{illeg} {Lords} {illeg} {Lon}don, {Par}is & {Gla}{sgow} {illeg} In England{,} France, Flanders, Genoua, Florence. Venice they reccon by {poun}ds sh{hillin}gs {illeg} or livers sou{{ls}{s}} {&} deniers,

In Engla{nd} accounts are kept by pounds shillings pence halfpence & farthings. The Gold coyne are 5 guinea-pieces, two Guinea-pie{c}es, Guineas & half Guineas all of the same allay which is 11 parts fine gold & 1 part allay, & there are 441 Guineas in a pound weight {Troy.} The silver coyns are crowns or five shilling pieces, half crowns, shillings or twelve-pences, six pences, four-pences or groats, three-pences, two pences & pence all of the same allay which is 11110 fine silver & 910 allay, & there are 62 shillings in the pound weight Troy. The half-pence & farthings are of copper & 88 farthings make a pound weight Troy. Sometimes they reccon in England by marks & Nobles & a noble is 13 of 20s & a mark 23ds.

In Scotland they reccon by pounds & shillings & coyne at present 60 40 30 20 10 & 5s shillings pieces of silver: of the same {st}andard with english silver money according to law, but actually about 12 penny weight worse then the English money one piece with another by the unaccurateness of their workmen. They divide an ounce as the English do into sixty two {parts} & coyn {illeg} sixty of those as the English do but 56 into a crown or sixty shilling piece so that A 60 shillings piece is {to a} Scotch as 56 to 62 or 28 to 31. {No{w}} a pound weight scotch is less then a pound weight English by 4dwt 9gr english, So that 60 shillings scotch ought to weight {illeg}{y} 4252031 grains english & be worth 55 pence English wanting the 112 of a farthing {b}ut being something coarser & lighter then it should be it may be recconed worth 5434 pence English {o}ne piece with another. In Scotland they have sometimes coyned marks, two-mark pieces & 12 mark pieces {illeg} & small pieces three of which make a noble {illeg} their marks is 13s 4d of their money but these being ill coyned were lately called in. In the nearest round number their marks may {illeg} in England for shillings & their ten shilling pieces for nine pences.

In Ireland two 412d is one Haper or 9d English, & 20 Harpers is a pound or 15s English

In France they reccon by Livers souls & deniers. 12 Deniers make a soul 20 souls a Liver {or} Frank. 16 souls make a Cardecu & 4 Cardecus a Crown. But now the French crown is 60 {s}ous & weighteth 17dwt 1112 grains The French Lewis d'or equals 14 of a French crown or {si}{x} sous in weight, being in weight 4dwt 8gr34    & is in fineness 11oz or 11oz14gr. that is worse 14 grains And the French silver is worse 06wt.    The French & Spaniard use the same weigh{t} which is a Mark of 8 ounces &    weights 7 ounces 8dwt Troy.

In Spain the pieces of 88 weigh 17dwt12 & the Pillar pieces are better 2dwt the Mexico worse 1dwt the Peruvian worse 112 deadweight. The Spanish Pistol weighs 4dwt 8gr & is worse 14gr. {illeg}ants are kept in Merveds & Rials. 34 Mervedes is a Rial & 8 Rials is a piece of 88. The exchanges are made upon the Imaginary Ducat of 375 Mervedes or 11 Rials & a Mervede. A piece of 88 equals a French crown in weight & a spanish Pistol equals a French one in weight, & both are 14 of a crown or piece of eight.

The Ducat is the same all over Holland & the Empire & weights 2dwt 5gr & is better 1car 2gr. In Holland the three Guilder pieces (= 60 stivers) weigh 1oz. 6gr and are 4dwt (& sometimes by default 5 6 & 7dwt) worse A Ducatoon of Flanders weights 1 ounce 22grains is better 412dwt is worth 5s. 6d38 A double Dutch stiver weighs 1dwt & is worse 4oz 6 deadweight, & is worth 1910d. The Dutch weight is a Mark of 8 ounces & weight 7oz 18dwt Troy.

A Traveller told me that the Dutch ounce was but a grain lighter then the English ounce Troy


For Mris Catherine Barton
at Mr Gyre's at Publicot neare
Woodstock in


By Chipping Norton Bagg.

I had your two letters & am glad the air agrees with you & th{ough the} fever is loath to leave you yet I hope it abates, & that the {re}mains of the small pox are dropping off apace. Sir Ioseph {Tily} is leaving Mr Tolls house & its probable I may succeed him{. I} intend to send you some wine by the next Carrier which beg the favour of Mr Gyre & his Lady to accept of. My L{ady} Norris thinks you forget your promis of writing to her, & wants {a} letter from you. Pray let me know by your next how your f{ace is} & if your fevour be going. Perhaps warm milk from the Cow may {help} to abate it. I am

Your very loving Vnkle

Is. Newton

© 2020 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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