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Chap. II.
Of the Kingdome of Egypt.

The first great kingdome in the world on this side the Indies seems to have been that of Egypt. For a[1] Pliny in recconing up the first inventors of things ascribes to the Egyptians the invention of a royal city & to the inhabitants of Attica that of a popular one. Which is as much as to say that Athens was by the Greeks accounted the first city in the world under wch other cities united into a popular dominion by a common Council, & the Egyptian Thebes the first city wch became the seat of a kingdom. For Thebes was famous in Homer's days when the four Monarchies & their head cities were not yet talked of. For, b[2] saith Strabo, Homer knew nothing of the Empire of the Medes & Assyrians, otherwise c[3] naming the Egyptian Thebes & her riches & those of the Phœnicians, he would not have passed over in silence the riches of Babylon Nineve & Ecbatane

Egypt is a long & narrow tract of land running north & south on both sides the river Nile between two mountains \& Desarts/. The south end of this regi{on} wth the spacious country beyond it is Ethiopia. The middlemost tract is Thebais called in scripture the land of Pathros & d[4] the rest \rest/ lowest area Southern part {illeg} \thereof was/ \below Thebais was/ /over against \westward from/ \the city/ Berenices, next Elephantine &\ called Misraim. \/|It \This tract/ was distinguished into to parts the lower upon the a broad & flat country upon the mouths of Nile called Delta by the Greeks & Rib, \Rahab/ Rif Erref Rahab in scripture the other \higher/ a long & narrow country called Heptanomis by the Greeks. The Metropolis of Thebais was Thebes called in The metropolis of Thebais was Thebes called in scripture| In \the south end of/ Thebais between the Nile & the red sea not far from Thebes was the City Coptus[5] whence its probable that the Coptites were originally a people of Thebais. But in time they gave their name to all the Egyptians \as they are still called/ \& the {Homies} Coptites. The|i|se people gave the name of Coptites to all the Egyptians as they are still called./: & thence the Greeks formed ἆια Copti, Ægyptus. Probably the Coptites founded Thebes & thereby spread their name with their dominion.

Sr Iohn Marsham reccons that Thebes|ai||s| was anciently divided into two kingdoms the one on the east side of the Nile under the head city Thebes \called No A in scripture No Ammon that is the city of Ammon or Iupiter, & by ye Greeks Diospolis/ the other on the west side under the head city This, & that Misraim or Egypt <2r> {below Th}ebais was also anciently divided into two kingdoms the {lower} upon the seven streams of Nile & the uper between that {& T}hebais; both which were called Misraim in the dual number {illeg}a signify that they were two \lands/ \that is the two lands of Misor./ |T|N|o Ammon is the city of A{m}mon or Iupiter, & by the Greeks Diospolis. Th In Thebais &c south end of Thebais| And out of these four kingdoms & perhaps some others at length arose the Monarchy of Egypt. But how these kingdoms at first arose out of smaller ones is hard to relate because of the great ~ antiquity of the kingdoms. Yet some footsteps there are of their first original.

For in the seven years of plenty Ioseph laid up the corn in the cities of Egypt, the corn of the field wch was round about every city laid he up in the same. Gen. 41.48. And therefore the cities of Egypt being in those days the places wch the Egyptians inned their harvest they must have been almost as close together as or villages & by consequence as numerous & small as the ancient cities of Syria & δήμοι of the Medes & Greeks. Which is an argument that the first constitution of Egypt was like that of other nations round about. For these cities like the δήοι δήμοι of Greece united under common councills & thereby grew into kingdoms.

For the common councils of the Greeks were set up in imitation of those set up before in Egypt, & the remains of such councils continued in several parts of Egypt till the days of Herodotus. The Oracle, saith he,[6] at Dodona is very like that of the Egyptian Thebes & the way of divining in the Greek Temples is taken from Ægypt. For the Egyptians were the first authors of making Conventions & solemnities & Councils & the Greeks learnt these things from them. Of which thing I have this argument that their way was in use from ancient times but that of the Greeks lately instituted. Neither do the Egyptians assemble once every year but frequently, as in other places, so chiefly & most studiously in the city Bubastis to the Honour of Diana, secondly in the city Busiris to the honour of Isis. In which city seated in the middle of the Egyptian Delta is the greatest temple of Isis. Isis is she who in Greek is called Δημήτης that is Ceres. Thirdly in the city of Sais to the honour of Minerva. {illeg} Fourthly in Heliopolis to the honour of the Sun. Fiftly in the city

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Chap. II
Of the Kingdome of Egypt.

The first great kingdome in the world on this side the Indies seems to have been that of Egypt. For a[7] Pliny in recconing up the first inventors of things ascribes to the Egyptians the invention of a royal city & to the inhabitants of Attica that of a popular one. Which is as much as to say that Athens was by the Greeks accounted the first city in the world under which other cities united into a popular dominion by a common Council, & the Egyptian Thebes the first city wch became the seat of a kingdom. For Thebes was famous in Homer's days when the four monarchies & their head cities were not yet talked of. For, saith b[8] Strabo, Homer knew nothing of the Empire of the Medes & Assyrians, otherwise c[9] naming the Egyptian Thebes & her riches & those of the Phœnicians he would not have passed over in silence the riches of Babylon Nineveh & Ecbatane.

Egypt (called in scripture Misor Mizraim & the land of Ham) is a long & broad valley or meadow on both sides the Nile between mountains & desarts, running north & south from Syene to the Mediterranean. It consists of two regions called Mizraim that is the two lands of Miz|s|or, vizt the upper {illeg} lying on both sides the single stream of the Nile & the lower lying upon the mouths of the Nile in the form of a triangle about 3600 furlongs in compass. This lower was called Delta by the Greeks & Rahab in scripture. The upper was again divided into two parts. The upper was again divided into two parts the southern called Thebais & in scripture the land of Pathros & the northern called Heptanomis. The Metropolis of Thebais was Thebes called in Scripture Ano|m|mon No (now Minio) that is the city of Ammon or Iupiter or (as the seventy interpret) Diospolis. It stood on both sides the Nile at the distance of about 840{illeg} stadia below the less catar{illeg}act. Below it on the western side of the Nile was the city This anciently the Metropolis of a kingdom wch at lenght came under the dominion of Thebes. The Metropolis of Heptanomis was Noph, Moph or Memphys a city on the western bank of the Nile just above the Delta & about 1000 stadias from the Mediterranean. Not far from Memphys were the fields where the Egyptians buried their dead & built Pyramids to their memory.

About half a mile or a mile below Memphys the Nile <4r> began to divide it self into several streams to water the Delta The direct stream wch runs through the middle of the Delta is called the Thermusiac river or Sebennic Ostium. The first stream which parts from it runs on the eastern side of the Delta & is called the Bubastic River or Pelusiac ostium. The next stream which parts from it runs on the western side of the Delta & is called the Canobic ostium. These are the three biggest streams & between them run several others.

In the way from Syria into Egypt at the entrance of Egypt about three miles from the Sea & at some distance from the Pelusiac ostium of the Nile eastward stood Pelusium called also Sin, Abaris, Sethron & Pithom & westward from it upon the bank of the same Pelusiac Ostium stood Ramesses. These were the two cities wch the Israelites built for Pharaoth & between them lay the land of Goshen where Israel was in bondage & on the other side of this river was the field & city of Zoan or Tanis, & higher upon the eastern bank of the same stream not far below Memphys was Bubastis called in scripture Phibeseth. On the eastern border of Egypt about 1200 furlongs above Pelusium stood the city On, Aven or Heliopolis whose Priest Potiphera married his daughter Assenath to Ioseph. The way between these two cities was through a de{illeg}|sa|rt over which there was an open access from the east into Egypt till Sesak|ostr||is| fenced Egypt on that side with a great ditch of water carried from Pelusium to Heliopolis.

Between Egypt & the Red Sea were \nations of/ Arabians called Troglodytæ & in scripture Sukkijm. And in Thebais between the Nile & the Red Sea not far from Thebes was Coptus a common city of the Egyptians & Arabians & the Metropolis of the Nome Coptites. This people gave the name of Coptites to all the Egyptians & thence the Greeks formed ἆιαCopti, Ægyptus. Probably the Coptites founded Thebes & thereby spread their name with their dominion. Yet Ægypt is often taken by writers for only \for/ Delta & Heptanomis \without Thebais/, & sometimes only for Delta.

About ten or twelve thousand furlongs above the mouths of the Nile in the northern latitude of about 14 or 15 degrees stood the city Meroe in a great Island or Peninsula of the same name compassed by two arms of the Nile Astaboras & Astapus or Astusapes flowing from certain Lakes & meeting 700 furlongs below the City. Thence the Nile flowd northward 2000 furlongs more & then bending backward ran southwest 3700 furlongs till it came almost over against Meroe. Then it ran again to the north with some <5r> inclination eastward 5300 stadia to the great Cataract & from thence northard {sic} 700 stadia to the less Cataract & from thence it ran northward in a right line through the middle of Egypt 5000 stadia to the Mediterranean Sea. |These bendings of the Nile above the less Cateract together wth ye rivers wch run into it seem to be yerivers of Ethiopia I|Z|ephan. 3.1 & Isa 18.1.|

On the Arabic or eastern side of the Nile from the less cateract up to Meroe & beyond it were the Arabic Ethiopians called Megabars & Blemyes & in Scripture Chus. Iuba makes them not Ethiopians but Arabians And over against them on the other side the Nile were the Nubians \& Abissenes/ called Lud. The Nubians were anciently divided into little kingdomes under kings of their own, & frequently warred with the Arabian Ethiopians for one anothers territories. The Megabar Ethiopians were next Egypt & used bucklers & lances & clubs knotted with iron & thereby differed from ye other Ethiopians who used great bows & lances. These Ethiopians were sometimes subject to Egypt & sometimes reigned over it & accordingly the whole was called Egypt or sometimes Egypt & sometimes Ethiopia.

Next above the less cataract was Phylæ called in scripture Phul, a city \& region/ common to the Ethiopians & Ara Egyptians & next below this Cataract were Elephantin|s|a & Syene cities in the southern border of Egypt & in the mid way between Meroe & the Mediterranean Sea. |was| Elephantin|s|a was in an Island of the Nile of the same bigness with it self three miles below the less cataract & Syene was a little lower & lay just under the Tropic of Cancer, that is in ye north latitude of 23 1/2 degrees.

Manetho an Egyptian Priest has given us the names of many kings reigning in several parts of Egypt, as at Elephantin|s|a, at Diospolis or Thebes, at Memphys, at Bubastis, at Heracleapolis, at Tanis, at Sais, at Xois: & Eratosthenes has also given us a list of the kings of Thebes. Whence it may be concluded that there have been many kingdoms in Egypt at once \Which confirms that there have been many kingdoms in Egypt at once/ \~ as Palmonghtes & the Chronicum Alexandrinum tell us there were./. But a certain account of their rise magnitude duration & fall is not now to be had. Yet this is certain that before the reign of Sesac they were all swallowed up by the kingdom of Thebes.

In the days of Iacob & Moses there was a kingdom in <6r> the lower Egypt of a considerable bigness whose kings resided at Ramesses. For where Pharaoh & his Court resided there Ioseph placed his father & brethren that they might be near him (Gen. 45.10) not in the very city but in the territory aj|d|joyning where their flocks & heards might have pasturage Gen & this was in the land of Ramesses (Gen 47.11) in Goshen \wch seems to be/ one of the villages of the city (Gen 46.29) so neare the city that Pharaohs daughter coming down to wash her self in the river & walking along the river with her maids, found Moses hid \{illeg}/ in the flaggs & sent for a nurse of the Hebrew weomen staying till the nurse came to receive the child Exod. 2.3, 5, 7, 9. In that City Moses did his wonders in the sight of Pharaoh, Exod. 7.15, 20 & 8.3, 20 & 9.29, 33. And when the first born were smitten wch was at midnight Pharaoh rose up in the night & called for Moses & Aaron & ordered them & the people of Israel to get them out of the land, & the same night the Egyptians lent the Israelites Iewels & rayment & urged them to be gone & the next morning Moses & Aaron led the children of Israel from Ramesses out of Egypt & they journied that day with their flocks & heards to Succoth a ptown|lace| in the wilderness between Egypt & the Red Sea, Gen. 11.8 & 12.29, 30, 31, 37, 38, 41. Num. 33.3. Ramesses was therefore the royal seat of this kingdom. But of what extent this kingdom was it|s| uncertain. I suspect it comprehended but a part of the Delta.

The Kings of Ramesses are not mentioned by Manetho except Timaus the last king whom the Shepherds conquered. Nor did Manetho know any thing of the peregrination & servitude of Israel in Egypt but takes the Shepherd|'|s \Kingdom/ for the Israelites, which makes me suspect that the kings in his Dynasties are generally later then the days of Moses. For he being a Priest of Heliopolis wch was under the dominion of Ramesses it may be presumed that he would be most diligent & particular in the antiquities of his own country.|,| |& therefor would not have omitted the kings of Ramesses \& servitude of the Israelites/ had his records reacht so high.|

The first & second Dynasty|ie||s| of Manetho contain 17 Kings of The|i|s, the first of wch is Menes accounted the oldest king in his Dynasties & the 16th is Sesochris who reigned 48 years & was 5 cubits & 3 palms hight. [ἐῖχεν ὕψος ε πλάτος γ: lege \read/, ἐῖχεν ὕψος πυχῶν {illeg}|ε| πλαιστῶν γ] |was 5 cubits & 3 palms high.|

The third fourth & sixt \7th & 8th/ Dynasties contein \the first/ 24 kings of Memphys the 18th of wch \by name & {illeg} their successsors wthout naming them. The 18th King of Memphis in these Dynasties/ is Sesochris who reigned 48 years & was 5 cubits & three palms high & is therefore the same <6v> Sesochris with the former, that is Sesac or \Sesac or/ Sesostris, or Sesoch. For Sesostris was very tall. Diodorus says that he was of ye same height wth his statues wch were 4 cubits 4 palms high, Eusebius that he was 4 cubits 3 palms & 2 digits high. F The 7th & 8th Dynasties contein other kings of Memphys but without naming them.

The fift Dynasty \conteins/ eight kings of Elephantis whereof the third & fourth kings are Necherop Nerchepheres & Sisichis, or (as they are named by Syncellus) Nephercheres & Sisiris & these seem to be the same kings with Nephercheres & Sesochris the 15th & 16th Kings of This & with Zebercheres & Sesochris the 16 & 18 kings of Memphys. The 9th & 10 Dynasties mention kings of Heracleopolis w|b|ut without naming them.

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Sesochris with the former, that is Sesac or Sesostris. For Sesostris was very tall. Diodorus says that he was of the same height with his statues wch were 4 cubits 4 palms high Eusebius that he was 4 cubits 3 palms & two digits high. |The 7th & 8th Dynasties contein other kings of Memphys \but/ without naming them.|

|2| The 11th & 12th Dynasties contein \the first/ 24 kings of Diospolis or Thebes the 20th of wch is Sesostris who reigned 48 years & in nine years subdued Asia & part of Europe & set up his statues where ever he went. By the length of his reign he is the same king with Sesochris in the former Dynasties. |The 13th Dynasty conteins the |is of| other kings of Diospolis \but/ without name|i|ng them.|

The 18th & 19th Dynasties contein another series of 22 Kings of Thebes the 17th of wch is Sethos. Iosephus reciting out of Manetho the Kings of these two Dynasties with their actions saith that Sethos (or, as he calls him, Sethosis) was the brother of Armais or Danaus & having forces by land & sea invaded Cyprus & Phœnicia & the cities of the East. He was therefore the same king with Sesostris or Sesac.

|3| Now according to the above mentioned Dynasties of Manetho, the 15 kings of This who preceded Sesochris or Sesac reigned 487 years. The 17 of Memphys who preceded him reigned 498 years. \And/ The 19 of Diospolis who preceded him in the 11th & 12th Dynasties \Sesostris/ reigned 143 years & ye 16 who preceded him in the other series of ye kings of Diospolis set down the 18th & 19th Dynasties reigned 287 And therefore \if Sesochris & Sesostris be Sesac/ all these Dynasties began later then the servitude of Egypt the Israelites in Egypt. And so did the kingdom of the T{illeg} Shepherds |\whose kings are/ mentioned in the 15th 16th & 17th Dynasties as I shall shew hereafter|

|4| The 18th & 19th Dynasties contein another series of 22 kings of Thebes Diospolis the 17th of wch is Sethos. Iosephus reciting out of Manetho the kings of these two Dynasties wth their actions saith that Sethos (or, as he calls him, Sethosis) was the brother of Armais or Danaus & having forces by land &sea invaded Cyprus & Phœnicia & the cities of the east. He was therefore the same king with Sesostris or Sesac The 16 kings which in these Dynasties preceded him reigned |only| 287 years. The 20th Dynasty conteins other kings of Diospolis without name|i|ng them.

|And| the rest of Manethos Dynasties contein kings of other cities some of wch seem to be \either/ contemporary to some of the Kings in the Dynasties above mentioned & a{illeg} the rest are \& some of or/ of a later \The 9th, 10th & 14 mention kings of Heracleopolis & Xois but wthout naming them The 21th & 23th contein kings of Tanis much later then the days of Moses |5| The rest of Manetho's Dynasties contein kings much later then Moses./

|1| The 5t Dynasty conteins 8 kings of Elephantis whereof the third & fourth kings are Nerchepheres & Sisichis or (as they are w named by Syncellus) Nephercheres & Sisichris & these seem to be the same kings \with/ Nephercheres & Sesochris the 15th & 16th kings <8r> of This.|,| & with Zebercheres & Sesochris the 16th & 18th kings of Memphys. |in the 4thDynasty The 9th & 10th Dynasties mention kings of Heracleopolis but without naming them.|

< insertion from f 7v >

The 14th Dynasty is of the Kings of Xois without naming them. The 21th & 23th is of the \11 {illeg}/ Kings of Tanis by name & 9 others without name|d| \whereof the 13 first are/ all wth wch are suppose \the second of wch is represented/ contemporary to David. I suspect they|se| \kings/ were v|V|iceroys under the Kings of Thebes. The rest of the Dynasties The 22th Dynasty conteins \nine/ kings of Bubastis the first of wch is Sesonchis or Sesochis. And the rest of ye Dynasties of Manetho contein kings of a later date.

Eratosthenes has given us a series or canon of ye \38/ kings of Thebes beginning with Menes & differing from the canons of Manetho. The first nineteen kings of this canon reigned 574 years & ye 20th 21th & 22th

< text from f 8r resumes >

Erathosthenes has given us another list \or canon/ of the kings of Thebes beginning wth Menes.|,| The & conteining 38 kings. The first nineteen reigned {illeg} 574 years & the 20th 21th & 22th called Apappus maximus Echeseos & Nitocris seem to be the same wth Phiops, Methesuphis & Nitocris the three last kings of Memphys in the sixt Dynasty \of Manetho/. For Apappus & Phiops reigned each one hundred years & therefore are but two names of one king: Echeseos& Methesuphis reigned each one year & Nitocris is|w|as a Queen of ye same name in both canons Now before these three kings in the sixt Dynasty \of Manetho/ \of Memphys/ reigned 20 other kings of Memphys whose reign took up 586 years according to ye 3d 4th & 6t Dynasties of Manetho & therefore Menes the first king of Thebes in the Dynastie|y|s \Canon/ of Manetho Eratosthenes was not so old \yea later/ by 12 years |t|as|he||n| the first king of Memphys in the Dynasties of Manetho.|,| |& by consequence was contemporary to \he reigned at the same time with/ Menes the first king of This, & may \therefore/ be taken for the same king, especially since they both reigned above 60 years.|

From all wch it seems to me that in the Dynasties of Manetho & Eratosthenes there is nothing so ancient as the coming of Israel out of Egypt. |And yet the Egyptian Priests by summing up the years of all the Dynasties together have made their kingdom much older then the creation of the world. wch shews that they knew not when their kings reigned.|

Africanus dates the reign of Menes (the first king of Thebes & This & the king who as Herodotus tells us built Memphys) from the tenth year of the reign of the Shepherds & their reign began after the days of Moses.

\Venaphes/ The fourth king of This built the Pyramids in Chocome \& Suphis/ the ninth king of Memphys built the great Pyramid \& the third Pyramid is ascribed to Nitocris & certainly/, & the Pyramids were built long after the days of Moses. \Herodotus repres from ye report of the Egyptian Priests represents that {illeg}|they were| built after the days of Sesostris, &/ Some \have/ attributed on|th|e of ye|third| Pyramid to Rho{illeg}|do|pe the fellow servant of Æsop who lived in the age of Solon & Cræsus.

In these Dynasties \of Manetho & Erastosthenes/ the kings seem to be often set out of order & the names of the kings much corrupted {illeg} \& some of them were perhaps only Viceroys/ wch makes it difficult to conclude any thing of certainty from them. I shall \therefore/ content w myself wth \what has been said of them/ mentioning \only/ what relates to ye king lower Egypt.

Sometime after the departure of |ye| Israel|ites| out of Egypt the Shepherds from ye east invaded & conquered Timaus king of the lower Egypt & burnt the cities & subverted the Temples of the Egyptians & reduced the people into servitude & reigning there a long time had various wars wth ye kings of Thebais the higher parts of Egypt. This invasion I place after the departure of Isral|e|l out of Egypt because during their stay in Egypt there is no mention of Shepherds or Arabians or Canaanites there but all Pharaoh & all his people are spoken of as Egyptians. The Israelites had been in Egypt 215 years & yet remained a distinct people so as not to be called Egyptians & the Shephers|d|s remained also a distinct people because the she Egyptians at length drave them out of |Gen.|Egypt, \The Egyptians abominated Shepherds & would not so much as eat wth them &/ & by way of distinction they were a[10] called \their kings/ Hicsos that is <9r> Shepherd kings & di they differed also in religion the Egyp Shepherds sacrificing men after the manner of the Phœnicians \Canaanites/ & Arabians f whence came the story of Busiris|,| . but the but the Egyptians abolishing such sacrifices. But in ye story of Moses, the king of Egypt under whom Israel was in {illeg}|b|ondage was called Pharaoh \like like ye old kings of Egypt/ & he & his captains & people army & all his people except ye Israelites are considered as one nation & called Egyptians wthout any distinction. Pharaoh sought ye life of Moses for killing an Egyptian (Exod 2.15) The Iews were in bondage under the Egyptians (Exod. 3.8, 9) The ten plagues fell on the Egyptians & the Egyptians were drowned in the red sea. Not one word in all the story of any other people then Egyptians & Israelites. And it is further to be observed that the worship of the calf wch Israel brought out of Egypt was not that of the Can{illeg}|a|anites or Arabians but that wch the genuine Egyptians paid to their God Osiris. And Pharaoh feared least upon any incursion of forreigners Israel should help them & go wth them out of the land. And as shepherds were an abomination to ye Egyptians in the days of Iacob so the sacrifices of ~ Shepherds were an abomination to the Egyptians in the days of Moses (Exod 10.9). It was after this time therefore that Egypt came under the dominion of the Shepherds.

These Shepherds, saith Manetho, first seated themselves in Egypt \by power/ wthout warr, & then subjecting \gaining/ the Princes of the region were they were they invaded the cities of Egypt with great violence & reducing them into servitude at length made Salates their king. He took Memphys & fortified the eastern parts of Egypt & built & fortified Ab|v|avis or Pelusium strongly wth a wall & gar numerous garie|s|on. Ægypt in those day was called Aeria & Aueria & probably the name came from {illeg}|Av|aris the Metropolis of the Shepherd kingdom After him reigned \successively/ Beon, Apacnas, Apophis, Ianias or Itaan, Assis or Arcles & \many/ others successively {illeg}. In those days Ægypt was called Aeria or Aueria \or Auria. pr & There was a Dynasty of the Gods of Egypt called Auritæ./ & probably the name came from \the city/ Aura Avaris or Abaris the Metropolis of their kingdom \where the Shepherds reigned afterwards./ \of the Shepherds. This city the Egyptians accounted the city of Typhon calling it Sethon from Seth a name of Typon/ The country about Avaris was long after the fall of this kingdom called Bucolica f|b|ecause ye Shepherds there fed their Heards & flocks. Amongst Thes|y| \Shepherds/ reigned over Heliopolis & there sacrificed men till one of the kings of Egypt whom Manetho calls Amon|si||s| have|i|ng recoverd that city from them abolished those sacrifices there by appoing|t|ing \substituting waxen/ images of men in wax to be there sacrificed in the room of living men. \They kings sacrificed men of the colour of Typhon at ye Altar \Tumb/ of Osiris wch they called Busiris & because few Ægyptians were of that collour they usually sacrificed strangers/ These sacrifices seem principally to have been used in \several cities & perhaps in/ the Nome of Busiris in the middle of the Delta. \For/ There the worshippers after they had sacrificed \also/ beat themselves & \some/ cut their <10r> foreheads after the manner of the Phœnicians. At Heliopolis they sacrificed three men every day about dag days 1 King. 18.28. At Heliopolis they sacrificed three men daily. < insertion from f 9v > The sacrificed m
Like the Arabians \Phœnic/ people of Phœnicia & Arabia they sacrificed men & in Busiris a city in the middle of the Delta the Egyptians long after the expulsion of the Shepherds {illeg}[11] continued to beat themselves \after the manner of the in their worship/ & some cut their foreheads after the manner of the worshippers \Priests/ of Baal in Phœnicia the God of the Phœnicians. 1 King 18.28 \At the tomb of Osiris/ They sacrificed red men & because few Egyptians were of that colour they usually sacrificed strangers: whence came the story of Busiris. In Heliopolis the sacrificed three men day|i|ly till one of the kings of Egypt whom Manetho calls Amosis having taken that city from them abolished those sacrifices by substituting waxen images of men. At length Misphragmuthosis king of Thebes – < text from f 10r resumes > At length Misphragmuthosis king of Thebes drave them out of almost all Egypt & made them retire into the city Abaris where they walled in then thousand a{illeg}|c|res of land & shut themselves up & his son \& successor/ Tuthmosis or Thummosis beseiged them there & {sic} covenanted wth them that they should leave Egypt & go whether they pleased & thereupon, saith Manetho, they went out of Egypt through the Desart into Syria. This |Thummos|

Hence Manetho ca|o|ncludes that they were the Israelites. Others take them for Arabians. Africanus speaking of the first six kings saith they were Phenicians, Ησαν δὲ Φοίνικες ξένοι βασιλεῖς στ. Bochartus makes them a colony of Phœnicians & interprets the names of the first six kings in the Phœnician language. \Herodotus tells us that in M{illeg}|e|mphys was a region wch they called/ And Ierome saith of the language of Canaan, Erat Inter Ægyptian & Hebræan media est & Hebrææ magna in parte confinis: Its much like the Hebrew but partakes more of the Egyptian then the Hebrew doth. The Cann|a|anites were shepherds & lay next Egypt & the main body of the Arabians lay at a greater distance from Egypt with Edom between. For Edom lay before Egypt b[12] extending from Canaan to ye red sea & ye Edomites kept their seats.

It seems to me therefore that as when David invaded Edom \Edom/ & Nebuchadnezzar invaded Iudea the invaded people retired into Egypt so when Ioshua invaded Canaan & drave out the inhabitants they retired in great numbers into Egypt with their cattle \in a peaceable manner/ & seated themselves about Avaris where they found pasturage for their cattel \For Manetho says they came in peacably \without war/ & thence I conclude \its probable/ that they were fugitives./ & |B|/ut\ at length when they found themselves \numerous &/ strong enough \they {illeg} took up arms &/ made warr upon \Timaus king of/ the Egyptians \(whom \perhaps/ Ezekiel calls Tammur) {illeg} & Plato Thammus )/ & overthrew the kingdom of Ramesses & staying long in Egypt used themselves to navigation upon the river Nile.|,| And \&/ when they were shut up in Avaris applied themselves \both more/ to ye sea \then before/ for want of room & still more when they were obliged to leave Egypt, using both the Red Sea & the Mediterranean, & sending colonies into many places on both seas. For the Phœnicians at first were seated upon both seas & traded first upon the {illeg}|R|ed Sea & came \retired/ from thence to the Mediterranean as they themselves & the Persians affirmed related to Herodotus. So that when the Phenicians went from Eth|gy|pt through the wilderness into Syria they seem to have gone

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Astereth \Astarte \Aster/ Asteroth, & Atter-dag/ ye Goddess of the Zidonians was a shepherdess, the name being taken from Asteroth a flock of sheep & heards of \wch signifies heards & flocks of/ cattel & flocks of sheep. Sanchoniatho tells us that she ware upon her head the head of an Ox (that is \a/ diadem so formed) as the emblem of her dominion. {illeg} Herodotus tells us that in Memphys was a regio was a place was a region \about the Temple of Proteus of/wch they called castra Tyrionem. & probably the t{illeg}ts of & probably \Hence comes Aster Tsor the names {illeg} Tyre a of {illeg}Tsor & Tyre Aster, \Easter/ Atter-dag, Tsor, Tyre & Syria./

Herodotus tells us that in Memphys {illeg} in the \a/ region round about the temple of Protius \in the City Memphys/ was inhabited by Tyrian Phœnicians all wch place was called the camp of the Tyrians, p|. P|robably these were the reliques of the Shepherds. He tells us also of a city in the Delta called At{illeg}|a|rbech{illeg}\is/ in wch was a Temple of Venus. And by the name of the city this Venus seemes to be the Goddess \Venus/ \Astarte Aster or Asteroth the Vebus of/ of the Phenicians called Atarnatis corruptly for Atar-dag & corruptly \also corruply {sic} Athara &/ Atargatis \& Derceti{illeg}[ corruptly from the words/ & Atharte, {illeg} that is Atter-dag or Aster-dag that is Aster or Atter or {illeg} (or Aster) & Atter-dag.] \called Astarte Aster Asteroth Athara, Atergatis Derceto &/ The name denotes a Queen of Shepherds heardmen & Mariners, the words Asteroth signifying heards & flocks of cattel & sheep \& heards of cattel/ & the word dag a fish. As a queen of Sheepherds & heardsmen she ware upon her head the {illeg} head of an Ox that is a diadem so formed, \& was called \Astarte/ Aster Asteroth Atharo Astarte Athara,/ & as a queen of Mariners she was sometimes formed like \like a mermaid or woman above &/ a fish below & the \(from the word dag a fish)/ called Ater-dag & corruptly Atergatis & Aterbechis Derceto &c. from the word Aster-dag the names \names/ being corruptly formed of Aster-dag. From ye names \word/ Aster comes also ye names Tsor Tyres Syriac When any Bulls died \in Egypt/ it was a custome in|of| |ye| Egypt|ians| to bury them in the suburbs of \neare/ the|ir| city|i||es| with one or two horns above gro{illeg}|un|d \for a Signe/ & when they were after a certain time when their bodies were putrified rotted away the inhabitants of \the city the City/ Atar{illeg}|b|echis came to ye city|ie||s| & with {illeg} \of Egypt in/ ships|,| & dug up the bones & buried them in carried them away to a common burying place & there buried them all together. This service imposed by the Egyptians upon the inhabitants of the City Aterbechis shews \this city intimates/ that this city {illeg} \these inhabitants they/ were the posterity \remains/ of ancient heardsmen who had left {illeg} their \a brood of/ cattel {illeg} in all the scattered throughout all the land of Egypt, & the Goddess wch they worshipped imp discovers that they were Phœnicians. So also the head of Osiris carried yearly out of Egypt to Biblos in Syria & the Syrians lamenting \& {illeg}/ Adonis after the manner that the Egyptians did Osiris is|a||re| an|r|guments that the Phœni{illeg}|c|ians brought part of their religion out of Egypt.

<10v>

Lucian[13] tells us that \there was had a la{illeg}|r|ge Temple at Sidon dedicated to Astarte & that/ the Phœcians {sic} had a \another/ \Egyptian/ Temple wch was not Syrian but Egyptian & came from Heliopolis into Syria & was large & very ancient. And that at Biblos they had another large Temple dedicated to Venus where they worshipped Adonis & every year \beat themselves &/ lamented his death & beat themselves throughout {sic} the whole region & then sacrif performed to him a sacrifice of the dead & the next day afirmed he was alive & shaved their heads after the manner of the Egyptians when their Apis was dead. And some of Biblos affirmed that the Egyptian the Egyptian Osiris was buried in their {illeg} at Biblos & that \all/ this mourning was performed to Osiris & confirm their opinion by this ceremony that the head of Osiris made of the Egyptian papyrus was every  {sic} brought out of Egypt to Biblos in a ship, & that he \saith Lucian I/ saw this head formed of the Egyptian papyrus.

& that Osiris \that he/ was buried in Egypt at Biblos & confirmed their opinion by this ceremony that – papyr. This custome \it seems/ they took to be in remembrance of Osiris the bringing of the true head or body of Osiris out of Egypt to be buried at Biblus \& upon this|a||t| opinion grounded their worship/ This at least may be concluded from hence So then \Now over this seems to be manifest that So then/ Adonis Venus & the Boar wch slew Adonis are but other names of Osiris Isis & Typhon & the worship of Adonis & this Venus came \E/ is Egyptian. Fur All wch are further arguments that the religion of t Phenicians came from Egypt. And its probable also that they {leart} \brought/ their Hercules before they came out of Egypt from thence.

<11r>

In this language Iacob gave \the/ blessings to his sons from whence they derived their standards \or banners/ \the 12 tribes/ \were formed the standards \or Ensignes/ of ye 12 tribes were formed Isaac /of {illeg} and\ Num 2/ [& Thoth (the inventor of the Language) gave characters to the fathers of the tribes of Egypt, wch characters or symbols \being the figures of birds beasts & fishes/ the tribes or n|N|omes afterwards set up in their Temples, And in the same And in the same language Iacob gave blessings to his sons from] & Moses for \formed as also/ the figure of a Cherubim {illeg} & to represent all the tribes in one hieroglyphic. &|A|nd in ye same language Thoth (the inventor of the language) gave characters to the 12 tribe fathers of the tribes or Nomes of Egypt \representing them by several bi{illeg}|r|ds beasts & fishes wch the Egyptians afterwards placed in their temples./. For the beasts wch the Egyptians honoured \houreed {sic}/ were nothing else then the symbols or hieroglyphies of their first fathers. And this honouring them was older then the days of Moses because described & prohibited in ye 4th \second/ Commandmt. Thou shalt not make to thy self any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above or in the earth beneath or in the waters under the earth, thou shalt not bow down thy self to them nor serve them, \Exod 20/, that is thou shalt not make \or worship/ the likeness or image of any beast bird insect or fish & as (Deut 4.16, 17, 18) {illeg} such as thou hath|st| seen them made & worshipped in Egypt (Deut 4.16, 17, 18)

It seems to me therefore that as the posterity of Ismael divided were \dwelling from Havilah to Shur before Egypt were/ divided \(according to ye nū/ into twelve nations \or tribes/ under twelve princes reigning in so many castles or \head/ cities from Havi according to ye number of the sons of Ismael \dwelling from Havilah to Shur before Egypt/ Gen 25.16. And as the posterity of the 12 sons \twelve according to ye number of/ of Iacob \descended from his 12 sons/ continued de in de twelve distinct bodies till they came out of Egyp \or tribes/ in Egypt & when wch afterwards were seated in twelve distinct regions in Canaan each with h \with his own armie|y|s &/ under his own \standard & Prince &/ Prince |&| \& standard & distinct g judges all wch were under the Moses & the commone counsel of seventy elders/ & Iudge & standard capit (Num 1.4 & 2.2 & Deut 1. {illeg}, 15, 16, 17) So the Egyptians according to the number of their first fami fathers were distinguished \from the beginning/ into several tribes or nations seated in several parts of e|E|gypt each wth |i|t|s|heir own captain{illeg} & armie|y|s & laws{illeg} & common council & Temple & Festival & that this was the original of the Nomes of Egypt & that as Moses made laws for Israel so Thoth made laws for Egypt & assigning \& assigned untied/ every Nome its \under one common Council &/ Temple & mode of worship And this I take to be the original of the Nomes of Egypt: but how whereby this their & thereby prevented{illeg} their \& banner, & thereby prevented its/ breaking into such little kingdoms as were to be met with in Canaan & other places. But what warrs \how/ these Nomes made \warred/ upon one another or what warrs were made upon them \how they were invaded/ by forreigners, & by what steps \t|w|hat kingdoms arose out of ye \they united into/ & what changes they underwent untill/ they all \at length/ united i{illeg}|n|to one Monarchy is not difficult to relate unknown not to be found in history, excepting what we meet wth in the l concerning the kingdom in the lower Egypt under wch Israel was in bondage, the invasion thereof \that kingdom/ by the Shepherds & the conquest of the Shepherds by the king of Thebes.

|In| The kingdom where Israel was in servitude comprehended \are mentioned/ \at least/ these {illeg} Cities Pithom, Ramesses, On & Zoan. {illeg} \Gen 41.45. Exod 1.11. Psal./ Pithom was a city at ye Entrance of Egypt \in ye way from Syria/ about three miles from the sea in the way from Syria. It was otherwise called Sethron, Abaris, Sin & Pelusium, & was the Metropolis of the \Nome/ Set\h/roites Nome On was the \or {illeg} Aven was/ Heliopolis a City upon \in/ ye <11v> eastern bo{illeg}d|rder| of Egypt about 180 miles \1500 furlongs/ above Pelusium. The w It was ye metropolis of another Nome. The way{illeg} between them & Pelusium was through \was being over/ a desa|e|rt through wch there was an open access from ye east into Egypt untill Sesach fenced Egypt on that side wth a great ditch of wa{illeg}|t|er, carried from Pelusium to Heliopolis. Zoan was \From Memphis Almost/ Parallel to this ditch ran the eastern stream of the ye Nile called the Pelusiotic Bubastic river or {illeg} or Pelusiotic ostium, & beyond \on the western side of/ this stream lay the |ten| \country or/ field |Nome| /& Zoan was\ of Tanis or Zoan \an a\ancient/ City \wch was/ built seven years after Hebron when Abraham dwelt (Num 13.22) & \{illeg} at length/ became the royal seat of ye |lower Egypt.|/. These three cities were the Metropol{illeg}|ise| of of {sic} three Nomes the Seth\r/oite, |ye| Heliopolitan & |ye| Tai|n|it{illeg}|e|d. Vpon the eastern \eastern/ bank of the Bubastic ri Pelusiotic ostium \Bubastic river/ was \Pharaoshs court & {illeg}th \in/ or very neare ye/ |&| c|t|he city Ramesses wch I take to be the the {sic} seat of Pharaoh & between this city is Pithom & Ramesses lay the feild \land/ of Gosh{illeg}|en| where Israel dwelt in servitude & in bondage. For that land was in the territory of Ramessis (Gen 47.11) & in the way from Syriah to Pharaoh's court (Gen 46.28, 29) wch court For Pithom & Ramesses were cities of treasure (that is fortified cities) which the c|C|hildren of Israel built for Pharaoh \(Exod. 1.11)/ & therefore were seated in or neare ye land of Goshen where I \when Israel dwelt/ And that land was in the province \territory or country/ of Ramessis (Gen 47.11) bordering upon ye River (Exod 1.22 & 2.3 |, 8|) & in the way from Syria \by Pelusium/ to Pharaoh's court (Gen 46.28, 29) And Pharaohs court was also seated upon the \same/ banks of the River Nile \in the border of the land of Goshen/ (Exod 2.5. & 7.15, 20. & 8.20) in the border of the land of Goshen \Exod/ or so neare it \to that land/ that Ioseph (the se{illeg}|c|ond man in Egypt) upon notice given by his brother Iudah went thence to meet his father in Goshen (Gen 46.28, 29) & \that/ when the first born \of ye Egyptians/ were slain at midnight, Pharaoh sent for Moses & Aaron & by their hand sent sent away the children of Isa|r|ael the san{illeg}e night & they prepared for their journey & borrowed Iewels & raymt of the Egyptians the same night & in the morning under the conduct of Moses & Aaron began their journey from Ramesses the city wch they had been building \& journied that day to Succoth a place in the desart where they baked cakes of unleavened bread./ (Exod 12.29, 31, 37 & Num 22|33|.2.) From all wch I gather that Ramesses was the Metropolis of the kingdom where Pharaohs kept his Court resided was the City Ramessis. |it may seem that Pharaoh then resided at Ramesses in Ramesses in the City Ramesses, tho Zoan became afterwards the royal City of the lower Egypt {illeg} |after the also destruction of this city the & Zoan became| afterwards ye royal city of the lower Egypt upon wch the ten plagues were inflicted Psal. 78.12, 43 Isa 19.11, 13 & 30.4.| F This kingdom was called Misraim that is the two lands of Misor, but what these \two/ lands those two lands is now uncertain & of what extent the kingdom was is now uncertain. \Vnder wch name Isaias \& Ieremy/ comprehends all Egypt below Thebais./ |&| Isaias \(ch. 11.11)/ takes Mizraim for all Egypt be{illeg} below Path the land of Pathros or Thebais, & Ieremy \ch 44.1    / comprehend|s| in it the city Noph or Memphys the metropolis \wch was the royal city/ of the middle Egypt seated on the western side of the river \Nile/ {illeg} three or four \a/ miles \or two/ above the Delta {illeg}i by wch it may seem that the two Misors were the lower & the upper middle Egypt /point where Nile divide it self into two streams to compass the Delta.\ so that Mizraim seems to {illeg}|be| the two lands of the lower & middle Egypt. But whether \Yet I cannot affirm that/ the kingdom under wch Israel was in bondage comprehended both these lands I. cannot affirm

This kingdom was called Misraim that is the two lands of Misor. By this name is sometimes understood all Egypt including the land of Pathros (            ) sometimes only \What those lands were is now uncertain. For/ <12r> that part of Egypt wch lay below Pathros. (Isa. 11.11   ) & sometimes perhaps only the up f the lower|s| t part of Egypt wch lay upon the below {illeg} Grand Cairo where Nile div begins divides it self int several streams some part of that part. Its probable the name came from two kin kingdoms united into one & was afterward given \continued/ to that kingdom hower enlarged or diminished. For it is sometimes taken for all Egypt below including Pathos (           sometimes for all Egypt below Pathros (Isa 11.11) & sometimes f usually \most commonly/ for the kingdom wch lay upon ye mouths of the Nile.

After the departure of Israel out of Egypt – – – under the dominion of the shepherds.

These shepherds first seated themselves in Egypt wthout warr – – desart into Syria.

Hence Manetho –

<12v>

A|&|nd \so/ laid{illeg} a foundation for {illeg} mo{illeg}a|n|archial government. For What kingdoms The oldest division of Egypt was into Pathros & Misraim. {illeg} Vnder Thoth it \all Egypt/ was united, what kingdoms it became afterwards divided into will be best \is uncertain but any & can/ \only be/ conjectured by the \old/ divisions|s| of the land \Egypt into several lands & by the/, & the Dynasties of Manetho.

The oldest division of Egypt was into Pathros & Mis|z|raim. So Isaias |And| \Nature made not/ This division was not \a natural one/ made by any mountains or rivers \or desarts/ interposed but was only It was only political & therefore had its rise from the divi|e|rsity of \nations or/ kingdō The memory thereof continued till the days of Is ye old Prophets. \So Isaiah reccons up/ Assyria & \Misraim &/ Pathros & Cush & Elam & Shinar & Hamath & the Isles of ye Sea. Isa. 11.11

Pathros is \was of old/ distinguished from ye rest of Egypt {illeg} & E

– laid a foundation for monarchical government. Vnder Thoth all Egypt was united what kingdoms it became afterwards divided into is uncertain & can only be conjectured by the Dynasties of Manetho. F This is certain that in the lower Egypt a P was a kingdom in Abraham's days \the days of Abraham Iacob & Moses/ there was a kingdom in ye lower Egypt, & when {illeg} but the extent of this kingdom was unknown. It comprehended at least the cities Pithom, Ramesses, On or Aven & Zoan or Tanis. Pithom was a city at ye entrance of Egypt

[1] a lib. 7. c. 56

[2] b lib. 15. p. 735

[3] c Homer. ιλ. 9

[4] d Isa. 11.11 Ier. 44.1.

[5] Strabo l 17 p. 815. a, b, c.

[6] Herod. l. 2

[7] a lib. 7. c. 56

[8] b lib. 15. p. 735.

[9] c Homer. ιλ. 9.

[10] a Manetho aoud Ioseph cont. App.

[11] Herod. l. {illeg} 2.

[12] b 1 King. 9.26.

[13] De Dea Syr. p 1058.

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