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Chap. 1
Of the original of Monarchies.



The whole earth was by the first inhabitants divided into very many coordinate governments according to ye number of families. For when Moses had recconed up the posterity of Noah to ye fourth generation he adds: These are the families of the sons of Noah after their generations in their nations & by these were the nations divided after the flood. Which is as much as to say, that as Noach divided ye whole earth between his three sons, & gave Europe to Iaphet, Asia to Sem & Afric to Ham without making any one lord of the others territories: so each of these divided his part between his sons & each of them their parts between theirs without making any one lord of another's {illeg} inheritance till the whole earth was dit|s|tributed into independent & coordinate nations tribes & families. For what Moses saith of the division of ye whole earth among all the posterity of Noah, he saith of ye division of the several parts among ye posterity of his several sons. For when he had recconed up the children of & grand children of Iaphet, he subjoins: By these were the I|s|les of the gentiles divided in their lands every one after his tongue after their families in their nations. And so of the rest. So then upon the first plantation of the earth there were no standing kingdoms. Every Father was \sovereign/ Lord of his own inheritance during his life & then the sons became sovereign lords of their several shares & so on till the earth was planted with innumerable scattered families, T not yet subject to any other lords then the{illeg}{ir} common father{illeg}s. \of the family. Th For I here reccon every father wth all his posterity to be one family & upon ye fathers death to break into so many families as he has sons surviving him./ These families by encrease of people soon grew into towns & required magistrate law makers & judges, & such little polities |a town{illeg} \consisting/ of many families required \a Court & {illeg} a/ Iudges to {do laws &} \make laws & {do}/ common justice between ym families. & w|t|hereby they became a citty {illeg} & {cities} \& {with}/ with their villages & cities & cities wth their villages either by {illeg} consent gr these into \or/| by conquering one another grew into kingdoms greater {&} greater & greater till at len they arrived to the bigness they are now at. For in Abrahams age they were so small that when the first ages |the| Cities & kingdoms were so small & numerous that when Abraham wth 318 men beat four kings wth their armies <1v> when they had newly beaten five others: & Ioshua found above thirty kingdoms in that small country the land of Canaan & in the twelft part thereof wch was Iudahs lot, there were 125 Cities besides villages. So Egypt after the death of Mizraim or Menes the{m} common father of ye Egyptians became divided into several kingdoms all wch at length by swallowing up one another grew into one. Sr Iohn Marsham has given us catalogues of four the kings of four of those kingdoms down from ye age old of \their first king/ Menes the first king of all the kingdoms to ye age of {Abr} ye Patriarch Iacob. And \These were the four wch swallowed up the rest: for/ ye great number of the ancient cities in Egy{pt} shews that there were at first many more. So the kingdoms \of the greater Asia/ of the lesser Asia, of Greece & of Italy were originally but small & grew to no great bigness till the kingdoms of ye \Assyrians, Medes & Persians/ Lydians, Macedonians & Romans swallowed up all ye rest. And in general Iustin out of Trogus gives this account of the original of Kingdoms Principio rerum, gentium nationum imperium penes reges erat: quos ad fastigium hujus majestatis non ambitio populans sed spectata inter bonos moderatio provehebat. Populus nullis legibus tenebatur; arbitria Principium pro legibus erant: Finis imperij tueri magis quam proferre mos erat: Intra suam cui patriam regna finiebantur. Primus omnium Ninus rex Assyriorum {v}eterem et quasi avitum gentibus morem nova imperij cupiditate mutavit. Hic primus intulit bella finitimis. Every country every province \every kindred/ had at first a king of its own, till they conquered one another. As \First the fathers of families were kings & then as/ many \fathers of families/ as could agree together \(suppose all those of a city)/ set up. on {illeg} one \a man/ over them to do justice & this \Iudge {also only}/ {illeg} Iudge \he was their Iudge./ their Lawgiver & their King, \appointed elected {therby} to \set up not by ambition but for his/ for his {illeg}/ set up not by ambition but merit \moderation & ability/ till these kingdoms conquered one an|a|nother till these little polities till these polities after ye example of Ninus made war upon one another. First the fathers of families were \{illeg} Iudges &/ Kings. \& {illeg}/ & them as many fathers as could agree together (suppose all those of a City {illeg} with its villages) set up a man over them to do \common/ justice & he was their Iudge their Lawgiver & their King, {illeg} set up \created/ not by ambition but for his moderation & ability untill \And then untill/ these little kingdoms \by/ conquering one another grew \into/ greater. The world was at first {govern}

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and by consequence in or neare the beginning of the reign of Iosiah while he was yet young & the government was in the hands of the High Priest & the ancients of Ierusalem: at which time was Phraortes vanquished & slain by the Assyrians & therefore he & Arphaxad were coincident in time & so must be one & the same king of the Medes. And for the same reason Nebuchadonosor & Chyniladan must be \either/ one & ye same king of the Assyrians \or at least contemporary to one another/. For Arphaxad was slain in the 12th year of Nebuchadnezzar\onosor/ according to Ieromes version of ye book of Iudith out of the original Chaldee, and Phraortes was slain 75 years before the thirty years reign of Cyrus according to Herodotus & by consequence in the year of Nabonassar 113 or the 13th year of Chiniladan. The difference is but a year wch in the chronology of those ancient times is inconsiderable. The 13th year of Chyniladon was the seventh of Iosiah. \And Nebuchadonosor/ In that year \of his reign Nebuchadonosor/ according to Ieroms version Nebuchadonosor sent Holofernes with an army against the nations of Syria. And on that |& while the Assyrians spoiled the neighbouring nations the Iews were terrified & \{being newly} returned from the captivity & they/ fortified their city & humbled themselves in sackcloth \with fasting/ & fell down before the Altar & wth ashes on their head & cryed earnestly unto the Lord that he would not deliver them into the hands of their enemy, & offered dayly burnt offerings with vows & free gifts of ye people (Iudeth c. 4) And on that| occasion Iosiah in the 8th year of his reign while he was yet young began to seek after the God of David his father (2 Chron. 34.3.) & in the 12th year of his reign after he was delivered from the army of the Assyrians he began to purge Iudah & Ierusalem from Idolatry & to destroy the High places & groves & altars & images of Baalim. The great danger & delivery affected \him/ so much in his youth that he became the best & most religious of all the kings of Iudah.

Phraortes \according to Herodotus, or more truly Astyages the successor of Phraortes/ was succeeded by his son Cyaxeres otherwise called Oxyares Astibares & Ashuerus [1]who was more warlike then any of his Predecessors \& first of \all/ distinguished As the nations of Asia into Provinces/ & brought the army of the Medes into better order & discipline. \He fought with the Lydians in the time of a total Eclips of the Sun & subdued Asia as far as ye river Halys/ & in the revenge of |t|his|e| fathers death \of Phraortes, either he or his father Astyages/ prosecuted that war against the Assyrians routed them in the beginning of his reign & laid siege to Nineveh but was on a sudden set upon & opprest in battel by a great inundation of Scythians who from thence made their way towards Egypt but were met & bought off by Psammiticus & returning infested the kingdom of the Medes for about 28 years together but at length Cyaxeres invited the Scythians to a feast made them drunk slew many of them and expelled the rest.

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The last king of the Assyrians is by Ctesias called Sardanapalus, h|H|ow truly I know not. For Strabo[2] tells us that the sepulcher of Sardanapalus \the son of Anacyndaraxis/ was in {illeg} Anchiole a city of Cilicia built by that king. Which makes me suspect that Sardanapalus (that is Asar-adon-pul) was rather Assar haddon the last famous king of Assyria, then the very last king of that Monarchy who burnt himself & his wth his palace & family at the destruction of Nineveh, & by consequence was not buried in Anchiale. But yet if Anacyndax|r|axis was king of Assyria as Suidas affirms, Assarhaddon might be succeeded by the four last kings of Nineveh \Assyria/ might be Nebuchadonosor, Anacyndaraxis & Sardanapalus.

The last king of Assyria \was Sardanapalus. He/ whom Polyistor calls Saracus is by others called Sardanapalus. He \built Tarsus & Anchiale in Cilicia the same day &/ was the son of Anacyndaraxis, \according to Strabo & Arrian, / & Suidas tells us that Anacyndaraxis was king of Assyria. Whence its probable \I reccon/ that the four last kings of Assyria were Assarhaddon, Nebuchadonosor, Anacyndaraxis & Sardanapalus, & that the kings of Babylon Saosducinus, Chiniladon & Nabopolassar were Satrapas under the three last \of them/ untill Nabopolasser revolted from Sardanapalus. In Anchiale Sardanapalus had a monument, but whether he was buried in it built a sepulcher for himself, but whether he was buried in it may be doubted seing authors tells us that he was burnt in Nineveh. Nabopolasser contracted affinity wth the Medes △ < insertion from f 2r > △In the mean time [3]Nabopolassar whom the king of Assyria had made Commander of his forces in Chaldea contracted affinity with the Medes marrying his son Nebuchadnezzar to Amyite the daughter or grand daughter of the \of Astyages/ king of the Medes & {illeg} conspired with them against the king of Assyria. The Medes therefore |invading Assyria| returning to beseige Nineveh, Nabopolasser revolted to them & when <3r> they were possest of the entrances of the City the King of Assyria whom Polyistor calls Saracus \others call Sardanapalus/ burnt himself & his Palace |& the Medes & Babylonians overthrew destroyed Nineveh & shared the kingdom of the Assyrians.| & Nabopolasser took the kingdom of the Chaldeans. This victory the Greeks usually refer to the Medes the Iews to the Chaldeans, Tobit Iosephus & Ctesias to both.

So then the reign of Nabopolasser began at the destruction of Nineveh, & therefore Nineveh was destroyed in the year of Nabonasser 123, that being the first year of Nabop\o/lasser according to the Canon of Ptolomy: for understanding wch you are to note that every kings reign in that Canon began with the last Thoth of his Predecessor & ended wth the last Thoth of his own reign, the odd months & days of the last yeare of every king{s} being neglected in summing up the years of the kings & referred to the {illeg}|fir|st year of the next king, as I gather by comparing the reigns of the Roman Emperors in the Canon with their reigns recorded in years months & days by other authors.

From the revolting of the Chaldeans & their conquest of Nineve began a new Æra of the kingdom of Babylon to wch Ezekiel refers in the beginning of his Prophesy when he saith [4]Now it came to pass in the 30th year [that is in the 30th year of the Chaldeans] wch was the fift year of Iehojakin's captivity, the word of the Lord came unto me in the land of the Chaldeans. Nineveh was therefore destroyed and The new kingdom of the Chaldeans \was therefore/ erected 30 years before the fift year of the Iehojakims captivity & by consequence in the 17th year of Iosiah wch was the first year of Nabopolasser as above.

And on this occasion Iosiah in the 18th year of his reign repaired the Temple & kept the biggest Passover that ever was kept, giving to the people for offerings 3000 Bullocks & 30000 of the flock besides what the Princes & people offered. In the 12th year of Chyniladan or Nebuchadonosor Iosiah (wch was the sixt year of Iosiah) Nebuchadonosor vanquished ye Medes & slew Phraortes \{Symbol (triangle with a line through it) in text} Phraortes/ as above. The next year Cyaxeres the son of Phraortes beat ye Assyrians, & returned to the siege of Nineveh, T & was set upon & beaten by the Scythians. The next year wch was the 8th year of Iosiah the Scythians invaded Syria & Phenicia & endeavouring to enter Egypt were bought off by Psammiticus. And hereupon Iosiah in the 8th year of his reign while he was yet young began to seek after the God of David his father (2 Chron. 34.3) & in the 12t year of his reign wch was the 18th of Nebuchadonosor, Holofernes invaded Syria & Iudea & was slain by Iudeth & Iudea

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By the fall of Nineveh the kingdom of Babylon wch had hitherto been a small one, grew great & potent. {illeg} The reigns of its kings are {illeg} stated in Ptolemy's Canon: for understanding wch you are to note that every kings reign in that Canon began wth the last Thoth of his Predecessor – – – – – – – months & days by other authors. And this makes it probable that the Iews began the reigns of their kings wth the first of Nisan by their {illeg} {illeg} sacred years wch began wth the Month Nisan |{illeg}|east|ern nations consisted of Syria & Assyria consisted of Assyria Syria & Phœnicia began \counted/ the reigns of their kings {until}| by their civil years, & recconning that the first year of their reign in wch wch {sic} their reign began, & in summing up their years, referring the odd months & days of the last year to the first year of the next king. And according to this way of recconning the Iews might begin the reigns of their kings wth ye first day of the month Nisan of that year in wch each king began to reign. And according to this way of recconning the first year of Nebuchadnezzar may be \wholy/ coincident wth ye 4th of Iehojakim & the 18th wth the 10th of Zedekiah \of Zedekiah/ & the 19th wth the 11th, as they seem to be. Whence it appears of from yt Canon that Chiniladon died Anno Nabonassar in ye year of Nabonassar 123, Nabopolassar in ye year 144 & Nebuchadnezzar in the year 187. This last king died in the 37the year of Iehojakins captivity (2 King. XXV.27) & therefore Iehojakin was captivated in the 150th year of Nabonassar. This captivity was in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over Iudea (2 King. XXIV.12) For the first year of his reign began in the was the fourth of Iehojakims & Iehojakim reigned 11 years before this captivity (2 King XXIII 36) & therefore Nebuchadnezzar began his reign in Iudea in ye year of Nabonassar 142 two years before his fathers death & three years before |that,| that is \vizt/ in the year of Nabonassar 139 Iehojakim succeeded his father Iosiah. In {illeg} ye Eleventh yeare after \of/ ye captivity of Iehojakim \& 19th of Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings XX{IV} {illeg} 8)/, that is in the year of Na <3v> bonasser 160 in the fift month of the Iewish year \Ierusalem &/ the Temple were burnt

And as the Chaldeans counted the reign of their kings by the years of Nabonassar, so the Iews \(as their authors tell us)/[5] counted the reign of theirs by the years of Moses beginning every year wth the month Nisan. For if any king commenced his reign a few days before this month began it was recconed to him for a whole year & the beginning of this month was accounted the beginning of the second year of his reign. According to wch recconing the first year of Iehojakim began with the month Nisan in ye year of Nabonasser 139. An. Abr. /1392, tho his reign might not really begin till 4 or 5 months after.\

In this year therefore Pharaoh Nechoh the successor of Psammiticus came with a great army out of Egypt against the king of Assyria – – – – – – – – to tribute. And this war being waged against the king of Assyria, the kingdom of Assyria was not yet overthrown | fallen |:|(|for ye king of Babylon is never called king of Assyria in scripture|. But it fell within a year or two. For in the third year of Iehojakim Nebuchadnezzar assisted by Astibares (that is Assuerus) king of the Medes, in pursuing their victory over the Assyrians, came with an army

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Berosus tells us that the father of Nebuchadnezzar hearing that the Satrapa set over Ægypt & {Syr} Cælosyria & Phœnicia \/ had revolted , \&/ sent hi being unable to beare ye fatigue of war any longer, sent his son Nebuchnezzar {sic} against him wth part of his army {illeg} against the revolter & that Nebuchadnezzar fought & overcame the revolter & recovered his territories dominions & then the father Nabopolasser died

Darius was the son of \Assuerus/ Achsueres (or Ahasuirus as ye Masorets corruptly call him) of the seed or royal family of the Medes. Dan 9.1. Achsuerus, Oxyares, & Axeres or Cy-Axeres that is Prince Axeres are the same name & \For that king who took Nineveh is by Tobit called Assuerus & by Herodotus Cyaxeres. Now/ Cyaxeres (according to Xenophon) was the son of Artyages & succeeded him in the throne of the Medes, \This is that {illeg} Assuerus or/ & gave his daughter to as Astyages gave \one of/ his daughter {sic} Mandane to Cambyses the father of Cyrus \& another of his daughters to Nebuchadnezzar,/ so Cyaxeres gave his daughter to Cyrus, not after the taking of Babylon as Xenophon represents but long before when she was young & handsome. For she Xenophon tells us that she was reported to be very handsome & that she & Cyrus were playfellows when they were \both/ children & that she used then to say that she would marry Cyrus; And & I reccon that Cambyses who succeede {sic} Cyrus was her son. She was therefore the sister of Darius of about the same age with Cyrus & Darius, being the sister of the one & wife of the other, For & all of them being the grandchildren of Astyages. For Darius was 62 years old at the taking of Babylon & Cyrus was at the same time 61 years old being 70 years old when he died & {illeg}reigning 9 years after the taking of Babylon. So then these four kings reigned successively over the Medes Astyages, Cyaxeres, Darius & Cyrus & Cyaxeres was a young man of about the same age wth Nebuchadnezzar & |Astyages was of about the same age with Nebuchadnezzar Nabopolasser & their sons Cyaxeres & Nebuchadnezz {sic} were also contemporary & both| both {sic} of them were young men when they led the army|ie|s of their fathers against Babylon Nineveh. For Nineveh was taken \by them/ about 69 years before Babylon In those early ages the name of king was taken by Cy Darius & Cyrus.

[Editorial Note 1]

The 13 year of Chiniladon was ye seventh \or eighth/ year of Iosiah & hence it seems that the great successe of the king of Assyria

– of Iudah \Baalim & continued/ & in the 18th year of his reign \when he had purged the land,/ upon the revolting of the Chaldeans from the Assyrians whereby he was freed from their |t|errors, he rejoyced by: keeping a greater \the biggest/ Passover feast that ever was kept by David Solomon or any king of Iudah {illeg} any of the kings of Isr any former king giving to ye people for offerings 3000 Ballocks {sic} & 30000 of ye flock besides what the Princes & people offered \[And/ By the greatness of his dangers & deliverances while he was young he became the best of all the kings of Israel & Iudah] For
For {when} Nabopolasser whom the king of Assyria had made commander of his forces in Chaldea had |newly| revolted from the Assyrians & conspired with the Medes against them, [by wch means Iosiah was freed] & this revolt happened in ye \17 or/ 18th year of Iosiah because Nabopolassar began his reign in that {illeg} according to] & the first year {of} his reign was ye 17 or 18th of Iosiahs, Anno Nabonassar 123 according to Ptolomys Canon. |Iosiah being thereby freed from the error of ye Assyrians, rejoyced by keeping the biggest Passover feast that ever was kept giving to ye people for offering 3000 bullocks & 30000 of the flock besides what the Princes & people offered. & the first year of his reign was ye 17 or 18th year of Iosiah's anno Nabonassari 123 according to Ptolomy's Canon.| This Iosiah by the greatnes of his dangers & deliverances while he was young became ye best of all the kings of Israel & Iudah.

Now Nabopolassar to strengthen himself against the king of Assyria maried his daughters contracted affinity wth \sent to {illeg} Astyages Prince of the/ the {sic} Medes, marrying \& married/ his son Nebuchadnezzar to Amyite d|t|he daughter of Astyages, as Polyistor relates, & \Nebuchadnezzar/ coming wth an army against the king o \to/ Nineve, {& Saracus} against \Saracus king of/ the Assyrians \their king whom Plyistor {sic} calls/ Saracus was terrified therewith & burnt himself with his Palace & the Medes & Babylonians took & destryed {sic} Nineve. This victory over the Assyrians the Greeks usually refer to the Medes, the Iews to the Chaldeans, Tobit Iosephus & Ctesias to both. In this expedition the army of the Medes was led on by Cyaxeres as Herodotus informs us & \Cyaxeres as/ Xenophon tells us that Cyaxeres was the son of Astyages & by consequence the brother in law of Nebuchadnezzar. Tobit calls him Assuerus saying that Nineveh was taken by Nebuchadonosor & Assuerus. F \For/ Cya|-A|xeres that is Prince Axeres is ye same name wth Assuerus & Oxyares & Assuerus.

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Now since Pharaoh Necho took this expedition against the king of Assyria its plain that Nineveh was not yet destroyed, but it seems to have be beseiged at this time by Nebuchadnezzar & Assuerus & taken the year following that is in the 17th year of Nabopolasser & taken within a year or two, |as is represented in the Hebrew chronicle called Sedar Olim Rab/bah\|

For in ye 18thyear of Nabopolasser – – – – – to ye river of Euphrates.

Berosus tells us that the father of Nebuchadnezzar hearing that the Satrapa set over Egypt Cælosyria & Palestine Phœnicia had revolted, & being unable to bear ye fatigue of war any longer, sent his son Nebuchadnezzar with part of his army against the revolter & that Nebuchadnezzar fought & overcame the revolter & recovered his dominions. By the revolting Satrapa he means Pharaoh Necho{d}, & thence I seem to gather that Ægypt Cælosyria Phœnicia & Egypt were subject to the Assyrians till Nebuchadnezzar & Assuerus beseiged Nineveh, that Pharaoh Necho took occasion from that seige to revolt, & that Iosiah out of fidelity to the king of Assyria opposed the passage of the revolter Pharaoh through Palestine & that |so| soon as Nebuchadnezzar & Assuerus had taken Nineveh they led their army against Pharaoh, & recovered all Syria from him to ye king of Babylon in right of the king of Nineveh \Assyria/ whom they had conquered, & dividing \that the/ the {sic} kingdom of Assyria \being divided/ between them, Mesopotamia & Syria fell to the lot of t share of the king of Babylon. Nineveh was therefore taken in ye 17th or 18th year of Nabopolasser, or \beginning of the 18th./ The Hebrew chronicle called Sedar Olim Rabbah saith it was taken in ye first year of Nebuchadnezzar, dating his reign from the \his/ expedition of {t} against Ph Pharoah as if it immediately succeeded the destruction of that city

While Nebuchadnezz {sic}, after his victory over Pharoah Necho was acting in Syria –

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These four regions belonged not to ye bodies of ye two first beasts, they became so were under ye dominion of ye Greeks before ye Greeks overthrew the Persian Empire, they continued under their dominion till the empire of the Romans {illeg} \arose they/ spee|a|ke ye Greek language, & after the division of ye Roman Empire {C} into the Greek & Latin Empires they all belonged to ye Greek Empire till the Saracens invaded Egypt & Syria & therefore in Dani they are all \very properly/ referred to ye body of the third Beast. So then the

Alexander the g|G|reat – – – –

So then there remains for the body of ye fourth Beast all the nations of the Roman Empire \wch lye/ on this side Greece & Egypt & wch after the division of this Empire between the Greeks & Latines made up the Latin \or Western/ Empire. And therefore within the compass of these \western/ nations we are to look for the ten horns of the fourth Beast & |ye| eleventh horn wch rose up after ye ten & rooted up three of them in its rise.

Alexander ye great died at Babylon An. I. P. 4390 & was succeeded in \Macedon &/ Greece \(the western head of the Leopard)/ by Arideus Antipater Cassender & others down to Perseus whom ye Romans conquered an. I. P. 4546 & in Egypt by Ptolom \& neighbouring parts of Arabia & Afric/ (the southern head) \he was succeeded/ by Ptolomeus Lagi & other Greeks down to Cleopatra in the end of whose reign the Romans \Augustus/ reduced Egypt into a Roman Province an. I P. I. 4684 Selaucus, saith Iustin, possessing the kingdom of ye East built \there/ a city wch he named \called/ Antioch{us} who from his after the name of his father Antiochus, & thence \he/ invaded Babylonia & Bactria & {illeg} h|H|e & his posterity reigned in Syria till Pompey reduced sby their civil discords ye kingdom fell into ye hands of Tigranes king of Armenia & 18 years after was reduced into a Roman Province by \Lucullus &/ Pompey an. P. I. 4645. Asia minor (ye northern head) fell into ye hands of Antigonus & his son Demetrius who rei {illeg} & at length was w who reigned there till Demetrius was conquered by Seleucus king of Syria an. P. I 4426. From wch time the kingdoms of Asia & Syria con were \remained/ united under one king. b|B|ut yet \they/ are still represented by two horns, much after ye manner yt the kingdoms of ye Medes & Persians have but one king & yet are represented by the two horns of the Ram untill such time ye \very/ fall of ye Persian Empire. when \For then it is/ ye Ram H he Goat smit \smites the Ram &/ breaks both \his two/ ye horns together his two horns. |Out of the {illeg} \kingdom of Asia/ arose ye kingdoms of Pergamus wch by the last will & testament of Attalus descended to ye Romans & in their power became mighty & inlarged it self southward into Egypt & eatward {sic} into Syria|

So then these four regions of Greece Asia Syria & Egypt being at first |\& in the reign of Vespasian & Titus/ & being propagated through their Empires by a {new separation} \took away at length separated from it &/ became the Greek Empire seated at Constantinop{le} And this was ye little horn of ye Goat wch came out of a| distinct kingdoms of ye Greeks & then united|in|g under the Romans & afterwar the separation of ye Greeks from ye Latins composing|ed| the \united/ body of ye Greek Empire wch was monarchical|k| & stood intire till the Saracens invaded it \& therefore they/ may justly be recconed the four {sic} heads & wings of yt Greek Empire & \to/ compose that body wch to this day is represented by the four headed \& four winged/ Leopard & by {Th} the Goat wth four wing horns {illeg} wch Daniel tells us signifies the {illeg} kingdom of the Greeks divided towards ye fours {sic} winds of heaven. § And whilst the three first Beasts signify to this day all the nations of the Assyrian Medo-Persian & Grecian Empires, \that is all the nations from India to Greece & Egypt/ there remains for the body of the fourth Beast – – – – three of them in its rise. These Beasts or Kingdoms are \plainly/ distinguished \also/ by their language. The first spake the Chalde Assyrian {illeg} \Assyrian &/ Chaldean, the second the Persian, the third Greek & ye fourth the Latin. For {illeg} ye Greek was spoken in all ye Eastern Greek Empire & the Latin in all ye Latin. But the Greek was not spoken in the Latin Empire not|r| the Latin in ye Greek. By this character therefore the third & fourth Beast are distinguisht even when they are united in dominion. And by these commotions the Latin Empire became divided

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Now this fourth Beast saith Daniel was dreadful & terrible & strong exceedingly & had great iron teeth & nails of brass & devoured & brake in pieces & stamped the residue with its feet & such was the Roman Empire. Twas more stron dreadful terrible & strong in battel then any of the former kingdoms, & th accordingly had a larger dominion & stood much longer then any of those. It devoured saith Daniel the whole earth & trode it down & brake it in pieces & & hereby its dominions are distinguished into two parts, the nations wch composed the body of ye Beast & thes \before it began to be considered in this prophesy or which it afterwards devoured & converted into its body/ & the nations wch it stamped wth its feet & brake in pieced. The first are the Latins ye other the nations of ye former empires, & principally of the Greeks Those nations it conquered subdued & reigned over but they belong to ye bodies of the three former Beasts. And it was divers from all the Beasts that were before it. They were governed by Kings, this by a Senate & yearly Consuls. And it had ten horns: that is it became divided into ten kingdoms. It was not so divided i|a|t its first rise but for then it could not have been so dreadfull & exceeding strong, but in the latter part of its reign it brake into ten became divided. The first part of its reign is signified by the iron legs of Nebuchadnezzars statue & in their reign ye kingdom is said to be strong as iron & to break in pieces & bruise as iron that breaketh all things in pieces & subdueth all things Dan 2.33, 40. The latter part of its reign is signified by the feet of ye statue wch consisted of iron & clay mixed together & had ten toes. In this respect of ye toes Daniel saith ye kingdom shall be divided & in respect of ye iron & clay that wch adhere not together that it shall be partly strong \as iron/ & partly brittle & \they shall/ not cleave together. Dan. 2.41, 42, 43. We are therefore to seek for ye ten horns in the latter times of the fourth kingdom when it begins to grow weak & divided. The ten horns out of this kingdom, saith Daniel are ten kings that shall arise & another shall arise after them.

Now the Roman Empire continued united & in its full strength till the death of Constantine ye great \Theodosius wch was 561 years after |dated from| the conquest of {illeg} Greece by ye Romans/ & if at any time it became was shaken it became as in the time of ye 30 Tyrants it soon recovered. Constantine left it divided between his sons. Constantius reunited it & left it divided into ye Greek & Latin Empires an. P. I.         & \or divided, as at ye death of Constantine, it soon recovered./ Theodosius \(an. P. I./ left it divided into ye Greek & Latin Empires seated at Rome & Constantinople & \the Latin Empire/ twelve \or 13/ years after vizt in ye {le} \vizt in ye yeare 408 409 & 410/ it became divided at once into ye Greek & Latin ten kingdoms. /For in ye beginning of the year of {But} |A.C.| 408 \end of ye year \A.C./ 407 a great army/ a great army {sic} of divers northern nations Vandals Alans Suevians, Burgurndians c{illeg}h under \several {illeg}/ their proper kings passed the Rhine \at {Ments}/ invaded Gallia & caused ye T Salian Franks wch were seated on the \in Gallia/ within ye Empire to rise up in arms & ye Romans to relinquish Britain. The           Vandal Alans \Suevians/ & one body of ye Alans went streight on into Spain & after these {illeg} nations had ravaged both Gallia & Spain they seated themselves there in several Kingdoms & in ye year of Christ 427 the Vandals rose from their seats in Spain invaded Afric & seated themselves there. In the mean time ye Visigoths rose from their seats in Pannonia beseiged Rome & took it A.C. 410 & then retired into Gallia & Spain & a body of Hunns succeeded the Visigoths in Pannonia |the Vand under several kings, the Vandals under Godegisilus the Goths Alans in two bodies one under Godegisilus Goar another under Resplendial, the Suevi under Ermeric & the Burgundians under Gundicar arising from their seats in Germany & Sarmatia being invited by Stilico a Roman general arose from their seats in Germany & Sarmatia passed the Rhine at Ments, the last day of December & invaded ye adjacent parts of Gallia/ Thereupon the Salian Francs who had been long seated in ye Empire {illeg} in the regions of Toxandria & Tongria rose up in arms shared their conquests & attackt \attackt & routed/ ye Vandals slew 20000 of them wth their king Resplendial \Godegisilus/ & had slain ye rest had not Goar wth his \a body of/ Alans come to their assistance. Then Resplendial with his Alans & the Vandals & Suevi left went from the Rhene towards Spain & being stopt \for a time/ by the Pyrenean mountains ravaged \Aquitain &/ the neighbouring parts of Gallia till But upon the 28 of Sept A.C. 409 the Pyrenean passage being \was/ betrayed to them & they entered Spain, & \&/ harassed the country \Spain/ & at length \A.C. 411/ divided their conquests by lot.|

In the meane time \the other Barbarians harrassed Gallia & ye Britains fell off from ye Empire &/ [ye Franks making Theudemer their king, after they had entr beaten ye Vandals they took Trevirs plundred Trevirs, attackt ye {illeg} Gauls of Brabant, but \being stoutly resisted/ persuaded them to fall of from ye Romans & joyn wth them \wch they did under Pharamund their common king/ & by marriages they intermixt & became one people & were afterwards strengthened by a new access of Franks from beyond ye Rhene] & Stilico & while the {illeg} Western \Latin/ Empire was thus engaged Stilico designing to invade ye Greek Empire called the Visigoths from their <6r> seats in Pannonia where they lived in subjection to ye Empire & sent them into Epire \under ye command of Alaricus/ designing soon after to follow them with his army. But being stopt \by the Emperor/ & afterwards detected & slain as a Traytorous {cow} Alaric came returned back from Epire invaded Italy & sackt R & calling his brother out of Pannonia wth wt further force he had there, he invaded Italy A.C. 408. And at the same time the Hunns invaded {illeg} the deserted seats of ye Goths in Pannonia \& {Alyricam}/ & the western Emperor fearing to be shut up in Rome retired to Ravenna. Then |For| the Goths beseiged Rome & took it A.C. 410, after wch they \& then/ st|e|ated themselves in Gallia. This was the occasion & manner of rending the Latin or Western Empire into ten \the ten following/ kingdoms {illeg} ten kingdoms, & these kingdoms are as follows.

1 The Kingdom of ye Vandals. in Spa They invaded Gallia A.C. 408, Spain A.C. 409 & Afric A.C. 427 \& reigned in Afric till A.C. 533./. In Spain they were seated in Gallicia & Bœtica Their Kings were Godegisilus, Gunderic, Geiseric Hunneric Gundemund Thrasamund Hilderic Gelimer.

2 The Suevians Kingdom of the Suevians. They entred Spain A.C. 409 reigned there & \reigned in Gallæcia & Lusitania/ grew a potent kingdom & reigned there 177 years. They were seated in Gallæcia & Lusitania & afterwards in Betica also & the Carthaginensian Province. Their Kings were Ermeric, Rechila, Rehiarius Maldra Frumarius Regis mundus &c.

The kingdom of ye Alans in Spain. This was the most potent of ye Barbarous kingdoms in Spain but lasted only ten years in it {sic} greatness. Its kings were Resplendial & Ataces. The Visigoths A.C. {14} 419 slew Ataces wth almost all his army. And then ye Alans subjected themselves to Gunderic king of ye Vandals but ye next year withdrew their obedience & returned to Lusitania & the Carthagenensian provinc {sic} where they lived \as in a Commonwealth/ wthout a king tributary to ye Romans giving the name Catta Catalonia (i.e. Catti-Alania) to ye region & in ye year 448 they warred upon ye Romans & in Carpentam & ye Carthaginensian province & wasted their city|i|es but were soon checkt by the Suevians

4 The kingdom of ye Alans in Gallia. Their kings were Goar Sambida Eocharich, Sangibanus, Beurgus &c. Vnder Goar they \invaded Gallia A.C. 408 &/ had seats given them \by ye Emperor/ neare \the Rhene/ A.C. 412 as had also their Confederates ye Burgundians. Vnder Sambida they had they had ye territories of Valence given them by Ætius the Emperors general A.C 440. & |Vnder Eocharic they had a region of the rebelling Armorici given them by Ætius & conquered it. This region was from them named Alenconium quasi Alanorum conventus.| Vnder Sangibanus they were invaded & their regal city Orleans beseiged by Attila king of the Hunns wth a vast army. Whereupon Ætius & his associates came to raise the siege & beat ye Hunns in a \that/ memorable battel AC 491 in campi Catalannici so called from these Alans mixt wth ye Chatti. The region is now contractly called Campain. A year or two after Attila returned again wth an immense army to conquer this kingdom but was again beaten by them & ye Goths who came to their assistance \in a battel of three days continuance wth a slaughter almost as great as the former/. Vnder Beurgus or Biorgor they infested Gallia round about till the reign of Maximus the Emperor & then they troubled Italy past ye Alps in winter & came into Liguria but were there beaten & Beurgus slain by Ricimer the Emperors General. A.C. 464. Afterwards they were again beaten by \the joint force of/ Odoacer king of Italy & Childeric king of ye Francks about ye year 480, & again by the Franks under Theudebert king of ye Austrian Franks about ye year 4|5|11

5 The kingdom of the Burgundians. Their Kings were Gundicar, Gundioc, Bilimer, Gundobald, Sigismund, Godomarus. Vnder Gundicar they invaded Gallia A.C. 408 & had seats given them {illeg} by ye Emperor neare the Rhene in Gallia Belgica A.C. 412 They were now so potent that Orosius A.C. 417 wrote of them Burgunionum esse <6v> prævalidam et perniciosam manum Galliæ hodie testes sunt in quibus praesumpta possessione consistunt. About ye year 435 they received great overthrows by Ætius & soon after by the Huns, but five years after had Savoy granted them to be shared wth the Inhabitants, & from that time they became again a potent kingdom being \for a time/ bounded by the river Rhodanus but afterwards extending much further into the heart of Gallia. Gundobald conquered the regions about the rivers Araris & Rhodanus wth the territories of Marseille & invaded Italy in ye reign of Glycerius. Godomarus made Orleans his royal seat whence ye kingdom was called Regnum Aurelianorum. He was conquered by Clotharius & Childebert kings of ye Francks A.C. 526. And from thence forward this kingdom was sometimes united to ye kingdom of ye Franks sometimes divided from it till the reign of Charles ye great who made his son Carotus king of Burgundy & From thence forward \that time/ for above 300 years together it enjoyed its proper kings, And was then broken into ye Dukedome of Burgundy & County of Burgundy & County of Savoy, & afterwards those were broken into other less counties.

[Editorial Note 2]

In Macedon & Greece ye western head of the Leopar

Alexander the great died \& at first his captains shared his kingdom/ an. I. P. 4390 & was succeeded in Macedon & Grece by Arideus (the western head of ye Leopard) by Arideus \Antipater/ Cassander & others \down/ to Perseus whom ye Romans conquered an I. P. 4546, & in Egypt \(the southern head)/ by Ptolomeus Lagi & other Greeks \down/ to Cleopatra in whom ye Romans can the end of whose reign Augustus reduced Egypt into a Roman Province an. I. P. 4684. Seleucus reigned in Syria \(the eastern head) & Eumenes/ & Antigonus with his son Demetrius in Asia \the/ Mir minor \(the northern)/: but Seleucus built Antioch \thence invaded Babilonia/ & extended his kingdom dominion {illeg} eastward as far as Persia. & \He extended it also/ northward into Asia minor conquering Ant Demetrius {illeg} an I. P. 4426, & thenceforward he {illeg} \& his successors are/ considered in {illeg} the last Prophesy of Daniel as kings of ye North, & reigned with his poster{ity} \(wth the Kingdom of Pergamus {rose} {rose} (wch is the last horn of ye Goat) rose out of their kingdom & (wch \wth the kingdom of Pergamus// till the Romans {illeg} conquered them. |[For the Kingdom of Pergamus is ye last horn of ye Goat as shall be shewed hereafter.]|

These \four/ regions making up the \four headed/ body of ye third beast with there remains for the body of the fourth beast {the} all This But at length \all/ these dominions of ye Greeks {illeg} (upon ye founding of Constantinople) became divided again from the western part of ye Roman Empire & who|ich| had conquered them & made up alone composed the body of the Greek Empire (as it was usually called) till the Saracens & Turks invaded it. This Empire {illeg} consisting of those nations wch made up the b This Empire \being monarchicall {possesses} all &/ consisting of \all/ those nations \&/ wch to this day are signified by ye Leopard & he Goat, \& being now monarchicall/ must be |t|he |he| Goat in ye reign of his last horn. This I This horn was at first \originally/ the kingdom of Pergamus. It was In its first rise it was a little one & so was the kingdom of Pergamus. It arose out of one of ye four horns & so did ye kingdom of Pergamus \namely out of ye northern horn/. It was at In its first rise it was a little one & so was the kingdom of Pergamus. It waxed exceeding great towards ye south & towards ye east & towards ye pleasan {sic} land or Iudea, that is it extended {&} arose in a north west quarter & extended its dominion into the southern & eastern & regions of Egypt Syria & Phenicia & so did the kingdom \but/ of Pergamus {illeg} in conjunction wth the Romans. For it|s| was mi power was mighty but not by its own power. Dan. 8.24. It was not For \this horn/ was not destroyed \rooted up or broken/ by a Roman conquest but by \its/ the last will & testament of its last king Attalus it left the Roman descended to ye Romans by right of succession \& inheritance/. Attalus ye last king of Pergamus by his last will & testament left his crown to \his kingdo the {sic}/ ye Romans, his heir, so that they succeeded him in ye crown of the Permamus {sic} & inherited the kingdom as his heir & successor. And therefore the kingdom is to be recconed still in being tho under their dominion. This kingdom was in league wth ye Romans & by their assistance had conquered almost all Asia minor before they inherited it.

In their wars with Perseus it also assisted the Romans

<7r>

Chap. 10
Of the daily worship & the abomination of Desolation.

In the prophesies of Daniel that wch is usually translated the daly {sic} worshi sacrifice is usua more proper in the Hebrew only called the daily & may be inter{illeg} \more as/ properly translated the daily worship. This worship is opposite to the abomination of desolation that is to the worship of fals Gods & Idols & in that respect signifies the worship of the true God without an image. such a worship as is prescribed in the first & second commandment. Thou shall have no other Gods before me: And thou shalt not make to thy self any graven image. nor the likeness of any thing. That is Thou shalt have in thy worship no other Gods in my sight, thou shalt me alone the worship me alone the God who in six days made the heaven & ea\r/th & all that in them is & rested the seventh day, & thou shalt not add to me any other Gods in thy worship, neither shalt thou make to thee in thy worship any graven image or the likeness of any thing. For the|se| worship of the Iews commandments \are practical &/ respect the worship of the Iews. We are not forbidden to give /the name of Gods to Angels & kings but we are forbidden to worship them ‡\ < insertion from f 8v > ‡ them as Gods. And We are forbidden to worship them not only as supreme infinite & eternal Gods but even as inferior & subordinate Gods. We are forbidden to worship them in such a sense as the heathens worshipped their Gods who took them for nothing more then Lords the souls of men dead men mediators between God & man Lords who reigned over us under the supreme God. For to us \in our worship/ there is but one God the father \almighty/ & one mediator between God & man, the God & one Lord man Christ Iesus; one God & one Lord; one God to whom we are to give honour & glory & praise & \thanks &/ worship for creating all things & preserving us & giving us our daily bread & one \to whom/ we |are to| direct our prayers for what we want; & one Lord & Mediator to whom we are to give honour & glory & thanks for redeeming us with his blood & in whose name we are to direct all our prayers to God. And this worship of one God before untill the coming of the Messiah & of one God & one Lord \ever/ since his coming & \his/ resurrection from the dead is the principall part of the daily worship. For there was also a less principal part wch consisted in offering sacrifices to God. The first part is moral & {illeg} the second is only ceremonial. The first was performed in all the synagogues, the second was performed only in the {illeg}

< text from f 7r resumes >

Now the worship of this {illeg} God was partly ceremonial & transient, partly moral & eternal. The ceremonial part consisted principally in sacrifices, the moral in prayers praises & thanksgivings. The gentiles sacrificed in all their cities, |&| To take \away/ these sacrifices might \have/ been difficult & therefore Moses \& the Prophets /not {sic} totally take them away but\/ only restrained them to the Tabernacle, & made simple them typical & {signicant} of future things \& to ye Temple wch was to succeed it & to recommend them & to make \render/ them the more significant & pious he made them typical./ The moral worship wch consisted in prayers praises & thanksgiving was performed daily in the synagogue or the Church & in all the synagogues of the Iews & Cathedral Churches \or synagogues/ of the Christian Gentiles. And the \daily/ worship \some/ being more novel then {illeg} of sacrificing & |syn in all the synagogues. For this purpose there was a synagogue in the Temple, there was a synagogue in every city of the Iews & there might be a synagogue of either Iews or Christians in any city of the Romans * < insertion from the right margin of f 7r > * & \in like manner/ the Christian synagogues called Cathedral Churches were \set up/ in all the cities of the Christians & had a daily worship in them. < text from f 7r resumes > And this daily worship in the synagogues being more excellent & universal then that of sacrificing in the Temple {illeg} deserves \in this prophesy/ much more to be represented \& called the daily./ &| is chiefly opposed to the abomination of desolation & lasted till that abomination was set up \in its room/ not only in the Temple |but also \more especially/ in the synagogues of both Iews & \Christian/ Gentiles|

< insertion from the left margin of f 7r >

Temple; & where the daily worship was performed there was the sanctuary of {strength. The Empire was} {illeg} in wch the ceremonial daily worship was performed & the synagogues taken {colle} were the sanctuaries of strength & collectively the sanctuary in wch the moral daily worship was performed. For as many fals prophets are collectively called the fals prophet Apoc 19.20 & many churched are called the Church Eph. 5.25 & many synagogues Temples are called the Temple 2 Thess. 2.4, & many synagogues are called the synagogue Apoc. 2.9. so many sanctuaries are by Daniel collectively called the sanctuary. The Prince of ye host being Christ, the host must be the Christian Church \of Christ/ & the sanctuary must be the place of the Christian worship, & by consequence \wch place is/ the synagogues, or Churches of ye Christian{illeg} Iews & Gentiles. taken collectively

< text from f 7r resumes >

Now this daily worship was taken away from \the synagogues of/ the Iews & the abomination of desolation set up in their land in the reign of the Emperor Adrian when the Iews were banished their land upon pain of dearth & the worship of the Gentiles was set up in all their cities. But in the synagogues or Cathedral Churches of the Christians the daily worship remained untill the king arose who did according to his will & in his seat together with a strange God began to \set up the/ worship \of/ Mahuzzims <8r> that is, untill a new Greek Empire arose. For the whole prophesy of the scripture of truth concerns the Greek Empire The Greeks continued in subjection to the Latines till the reign Dioclesian & his colleagues erecting \building/ of Constantinople & then |the Greeks| \{separated} & made/ that city became the metropolis of a new \standing Greek/ Empire then arose a new king was the Mahuzzims to be set up seat of a new king the Greeks separated & made that became a new kingdom Empire seated at that city, & \accordingly is/ represented in this prophesy by \a new king/ the king who doth according to his will & sa|e|ts up the worship of Mahuzzims with a strange God whom his fathers knew not & prospers in these practices till the indignation be accomplished. § The daily worship was to be taken away by the last horn of the He Goat, & the He Goat is by Daniel interpreted to signify the King of Greece, & his last horn is said to grow {very g} wax exceeding great \even to the host of heaven & to cast down of the stars to the grownd/ & is called a king of fierce countenance whose power should be mighty but not by his own power, wch (as we said) is to be understood of the Greeks \growing mighty/ under the dominion & by their power \of the Romans/. In this state he was to wax grow exceeding great even to the host of heaven & to cast down of the {illeg} starrs to the grownd: wch is to be understood of his laying wast \making desolate/ the I\e/ws & persecuting the Christians. And after this he is said to magnify himself even to the Prince of the host & to {illeg} take away the daily worship & cast down the place of his sactury. The Prince of the host is Iesus Christ & the dail therefore the daily worship here taken away is the worship of the Christians & the place of his sanctuary is the place of the worship of the Christians, that is their synagogues or Churches Cathedral Churches taken collectively. \For these are/ {illeg}|t|h{illeg}|e|{illeg} Temple of God in wch the man of sin was to sit \as a God/ after he had taken away the dayly worship. And to this double exaltation of this horn, (first up to heaven to cast down of the stars to the grownd & then up to the Prince of the host called also the Prince of Princes to take away the daily worship) & cast aswers {sic} \the double state of the daily worship wch was to be taken away, first the Iewish & then the Christian &/ the double state of the a|A|rms wch \in the prophesy of the scripture of truth/ stand up after Antiochus Ephiphanes. First those arms stand up & pollute the Iewish sanctuary of strength & take away their daily worship & place the abomination wch maketh their land desolate, & causeth those that understand amonst {sic} the people & instruct many (that is the Christians) to fall by the sword & by flame & by captivity & by spoile many days. & even to ye time of the end & And when they sha|o|\u/ll|d| fall they shall \were to/ be holpen with a little help, but I {with} \& by {through} properity {sic} to/ grow numerous through flatterers cleaving to them, but they shall \were to/ fall again even to the time of the end. For the king who sha|o|\u/ll|d| then reign, shall \was to/ do according to his will & shall |to| exalt & magnify himself above every God & speak marvellous things against the God of Gods, & wth a strange God whom his fathers kew {sic} not to wo \he/ was to worship Mahuzzims. And this is his the second rise of the let is his second exaltation & answers to the growth rise |second exaltation| of the little \last/ horn up to the {host of heaven} \of the Goat his rise exaltation up to the/ Prince of the host & therefor taking |that he might be able to take| away the daily sacrifice worship. Whence \And therefore/ the transgression of desolation wch suc \now/ succeeded this daily worship is the worship of the Mahuzzims: [the whole time from his rising up to the host of the vision of the little horn \from his beginning to act/ being 2300 prophetick days whereby & by \reason of/ that worship the people of the Prince are made wasted \persecuted/ & made desolate Its \This transgression is/ called the abomination of desola to signify that it is idolatry & the a|A|bomination of desolation to signify that the idolaters are great persecutors & {lay} make desolate the people of God. And as this horn is said to stand up against the Prince of Princes & to magnify himself himself to the host & to the Prince And from this transgression \of the horn & his magnifying himself & standing up against the Prince of Princes/ the Apostle Paul calls this horn the man of sin \or the man or transgression who/ For as the horn stood up against the Prince of Princes to the {man} \& magnified/ & exalted himself {aga} to ye host & to the Prince of the host \& as{illeg} & magnifies himself above every God/ so the man of sin opposeth & exalteth himself above every thing that is called God \or that is worshipped/. And from this opposition & standing up against the Prince of Princes Iohn calls him Antichrist. The Appostle {sic} wrote these things to them of the Greek Churches & therefore the man of sin & the Antichrist was to reign in those churches, & there to place their abomination & make desolate the people of God. And <8v> And this was to be done in the latter times. {the} And the king wch doth according to his will set up the worship of Mahuzzims in the times next preceeding the time wch Daniel calls the time of the end & continued to rei{illeg}gn in this time of the end because the king of the south then pusht at him.

< insertion from f 7v >

{illeg} fo

The Iews regarded principally their worshipping in the Temple by sacrifices ,|&| therefore took ye daily to signify the daily sacrifice especially since And this interpetation {sic} was favoured by calling the place of this worship the sa\n/ctuary. But while it said that of the little horn of the He Goat that he magnified himself against the Prince of the host & by him the daily        was taken away & the place of his sanctuary was taken ou cast down, this sanctuary must be the sanctuary of the Prince of the host that is the sanctuary of Iesus Christ, & by consequence includes the synagogues of the Christians taken collectively as the Church is taken collectively for all the Churches. And while this horn by means of an host wch was given him overcame the host of heaven & cast down not only the sanctuary but also the truth to the grownd & practiced & prospered: its acting against the sanctuary & \even to the time of the end & last end of the desolation: /& taking away the daily [worship]\/ must be of the same extent wth the host or people of God of heaven & the truth, that is wth the Church of God & the truth of his religion & by consequence extend to the synagogues \of the host/ where this truth was preached, And since the sanctuary was little horn was to {torment} in & w & to be of long duration. It was |It was to be in the time of the end, & to last till the {illeg} end of the indignation.| In the latter time of the kingdom of the four horns, this ho when the transgressors were come to the full this horn was to stand up & grow mighty but not in his own power, & the vision concerning the time of the transgression & the daily & the transgression (from ye time that the transgressors were come to the full.) was to last 2300 prophetick days (wch are not yet expired) & then the sanctuary is \was/ to be cleansed: & therefore unless you will say that the Temple of the synagogu Ierusalem \alone/ is \only/ to be cleansed for restoring the sacrifices, you must allow that the sanctuary of the synagogues & the daily worship therein is comprehended in the words of this prophesy. And now having explained what is the daily [worship,] \wch was to be taken away/ & what is the sanctuary wherein it was performed, it will be more easy to understand what is the transgression of desolation wch succeeded this was to be set up in this sanctuary in the room of that worship.

< text from f 8v resumes >
[Editorial Note 3]

Chap. VI
Of the Empire of the Latines.

The Romans were at first a small kingdom of Italy & began to make a figure in the world about the time that in conjunction wth the king of Pergamus they took from Antiochus magnus all Asia on this side the mountain Taurus, & to grow great from the time that they conquered Macedon. For after the conquest of Greece they conquered Carthage & \gradually/ extended their dominion over Asia, Spain, Syria, Gallia, & Egypt & \Dacia &/ reigned over those countries untill \the revolt of Dacia &/ the division of the \rest of the/ Empire between Rome & Constantinople: the particular history of all which is every where to be met with.

|Dacia revolted in or a little before the reign of Decius & created great vexation to the Empire. \but the Church of Dacia continued united to the Church of the Roman Empire. For Theophilus Bishop or Patriarch of Dacia was at the Council of Nice A.C. 325 & his successor Vlphilas was at ye Council of Constantinople A.C. 360./| Constantine the great built Constantinople A.C. 330 & made it the Metropolis of the eastern provinces of the Empire & Rome of the western, both cities being governed after the same manner by a Senate & Consuls. He left the Empire divided between his sons A.C. 337, & his son Constantius reunited it A.C. 353 & Valentinian divided it between himself & his brother Valens A.C. 364. And after the death of Valens it was reunited under Gratian the son of Valentinian five months A.C. 378, but after five months Gratian made Theodosius Emperor of the east in ye room of Gratian \Valens/ 16 Ian. A.C 379, & Theodosius left the Empire divided between his sons Arcadius & Honorius A.D. 395, after wch it was no more united.

The two Empires into wch the Roman Empire became now divided were distinguished by the names of the Greek & eastern & Western or Greek & Latin Empires. And the Greek Empire continued intire about 240 years & then lost Syria & Egypt to the Saracens but yet stood above 800 years longer before the Turks overthrew it. The Latin Empire stood intire about 12 or 13 years & then at once brake into ten kingdoms the rise of wch was as follows not being distinctly described by any historian, I shall here set down. |But first it will be convenient to give you some account of the nations of Dacia, by whom the western empire became divided.|

The Visigoths in the reign of the Emperor Valens invaded the eastern part of the Empire, were beaten by Theodosius

In the reign of the Emperor Valens, the Hunns \under the conduct of Balamir/ rising from their seats beyond Tanais, passed that river & the Niper & invading Dacia & the neighbouring regions, subdued some of the inhabitants & made others fly. The Visigoths flying from them passed the Danube, invaded the eastern part of the Empire, beat & slew Valens, were beaten by Theodosius <7v> and upon submission had seats granted them in Thrace as subjects of the empire, A.C. 380. After the death of Theodosius they rebelled, made Alaric their captain & troubled the eastern empire about five years together & then advancing towards the western Empire they were so beaten by Stilico the commander of the forces of that Empire that Claudian calls the remainder of their forces tanta ex gente reliquias breves & Prudentius gentem deletam. Thereupon Alaric submitted being so far humbled that Orosius tells us he did pro pace optima et quibus cum sedibus suppliciter & simpliciter orare. Then Stilico designing by their means to gain the empire, favoured them underhand, & after some time procured a military Prefecture for Alaric & sent him into the east in the service of Honorius the western Emperor, committing some Roman troops to his conduct amongst his \to strengthen his army of/ Goths & promissing to follow soon after with his own army. His pretence was to recover some regions of Illyricum

<9r>

Chap.
Of the daily worship & abomination of desolation.

The Christian daily worship is represented in ye Apocalyps by the Iewish. Here God is represented as it were sitting on a throne above ye Ark between the Cherubins in the most Holy place. He has th a book of prophesy in his hand to signify that all foreknowledge of future things is originally lodged in his breast. {illeg} The \assembly of/ Presbyters are reprsented {sic} by ye 24 Elders, the \the {sic} Holy spirit & the teachers or/ Bishops by ye seven lamps & the people by the four animals full of eyes in the outward court. The {C} animals worship God morning & evening saying day & night or morning & evening saying Holy holy holy Lord God Almighty \who art was & is & is to come/. And when they give him glory & honour & thanks the Elders fall down & worship him & give him glory & honour & thanks for creating all things This |is| the worship due from all the Church to God the father|.| alone. We are to worship {These} {R}|h|im & him alone for creating as God Almighty & as the almighty & ever living God who created all things & gives us our daily bread. This the foundation of all religion

Vpon a proclamation made none was found worthy to receive {&} open the book till ye Lamb appeared

There was in the right hand of him that sat upon ye throne a book of prophesy & none was found worthy to open it or look upon it till the Lamb appeared ,|&| who obteined this worthiness by his death. And {illeg} took ye book. All foreknowledge is originally in the breast of God Almighty & {he} communicates it immediately to ye Lamb alone who sends it by his spirit to ye Prophets: whence the Lamb is called ye word of God & the testimony of Iesus is called the spirit of Prophesy & the Apocalyps is called ye Revelation of Iesus Christ wch God gave unto him & he sent his messenger & signified it to his servant Iohn.[6] For the spirit of truth speaks not of himself but what he hears that he speaks, He receives from Christ & shews it to the Prophets being sent \unto them/ by Christ.

And when the Lamb had taken the book the {F} four animals & 24 Elders fell down & worshipped before him with harps & vials of incence & sung a new song saying Thou art worthy to take the book & open ye seals thereof: for thou wast slain & hast redeemed us to God by thy blood. This is a worship {not} due \not/ to the ever living God but to the Lamb alone & is therefore given to him without any breach of the first or second commandment

[Editorial Note 4] <11r>

Chap. Sect. III.
Of the daily worship wch was taken away & the abomination of desolation \placed set up/ wch was set up in its room set up.

In the reign of Constantine the great & part Constantius there were great disputes between several parties of the Church but without a separation. Some parties endeavoured to impose articles of faith in new forms of words: the seven Churches laboured against all new forms according to the Apostles rule; Hold fast the form of sound words (2 Tim. 1.13) the form of doctrine wch was delivered to you (Rom. 6.17) wholesom words, the words of our Lord Iesus Christ (1 Tim. 6.3) the words of faith (1 Tim 4.6) These disputes \about words/ were vehement but occasioned no separation till after the reign of Iulian. The visible Church catholick continued entire & undivided from the days of the Apostles till the reign of Valentinian & Valens & then came on the hour of temptation from {illeg} upon all ye world. from wch God promised to keep the Church of Philadelphia. Some few separated even in the days of the Apostles as Iohn represents. And a|A|s ye have heard, saith he, that Antichrist shall come, even now there are many Antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time. They went out from us but they were not off {sic} us: for if they had been of us they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out that they might be made manifest that they were not of us all of us (1 Iohn. 2.19) And Iude: These be they who separate themselves (Iude 19) But these separatists were small bodies of men in comparison of the Church catholick from wch they separated. \But/ These were small separations & continued to be made from time to time without endangering the Church catholick untill the Bishop of Rome with his adherents separated from her & gr And this great \which/ separation \being \very/ great & fatal/ is represented in this prophesy by ye hour of temptation wch Woman's flying into the wilderness & leaving behind her a remnant of her seed wch keep the commandments \of God & have the testimony/ of Iesus & by the rising of the two horned Beast out of the earth & by \after wch/ the Dragons {sic} making \made/ war upon the remnant of the womans seed till all separated & worshipped the Beast & his Image & received his mark except the 144000. And by all these separations Christ spewed the Church of Laodicea out of his mouth. This was the daily worship of the first temple whose candlesticks were the seven Churches of Asia taken away; & the abomination of [worshipping dead men \with a God compounded of three substances/ set up in the room of it in all the Roman Empire. And this was done at the opening in the reign of Valen The woman separated in ye reign of Valentinian & the Dragon made war upon the remnant of her seed in the reign of V at the opening of the seventh seal. For then it was that ye 144000 were sealed out of all Israel. Then was there silence in heaven for half an hour on the day of the great fast while the high Priest offered incense with the prayers of the saints afflicted saints in the time of their sealing. Then was the Temple & altar & they that worship therein measured to signify a separation of the m between those \worshippers/ the multitude, & thereby a demolishing of the first Temple whose seven Candlesticks were the seven churches of Asia & a building of a second Temple whose outward court was given to the Gentiles.] worshipping the Beast & his Image & receiving his mark set up in the room of it wth in the outward court of the Temple where the people of God worshipped before. And this abomination turned the western Empire into a desolate wilderness & laid wast the church in ye eastern Empire so that out of all the twelve tribes of Israel there were only 144000 sealed call caused all in the eastern Empire to be killed or banish {sic} humane society who would not worship the Image of the Beast or receive his mark & therefore was such an Abomination of desolation. And being placed in \the great Temple of/ all the Roman Empire |it| was \much/ more notable & of \far/ greater consequence then eith any abomina {sic} that ever was placed in the Temple of {illeg} the Iews at Ierusalem, & so answers best to the prophesies of Daniel & so answers \much better/ to the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel & Christ. For it is not likely that they would place the sp foretell So soon as that wch letted {illeg} was \should {be}/ taken out of the way the man of sin was to be revealed there was to be a great Apostasy & the man of sin was to be revealed who opposeth & exalteth himself above all that is called God or that is worshipped so that he as God sitteth in the Temple of God shewing himself that he is God. & so soon as the heathen Empire. By that wch letted the primitive Christians understood the heathen Roman Empire. And so soon after \when/ the heathen Roman Empire, was t wch preserved the Christian religion from corruption, was taken out of the way, the Beast \quickly appeared & was deified & he/ & his image were worshipped \as God/ in the outward court of all the great Temp{le} of the Roman Empire God. This man of Sin was to reign till Christ should destroy him /come with all power\

[1] Herod. l. 1

[2] lib. 14

[3] Polyistor apud Euseb. Chron. gr.

[4] Ezek. 1.1

[5] 2 Abendana p. 172

[Editorial Note 1] The remainder of the text on this page is written upside down.

[Editorial Note 2] The remainder of the text on this page is written upside down.

[Editorial Note 3] The following passage is written upside down and runs backward from f. 8v to f. 7v.

[6] Iohn. 16.\7,/ 13, 14

[Editorial Note 4] Folios 9v-10v are blank but for page numbers.

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Professor Rob Iliffe
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