C. 439 Theod. 17 & Fausto Coss: Vandali Piratæ multas insulas insulas sed præcipuè Siciliam vastavere.

When they had thus by a tedious war with the Emperors forces wasted Afric & subdued it, & Sicily, they from thence A.D. 455 saild into Italy & spoiled Rome carrying into Afric the whole treasures of the city & consequently of the Empire which the Goths had spared: & captivating the flower of Italy. Post exitum Maximi confestim secuta est multis digna lachrymis Romana captivitas. Vrbem omni præsidio vacuam Gensericus obtinuit - et per 14 dies continuos secura et libera scrutatione omnibus opibus suis Roma vacuata est, multaque millia captivorum prout quisque aut ætate aut aræ placuerant cum Regina et filiabus ejus Carthaginem abducti sunt. Prosper apud Euseb l 1. Gensericus vacuam præsidio civitatem capit, et occursu Leonis Papæ mitigatus ab incendio cædibus atque supplicijs urbem immanem servavit, omnibus tamen opi <15r> bus ablatis, multa inde captivorum millia cum Augusta Eudoxia & ejus filiabus Carthaginem revexit. Paul. Diac. l. 15. Exinde Regum multarum divitias cum populis captivavit. Victor de Pers. Vand. l 1. Gazam omnem Imperatoriam in navibus positam secum in Africam tulit: ac siqua erant Romæ decora, itemque Iovis Capitolini tegularum ex ære auratarum partem dimidiam abripuit. Vnam vero ex his navibus ubi statuæ fuerant, tempestate perijsse dicunt cæteras incolumes in Africam delatas. Procop. de bello Wandal. l 1. Amongst other things were the a[34] vessels of the Temple of Ierusalem which Titus had sent to Rome. And to these spoiles of Rome they added at the same time the prey of several other Cities. Miles Genserici avidus prædæ Symbol (cross in a circle, surmounted by another cross) in text in < insertion from f 14v > Symbol (cross in a circle, surmounted by another cross) in text avidus prædæ in Campaniam incursat, Capuam evertit, Neapolin expugnat, Nolam obsidet, urbes reliquas diripit - cum ingenti captvorum numero Africam repetit. Annales Boiorum. < text from f 15r resumes >

From this time the Vandals possessing themselves of many of the mediterranean Islands continued to play the Pyrats & infest Europe with very frequent incursions. Post mortem Valentiniani, saith Victor,[35]Gensericus totius Africæ ambitum obtinuit, necnon et insulas maximas Sardiniam Siciliam Corsicam Ebusum Majoricam Minoricam et alias multas superbia sibi consueta defendit. And Procopius:[36] Post mortem Valentiniani, aliquot annos Veris initio continuo longas fecit prædando & populando incursiones, nunc in Siciliam, nunc in Italiam, civitates insuper partim diripiendo partim solo æquando: ubi vero omnia delevit ad Orientis conversus Imperium Illyricum omne simul & Peloponnesum, hisque adjacentes insulas cum reliqua Græcia invadit. Ad Italiam rursum Siciliamque reversus quicquid erat reliqui diripuit. So Sidonius in his Panegyric called Anthemius: *** < insertion from f 14v > *** - Anthemius speaking of the short reign of the Emperors after Valentinian III saith

- Quemcunque creavit

Axe meo natum, confestim fregit in illo

Imperij fortuna rotas. Hinc Wandalus hostis

Vrget et in nostrum numerosa classe quotannis

Militat excidium, conversoque ordine facti

Torrida Cacaseos infert mihi Byrsa furores.

Præterea invictus Ricimer, quem publica

Fata respiciunt, proprio solus vix Marte repellit

Piratam per rura vagum, qui prælia vitans

Victorem fugitivus agit quis sufferat hostem

Qui pacem pugnamque negat? Nam fædera nulla

Cum Ricimere jacit.

< text from f 15r resumes >

This was the afflicted estate of Afric & Europe under the insolencies of this troublesome enemy: for the restraining of which [37]Leo the Greek Emperor AD 468 set forth a navy of eleven hundred ships & an hundred thousand men which at first prevailed but having landed a great part of their men in Afric the Vandals set upon them afresh & burnt their ships & then beat the forces also which they had landed. < insertion from inline > And thus having baffled both the Emperors, they continued their Pyraticall incursions till about <15v> about the year 500, when Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths having newly propogated his Kingdom into Italy, made peace with them as Baronius in his Annalls (ad Ann 500 sect 11) thus mentions: "Iam tutum inquit, redditum erat commercium inter Africanos et Italos cùm sancivisset fœdus Rex Theodoricus cum Wandalorum Rege a quo hactenus frequentes fiebant in solum Italicum incursiones. Stabilita est enim inter eos pax fœdere nuptiarum, data ei in matrimonium Amalafrida. De qua inita inter illos concordia hæc Enodius in Panegyrico Theoderici: Quid castigatas Wandalorum ventis parentibus eloquar deprædationes, quibus pro annua pensione satis est amicitia tua? Evagari ultra possibilitatem nesciunt. Duce sapientia affines esse meruerunt quia obedire non abnuunt."

And these I suppose are the wars to which the third Trumpet - < text from f 15r resumes > And these I suppose are the wars to which the third Trum <16r> pet sounded because the onely memorable wars in the south quarter, which is the condition of the third wind.

Now the effect of these wars is that a great star fell from heaven burning as it were a Lamp; that is[38] some very great Prince from the heaven of his dignity consuming by war. And this points [39] at the fall of the western Cæsar, who from that time that the Vandals rent Afric & the Mediterranean Islands from the Empire & spoiled Rome & Italy, retained almost nothing but the nameof Emperor: insomuch that some historians make that time the end of this Empire. Yet it resisted absolute death for about twenty years longer under the titular Cæsars Avitus, Majoranus, Severus Anthemitis, Olybrius, Glycerius & Nepos falling by the sword of one another untill at last A.D. 476 it was utterly extinguished under the fatal name of Augustus or Augustulus by Odoacer King of the Heruli who being invited by some of the Italians translated his nation into Italy.

The reason why I interpret this star of no less dignity then that of the Western Emperor is becaus it is described of the greatest magnitude, & whilst there are two Emperors in the Roman world, it would be against nature to represent them by suns. Yet least you should doubt of this interpretation you may compare it with Isa 14 12 where the fall of as great a Monarch as ye King of Babylon, becaus he had in like manner the king of the Medes for his fellow , is expressed by the like Parable of a falling star. How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer son of the morning saith the Prophet, how art thou cut down to the ground which didst weaken the nations.

Now whereas this star is described to fall upon the third part of the rivers & fountains of waters, it is a figure, likethat of casting the mountain into the Sea, to express at once both the ruin of the star & the disturbance of the waters. & embitring them by that burning which consumed the star By the third part of the rivers I still understand the people of the Western Empire the same waters which were before called the third part of the Sea but are now compared to rivers because no longer in one intire mass but <17r> intermixed with the Earth those many northern nations which in the last Trumpet by invading the Sea a[40] dried up its waters & converted the residue as it were to disseminated rivers. On these therefore & on the b[41] towns & Cities the fountains - of these waters, the great star fell burning as it were a lamp, & by its fall & burning (that is by the decay of the Emperors power which should have defended the Romans & by the wars in which he consumed smote the waters & made them bitter as if they had been imbibed with so much wormwood, or, as is exprest in the third vial it turned them to blood: the plague of which blood being there much aggravated, it will not be amis to add somthing more of history becuase there were other very great wars in Europe, contemporary to the cardinal war in Afric, which notably bloodied the rivers & conduced much to the fall of the great burning star

[42]And first the Huns under Attila A.C. 450 having for the five years before spoiled Grece & Illyricum with unexpressible violence, raises a very great army in the year 450 consisting of divers of the Scythian & German nations, amongst which were the Gepides with their King Ardaricus & the Ostrogoths lead by the three brothers Valamir Theodomir & Vindemir. & the Marcomans, Suevians, Quadi, Heruli, Rugi, & what other nations had ben conquered by the Hunns, every one with their King: their number Sigebert puts five hundred thousand . With these immense forces Attila set forward to invade the western regions like a whirlwind & making towards Gallia d[44] depopulated all places in the way. d[45]Chunni (saith Gregory Turonensis) e Pannonijs egressi; ut quidam ferunt, in ipsa sancti Pascæ vigilia ad Metensem vrbem reliqua depopulando pervenirent tradentes urbem incendio, & populum in ore gladij trucidantes, ipsosque sacerdotes Domini ante sacrosancta Altaria permentes, Dein cum multas Galliarum civitates opprimerent Aurelianos aggrediuntur &c.

In the mean time Ætius the General of the Emperor, <18r> & the Kings of the west, Theodoric King of the Wisigoths Gudicar of the Burgundians, Sangiba of the Alans, & Merovæus of the Franks combined to oppose him with the utmost of their strength. And the next year, a[46] after the Huns had wasted a great part of Gallia, the two armies meet & r[47] on both sides there fell a hundred & sixty two thousand besides ninety thousand Gepides & Franks which fell the night before. At length Attila with much difficulty was beaten,[48] but not being pursued retired with the residue of his forces into Venetia& the next year out of indignation harrassed Italy b[49] forcing & rasing severall Cities & amongst others Aquileia the second to Rome, but in the heat of his fury he was a[50] curbd by a numerous army sent by the Greek Emperor Marcian, & forced to return home with damage, & the next year dying, his sons fell into civil wars about sharing his dominions : on which advantage the Ostrogoths laying hold, rebelled, & subdued them in Pannonia, ; & soon after (viz A.C 489) made war upon Odoacer King of the Heruli in Italy, & vanquishing him succeeded in the western Empire.

These wars (besides some others of less note) since they conduced very much to the bloodying of the western rivers may not unjustly be recconed among the wars to which the 3d Trumpet sounded. But then you will perhaps object: How can the wars of this Trumpet be esteemed a southern wind since they happened as well in other quarters? To which I answer j That the four winds are not to be taken so stricktly that while they blow there shall be wars in none but the cardinal quarter. It is enough that the principal war is in that quarter; & therefore when there are divers wars together, the quarter is to be estimated by the principal. <19r> such was the Vandalic war. For though the wars of Attila were wonderfully violent for the time, yet he kept in no quarter that he invaded as the Vandals did in Afric but {illeg} from east to west. his wars were also very short being in the western Empire but of two or three years continuance, ; whereas the Vandalic war lasted 70 years together & upward without any considerable intermission, & was much more pernicious to the Empire that depriving the Empire of no one Province but this rending away all Afric with Sicily & most of the Mediterranean Isles, besides the frequent Pyratical invasions of all european countries bordering upon the Mediterranean & amongst other spoiles the carrying away the immens treasures of Rome & other chief Cities of Italy with the flower of their youth & Gentry which was of so fatall consequence that the Empire never lookt up afterward, , & some reccon this the period of the Empire as if the following Emperors were Emperors over nothing. The wars of Attila therefore cannot be accounted the principal wind but may rather for their shortness violence & uncertain quarter, be compared to a whirlwind or Hurricane. 2dly In recconing up the four winds we are to regard only such winds as blow upon the Empire, that is such wars as are waged by the Barbarians not against one another but against the Romans. And this excludes almost all the above mentioned wars except the Vandalic. For the wars of the Ostrogoths were not against the Empire but first against the Huns & then against the Heruli. Nor was the great Army of Attila at first designed against the Empire a[51] but against the Visigoths, he being sollicited by the Vandals to invade them. But becaus Ætius the General of the Emperor (fearing least after he had subdued the western barbarian kingdoms one after another he should turn upon the Empire) ingaged together with all those kingdoms against him, therefore in revenge he turned his fury upon the Romans, & this was the second summer only. And as for the translation of the kingdom of the Heruli into Italy, whereby the race of Emperors ceased, that was done without any memorable war, Odoacer being called in by some of the Italians.

There may be another objection, namely that <20r> Vandalic nation whilst in Spain concurred with the other barbarous nations to constitute the western wind, & therefore the southern wind ought not also to be derived from them but from some other nation & rather from a southern nation (as the Moors, especially since they were in the wind when they blew altogether before the angels held them) then from the Vandals who came from the north. But this is easily answered by considering the nature of winds: ffor the same air accordingly as it moves this way or that way may constitute a wind one while in one quarter & afterwards in another quarter; & so the same Vandalic nation accordingly as they war in divers quarters may constitute divers figurative winds. And as we denominate a wind in this or that quarter only from the present motion without considering from what country the Air came originally, so we are here not to regard from whence the Vandals came originally but only in what quarter they war at present. And for the same reason it is not material whither the nations which now successively constitute the 4 winds be the same with those which constituted them when they blew all together before the angels held them. It is enough that they break forth in the 4 quarters wherein they blew before, though the Air be changed. And hence in the next Trumpet because the successive wars of the Goths & Lombards were in the same quarter, I consider them but as one & the same wind notwithstanding the diversity of the Nations.

<21r>

The fourth Trumpet.

The last blast of the third wind we may reccon to be that notable war wherein the Vandalic kingdom was overthrown by Bellisarius: which happend in the years 533 & 534. And this directs us to the fourth wind, that famous Ostrogothic war which began the next year (between the Romans & Barbarians) whose main seat was on the north of Rome, the quarter of this wind: ffor the main seat thereof was Venetia & Lombardy with the other regions between Rome & the Alps, besides some actions in Illyricum; & the duration was first ✝[52] about 20 or 21 years with the Goths, in which the Lombards aided the Romans, & a[53] then 37 or 38 years more withthe Lombards almost without intermission. Between these there was an interruption, but the last war being the more violent & lasting & in the same regions with the first, fulfilling the desolations which the first began, so as to put an absolute period to the Empire; it deserves also to be referred to this the last wind, & that more especially as being the principal part thereof.

Between these wars b[54] there was also a war with the Heruli under Sindual in Tuscia; of whome c[55] Anastasius says, peremibant cunctam Italiam. But this I mention only as a copula of the years before & after.

In the former Trumpet you had the fall of the Western Cæsar, but this proceeds yet higher, even to the darkning of the Sun Moon & Stars, that is to the utter extinction of the remaining light of the Western Empire: ffor the understanding of which you are to know that the Empire was fundamentally seated, not in the Dominion of the Emperour, but in that of the city of Rome. It was an Empire before the race of Emperours began & might have continued so long after their fall could the city but have recovered it's pristine dominion & greatnes.

<22r>

But though it could not recover them yet it continued for some time after the fall of the Cæsars to shine considerably. The Consulship Odoacer indeed at first took away in anger, but after two years restored it & conserved it to the end of his reign: & then Theoderic King of the Ostrogoths being sent by Zenon the Greek Emperor against Odoacer & having conquered & slain him, besides Dalmatia & Rhætia which were Odoacer's Provinces he added Sicily & ✝[56] all Alemannia to his dominions & freed Italy with the rest of his Kingdoms from the incursions of the Vandals & setled it in peace. ✝[57] So far was the dominion of Italy restored by his coming that Ennodius in his Panegyric to him said: Interea ad limitem suum Romana Regna remearunt. He b[58] repaired also the wals of Rome & other buildings with a great summ of money given for that purpose & changed no custom but retained the Senate, Consuls, Patricij,Prætors, Quæstors, Præfects of the City, Masters of the hors & foot & other offices which had been in the times of the Emperors, & assigned these Roman dignities only to the Romans , as did also the succeeding Ostrogothic Kings Athalaric & Theodatus. Thus Rome still governed by her own Senate flourished under the Goths after the same manner as formerly under her own Emperors < insertion from f 21v > between Romans a Roman judged, between a Goth & a Roman a Goth & a Roman. < text from p 23r-a resumes > as if she had changed nothing but the title of Emperors to that of Kings

<23r-b>

And in this degree the western light continued to shine till the sounding of the fourth Trumpet, but then was quite put out. Symbol (cross surmounted by three circles) in text < insertion from f 22v > - put out. Symbol (cross surmounted by three circles) in text The Goths partly by constraint partly on their own accord a[59] dissmissed most of their dominions & amongst the rest all Alemannia from their subjection; letting go what was not of present use that they might contract their whole strength into Italy; & Feb 20 A.C. 537 laid strait siege to Rome with an army of an hundred & fifty thousand: by which siege - - - < text from p 23r-b resumes > By which seige her dignities being reduced to titular shaddows, the Consulship after five years more (viz: A.C. 542) expired. Afterward the City was again besieged & d[63]taken by Totila & for a time made destitute of all her inhabitants & a third part of her walls or more demolished, & then recovered by Belisarius & again taken by Totila & retaken by Narses. After this when Iustin <24r> came to the Empire, he to caress the {Italians} & together assert his dominion over them took upon him the title of Consul for his two or three first years, making a show as if he would restore the ruined dignities of Rome: but ✝ then the Lombards immediately invaded & wasted all Italy much more then the Goths had done & again e[64] besieged Rome in the time of their 30 Tyrants, A.C. 577. And partly by these desolations but chiefly by storms & fiery meteors the City was so wasted that ever since it hath scarce been the tenth part of what it was before, & that too for the most part without the compas of its former foundation.

Thus was the Imperial City, which formerly shone gloriously with her Consuls Senate & other dignities reduced into darknes, being made a heap of runs, & deprived of her Magistracy, & from being Queen of the world degraded to I know not what ignoble Dukedom, & compel'd to serve under Ravenna which formerly served under her, & (O darknes!) even to pay tribute to the Exarchs presiding there.

This was the conclusion of this great Empire: concerning which I cannot but note that it was accomplished by the direst desolations that (I beleive) ever nation felt: God reserving his most grievous scourge for the fountain of Apostacy & the most grievous part of that scourge for the last place to try the utmost before he would give over an incorrigible insensible people. For all former desolations seem to be equalld if not outdone by the Gothic (the Goths & Greeks both wasting Italy as the countrey of the enemy,) & yet those desolations were manifestly outdone by the Lombardic. For the order of their history I refer you to Procopius, Iornandes de Regn. success. Paulus Diaconus, Sigonius de Occid. Imp. Aventinus's Annales Boiorum, & others, & shal <25r> only for a tast of their direness give you a passage or two out of Gregory the great who being then Bishop of Rome both saw & felt what he wrote of.

A little before the Lombardic invasion, as this Gregory relates, there came a revelation to one Redemptus a Bishop in these words. Finis venit universæ carnis. Finis venit universæ carnis. Finis venit universæ carnis. Which Gregory understanding of the end of the world, made this comment upon it. Post illam Prophetiam f[65] mox illa terribilia in Cœlum signa secuta sunt ut hastæ atque acies igneæ ab Aquilonis parte viderentur. Mox effera Longobardorum gens de vagina æ habitationis educta in nostram cervicem grassata est; atque humanum genus quod in hac terra præ nimiæ multitudine quasi spissæ segetis more surrexerat, g[66] succisum aruit. Nam depopulatæ urbes, eversa castra, concrematæ Ecclesiæ, destructa Monasteria virorum & feminarum, desolata ab hominibus prædia, atque ab omni cultore destituta in solitudine vacat terra; nullus hanc Possessor inhabitat, occuparunt Bestiæ loca quæ prius multitudo hominum tenebat. Et quid in alijs mundi partibus agitur ignoro. Nam in hac terra in qua nos vivimus finem suum non nunciat sed ostendit. - Vpon which place of Gregory Baronius writes thus. At h[67] nequis putet mendax fuisse Oraculum de fine universæ carnis prædictum: sciat his verbis non seculi consummationem significatam sed gentis Italicæ cladem: sicut olim Deum per suum Prophetam comminatum fuisse constat ubi ait, i[68] Hæc dicit Dominus Deus terræ Israel: Fini venit: venit finis super quatuor plagas terræ: Nunc finis super te &c. Sicut ergo finem universæ carnis minitante Propheta non mundi est demonstratus interritus, sed imminentes tantum clades præfiguratæ fuere, ita pariter eodem quæ prædicta <26r> sunt. Redempto accipenda erunt.[69]Certè quidem finis quodammodo tunc dici potuit advenisse Romani Occidentalis Imperij cum Longobardi Italiam invadentes rerum potiti sunt. Etenim post paucos Exarchas Constantinopoli ab Imperatoribus in Italiam missos qui Ravennæ considere consuevere, ijsdem diu prævalentibus Longobardis, Occidentis Imperium penitus collapsum est, neque usque ad Carolum Magnum restitutum, ut tamen in Gallias fuerit ipsum translatum. Sane quidem quàm durissima fovet Longobardorum adventu grassatio ejusmodi factis divinitus vaticinijs præsignata potest intelligi, quibus mundi ipsius interritus fuit ereditus significari. Quid autem passa sit Longobardis Italia, vel hoc uno collige argumento: Si teste Procopio cum ijdem amici essent Imperatoris & laboranti Italiæ bello Gothico in auxilium Longobardi venientes longè deteriora hostibus perpetrarunt, ut opus fuerit eos dimittere: quid ab ijsdem factum potest existimari cum jam hostes redditi hostili animo Italiam invaserunt. Sane quidem adeò immensa ubique increbuêre sub ipsis mala ut non leves quæque personæ sed ipse Gregorius Papa existimarit jam instare novissimum diem quo universi orbis conflagratio immineret.

After this I know not what can be well said more: & yet out of the manifold lamentations of the same Gregory I shal trouble you with one more which he makes thus to the people. k[70] Destructæ urbes, eversa sunt castra, depopulati agri in solitudinem terra redacta est. Nullus in agris incola, penè nullus in urbibus habitator remansit. Et tamen ipsæ parvæ generis humani reliquiæ, adhuc quotidiè et sine cessatione feriuntur, & finem non habent flagella celestis justitiæ. Ipsa autem quæ aliquando <27r> mundi domina esse videbatur qualis remansit Roma consipcimus, innumeris doloribus multipliciter attrita, desolatione civium impressione hostidie, frequentia ruinarum. - Ecce jam de illa omnes hujus seculi potentes ablati sunt. - Ecce populi defecerunt - Vbi enim Senatus? ubi jam populus? contabuerunt ossa, consumptæ sunt carnes, omnis enim secularium dignitatum ordo extinctus est, et tamen ipsos nos paucos qui remansimus adhuc quotidiè gladij, adhuc quotidie innumeræ tribulationes premunt. - Vacua jam ardet Roma. Quid autem ista de hominibus dicimus. Cum ruinis crebrescentibus ipsa quoque destrui ædificia videmus: postque defecerunt homines etiam l[71] parietes cadunt. Iam ecce desolata, ecce contrita, ecce gemitibus oppressa est &c - Hanc autem quæ de Romanæ urbis contritione dicimus in cunctis facta mundi civitatibus scimus; alia enim loca desolata sunt, alia gladio consumpta, alia fame cruciata, alia terræ hiatibus absorpta. Despiciamus ergo ex toto animo hoc præsens seculum vel extinctum. Greg. M. in Ezek. Hom. 18.

Of the wars in other places which Gregory here touches upon, those made by the Hunns invading Illyricum Occidentale & Orientale & Thrace (regions situate to the Northeast of Rome as the seat of the Lombardic wars inclined to the north west) were the most grievous & lasting. They continued from the year 539 to the year 558 & downward with notable violence & soon after brake forth again. And these with what others there were at this time within the Roman world may be in general referred to this Trumpet, but the first place must be allowed to the Lombardic as the direst wars & those by which the effect of this Trumpet, that is the extinction of the western Empire was accomplished.

Now whereas this is exprest by the darkning the third part of the Sun Moon & Stars: by the Sun & Moon you <28r> may understand [72] the Greek Emperour & the next to him in dignity whether the Empress or any other person < insertion from f 27v > by their light, the splendor & glory of their Imperial Cities Rome & Constantinople by which they irradiated the Empire, & by the third part of that light the splendor of Rome by which they irradiated Italy Sicily Afric Dalmatia Rhætia & Noricum. the remainder of the western Empire which being about one half thereof was therefore the third part of their present dominions. So by the third part of the stars are to be understood the Consuls Senators & other Magistrates & dignities of the western Empire which formerly shone as stars in the heaven of this third part. All these I referr to the Greek Emperor as the sun in this heaven rather then to the king of the Goths partly because the Goths never intermedled with the government of Rome but left it with all it's dignities (the stars of this heaven) wholly to the Romans to manage & enjoy after the old manner as still the head city of the western Empire & sister of Constantinople; & partly because the Greek Emperorhad a right to this city with it's territories & claimed it before his wars with the Goths ; but chiefly because the Emperors forces took it for him a little before the darkning of the third part of the Sun moon & stars, (as you shall hear,) & held it during the darkness.

ffurther by the expression that the day shone not for - < text from f 28r resumes > Further by the expression that the day shone not for a third part of it & the night likewise we are to understand the duration of the darknes of the Sun Moon & Stars, that is, of the obscure state or Eclips of the Western Empire: interpreting day & night of one & the same time of obscurity called day in respect of the Sun & night in respect of the Moon & stars. For here the Sun, Moon & stars shine not alternately, as in nature, to constitute successive days & nights, but shine altogether & are darkned altogether. Now of the western day & night whereof the darknes was a third part, the beginning must be at the beginning of the reign of the Beast which was & is not viz: A.C. 395,) because he is the eighth king or head the subject of this prophesy of the Trumpets, beginning & ending together with them; & 'tis his day & night that is darkned. Also the end of that day & night, (so much of it as was darkned to a third part) must be at the end of the darknes; not sooner because the darknes is a part of it, (viz: the third part,) nor later because that is the latest time of which the Prophesy hath hitherto taken a view & if it should extend further it would be to us indefinite. The end of dark- <29r> nes I put in the m[74] year 607 when the Bishop of Rome obteined the universal Bishopric by the grant of the Emperor Phocas: not sooner because the Lombardic wars continuing till the a[75] Papacy of Sabinian that is till the year 605, left Rome & Italy in the lowest degree of obscurity, nor later because Rome by that concession of Phocas began again to be Empress of the world & to irradiate the whole west by that hermaphroditic Luminary the Pope, & by those stars the Cardinals with the rest of his Court, which from that time brake forth more & more out of the cloud till they out shone all other temporal Potentates. Moreover the beginning of the darknes I reccon at the beginning of the siege of Rome which was Feb: 20 in the third year of the Gothic war n[76]A.C 537: In the first year the war proceeded no farther then Dalmatia & Sicily, in the second it entred Italy but approached not Rome till that siege began which continued a year & nine days & was so sharp that in the time thereof the Goths & Romans had no less then o[77]threescore & nine conflicts besides several other less skirmishes, besides p[78]the sore afflictions of fa- <28v> -min & rapine within.[79] Then it was that the western dignities the light & splendor of the Empire began to be utterly extinguished. Nothing then regarded but a soldier. Nothing remained of dignities but their titles, the shaddows of things that had been; & those too, the substance being gone, soon vanished of their own accord Consules enim quarto anno post hoc obsidium cessarunt et et mox Senatus itidem. Nam nono anno Vrbs anno a Gothis iterum obsessa est capta est a Gothis, mœnia ex parte diruta, quicquid opum erat direptum, & cives omnes in Campaniam captivi abducti: post quam devastationem quadraginta dies aut amplius Roma fuit ita desolata, inquit Marcellinus, ut nemo ibi hominum nisi bestiæ morarentur. In Vrbem dein se recepit belisarius, Et Gothi iterum capiunt

[iterum obsessa est et proximo anno post famem gravissimum capta. Ex civibus qui soli in urbe remanserant, in

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Supposing therefore the desolation of Rome between the fall of the temporal & rise of the spiritual Empire to be the time of darknes & the beginning of the Beast's reign to be the beginning of day & night: the length of the whole day & night will be more then 212 & les then 213 years & the third part thereof between 70 & 71 years, & the length of darkness wil be 70 years complete & some part perhaps of the next year running which agreeing with the said third part, makes good the Prophesy that the day & night shone not for a third part thereof.

It makes good also the prophesy of the seventy years desolation of Tyre, which as we proved in Posit     was to be a seventy year's desolation of the Imperial City betwen the fall of the temporal & rise of the spiritual Empire & to happen in the time of the 4th Trumpet & be about the length thereof: All which being so punctually fulfilld & applicable to no other time is a most certain character of the right application of this Trumpet.

The correspondent Vial too confirms its' application notably. The tenour of this is that it was poured on the Sun & power was given him to scorch men with fire & men were scorched with great heat & blasphemed God, &c. That is[80] the pouring out of this Vial was an incitement of the suprem terrestrial potentate to torment men with war & men were tormented with vehement war & blasphemed God. And thus it happned. For the Greek Emperor (the supreme terrestrial Potentate) was the cause of the wars of this Trumpet by sending his armies into Italy in pursuit of his claim to those regions. The <30v> p[82] Gothic King laboured by all meanes for peace causing the Senate to mediate for it & the Bishop of Rome himself to go Embassadour to the Emperour on the same account & promising to acknowledg his p[83] Crown held of the Emperour & that in his dominions the nEmperour should have equal honour with himself as by q[84] stamping both their images together on his coyn & by r[85] the peoples naming the Emperor always together with him & before him in public acclamations, &c. But nothing would satisfy but the extirpation of the Gothic Kingdom & for that end the imbroyling Italy in these scorching wars.

I have now done with the wars of the first four Trumpets the winds which blew upon the Empire till they had consumed it, & s[86] together with frequent Pestilences, ffamins, Earthquaks, Tempests, fiery Meteors, & other Calamities, were one continual consumption of men & Cities for above two hundred years together, leaving the world barbarous & thin which they found flourishing in learning & so thick peopled that the northern nations were forced to empty themselves upon their neighbours for want of room. These four trumpets relating therefore to the same subject were not unfitly connected with one another & distinguished from the next which in troduces a new scene of things. By these four he which {hindred} being fully taken out of the way, we are now to expect the revelation of the man of Sin 2 Thes. 2.7 But we proceede in the explication of the Trumpets.

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Prop.
The fift Trumpet expresses the wars of the Saracen Empire upon the Romans & begins with the rise ofthe Mahometan religion A.C. 609.

The conditions of the fift Trumpet are these 1. It is to begin with the rise of a new fals religion: ffor this the ascention of any thing out of the bottomless pit implies. To rise out of the sea or earth is a phrase accommodated to expres the rise of temporal dominions without respect to religion, but to rise out of the bottomless pit expresses further the bringing up some infernal devises together with that dominion which arises. Thus the ten horned beast is said to rise out of the bottomless pit (chap 11.7. & 17.8) becaus he was to rise together with the great Antichristian Apostacy. And so in chap 20 to express the ceasing of fals religions for a 1000 years & afterds their springing up again, the Dragon is said to be cast into the bottomles pit that he should deceive the nations no more till after the 1000 years & then to be let out again to deceive them.

2. This fals religion is to rise at the end of the 4th Trumpet. For this the order of the Trumpets requires. Yet between the contents of these two Trumpets some little intervall may be allowed answering to the space taken up by the flight of the Angel through heaven which cryed Wo.

3. The professors of this religion are to be very numerous, becaus exprest by a smoke so thick as to darken the Sun & Air, & by Locusts <32r> being a very numerous insect were by the ancient interpreters applied to numerous Armies. See Def     By the Smoke you may understand the whole multitude of this new sect & by the Locusts their Armies. ffor the Locusts plainly signify armies by their description. ffor first to signify that they are not real Locusts but men, it is said that they should not hurt the herbs of the earth neither any green thing neither any tree but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads; that is, that they should not prey upon real herbs & green things of the earth as natural Locusts do, but upon the figurative herbs & green things, the men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads. They are therefore not real Locusts but men & not peaceable men but such as are hurtfull to others. Moreover it is said that they were like unto horses prepared unto battel, & had faces like men (i.e. were horsmen,) & had breastplates as it were of iron, & the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running to battel. And to represent them the more pernicious & dreadfull they are said to have tailes like Scorpions with stings in them, & teeth as the teeth of Lyons, both which are also of a a[87]pugnacious military signification by Def     &     The Locusts therefore are soldiers: & since they come out of the Smoke, the smoke which (by Def    ) signifies a multitude must be the whole multitude of the followers of this new religion.

4. The professors of this new religion are to constitute a kingdom. ffor it is exprest that they have a king over them.

5 Their king is the same with the Author <33r> & Guardian of their religion. ffor he is called the angel of the bottomless pit, that is, He (with his successors) to whom power over the pit was given, who a little before was exprest by the star which fell from heaven to whom was given the key of the bottomles pit that he should open it. Their king is therefore both a spirituall & temporall Prince: a temporall prince as he is King over the Locusts, that is chief commander over soldiers, & a spirituall prince as he is the angel of the bottomless pit.

6. This King is further described by his name, which in hebrew is said to be Abaddon & in greek Apollyon: both which words signifying the same thing namely a Destroyer, it is to be supposed that there is some further mystery in the hebrew word then the bare signification. ffor it is not likely that the holy Ghost would make an excursion into the hebrew tongue for a mere tautology.

7. The Locusts were to be a people with long hair & with some ornament upon their heads resembling a crown; in that they are said to have crowns of gold & hair like weomen.

They were to be enemies of the Roman state ffor the Trumpets are alarms to so many plagues of war upon the Romans, whereof this inflicted by the Locusts is one. Those whom the Locusts torment are described to be the men which had not the seal of God in their foreheads, that is those which stand in opposition to the sealed saints, or which had the mark of the Beast. And acording the fift vial (which expresses the same thing with this seal) is said to be poured upon the seat of the Beast. It is the Beast there- <34r> fore, that is the Roman state, on which the plague of this Vial & Trumpet is inflicted, & consequently the Locusts are their enemies.

9. They were not to kill men but torment them only; that is to afflict kingdoms by war but not utterly to ruin them. ffor here by the killing of men is to be understood not the killing of single men but of Kingdoms as was explained above in the 2d Trumpt

10 They were to rage five months, that is, five times thirty prophetique days or 150 years; & this repeated, vers 5 & 10. ffor this repetition I cannot but esteem rather mysterious then superfluous, especially since there is not any where in the prophetique scriptures (that I know) such another repetition in a continued narration of the same type.

These are the conditions of this Trumpet, & they singularly point out the Saracenical Kingdom. For

1. There have been since the writing of the Apocalyps but two notable new fals religions of large extent & long duration, the Roman & the Mahometan. And so in the Prophesy of the Seales & Trumpets there are described but two states which arise out of the bottomless pit, the Beast & the Locusts. Wherefore since the Beast is the Roman state (as shall be further explained hereafter,) it remains that the Locusts be the Mahometan.

2. The Mahometan is the religion which arose at the end of the 4th Trumpet. For the darkness of the Sun Moon & stars in that Trumpet continued till the year 609, . And in the year 609 the Mahometan religion began to be hatched; as is manifest out of Elmacinus who in the beginning of his history records that <35r> [88] Mahomet was born in the year of {illeg} called to the office of a Prophet in the Month Rabie prior in the end of the 40th year of his age, which was in the 922d year of Alexander the great, & that in the 44th year of his age he began to manifest his vocation having before invited only privatly to Islamism (as they call their religion,) & in the 14th year of his vocation & 54th year of his age (namely in the very beginning of those years) he fled to Medina entring the City on the 12t day of the same month Rabie prior: from which flight the Æra of the Hegira begins the first year thereof being the same with the 54 of Mahomet. Wherefore both by the 922 year of Alexander which began in september A.C. 609 & in whose first month the month Rabie prior began & by the Æra of the Hegira, which by the common consent of Chronologers began Iuly 17 A.C. 622, the Mahometan religion took its beginning in autumn in the year of our Lord 609.

** ** The same is also evident out of Abul Pharajius history who writes that Mahomet was born in the year of Alexander 882 & died in the beginning of the 11th year of the Hegira having lived 63 years whereof 40 were spent before he arrogated to himself his prophetique function, 13 years more whilst he was at Mecha & the last 10 years at Medina after the Hegira . Sic et in Tractatu ejus de origine et moribus gentium Arabum scribit Mahometeum post com{illeg}

Supposing therefore Mahomet (the Angel of the bottomless pit) to be the star which fell from heaven to the Earth & opened the pit; we may reccon that he fell from heaven in the year 609 when he first began to contrive his doctrine, & consequently from thence date this Trumpet; & that in the year 612 when he first manifested his pretended vocation, he began to open the pit & let out the smoke; & that in the years 622 & 623, when (as the same Elmacinus writes) he first armed his followers, the Locusts began to come out of the smoke.

3. The great multitude of these Locusts is notoriously conspicuous; their kingdom being as large as the Roman Empire in its greatest extent & their armies far more numerous.

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4 & 5. Also the qualities of their king, that he should be both angel of the bottomless pit & king of the Locusts do singularly agree to Mahomet & the succeeding race of Califas, who founded & propagated as well their religion as their Empire, being Princes both spirituall & temporall in the strictest sence. Nor hath there been, that I know, any other considerable Prince to whom this character so well agrees. The Pope indeed comes nearest to it, being such another spirituall Prince among Christians as the Califa was among Mahometans, but in temporall power he falls thus far short, that although he claims & exercises superiority over kings yet he never had the absolute command of their armies. He never appeared in the head of an army like Mahomet & the Califas & therefore cannot be called King of Locusts.

6. As for this Kings name Abaddon it seems to allude to the common name of the ancient Kings of that tract of Arabia from whence the Saracenical Kingdom I conceive took its beginning: which tract from an ancient king Obodas (deified by his posterity) was called Oboda, & the Kings thereof Obodas, after the same manner that the Kings of Egypt were called Pharaoh & Ptolome, of the Romans Cæsars, of the Parthians Arsacæ, & of the people bordering upon Arabia petrea Arstæ.

Concerning Obodas the deified King or God of the Arabians you may see Tertullian ad Nat. l 2. c 8. & the notes of Gothofredus thereupon. Also Eusebius mentions him in his book de laudibus Constantini p 478. Ἄραβες, saith he, Δούσαρίν τινα καὶ Ὄβδον θεοὺς ἀνηγόρευσι. Of this deified king & the name of the Country derived from him , Stephen a Byzantine writer, out of Vranius a writer of Arabic matters, in his 4th book saith <37r> Ὄβοδα χωρίον Ναβαταίων ὅπου Ὀβόδης ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁν θεοποιουσι τέθαπται: which Nabathæans were Ismaelites (that is Hagarens or Saracens) so called from Nabaioth the first born of Ismael Gen 25 13.

< insertion from f 36v > ✝ Dr Pocock out of Firanzabad tells us also how Obaid the father of a Tribe Obadius became a patronymical word & Obida the name of a Province with its king among them, that is the common name of the kings of that Province, informing us also of the signification of the word & of the various names of men derived thence: both which make the word more fit to be alluded to by Saint Iohn. Inter veri Dei titulos, inquit, vocem ںøڢ ~ ~ recenset ipse Mohammedes, docente Ebnol Athir. A themate ى٨ڢ nominis hujus ratio petenda, a quo ٨ڡ٨ٶڢ Maabud dicitur quicquid colitur et ى٨ٶں٥ Obudah, cultus, obedientia. - Varia autem sunt ab isto Themate derivata virorum nomina, qualia ى٨٨ڢ Obaid, ى٬٨١ڢ ١ى٨ڢ Aabod, ى٨ٶب Abbud ى٨ڢ٥ Obdah &c. Ab Obaid patre Tribus formatur patronymicum ى٨بى Obadius, ى٨ڢ١ل, et Regis & Provinciæ in Yaman nomen teste Al ffirauzabad. Apud eundem ١٧ى٨ٶب Al Obud, Al Sacsaci septimi regum Hamy arensium filius. Hæc Pocockius in notis in Abul Pharajium de origine et moribus Arabum. What relation this Al Obud had to this kingdom I know not but towards the end of it Iosephus mentions two of their kings by this name which agrees well with what was said of this name, being common to them all. One of them was well known to the Iews by his victory - < text from f 37r resumes > the one well known to the Iews by his victory over their king Alexander Iamneus whom that Arabian Obadas, having slain his whole army in the region of Galaad, compelled to fly to Ierusalem about 90 years before Christ. And him the Iews might well by a slight mutation have called Abaddon, that is, the Destroyer. The other b[90] Obodas was in the time of Herod the great, in whom the line ended for after his death the neighbouring King Aretas by the favour of Augustus united his Kingdom to his own. Of this Obodas Strabo also in the Arabic expedition of Ætius Gallus makes mention; out of whom it may be collected that the Kingdom Oboda bordered upon the red Sea southward of Aretas's territories, where I suppose Mahometism took its rise.

7. Moreover the shape of these Locusts, in that they had hair like weomen & crowns of gold, points out the Arabians who, as Pliny writes, intonso utuntur crine & (mulierum more) mitrati degunt. Plin. l 6. c 28. & with whom it is at present a custome as travellers affirm, for those that go into battel (ex proprijs capillis sibi cornua et cincinnos nectere) to adorn their heads with their own hair tied up. Camerar. operum subcis. Tom 1. c 93. Herodotus indeed mentions that they cut their hair round underneath, but I suppose he means only upon their foreheads becaus he adds that they did it shaving their temples. However it is not to be doubted but Pliny had seen Arabians at Rome.

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8. Again the Saracens Empire is further characterised by their wars upon the Romans, in that the Trumpets denote so many plagues inflicted upon the Roman territories by war whereof the 5t is one of the three greatest & accordingly the wars of the Saracens upon them hath been one of the most universal & lasting plagues which the Christian world hath hitherto felt. As for the universality there is scarce any Roman territory which hath not felt them, Syria, Egypt, Afric, Spain, France, Italy, Illyricum, Grece, Thrace Asia & Armenia. And the duration was much greater then of any former plague.

9. The precise duration of this plague, exprest to be five months, & that repated, I limit thus.

In the 13th year of the Hegira (which began March 7th A.C. 634) the Saracens first entred Syria & began to make war upon the Romans as Elmacinus writes, & the next year in the month Regjebo (which was in our September A.C. 635) they took Damascus & made it the seat of their Empire. And from the taking of this City I date the beginning of their Empire as well becaus it laid the foundation to their conquests (all Syria & Egypt together with the whole world like a flood following thereupon,) as becaus the holy spirit usually measures the duration of Empires by that of the Metropolis.

Moreover the end of this Empire I put to be in the year 936 when the Califa lost all temporall power & Bagdad (the new seat of the Empire) came into the hands of temporal Princes. For this Kingdom is not to be extended beyond the time that the angel of the bottomless pit continued King of the Locusts. Now that this downfall of the Califa was completed in the year 936 is evident out of the same Elmacinus. ffor having described before how the severall Provinces of the Empire were rent from the Califa, so that (Egypt <39r> in the last place being lost the year before) there was now nothing left but Bagdad: he proceeds thus to describe how Arradis the last absolute Califa subjected both Bagdad & himself to Muhammed one of the temporal Princes who had shared the Empire. Anno, inquit, Hegiræ 324 (qui cœpit Novemb. 30. A.C. 935) ad se venire jussit Califa Arradis Billa Imperatorem Muhammedem f. Rajici qui Wasiti erat & ibi dominabatur; cogente ad id eum necessitate propter perturbationem Imperij & ineptitudinem Consiliarij ad eam dignitatem. Venit itaque filius Rajici Bagdadum, & constituit eum Arradis Imperatorem Imperatorum, commisitque ei administrationem regni - , induit quoque ei vestem dignitatis ac dedit ei vexillum. Venit autem Bagdadum vicessimo quinto Dulhiggiæ (i.e. Novemb 13. A.C. 936) - curavitque ea omnia quæ curare soliti erant Consiliarij Atque ab eo tempore dignitas Consiliarij Bagdadi obsolevit, neque remansit nisi nomen ejus.[91] Potestas autem omnis cessit Imperatoribus qui rerum potiebantur. Atque id duravit donec florere desierunt [92] Salgjuki (i.e. Turcarum Imperatoris) Bagdadum.

Ineunte itaque anno [93]325 (qui cepit Novemb 19. A.C. 936) mundus in manibus erat Principum qui Imperio se ingesserant & reges terræ [94] erant. Quicunque enim urbem aliquam nanciscebantur [95]Regem re ejus nominabat, alios omnes arcens. Eratque Basra [96] {limitum} & Ahwaza in manu Abu Abdallia {illeg} et fratrum ejus; Persia in manu Ama[97]duddaula, Dailami et Wasmakini; Mausila, Diarrebia & Diarbeera in manu filiorum Hamadani; Ægyptus et Syria in manu Mahammedis Achsijdi; Occidens et Africa in manu Caijmi. Hispania in manu filiorum Ommiæ. Chorasana in manu Nasri. Iamama, Bahraina & Hagjara in manu Taheri. Tabristana & Gjorgjana in manu Dailamorum. Neque mansit in manu Chalifa & filij Rajici quicquam <40r> præter Bagdadum. Et abolita sunt telonia Regni. - Pecunia autem omnis portata est in gazophylacia Imperatorum, qui pro lubitu suo de ea disponebant & impensas imperiales omnes faciebant.

** < insertion from f 39v > ** To the same purpose writes Abul-Pharajius another Arabic historian, whose words are these translated. Anno (Hegiræ scil.) trecentesimo vicesimo quarto impulit necessitas Al Radium ut Abu-Becrum Mohammedem filium Raycki imperatorem exercitûs crearet. Eum ergo Imperatorem Imperatorum constituens vectigalibus & tributis & curijs per omnes regiones præfecit, jussitque in omnibus suggestis nominis ejus in concionibus mentionem fieri, atque ab eo tempore irritum factum est Vizieri munus. F. Raycki siquidem & ipsius scriba omnium rerum curam gerebant: eodemque modo quicunque post eum Imperatores Imperatorum fiebant se habebant. Omnes peculinæ in eorum Gazophylacia importebantur, easque pro lubitu erogabant, & Chalifæ nihil aliud quãm quod ipsis visum, relinquebant. < text from f 40r resumes >

This may suffice to determin the end of this Empire of the Chalifas: which yet is further confirmed by the ensuing actions. ffor before the son of Raijci had been Emperor of Emperors two full years, Bagdad (as the same Elmacinus writes) was taken by one Iahcamus a Turk, & from that time often taken & retaken, being sometimes in the hands of the Turks & sometimes of the Saracens untill at length Togrulbec took it & established it to the Turks.

The whole duration of the [98]Empire therefore from its beginning at Damascus [99] A.C. 635 to its end at Bagdad A.C. 936 is 301 years. [100] from which if the last year be exempted wherein [101] Egypt being lost there remained nothing to the Chalifa [102] of those Provinces which had been taken from the Romans, [103]& consequently the Romans were no longer tormented [104] by any Locusts which had the Angel of the bottomles pit [105] for their King; there will remain 300 years [106] precisely, that is twice five months of years [107] for the whole time that men were tormented by these [108] Locusts.

< insertion from f 39v >

Eutychius Patriarch of Alexandria in his history which was written two or three hundred years at least before that of Elmacinus {illeg} the taking of Damascus a year later then Elmacinus, & so, the Empire will {illeg} just 300 years. Take which computation you like best. Theophanes Anastasius & Cedrenus refer the taking Damaskus to the 25t year of Heraclius; which agrees with Elmacinus, for Heraclius began A.C. 610. Octob 3. as Petavius (in Rationario Temporum lib 4, cap 15 & more at large in his notes ad Nicephori Breviarium) demonstrates out of Chron: Alexandr. , Theophanes Cedrenus & others.

< text from f 40r resumes >

If you now ask [109] why the duration of this kingdom was not exprest [110] by one round number of ten months rather then by a repetition of five months: I answer jst it was done for the property of the type For Locusts continue but five months, namely from the rise of the Pleiades (esteemed by the Ancients the end of Spring, being about a month after the Vernall Equinox) at which time they are hatched out of eggs left all winter in the earth, untill the begining of Autumn when <41r> having left eggs in the earth for a new ofspring, they die. See Pliny lib 11. c 29. 2dly The condition of the Saracens empire required it. ffor this was not one uniformly continued Empire but compounded of two Dynasties succeeding one another the first at Damascus in the family of Ommia, the second at Bagdad in the race of the Abasides. ffor the Abasides wresting the Chalifate from the family of Ommia, took Damascus by force & pulled down the walls, & in the year of the Hegira 145 (which began April 1. A.C. 762) gave commandment for the building of Bagdad translating the seat of the empire thither so soon as it was habitable. See Elmacinus lib 2. The time of this translation I find not recorded, but it seems to have been either at or before the year 775; for in that year Mahad was there created Chalifa, his father Almansor dying neare Mecca. Now the Empire being thus translated from one seat to another, & the holy Ghost measuring the duration of Empires by that of their Metropolis, it was fit not to combine both these in one number, but to express the duration of each apart: as if he had said that the Empire should continue five months at a seat, & by the repetition thereof insinuated the duality of seats. Tis true the duration of the Empire at these two seats was not justly of this length, but the difference not being great it may suffice that the last Dynasty exceeded five months as much as the first fell short so that one with another they may be recconed at 5 months a piece: perhaps not much unlike Locusts which according to the condition of the year may sometimes continue longer then five months & sometimes not so long, & yet their life <42r> one yeare with another be recconed at five months, if at one time they exceed that continuance as much as they fall short of it at another.

10. In the last place whereas it is said that the Locusts should torment men but not kill them, I suppose it is spoken to distinguish them from the Euphratean horsmen who in the next Trumpet killed the 3d part of men, that is overthrew the Constantinopolitan Empire as I shall explain in its place: whereas these Locusts though they often harassed the whole Empire with fire & sword, & beseiged Constantinople no less then 8 times, & that sometimes for two or three years together, reducing the inhabitants to so great straits that they came even to man's flesh, yet they could not take the city,

Prop.
The sixt Trumpet conteins the wars of the Turkish Empire upon the Romans, & begins with the solution of the four Euphratean Sultanies A.C. 1258.

The conditions of the sixt Trumpet are these.

1. The Euphratean horsmen are to be the next great enemy after the Locusts which makes war upon the Roman territories.

2. There is a great affinity between the Locusts & Euphratean horsmen. For the Locusts were represented like horses prepared to battel with faces like men & breastplates, which is the shape of these horsmen. Also both have tailes of a serpentine form, whereby I conceive their affinity in religion is insinuated. ffor a tail of that shape is an emblem of their cognation to the old Serpent, as well as of their pugnacious disposition.

<43r>

3. These horsmen were at first a quaternion of Kingdoms for they are the army which was loosed to slay the third part of men & consequently the same with the 4 Angels that is 4 great bodies politique. In the former Trumpet an Angel was put to signify a king painted the King of the Locusts, & thence it is obvious to collect that the four Angells here may signify so many kingdoms or nations, For as a King in these prophesies is used promiscuously to signify sometimes a single person & sometimes a Kingdom (as in Dan 7.17 & 8.20 & Apoc 17.10, 12,) so may Angels be used since they are beleived to be no less superintendents over nations then Kings.

**** 4. These nations were seated in a foursquare position. This is hinted by the 4 horns of the golden Altar from whence the voice concerning them came. ffor the horns by this their voice are made a type of the Angels & consequently of their position. ffor they can typify them in nothing but their position & number, & it would be a superfluous circumstance were it only to express their number since that is otherwise sufficiently defined.

5. These Nations were at first seated upon Euphrates, as is manifest by the expression that the angels were bound in that river.

6. This Trumpet begins at their loosing from that River.

7. The Army is described exceeding numerous. δύο μυριάδες μυριάδων, or according to some readings μυριάδες μυριάδων the word δύο being omitted. In either reading we are to understand only an immense number (as in Psal 58.17, The chariots of God are two myriads) For the number μυριὰς רבוא or רככה is of those numerall words which the Hebrews use not only for ten thousand but indefinitely for any great number, especially when it is doubled, as may be seen in Dan 7.10.

8. Their armour is described after a very singular manner; viz: That they had breastplates of fire & Iacynth & Brimstone, & out of the mouths of the horses (whose heads were as the heads of Lyons) issued fire & smoke & brimstone whereby they killed men.

9. By these three (the fire & smoke & brimstone) the third part of men was killed.

10. The rest of men which were not killed by these plagues repented not.

11. The time for which they were prepared to destroy the third part of men is an hower & a day & a month & a year.

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These being the conditions of this Trumpet, they do after a very singular manner point out the Turkish Empire. ffor 1 The Turks were the next great enemy to the Roman territories. Their's & the Saracen's Empire have been the two greatest & the only two very great scourges of the Christian world for this last thousand years, & therefore none but these can be intended by the two first of these three great woes, unles we will suppos that the Holy Ghost has been very particular in describing some smaller plagues of the Christians & taken no notis of the greatest, which would be to make the parts of the Prophesy hold no proportion with those of history.

The common period of these two Trumpets I assigne to the year 1258. For I measure the whole duration of the former Trumpet by the standing of the Chalifate & not by the twice five months raging of the Locusts, that being but a more signal intermediate period. For after that time the world continued in the hands of the Saracens for many years, though not under the dominion of the Chalifa but broken into many temporal kingdomes & the Chalifa himself was always of the Saracen nation & from before the foundation of Bagdad to the end of the Chalifate of one & the same family of the Abasiom. And therefore as this Trumpet began with the birth of the angel of the bottomles pit (exprest by the falling of the star from heaven) which was before his empire was founded, so it should end with the deceasing of that angel though long after his empire was rent in pieces. Now the deceasing of this Angel was in the year 1258 when Hulacu the Tartar took Bagdad & put an end to the Chalifate; & immediately after this followed the loosing of the four angels as shall be explained hereafter.

The Turks indeed long before this time erected severall powerfull Sultanies among the Saracens, & were for some time Lords even over the Chalifa. But the last hundred years the Chalifa shook of their yoke & became sole Lord of Bagdad with its territories Iraca & a good part of <45r> Persia; & therefore now equalling or rather exceeding the Turkish Sultanies in temporall greatness, & as to spirituall jurisdiction being universally acknowledged & honoured as well by the Turkish Sultans as by the Saracens, much after the same manner that the Pope is acknowledged supreme among Christian Princes; it will be more proper to look upon the Turkish Sultanies hitherto as grafted into the Saracen's Empire then as another Empire planted in its stead. This at least we must do if we will follow the judgment of the Eastern historians who are in this the most competent & unprejudic't judges. For Elmacinus, although he distinguish the Saracen Empire into three parts or Dynasties, the first conteining its increase during the reign of the Abasides at Bagdad untill they subjected themselves to temporall Princes (which two Dynasties I interpreted to be the twice five months reign of the Locusts,) & the third its continuation after its distraction: yet at the setting up of the Turkish Sultanies, whether by Togrulbec or others, he makes no distinction but interweaves their history with the Saracen's in the third Dynasty. And Abul-Pharajius, who divides his history into so many dynasties as there had been supreme Empires since the creation & reccons the Empire of the Saracens in the 9th place, extends this from their Prophet Mahomet to the taking of Bagdad by the Tartars & there concludes it making the shortliv'd Empire of the Tattars then founded upon the ruins of the Saracens & Turks by Hulacu to be the 10th Dynasty or supreme Empire & the year 1258 their common period.

By extending the fift Trumpet thus far downward its length will be verey great in proportion to the former Trumpets. But it was fit that the first Trumpets should be but short being a description of that most criticall time wherein the true religion was everted & the Apostacy set up, & therefore to <46r> be delineated more articulately: & the H. Ghost has signified the far greater length of these last Trumpets by dwelling much longer upon their description.

2. The affinity between the Saracens & Turks is sufficiently conspicuous, the last having been interwoven with the Empire of the former, (sometimes as subjects, sometimes as fellow Princes) for some hundreds of years together so as to be esteemed almost one people: & both being also of the same religion.

3, 4 & 5 The originall of the Turkish Empire agrees also to the prophesy that it should be from a quarternion of kingdoms seated upon Euphrates in a square position. For such was the constitution of the Turks between the time that they first grew powerfull & the invasion of the Tartars as may be learned out of the histories of Abul-Phrajius, Elmacinus. William Tyrius & Ayton Armenus. The first that notably promoted their state was Togrulbec (called also Togra, Tangrolipix, Dogrissa & Sadoc,) who having conquered Chorasan & Persia added Bagdad to his Empire A.C. 1055 & made that the seat thereof. And his successor Olub'Arslan (called also Asan Olbarsalan, Alpasalem, & Aspasalem) who began his reign A.C. 1063, added also Mesopotamia; a good part of which he took from the Greeks, captivating at the same time their Emperour Diogenes Romanus. The third Sultan Malechsah or Melecla who began his reign A.C. 1071, sent Aksis & Sjarfuddaulas the governour of Mausela to invade Syria & Cutlumuses to invade the lesser Asia, the first of which took Damascus A.C. 1075 the second added Aleppo to Mausela AC 1079 [111] & between them subdued almost all Syria, & the other made no less progress in Asia, [taking Cæsaria A.C 1079.] And now this Empire being arrived to its ἀκμὴ after the death of Malechsah (which happened A.C. 1092) became rent in pieces by civil dissentions, the subordinate Sultans of the principal cities asserting to themselves absolute dominion over the territories which they formerly held by the favour of Malechsah & his predecessors; whence sprang the following Dynasties.

1 The remainder of the Sultans of Bagdad, whose Sul- <47r> tans were Barchiaruc (or Belchiaroc,) Muhammed, Mahmud, David, Masud, Melechsah, Muhammed, & Solyman Shah in whom the race of the Salghucides at Bagdad ended about the yeare 1160 : & from thence forward unto the taking of Bagdad by the Tartars, the Chalifa recovered & maintained the Supreme temporal power within this Sultany, which had been intermitted for about 224 years.

The Sultany of Mausela or Mosul a city of Mesopotamia seated upon Tigris about 6 or 7 days journey a[112] westward from Bagdad, & one or two days journey from one of the streames of Euphrates. Its Sultans were 1 Iagarmish. 2 Zengius fil: who began his reign A.C 1107. 3 Maudud 1109. 4 Oksenkar (or Assangur) 1121. 5 Ezzoddin fil: 1126. 6 Zengius (or Sanguin) frat: 1127. 7 Gaza fil: 1145. 8 Cotboddin frat. 1149. 9 Gazi fil: 1170. 10 Ezzoddin frat: 1180. 11 Nuroddin fil 1193. 12 Ezzoddin fil. 1211. 13 Nuroddin fil 1218. 14 Naseroddin frat: 1218. 15 Badroddin 1234. 16 Saleh fil: with his brothers 1259, whose dominions after two years were taken from them by the Tartars. To this Sultany belonged the southern regions of Mesopotamia together with a good part of Assyria on the other side Tigris.

3. The Sultany of Maredin, Mirdin, or Marde another city of Mesopotamia seated also upon Tigris northwest of Mausela. Its territories were watered by the river Alchabur which is an arm of Euphrates & afterwards runs through the regions of Mausela. . Its sultans were 1 Ortoc who was contemporary to Olub-Arslan, Melechsah & Barkiaruc. 2 Gazi fil. 3 Tamartash fil: who began his reign A.C. 1122. 4 Nojmoddin fil: who began 1152. 5 Gazi fil. 6 Cotboddin fil. 7 Hosamoddin fil: who began 1184. 8 Kotboddin frat: who began about the year 1200 & did valiantly. * 9 Pater Modhafferi anonymus. 10 Modhaffer who began A.C. 1260.

This Sultany towards the latter end became divided into two. ffor when Saladin invaded Mesopotamia, amongst his other victories he took from this Sultany Miepharekin a City of the greater Armenia upon the borders of Mesopotamia, seated a[113] about two days journey beyond Tigris. And after the <48r> death of Saladin, Miepharekin had its proper Sultans, Abdel Modhaffer, & Ashraf, the last of which was slain by the Tatars A.C. 1260.

4. The Sultany of Syria seated at Damascus & Aleppo. Its Sultans were 1 Tagjuddaulas Tatash {illeg} the son of Olub-Arslan. He first obteined Damascus A.C 1079, & then Aleppo with all Syria A.C. 1085. * < insertion from f 47v > * 2 Decac fil 1095 with his brother Roduan. 3 Togtacin Atabec (or Doldequin Abacuc) 1104. 4 Buri fil. 5 Muhammed fil (Shehaboddin or Tegel-melud) 6 Majiroddin fil. 7 Nuroddin who began at Aleppo A.C. 1145 & at Damascus AC 1154. 8 Malec Saleh fil 1174. 9 Saladin 1175. 10 Dhaher fil 1193. 11 Aziz fil 1216. 12 Naser fil 1237 who was slain by the Tatars A.C. 1260.

After the death of Tajuddaulas this Sultany became divided between his sons Decac & Roduan, the first residing at Damascus, the other at Aleppo. And in this divided state it continued about 29 years the successors of Roduan being Tajuddaulas fil 1113. Bulgar 1117. Solyman 1122. & Balac 1123. The next year A.C. 1124 Aleppo became subject to Oksenkar the Sultan of Mausela, & after him to his Son Zengius untill the year 1145. And then he dying his son Nuroddin inherited Aleppo without Mausela, & after 9 years reunited it & Damascus under himself. And from that time the regions of Damascus continued almost always joyned either to the Sultany of Aleppo or Egypt or divided between them. < text from f 48r resumes > [2 Roduan fil: with his brother who began A.C. 1095. 3 Tajuddaulas fil 1113. 4 Bulgar 1117. 5 Solyman 1122. 6 Balac 1123. 7 Oksenar 1124. 8 Quidam e filijs Oksenkar, 1126. 9 Zengius frat 1128. 10 Nuroddin fil: 1145 11 Malechsaleh fil 1174. 12 Saladin 1175. 13 Dhaher fil: 1193. 14 Aziz fil: 1216. 15 Naser fil: 1237 who was slain by the Tartars A.C. 1260.

After the death of Tajuddaulas this Sultany became divided between his sons Roduan & Decac, the first residing at Aleppo, the other at Damascus. And in this divided state it continued about 60 years, namely till the reign of Nuroddin who reunited it A.C 1154. And from that time the regions of Damascus continued almost always subject either to the Sultan of Aleppo or Egypt or divided between them.]

5 The Sultany of Asia seated chiefly at Iconium & watered by an arm of Euphrates which runs through the midst of it. Its Sultans were 1 Cuthumish of the race of Saljuk. 2 Solyman fil. 3 Kelvi-Arslan (or Tanisman) fil: who began his reign A.C 1100. 4 Masud fil: 1106. 5 Kelij-Arslan (or Clisastlan) fil: with his brothers 1152. 6 Cai-Closroes fil with his brothers: 1192. 7 Ezzoddin fil: 8 Aladin frat: 1219 9 Giyathoddin fil 1237. 10 Ezzoddin fil 1244, together with his brothers Rocnoddin & Aladin.

Besides these (& the Sultanies of Egypt & Chorasan, which I reccon not here as well by reason of their distance from Euphrates as becaus they ceased in the time of the fift Trumpet) there were sometimes other Sultanies split out of these; but those were but of small extent, bearing perhaps that proportion to these which the European Dukedomes & Principalities do to Kingdoms. And if any of them were at any time greater yet they were but of short continuance & extinct before the end of the fift Trumpet, & therefore deserve not <49r> to be here remembred unless with reference to the forementioned cardinall Sultanies out of which they were derived & into which they returned again.

Now of these five Sultanies if the first be omitted becaus it ceased long before the loosing of the Angels, & was coincident with the Chalifate while it lasted; there will remain only four, as the number of the Angels requires. These four, & only these are fellows in all respects: ffor they were all of the same people, & sprang out of the same great Empire & took their beginning much about the same time, & lasted together for almost two hundred years, though not without variety of fortune, till at length they were ruined by the Tartars: & therefore being also situate upon the branches of Euphrates on all sides so as to comprehend that river, & that in a square position, they fully answer to the type of the 4 angels bound therein.

*** < insertion from f 48v > *** Their position was not indeed exactly square. But as Daniel expressed that the successors of Alexander the great should be divided toward the four winds of Heaven Dan 11.4, & yet they lay not exactly east west north & south from any common center but only something nearely approached that posture: so here it may suffice if the posture of the 4 Turkish nations pretty nearly resemble a square. And this they seem to do whether you consider their dition in general or their head cities. ffor, accounting Damascus the head of Syria as it was unquestionably in the beginning of this Sultany & many ages before; their position, so nearly as I can gather it out of         & the Nubian Geography, is this < text from f 49r resumes >

5. Suppposing therefore that these Tetrarchies are the 4 Angels & that by their being bound in Euphrates is meant their residence upon that river, the loosing of them, since it stands in opposition to binding, must be interpreted their loosing from those seats. And this happened at the invasion of the Tartars, the history of which is as follows.

In the year 1203 the supreme Empire of the Tartars (a name not heard of before this time) was founded by Iingiz Chan, by whom amongst other eastern & northern regions Chorasan was subdued & by his successors the Kingdom of Armenia much afflicted & the Sultany of Iconium also (A.C. 1243,) but not ruined. At length Mangaca Chan the 4th Emperor of the Tatars being converted to Christianity by means of Ayton king of Armenia, sent his brother Hulacu (or Halaon) with a great army to invade the Turks & root out their religion. Hulacu therefore advancing from the east, after he had stayed some time in Persia <50r> & subjected it, came to Bagdad Ian 22 1258, & in a day & a night compassed the city with a wall & a ditch, & took it the 10th of February following; his soldiers continuing to spoile kill & make captives for seven days together, at the end of which time the Chalifa was also put to death & so the Chalifate dissolved.

After this Hulacu the same year upon some provocation sends his son Yashmut with part of his army to beseige Miepharekin, who in a day & a night compas it with a wall & a deep ditch & begin to assault it, but after some sharp conflicts finding they could not take it by force, they determined to keep it shut up till it should be worn out by famin.

The next year A.C 1259 Hulacu cites the Sultans of Syria & Asia to come to him & submit themselves, which Ezzoddin the Sultan of Asia with his brother Rucnoddin did, but Naser the Sultan of Syria refused. Wherefore he sent back the Asian Sultans honourably & confirmed them in their dominions, but invaded Syria A.C. 1260 with an army of four hundred thousand, taking first a[114] Harran & b[115] Roan () with the adjacent regions on the east of Euphrates which belonged to the Syrian Sultany, & then having passed the river, whilst his Captains invaded the other cities of this Sultany, (amongst which was , Emessia, Hama, Moarra &c) he himself besieged Aleppo & took it in a few days, a greater number of people being slain there then at Bagdad. In the mean while Naser, who with his court resided at Damascus, hearing of the progress of the Tatars fled with his family into the Desert Carac & Shaubac, & the Nobles of Damascus so soon as the Tatars approached the City delivered it to them.

Not long after Hulacu being about to return into the eastern regions, the other army came to him from the siege of Miepharekin, bringing with them Ashraph the Sultan thereof, & relating how they had slain all that were in the city, there being but few of them whom the famin had not destroyed before, because otherwise the army of Tatars would not have sufficed to take the citty

About the same time Hulacu, so soon as he came <51r> neare Maredin cited the Sultan thereof to appeare before him, but he refusing, the Tatars beseige that city also, But the Sultan dying suddenly, his son Modhaffer presently yeilds the city to Hulacu; whereupon Hulacu treated him honourably & restored the city to him with the rest of his fathers dominions. Yet about 30 years after this Sultany as well as the rest was dissolved.

Whilst Hulacu besieged Maredin, Naser with his family was taken & slain. And the next year A.C 1261 Saleh the sultan of Mausela with his brother combining with the Egyptians against the Tattars, was invaded also by them under the leading of Samdago one of Hulacu's captains, & Mausela beseiged & taken, the soldiers continuing for eight days together to spoile kill & captvate. And amongst the rest Saleh was taken & commanded to be slain by Hulacu.

[116]Vntill this time the Greeks had constantly possessed Asia strictly so called, Paphlagonia, Bythinia, Phrygia magna, Phrygia Pacatiana, Caria & part of Cilicia. And the rest of the Asian Provinces to Euphrates, namely Lycaonia, Galatia, Pamphilia, Armenia, Hellenopontus, Pisidia, & Lycia belonged to the Sultany of Iconium. But now the Turks of Mesopotamia & Syria being molested by the Tatars flocked into Asia to shelter themselves under the Iconian Sultan, & to obtein new seats their severall Princes made wars upon the Grecians. Mantachia subdued the city Ephesus & the Province Caria, Atin conquered Lydia as far as Smyrna. Sarchan all Magnesia to Pergamus together with the whole Province of the Magedi. Carmian all Phrygia. Carasses the other Phrygia between Hellespont & the city Asso, & Othman all Bythinia with part of Paphlagonia.

In the mean time the Iconian Sultany became much <52r> afflicted & weakned by the Tatars pressing upon them & taking from them the regions next Euphrates insomuch that at the death of Aladin it was dissolved. And then or soon after, namely in the year 1299, Othoman being grown more powerfull then the rest of the Turkish Princes took upon him the dignity & title of Sultan & under him the whole body of the Turks united by degrees: whereby being rendred more powrfull they prevailed still more upon the Greeks, & within a while invaded Europe, not ceasing to propagate their victories till at length they overthrew the Constantinopolitan Empire & on its ruins erected |  founded that great Empire which we see at present.

Now in this history we have first the desolation of Bagdad. But this being not a Turkish Sultany like the rest, but in the hands of the Chalifa who had been always of the Saracen Nation & from before the foundation of Bagdad of one & the same family of the Abasides; it will be most proper to refer the desolation of this city to the former Trumpet as the conclusion thereof, & so there will remain these four Turkish Nations, the south-Mesopotamian, the north-Mesopotamian including part of Armenia, the Syrian, & the Asian which at this time were the full extent of the Turkish dominions, & all which within the compass of 30 or 40 years after the dissolution of the Chalifate, that is in the beginning of this Trumpet were overrun & loosed by the Tatars from their Eufratean seats, & forced upon the Christians to make war upon them & erect that great Empire which reigns at present & is the plague of apostate Christendom threatned in this Trumpet.

The greatest objection against this interpretation is that Miepharekin was at this time a distinct Sultany & <53r> so there should have been rather 5 then 4 Angels. But if we consider that this Sultany was neither of equall standing nor probably of equall extent with the rest, it being but lately rent from the Sultany of Maredin & guirded on the one hand by the kingdom of Armenia & on the other by the Sultany of Maredin, whose seats Maredin & Miepharekin were not above 80 or 90 Italian miles distant; & also that Miepharekin was seated beyond Tigris, & so could not be so properly said to be bound in Euphrates as the rest: it will be more naturall to refer this (as I signified above) to the Sultany of Maredin as a branch thereof, recconing them still to make but one great Nation or Angel as formerly, then to fellow it with the originall Sultanies. A case not unlike this we have in the third of Daniel's universal Empires represented by the Leopard, who had 4 heads to signify its division into 4 Kingdoms at the death of Alexander. And yet it was divided into more then four Kingdoms. ffor besides the Egyptian, Syrian, Asian, & Macedonian, there was (to mention no others) the Thracian which continued distinct about 36 years, & yet, becaus none of the principall kingdoms, such as might properly be represented by heads of a Beast, it was not recconed among the other four but rather referred to the Kingdom of Macedon as I suppose becaus it was at length united to that. Compare this with the present case of the Turks, & I think it will make the interpretation clear.

Analogous to the loosing of these Angels is the drying up of the waters of Euphrates in the 6t Vial. For these two actions must correspond with one another becaus they are the beginnings of this Trumpet & Vial which are contemporary. Now by the waters of this river we are to understand the people situate upon it by Def     that is, the Turkish Sultanies. And by the pouring a Vial upon this river the inflicting of some great calamity upon the people such as was the tartarian invasion. And by the continued drying up the waters of that river, the wasting of the power & dominion of that people by Def       that is, the dissolution of the Turkish Sultanies by that <54r> invasion. And consequently by the Kings or a[117] Princes from the east whose way was prepared by the drying up these waters, we must understand the chief leaders of the great army of horsmen which upon the loosing of the 4 Angels came from Euphrates to execute the plague of this Trumpet, that is the Princes under whose conduct the Turks fled from the Tattars into Asia to invade the Christians For these were the Princes or Kings from the East whose way was prepared by the dissolution of the Euphratean Sultanies. And of these there are recconed by historians seven eminent ones a little before they united under Othoman besides others of inferior note which first united under those. Thus much concerning the original of this great empire. Proceed we now to the rest of the circumstances.

7. And the next is the numerousness of the Turkish armies. But how great this hath been since their loosing & still is, is better known then that I need stay to compute it. I shall rather observe that since these horsmen as well as the Locusts were to be so exceeding numerous, we may thence collect that they were to be the armies of two very great Empires, & consequently of none other then the Saracenical & Turkish, the only two great ones by which the Christian world has been hitherto afflicted.

In both these armies there is mention made only of horsmen but we are not to conclude thence that the armies should consist of horsmen only, but rather that the description is taken from the nobler part & that part wherein they should notably excell. Yea the foot are included in the hors being represented by their tailes. For the tail of a hors according to ancient Interpreters[118] signifies the train of his rider, & the train of an Army is the foot. Hence it is that in this Trumpet the tailes are said to have heads & to do hurt, that is to fight as well as the riders of the horses: which is a plain insinuation that they signify men as well as the riders.

8. The description of the armour of these horsmen (that they had breastplates of fire & jacinth & brimstone &c) is very singular, there being no where els in the whole scriptures such a description of armour to be met with. What therefore can be here intended but the new way of fighting not known in the world before the beginning of this

<55r>

{illeg} manner called an Angel, & kings being put for kingdomes as in Dan 7.17 & 8.20 & Apoc 17.10, 12.

4. These Kingdoms were at first seated upon Euphrates, as is manifest by the expression that the angels were bound in that river.

5. This Trumpet begins at their loosing from that river.

6. The Army is described exceeding numerous. δυο μυριάδες μυριάδων, or according to some readings μυριάδες μυριάδων, the word δυο being omitted. In either reading we are to understand only an immens number, (as in Psal 58.17 The chariots of God are two myriads.) For the number μυριὰς רבוא or רככה is of those numerall words which the Hebrews use not only for ten thousand but indefinitely for any great number, especially when it is thus doubled, as may be seen in Dan 7.10.

7. Their armour is described after a very singular manner; viz: That they had breastplates of fire & of Iacinth & Brimstone, & the heads of the horses were as the heads of Lyons, & out of their mouths issued fire & smoke & brimstone whereby they killed men.

8. By these three (the fire & smoke & brimstone) the third part of men was killed.

9. The rest of men which were not killed by these plagues repented not.

10 The time for which they were prepared to destroy the third part of men is an hour, & a day & a month

<56r>

These being the conditions of this Trumpet, they do after a very singular manner point out the Turkish Empire. For j The Turks were the next great enemy to the Roman territories. Their's & the Saracen's Empire have been the two greatest, & the only two very great scourges of the Christian world for this last thousand years, & therefore none but these can be intended by the two first of the three great woes; unles we will suppose that the Holy Ghost has been very elaborate in describing some smaller plagues of the Christians & taken no notis of the greatest; which would be to make the parts of the Prophesy hold no proportion with those of history.

The common period of these two Trumpets I assigne to the yeare 1258. For I measure the whole duration of the former Trumpet by the standing of the Chalifate & not by the twice five months raging of the Locusts, that being but a more signall intermediate period. For after that time the world continued in the hands of the Saracens for many years though not under the dominion of the Chalifa but broken into may temporall kingdoms. And therefore as this Trumpet began with the birth of the Angel of the bottomless pit ( exprest by the falling of the star from heaven) which was before his Empire was founded, so it should end with the deceasing of that angel though long after the abrogating of his Empire. Now the deceasing of this Angel was in the year 1258 when Haalon the Tartar took Bagdad & put an end to the Chalifate. And at that very time the 4 Angels were loosed as shall be explained hereafter

<57r>

The length of the fift Trumpet is indeed thus assigned very great in proportion to the former Trumpets. But it was fit that the first Trumpets should be but short, being a description of that most criticall time wherein the true religion was everted & the Apostacy set up, & therefore to be delineated more articulately: & the holy Ghost has signified the far greater length of these last Trumpets by dwelling much longer upon their description.

2. The affinity between the Turks & Saracens is sufficiently conspicuous, the last having been interwoven with the Empire of the former living within it sometimes as subjects, sometimes as neighbouring Princes for some hundreds of years together, so as to be esteemed almost one people; ; & both being also of the same religion.

3, & 4. The original of the Turkish Empire agrees also to the prophesy that it should be from a quaternion of kingdoms seated upon Euphrates. For such was the constitution of the Turks when they began first to have the face of an Empire; they then consisting of these four Kingdoms or Sultanies, the Persian, Damasacene, Alepian, & Iconian. The first of these was founded by Togrulbec (or Tangrolipix) who first subdued Chorasan & Persia, & then advanced to Bagdad & made himself master thereof in the year 1055 fixing the seat of his empire there & in the year 1057 being inaugurated Emperor of Emperors by the Chalifa. Out of this Sultany sprang the other three whereof that at Damascus was founded by Tagjuddaulus Nisus, (the Nephew of Togrulbec) who <58r> took Damascus from the Saracens in the year 1079. His successor was Ducathes (or Decacus) A.C. 1095, to whom, saith Scilix,[119] all the region of Decapolis was subject, which region bordered upon Euphrates

The Alepian Sultany was founded by Sjarfuddaulas in the same year 1079: whose metropolis Alepo was watered by an arm of Euphrates drawn thither by one of the Sultans.

The fourth Sultany whose Metropolis at first was Cæsara (not Cæsarea of Cappadocia but a town upon the river Orontes in Syria called Sjazarum by Elmacinus & corruptly Cæsarea for Cæsara by the Europeans as William Tyrius writes[120] ) was founded by Sedijduddaulas (a Kinsman of the afforesaid Togrulbec,) who took Cæsara from the Romans the next year 1080, & he dying within two years , his successors Belfeve & Soliman inlarged the kingdom into Asia beyond Nicæa of Bythinia, although not long after they were beaten back again to Euphrates by the champions of the Ierusalemitan war. The sultans of this Tetrarchy though at first they made Cæsara the seat of their kingdom yet afterward they resided most at Iconium in Cappadocia, whence they were called Sultans of Iconium.

In this fourfold form the Turks continued for almost two hundred years though not without some mutations. For the Iconian Sultany towards the latter end was sometimes for a while divided into two or more dynasties by the posterity of the deceased Sultan, & the Damascene & Alepian Sultanies were for some time united under Noradin & again under Saladin, but after their deaths returned to their ancient state, excepting that about the year 1247 the Damascene Sultany fell into the hands of the Egyptian Sultan (who from the year 1168 had ben of the <59r> race of the Turks springing out of the Damascene Sultany:) & about 6 or 7 years after it was take from the Egyptians by the Sultan of Alepo.. But however it is enough if during these little intervalls it continued a distinct Province with its own Metropolis & people.

For the better understanding this busines I have here given you a table of these Sultans with the beginnings of their reign so far as I have met with them in the histories of Elmacinus, W. Tyrius, Io. Herold, & some of the Byzantine writers.

1432
BagdadCæsara & Iconium AlepoDamascus
1055. Togrulbec1080 Sedijduddaulas1079 Sjarfuddaulas1079 Tagjuddaulas
1063. Obarsalan1082 Abulmerhaf,1095 Decac
1071. Gjelaluddaulasalias Belfere, cog-1095 Roduwan1104 Abadacus cogno
nomine Cutlu-musis1117 Bulgarmine Doldequin.
1092. Barcana      Soliman      Sanguin1130 Tegel-melud
1094. Barkiaruc      Tanisman
1105. Mahammed     Clisasthan cum fratribus.1144 Noradin      Mejeredin
1117. Mahmud      Reucratine cum fratribus, is 1173 Melechsala1154 Noradin
         &cin vivis erat circa an:1179 Rebedim1173 Saladin
1200.
      Aladin fil1181 Saladin1195 Sephadin
      Azatines1195 Noradin in1209 Coradin
vivis anno 1209
Iathatines desijt     * * *in vivis anno 1227
anno 1262 a Tar     Maleroasa vel Malchnessar Sul
taris depositus.tanorum ultimus a
Tartaris captus anno
1260

Besides these four, W. Tyrius[121] mentions a fift at Antioch given to Accian by Belfesc, adding that it was but of narrow bounds, the Chalifa of Egypt (who was of the Saracen nation) possessing all the regions unto Laodicea of Syria. But this lasted not above 14 years, Antioch being taken A.C. 1098 by the Christians under Boamudas: & therefore since it was so inconsiderable & was utterly extinct so long before the loosing of the angels, there is no reason it should be recconed among those that were loosed.

5 Now the loosing of the Angels I suppose to be the re- <60r> laxation of the afforesaid Tetrarchies from their Euphratean seats by the invasions of the Tartars. For when these Tetrarchies were first founded they began to gain grownd very much from the Romans but were suddenly checked by the famous Ierusalemitan expedition, & as it were confined or bound to Euphrates untill by the Tartars they were driven from thence upon the Romans. And therefore this must be their loosing supposing their precedent residence upon that river to be their binding therein.

As for the time of this loosing it began to be attempted about the year 1200 when the Tartars first with an innumerable army led by Changius Chan brake in upon the Turks, but was not performed till 1258 when Haleon the Tartar overran Persia, took Bagdad & dissolved that Sultany together with the Chalifate, & then crossing Mesopotamia took Alepo & Damascus A.C. 1260 & soon after Ieonium also, dissolving the two first of those sultanies, & taking the third from Iathatines & dividing it between Masut & Keicubades whom he made tributaries, & then in the sixt year of his expedition A.C 1262 returning home to succeed his deceased brother. Thus were the Turks of these four Sultanies all at once as it were at a watch word given loosed from Euphrates & driven into Natolia to make war upon the Romans; the reliques of them also which after this remained beyond Euphrates in broken Dynasties being in the year 1289 universally ejected out of Persia into the Roman territories: which they continually gained upon as they lost grownd to the Tartars. For although they were now divided into many Satrapies, yet by degrees they overran & possest themselves of almost all Natolia. Nor stopt they there but after a while <61r> uniting under Ottoman began to rage more fiercely, invaded Europe & propogated their victories over the Christians till they overthrew the Constantinopolitan Empire & upon its ruins erected that great Empire which reigns at present, & is the main subject of this Trumpet.

In the sixt Vial this loosing is exprest as if the Kings were to come from beyond Euphrates. But I suppose relation is there had only to the Persian Sultany; that being by many degrees greater & more considerable then all the rest put together, & at the loosing dissipated into many Satrapies. For it was the custom of the Turks to sort themselves in great bodies according to their severall families, the heads of which families were upon occasion given ready to assert their liberty. Whence by the incursion of the Tartars (which as I said began first about the year 1200) the Persian Sultany being so very large must necessarily have been broken by degrees into many new Sultanies (as they called all free Satrapies) some of which (though not recconned among the angels bound in Euphrates becaus none of the original Sultanies but comprehended in that of Bagdad, nor seated upon Euphrates[122] but lying beyond Mesopotamia a good part of which was in the hands of the King of Armenia who being a christian was an enemy to the Turks combining with the Tartars against them) yet might they probably be no whit inferior in extent of dominion to the Sultanies on this side the river, seing it was 30 years after the fall of the Sultany of Bagdad before the Tartars could conquer & expell them all. From these chiefly I conceive sprang that great number of Satrapies in Natolia, whereof there are recconned seven principall ones a little before Ottoman. And these therefore I suppose to be the Kings of the east for the preparing of whose way the waters <62r> of Euphrates were dried up; that is figuratively. For I conceive nothing more is intended by that expression but to signify that those kings should come from beyond that river & pass over it, & consequently come out of Persia. Thus much concerning the originall of this great Empire. Proceed we now to the rest of the circumstances.

6. How numerous the Turkish armies have been since their loosing is better known then that I need stay to compute it. I shall rather observe that since these Euphratean horsmen as well as the Locusts were to be so exceeding numerous we may thence collect that these were to be the armies of two very great Empires, & consequently of none other then the Saracenicall & Turkish Empires, the only two great ones by which the christian world has been hitherto afflicted.

In both these armies there is mention made only of horsmen, but we are not to conclude thence that the armies should consist of horsmen only, but rather that the description is taken from the nobler part & that part wherein they should notably excell. Yea the foot are included in the hors, being represented by their tailes. For the tail of a hors according to ancient interpreters signifes the train of his rider & the train of an army is the foot. Hence it is that in this Trumpet the tailes are said to have heads & to do hurt, that is to fight as well as the riders of the horses: which is a plain insinuation that they signify men as well as the riders.

7. The description of the armour of these horsmen (that they had breastplates of fire & jacinth & brimstone &c) is very singular, there being no where els in the whole scripture such a description of armour to be met with. What therefore can be here intended but the new way of fighting not known in the world before the beginning of this <63r> Trumpet? I mean with gunns which send forth fire & jacinthine smoke & brimstone, whereby the medium being corrupted a soldier to his enemy appears covered with fire & thick smoke whose colour is jacinthine & substance sulphureous; & the heads of the horses are also made to seem more fierce & terrible as it were of Lions. For that this is to be understood not of the reall armour of the horsmen & shape of the hors heads, but of their appearance by means of the corrupted medium, is manifest from hence that the fire & smoke & brimstone is said to come out of the horses mouths & consequently must corrupt the medium. Hence in the beginning of this description Saint Iohn saith: Thus I saw the horses ἐν ὁράσει, in appearance; which is as much as to say: This is the description of their appearance to the enemy, that they should seem covered as it were with breastplates of fire & smoke & brimstone, & that the horses heads should appear like Lyons, & the fire & smoke & brimstone be sent forth after such a manner that one would think it came out of the horses mouths. For this is the force of ἐν ὁράσει as may appear out of Ch 4.3 Ὅμοιος ὁράσει λίθω Ιάσπιδι καὶ ἰρις ὁμοία ὁράσει σμαραγδίνω: the only place besides in the Apocalyps where this word is used.

Now that all this is a description of a fighting engin is manifest from hence that the third part of men should be killed by this fire & smoke & brimstone which ἐν ὁράσει came out of the horses mouths. But if you examin all sorts of engins that ever were in use before guns you will not find any to whom this description has any similitude: & therefore none other then guns can be intended by it.

9. And these were the engins (as is well known) by <64r> which the Turks killed the third part of men, that is overthrew the Constantinopolitan Empire which in the beginning of this Trumpet was about the third part of all the Christian Kingdoms which sprang out of the old Roman Empire. For the Constantinopolitan Empire, which I told you was at first two parts in three of the whole, was now diminished by about three quarters of it: having lost all that half which lay eastward of Natolia, the Mediterranean sea & Egypt, & also about one half of the remainder, namely Egypt, Mœsia, & part of Natolia.

10. Yet notwithstanding this judgment upon the third part of men the other two third parts which were not killed by these plagues, namely the rest of the European Kingdoms which descended from the western Empire, repented not of the works of their hands that they should not worship Ghosts & Idols of gold & silver & brass & stone & wood which neither can see nor hear nor walk: neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts. That the men here spoken of are these western Kingdoms is plain since there are not nor have been for many hundreds of years any sort of men besides the Papists within the old compas of the Roman Empire which worship Ghosts & Idols. Nor are there any others so much guilty of murder as these have been by their massacres & daily persecution of all those they call heretiques, which since the execution of this plague they have been so far from repenting of that they have exceedingly aggravated it by setting up the bloody inquisition. These also are they that stand guilty of φαρμακείαι deluding men as it were by magicall operations. For what are their miracles which they <65r> much boast of, & their piæ fraudes but φαρμακείαι inchanted love potions of the whore whereby she intoxicates the understandings of men, & (as is exprest in ch 18.23) deceives the nations. How much also these European nations are guilty of fornication is too notorious; especially among the papists who blush not to incourage it by tollerating publique stews. And I could wish that in the last sin here mentioned, namely cheating, exactions, & all kinds of rapaciousness which are of the nature of theft, the christians exceeded not even the ancient heathens & present Turks. But the heaping up riches is the main design of almost all men, nor care they by what means, but are so universally addicted to overreaching & all kinds of dishonesty that even amongst the Turks we are become a reproach & proverb for it.

11. Having run through the circumstances by which the Turkish Empire is characterised, there remains only the duration of this wo to be considered. And this I suppose is that intervall exprest by an hower & a day & a month & a year. For that is the time for which the 4 angels were prepared to slay the third part of men, that is, as I interpret, the time of the people of the four angels for which they were prepared to constitute an empire upon killing the third part of men, or the time that the third part of men should continue slain by them. For as in the former Trumpet the five months expressed the main time of that wo & of the Empire which inflicted it, so by analogy must this number do in this Trumpet. Now the killing the third part of men being, as I explained, the dissolution of the Constantinopolitan Empire, we are to date this time from the taking of Constantinople whereby the Empire was dissolved & this happened May 29th, A.C. 1453; from which if we therefore count the afforesaid time, recconning (according <66r> to Saint Iohn's computation ch 12.6, 14 & 11.2, 3) thirty days to a month & twelve months to a year, the Turkish Empire & there be not a further mystery in the trumpet then I am aware of may be expected to loose Constantinople its imperial seat in the year 1844, & perhaps the Emperors may then seat themselves for a time in Iudæa according to what Daniel seems to intend when he saith of this monarch in the conclusion that he shall plant the Tabernacle of his Palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain Dan 11.45.

Historians indeed date this Empire from the reign of Ottoman rather then from the taking of Constantinople, but the rise & fall of Imperial cities being changes of the greatest note, the holy Ghost, as I signified, measures Empires rather by the standing of them then by the dominion of single persons. And besides, the Turkish dominions before the taking of Constantinople were but of a moderate extent being limited on the east by Cappadocia Paphlagonia & Cilicia which belonged to the Trapezuntine Emperor & other kings: so that we may reccon this the time when their Empire began to transcend the bounds of an ordinary kingdom. For upon this followed not only the notable enlargement of their dominions into Europe but also into Paphlagonia Cappadocia, Calchis, Armenia, Cilicia Mesopotamia, Syria, Babylon, Arabia, Egypt, & part of Afric; & therefore this period may well be accounted the beginning of their kingdom to be an Empire, though not the beginning of the reign of the Ottoman family.

I should now proceed to the seventh Trumpet, but since that concerns the time to come, it will be better to return to the things that are contemporary to the Seales & Trumpets already explained, & in the next place to describe at large what was hinted in Posit     Arg: 5, concerning the Beast & his horns.

[1] Sigonius de Occ{illeg}

[2] a Oros. l 7. c

[3] Oros l 7. c 34.

[4] Ammian l 31 Hieronymi chron.

[5] Ammian. l 28.

[6] Ib. l. 28

[7] Ib l 29

[8] Iornandes

[9] a Ammian

[10] b Iornand. Regn. succes.

[11] a Zosim

[12] a Zosim l 41.

[13] Gratianus ab exercitu suo proditus et ab obijs urbibus non receptus ludibrio hosti fuit, cruentæque manus vestigia parietes tui Lugdune testantur. Hieronymus Epist 3. You may see how he was slain in Socrates l 5. c 11.

[14] c Zos. l 4. Claudian de 1mo Honorij consulatu

[15] d Maximus Scisciæ et Petavione et ubique terrarum victus est D. Ambros. D. Hierom in Epist 3 calls Valentinians part of the Empire recovered by this war recuperatum multo sanguine Imperium. The history of the war you may see in Zosimus l 4. [Socrates l 5. c 14. Paul Diac &c.]

[16] e Theodosius composita tranquillitateque republica apud Mediolanum constitutus diem fuit Oros l 5. c 35. Omnibus in invicis Theodosius superatis in pace rebus humanis Mediolanum excessit Iorn de regn. succ.

[17] Iorn. de regn. succes

[18] a Baron. Annal. Ann. 403. sec 50 & 52.

[19] c Marcellinus

[20] d Orosius l 7. c 37

[21] a This victory is attributed to the virtue of Huldin & Sarus with their Huns & Goths, whence it is like that the Romans {came} in onely to the slaughter after the others had put the east to confusion. Huldin et Sarus Hunnorum Gothorumque Reges Radagaisum continue confecerunt. Marcelin Chron.

[22] a Baron. Ann. 406. sec. 1

[23] a Def.

[24] b Def.

[25] c Def.

[26] a. Ethelwedus edit. Londi, f. 474. b.

[27] Oros. l. 7. c. 42.

[28] Prosp l 2 A.C. 425 Castinus. exulat Idat Chron Prosp l 2

[29] a Sigonius de Occid. Imp. l

[30] a Sigonius de Occid. Imp. l

[31] Prosper. in Prolog. lib. de provid. Dei

[32] b Possi. c 28.

[33] Victor de persec Wandal. lib 1 in præf.

[34] a Procop. de bello Wand. l 2. Niceph l 15 c. 11.

[35] Victor de Wand. pers l 1.

[36] Procop. de bello Wandal. l 1.

[37] Procop. de bello Wandal. l 1. Nicephorus l 15. c 27.

[38] Def

[39] Def

[40] a Fig

[41] b Fig

[42] Sigonius de Occ. Imp. l     Iornand Get. Paul. Diac. continuatio hist Eutrop. l 15.

[43] Note:The contents of this note are only visible in the diplomatic transcript because they were deleted on the original manuscript

[44] Greg. Turon. l 2. c{69}

[45] Greg. Turon. l 2. c{69}

[46] a. Hunni erumpentes et per totam Galliam diffusi partim simulatæ pacis arte tenebant urbes partim vi expugnabant. Ex vita Lupi Frecensis Episcopi apud Sur. die 29 Iulij. ✝ Tota vastation < insertion from lower down f 17v > ✝ Tota vastatio populatori Attilæ, ascribitur. Tum Coloniæ Agrippina. Tungrorum oppidum, Novesium, Vtricensium, Castra Herculis, Vetera, Ascibargium, Noviomagus, Antennacum, Bingium, Magonciacum, Borbetomagus, Sebutium, Saletio, Brocomasus, Argentoratum, Elebus, Argentuaria, Augusta Rauricorum, Vindomissa, Forum Tiberij, Vitudurum, Aventicum, et multa alia oppida funditus destructa sunt. Non multò post Ætius auxiliantibus Gothis profligavit Attilam apud Catalaunos. Beat. Rhenan. l. 1, p. 62. < text from f 18r resumes >

[47] r Sic Iornandes Get: sed Idatius ponit 150000 Hunnos & 200000 Gothos cæsos fuisse præter innumerabilem multitudinem quæ paulo post occubuit in alio prælio trium dierum inter Attilam & Thorismundum qui patrem Theodericum in priori prælio occisum ulsisci desiderans novum Gothorum exercitum collegerat. Isidorus autem ponit in utroque prælia trecenta fere millia prostrata.

[48] Note:The contents of this note are only visible in the diplomatic transcript because they were deleted on the original manuscript

[49] b Attila continuò resumpta fiducia cruentus Italiam petit Aquileiam captam funditus eradit, Ticinumque Mediolanum regias urbes excidit. Paul. Diac. Misc. Hoc tempore funientes Itali Vrbem Venetorum a regione denominatum condiderunt.

[50] a Isidor. Hist. Got.

[51] a See Iornandes Get. & Idatius

[52] ✝ The Gothic war began at the invasion of Dalmatia A.C. 535 & ended A.C 555 at the overthrow of the great army of Leuthares & Buccellinus whom the Franks sent into Italy to assist the Goths: the History of all which you may see at large in Procopius & Agathias & Hist. Miscel.‡ < insertion from f 21v > ‡ in Procopius & Agathias & Hist M{iscell.} To which I may add this Passage in Chronico Divionensi apud Dacherium Tom: 1 {illeg}gij. Theodebertus Rex Francorum cum exercitu Italiam ingressus eam maritimis depopulatus est, Narcete Patricio in fugam verso. Postea Buccellinus Dux jussu Theodeberti Siciliam occupavit, totamque Italiam fugam vertit, eorumque exercitum proterit. Tandem infirmatus a profluvio ventris, exercitusque suus ea infirmitate attritus, Belisario jam interfecto a Narsete superatur & interficitur. - Miserat et Theudebertus Saxones in Italiam qui ibi commovati sunt usque ad tempora Clip Longobardorum post Albuinum Regis. < text from f 21r resumes >

[53] a Viginti jam et septem annos ducimus quod in hac urbe inter Longobardorum gladios vivimus. Greg. Mag. l. 4. Epist. 34. Qualiter enim et quotidianis gladijs & quantis Longobardoum incursionibus ecce jam per triginta quinque annorum longitudinem premimur, nullis explere vocibus suggestionis valemus. Greg. Mag. lib. 11 Epist 45 Ad Phocam Imp Indic. 6. edit. Roma.

[54] b Hist. Misc. lib. 18.

[55] c. Anastas. in vita Ioan. 3.

[56] ✝ Agathius l. 1.

[57] ✝ Tenuit Theudericus,, inquit Grotius, Italiam, Siciliam, Rhætiam, Noricum, Dalmatiam ✝ cum Liburnia Istriáque & Suevorum ibi parte, Pannoniam illam in qua Singidon & Sirmium; Galliæ prætereæ, multa ob quæ cum Francis bella gessit, pendebant ei tributa Alemanni. Hispaniam autem regebat idem Theudericus tutoris nomine pro Amalaricho suo nepote. Quæ omnia partim apud Procopium partim apud Cassiodorum videas. Hæc Grotius in Prolegomenis.

[58] Per Theudericum dignitas urbis Romæ non parva est restituta, muros enim ejus iste redintegravit, ob quam causam a senatu instauratam statuam meruit. Isidorus in Chron. Patricio et Hypatio Coss: Rex Theudericus Romam cunctorum votis expetitus advenit, et Senatum suum mira affabilitate tractans Romanæ plebi donavit annonas, atque admirandis mœnibus, deputata per annos singulos maxima pecuniæ quantitate, subvenit: sub cujus fælici Imperio plurimæ renovantur urbes, munitissima castella conduntur, consurgunt admiranda Palatia; magnisque ejus operibus antiqua miracula superantur. Cassiodorus in Chron.     Erat Theodoricus fama quidem Tyrannus re tamen præ se veri specimen Imperatoris ferebat, ut qui vel eorum qui a principio ea in dignitate probatiores fuissent, nemini inferior fuerit: & Gothos item ac Italos pari quadam ac summâ benevolentiâ <23r-a> suapte humanitate prosequebatur, ita {illeg} omnes (quod utique difficillimum est) ejus Imperium oblectaret. Procop. de Bello Gottico lib. 1. Idem Procopius Gothos et Belisarium sic inducit colloquentis. Gothi: Zenon Theodoricum Byzantium obsessurum suadebat ut ex Odoacre pænas ob injuriam Augustulo Imp. illatam exigeret, hunc igitur in modum nos Italiæ suscepto Imperio leges simul et Remp. salvas non minùs reddidimus quàm superiorum alius quisquam Imperatorum. - Romanorum sacraria eo in honore sunt apud nos habita ut a nullo nostratium hominum sit, qui ad ea confugerit, violatus. Omnibus præterea urbanis antehac magistratibus Romani perfungebantur, Gothus vir nemo eorum particeps factus: Vel procedat in medium qui profari nos ista non verè existimet: Addat et Consularem quispiam dignitatem, qua etsi Gothi ab Orientis Imperiatore donati Romanis tamen perfungi liberè permiserumt. Ad hæc Belisarius: Zenon quidem Imperator in Italiam Theodoricum transmisit Odoacro ut bellum inferret, non sibi ut hujus imperium vindicaret, (quid enim a Tyranno Tyrannus differt?) sed ut ea Provincia a se liberata Imperanti sibi subjiceretur. Procop. de bello Gott. Lib. 2.       Theodoricum Magistrum militum et Consulem Romanum Zenon Imperator Italiâ donavit, Senatum Populumque Romanum ei commendans. Iornandes Get. & De Regn. success. Evagrius Historicus Theodericum & Athalaricum vocat Administratores Occidentalis Imperij. Alij Imperium Occidentale ad Gothos translatum dicunt. De his vide plura apud Sigonium aliosque.

[59] a Agathias l 1.

[60] ✝ 4 Id. Decemb. Anastas: in vita Silvesij.

[61] g. 9 Kal. Mart Anastas. ib.

[62] c. Vrbem Romam ire mox pergit Vitiges equitum peditumque ad centus et qunquaginta millia dectans quorum pars maxima armis munita, vel equos ipsos {illeg} Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[63] d A.C. 547. Indic 10. Totila dolo Isaurorum ingreditur Romam die 16 Kal. Ian. ac evertit muros, domos aliquantas igne comburens, ac omnes Romanorum res in prædam accepit, hos ipsos Romanos in Campaniam Captivos abduxit: post quam devastationem quadraginta aut amplius dies Roma fuit ita desolata ut nemo ibi hominum nisi bestiæ morarentur. Marcellin. Chron.

[64] e De hoc obsidio sic meminit Anastasius in Vitis Pontificum. (A.C. 577.) Pelagius 2dus ordinatur absque jussione Principis eo quod Longobardi obsiderent civitatem Romanam, & multa vastatio ab eis in Italia fieret. Eodem tempore tantæ pluviæ fuerunt ut omnes dicerent quia aquæ diluvij super nos inundantur, & talis clades fuit - qualem a seculo nullus meminit.

[65] f. Greg. m. Dial. lib. 3. cap. 38.

[66] g Ex illa plebe innumerabili quanti remanseritis aspicitis & tamen adhuc quotidiè flagella urgent, repentina casus opprimunt, novæ res et improvisæ clades affligunt. Greg. Magn. Hom. in Luc. 21.

[67] h. Baron. Ann 567. § 15, 16.

[68] i. Ezek. 7.

[69] NB

[70] k. Greg. M. in Ezek. Hom. 18.

[71] l. Vetus est Vaticinium: Roma a Gentibus non exterminabitur sed tempestatibus, coruscis turbinibus, ac terræ motu fatigata in semet ipsa marcescet. Cujus Prophetiæ mysteria nobis facta sunt luce clariora, qui in hac urbe dissoluta mœnia, eversas domos, destructas Ecclesias turbine cernimus, ejusque ædificia longo semis lassata, quia ruinis crebrescentibus prosternantur videmus. Greg. Dial. lib. 2. cap. 35.

[72] Fig.

[73] Fig.

[74]

m. Phocas Imp. cœpit Novemb 23. A.C. 602, ut Petavius in Rationario temp. & notis ad Nicephori Breviarium, ex Chron. Alexandr. Theophane, Paulo Diac. Zonara, Cedreno, alijsque probavit. Et Gregorius Magnus obijt anno secundo Phocatis (P. Diac Beda Anastasius, Regino, Marianus Scotus, Hermannus Contractus Otto ffrisingensis, Vincentus in Speculo Hist. Cameracenas &c) Mart. 12 (Anastasius, Marian Scotus Platina, Martinus Chron. M.S. Onufrius &c) & vacat sedes mens. 5, dies 18 (Anastas. Platina, Martinus, Onuphrius) Tunc sedet Sabinianus An. 1, mens. 5, dies 9 (Anastas. Hermannus, Platina, Author ffaciculi Temporum, Onuphrius) vel ann. 1, mens. 10 adjuncta præcedente vacatione (Marian. Scot.) Martinus tamen ponit ann 1 mens 8 dies 9 absque ista vacatione. Obit autem Feb. 22 (Anastas.) vel 11 Kal. Mart. hoc est Feb. 18 (Marian Scot.) vel Feb 24 Indic. 10 (Cameracenas,) & vacat sedes mens. 11, dies 26. (Anastas. Platina, Onuphrius.) Dein Bonifacius 3 electus anno quinto Phocatis (Marian. Onufr. sedet mens. 8, dies 28, (Anastas. Hermannus, Martinus, Fascic. Temp. Platina,) & obit Novemb. 12 (Anastas.) vel 3 Id Decemb. (Marian. Sc. Cameracenas.) Patet igitur totum Papatum Bonifacij incidisse in annum 607 inter Feb. 18, & Novemb. 12.

Tempus obitus Gregorij Baronius e veteribus Monumentis stabilivit cæterisque hic allatis numeris (præsertim Anastasianis) assensum præbuit, nisi <30r> quod posuerit Sabinianum sedisse tantum menses quinque & dies novem, asserens omnes tam Græcos quam Latinos scriptores referre et initiam & finem ejus ad eundem annum. Sed hallucinatus est et forte per occitationem transtulit ad Sabinianum quæ de Bonifacio observaret.

[75] a Anastasius & Platina in vita Sabin.

[76] n. Belli Gothici primus annus docente Procopio incidit in Consulatum Belisarij hoc est in A.C. 535. Vnde initium obsidij anno tertio necessario cadet in A.C. 537. Id quod ex Marcellino confirmatur qui non tantum initium hujus obsidij ad Annum secundum post Cons. Belisarij Indic. 15, hoc est ad A.C. 537 refert, sed etiam res in alijs belli hujus annis narrante Procopio gestas, ad correspondentes annos Consulum et Indictionum. Adde quod Obsidium hocce contigit annis 60 completis post Romam ab Odoacro occupatam (Procop.     Evagr. l. 4, c. 19.) Odoacer autem occupabat eam A.C. 476, (Marcellin. Cassiodor.). Quare cum Anastasius diem apposuerit 9 Kal Mart. Erit initium obsidionis an: 537. Feb: 20.

[77] o. Procop. De Bello Got. lib. 2.

[78] p Vide Anastasium

[79] NB. Martinus Chron. Ms. in Archivis Trin. Coll. Cantabr.

[80] Fig.

[81] p. Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[82] p. Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[83] p. Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[84] q Hodiè reperta extant numismata inscripta hac DN. IVSTINIANVS AVG. illac DN. THEODAHATHVS REX. Baron. Ann. 536, § 8.

[85] r.

[86] s. Præter Calamitates in his Commentarijs descriptas aliæ multææ fuerunt eæque gravissimæ: et inter cæteras stupendus annorum quinquaginta duorum pestis qui ab A.C. 544 incipiens per totam ferè hanc quartam Tubam, vastabat orbem. Evagr. Hist.

[87] Note:The contents of this note are only visible in the diplomatic transcript because they were deleted on the original manuscript

[88] {illeg} natum {illeg} etiam {illeg} et Hist. Saracen. Vide Pocockij notas in Abul{illeg}rajium de origine et moribus Arabum.

[89] a Ioseph. de bello Iuda. l 1. c 3.

[90] b Ioseph. de Antiq. Iud. l 16. c 11, 13, 14, 15.

[91] nisi nomen ejus

[92] desierunt

[93] Ineunte itaque anno

[94] et reges terræ

[95] nanciscebantur

[96] Eratque Basra

[97] Ama

[98] whole duration of the

[99] beginning at Damascus

[100] A.C. 936 is 301 years

[101] be exempted wherin

[102] nothing to the Chalifa

[103] taken from the Ro

[104] no longer tormented

[105] of the bottomles pit

[106] remain 300 years

[107] months of years

[108] tormented by these

[109] If you now ask

[110] was not exprest

[111] [added Aleppo to Mausela A.C. 1079

[112] a Geogr. Nubiensis clim 4. part 6.

[113] a Geogr. Nubiensis

[114] a Carrhæ

[115] b Edessa

[116] Ducæ Hist. Byzant.

[117] a. NB. Βασιλεις which we usually render Kings was applied by the greeks not only to such great monarchs as we stile Kings but also Princes of lesser note.

[118] Apomasar cap 152.

[119] Scilix apud Christophorum Richerium

[120] W. Tyr. l 18. c 18.

[121] W. Tyrius l 4. c 11.

[122] Quære

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Professor Rob Iliffe
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