# Holograph notes on the denominations, fineness and weight of various foreign coins, with a letter to Catherine Barton dated 5 August 1700 on the reverse.

{illeg} {Lords} {illeg} {Lon}don, {Par}is & {Gla}{sgow} {illeg} In England{,} France, Flanders, Genoua, Florence. Venice they reccon by {poun}ds sh{hillin}gs {illeg} or livers sou{{ls}{s}} {&} deniers,

In Engla{nd} accounts are kept by pounds shillings pence halfpence & farthings. The Gold coyne are 5 guinea-pieces, two Guinea-pie{c}es, Guineas & half Guineas all of the same allay which is 11 parts fine gold & 1 part allay, & there are 44$\frac{1}{\mathrm{}}$ Guineas in a pound weight {Troy.} The silver coyns are crowns or five shilling pieces, half crowns, shillings or twelve-pences, six pences, four-pences or groats, three-pences, two pences & pence all of the same allay which is 11$\frac{1}{10}$ fine silver & $\frac{9}{10}$ allay, & there are 62 shillings in the pound weight Troy. The half-pence & farthings are of copper & 88 farthings make a pound weight Troy. Sometimes they reccon in England by marks & Nobles & a noble is $\frac{1}{3}$ of 20^{s} & a mark $\frac{2}{3}$^{ds}.

In Scotland they reccon by pounds & shillings & coyne at present 60 40 30 20 10 & 5^{s} shillings pieces of silver: of the same {st}andard with english silver money according to law, but actually about $\frac{1}{2}$ penny weight worse then the English money one piece with another by the unaccurateness of their workmen. They divide an ounce as the English do into sixty two {parts} & coyn {illeg} sixty of those as the English do but 56 into a crown or sixty shilling piece so that A 60 shillings piece is {to a} Scotch as 56 to 62 or 28 to 31. {No{w}} a pound weight scotch is less then a pound weight English by 4^{dwt} 9^{gr} english, So that 60 shillings scotch ought to weight {illeg}{y} 425$\frac{20}{31}$ grains english & be worth 55 pence English wanting the $\frac{1}{12}$ of a farthing {b}ut being something coarser & lighter then it should be it may be recconed worth 54$\frac{3}{4}$ pence English {o}ne piece with another. In Scotland they have sometimes coyned marks, two-mark pieces & $\frac{1}{2}$ mark pieces {illeg} & small pieces three of which make a noble {illeg} their marks is 13^{s} 4^{d} of their money but these being ill coyned were lately called in. In the nearest round number their marks may {illeg} in England for shillings & their ten shilling pieces for nine pences.

In Ireland two 4$\frac{1}{2}$^{d} is one Haper or 9^{d} English, & 20 Harpers is a pound or 15^{s} English

In France they reccon by Livers souls & deniers. 12 Deniers make a soul 20 souls a Liver {or} Frank. 16 souls make a Cardecu & 4 Cardecus a Crown. But now the French crown is 60 {s}ous & weighteth 17^{dwt} 11$\frac{1}{2}$ grains The French Lewis d'or equals $\frac{1}{4}$ of a French crown or {si}{x} sous in weight, being in weight 4^{dwt} 8^{gr}$\frac{3}{4}$ & is in fineness 11^{oz} or 11^{oz}–$\frac{1}{4}$^{gr}. that is worse $\frac{1}{4}$ grains And the French silver is worse 06^{wt}. The French & Spaniard use the same weigh{t} which is a Mark of 8 ounces & weights 7 ounces 8^{dwt} Troy.

In Spain the pieces of $\frac{8}{8}$ weigh 17^{dwt}$\frac{1}{2}$ & the Pillar pieces are better 2^{dwt} the Mexico worse 1^{dwt} the Peruvian worse 1$\frac{1}{2}$ deadweight. The Spanish Pistol weighs 4^{dwt} 8^{gr} & is worse $\frac{1}{4}$^{gr}. {illeg}ants are kept in Merveds & Rials. 34 Mervedes is a Rial & 8 Rials is a piece of $\frac{8}{8}$. The exchanges are made upon the Imaginary Ducat of 375 Mervedes or 11 Rials & a Mervede. A piece of $\frac{8}{8}$ equals a French crown in weight & a spanish Pistol equals a French one in weight, & both are $\frac{1}{4}$ of a crown or piece of eight.

The Ducat is the same all over Holland & the Empire & weights 2^{dwt} 5^{gr} & is better 1^{car} 2^{gr}. In Holland the three Guilder pieces (= 60 stivers) weigh 1^{oz}. 6^{gr} and are 4^{dwt} (& sometimes by default 5 6 & 7^{dwt}) worse A Ducatoon of Flanders weights 1 ounce 22grains is better 4$\frac{1}{2}$^{dwt} is worth 5^{s}. 6^{d}$\frac{3}{8}$ A double Dutch stiver weighs 1^{dwt} & is worse 4^{oz} 6 deadweight, & is worth 1$\frac{9}{10}$^{d}. The Dutch weight is a Mark of 8 ounces & weight 7^{oz} 18^{dwt} Troy.

A Traveller told me that the Dutch ounce was but a grain lighter then the English ounce Troy

<29-30v>For M^{ris} Catherine Barton

at M^{r} Gyre's at Publicot neare

Woodstock in

*Oxfordshire*

By Chipping Norton Bagg.

I had your two letters & am glad the air agrees with you & th{ough the}
fever is loath to leave you yet I hope it abates, & that the
{re}mains of the small pox are dropping off apace. Sir Ioseph {Tily}
is leaving M^{r} Tolls house & its probable I may succeed him{. I}
intend to send you some wine by the next Carrier which beg
the favour of M^{r} Gyre & his Lady to accept of. My L{ady}
Norris thinks you forget your promis of writing to her, & wants {a}
letter from you. Pray let me know by your next how your f{ace is}
& if your fevour be going. Perhaps warm milk from the Cow may {help}
to abate it. I am

Your very loving Vnkle

Is. Newton