<1r>

seats: who fleeing from them in two parts from \to/ ye side of ye Danube, & being still prosecuted by ye enemy, the western part or Visigoths \the one part/ supplicates Valens to receive them into his dominions & protection, promising obedience: but being admitted into Thrace, the next year upon ye recipt of some {injuries}, they \for want of victualls being provoked \through/ famin & oppression they are provoked to rebell/ spoile ye country, & under ye conduct of Fritigern repuls \put to flight/ ye Roman forces wch came to suppress them. In ye mean time ye eastern \other/ part or Ostrogoths also pass ye Danube & ye {Hunses} pursue them & subject them but yet permit them to live under their own king as a subordinate kingdom. After wch they \wthout leave/ under ye conduct of Alatheus & Saphraces [the Guardians of their young King] \&/ side wth ye other Goths against ye Romans, many of the Hunns & Alans also being \invited to/ joyne {sic} wth {sic} them.

When Valens heard of these troubles, he made peace wth ye Persians & led his army against this new enemy but was overthrown \by them/ neare Hadrianople wth a very great slaughter, scarce ye third part of his army escaping & himself being burnt in a {country} cottage whither he fled for safety. And after this \they/ raged up & down Thrace & Mœsia & ye neighbouring Provinces from ye very walls of Constantinople to ye roots of ye Italian Alps, harasing & spoiling all places & captivating or killing \many of/ ye inhabitans {sic}. This was in ye year 378 But ye next year Theodosius being made Emperor instead of Valens, set upon them & repulsed them in severall battels wth very great slaughter. & again in ye beginning of ye next year. But then falling sick at Thessalonica the Barbarians again break out of Thrace into Pannonia & Macedon \the neighbouring regions/ depopulating all places as before:[1] wch Gratian hearing of sent Baudo, Arbogastes & Vitalian against them, whereof Baudo & Arbogastes expelled those wch had invaded Macedon & Thessaly, & Vitalian represt Fritigern in Achaia & Epire, & Alatheus & Saphraces in Pannonia, & \towards the end of the year 380/ made peace wth them in ye name name of the Emperors, granting them Thrace <2r> to inhabit as before. This I have described ye more particularly becaus it was ye irruption wch historians account to have been ye cause of ye dissolution of the Empire. Sub mortem Valentiniani in Orientis regno Gothorum gens sedibus suis pulsa per omnes se Thracias se infudit armisq urbes et agros vastare feraliter cœpit. E Valens ab hostibus circumventus in prædio quo ex bello trepidus confugerat exustus est: quæ pugna initium mali Romano Imperio tunc et deinceps fuit. Ruffin in calce Euseb. l 11. c 13. ** < insertion from f 1v > ** Hunnos Gothi, transito Danubio fugientes a Valente sine ulla fœderis pactione suscepti sunt qui tribuit ejs terras Thraciarum ad habitandum, arbitratus præparatum solatium ab eis habere contra omnes Barbaros: hac pro re milites de {cæteris} negligebat et eos qui dudum contra hostes elaboraverant Imperator despiciebat - Hoc ergo fuit initium ut in illo tempore Romana Respublica calamitatibus subderetur. Barbari namq cùm Thracias tenuissent, licenter Romanorum vastabant Provincias, &c Paulus Diaconus Hist. Miscell. l 12. c 14.

This war Idatius in his ffastus consulares describes thus. Valente 5 et Valentiniano Coss (i.e. AD 376) victi et expulsi sunt Gothi ———— —— vide alterā pag. —— < text from f 2r resumes > Anno 376 \Valentis 13/ Gens Hunnorum Gothos vastat, qui a Romanis sine depositione armorum suscepti, per avaritiam Maximi ducis ad rebellandum fame coacti sunt. Anno {illeg} \14/ superatis in congressione Romanis Gothi funduntur in Thraciam. Lachrimabile bellum in Thracia in quo, deserente equitum præsidio, Romanæ Legiones a Gothis cinctæ usq ad internecionem casæ sunt. Anno \primo/ Theodosij primo, Theodosius summa cum fælicitate multis atq ingentibus prælijs Gothos superat et e Thracia pellit Anno 2do, procurante Gratiano, eo quod Theodosius ægrotaret, pax firmatur cum Gothis. Hieronymus et Prosper ad Calcem Eusebij Chron. Valente 5 et Valentin. coss. (A.D. 376) victi et expulsi sunt Gothi a gente Hunnorum et suscepti a Romanis. Proximo anno rebellarunt. Annoq tertio 5 Id August. Valens vincitur a Gothis et toto anno per {illeg} diœcesim Thraciarum et Scythiæ et Mœsiæ Gothi habitarunt simul et eas prædaverunt deinde usq ad portas urbis constantinopolitanæ venerunt. Deinde victo Ausonio et Olybrio coss (AD 379) Theodosius fit Augustus 14 Kal Feb. Ipso anno multa bella Romani cum Gothis commiscuerunt, deinde victoriæ nunciatæ sunt adversus Gothos Alanos atq Hunnos 15 Kal. Decemb. {illeg} Antonio et Syagria Coss: (A.D. Proximo anno Gratiano 5 et Theodosio Aug. Coss. victoræ nunciatæ sunt amborum Augustorum. Et ipso anno ingressus est Theodosius {sic} Constantinopolin 18 Kal. Decemb. [utpote cum jam convaluisset.] Antonio et Syagrio Coss (A.D. 382) universa gens Gothorum cum Rege in Romaniam se tradiderant 5. Non. Octob. {illeg} [nempe biennio post initam pacem.] Idatij fast. Cons. < insertion from f 1v > post initam pacem. To the same purpose speake \Ierom/ Prosper Marcelline & Victor \lamenting ye war of Valens & expressing how Theodosius overcame ye Goths Huns & Alans in many & great victories/. And Zosimus when he had newly described this war, adds: Eodem tempore (scilicet quo Gothi a Vitalione reprimerentur) Theodosio quidam alij quoq prosperi casus accidere: Nam Scyros & Carpodacos permistos Hunnis ultus est et prælio superatos Istrum trajicere suasq sedes repetere compulit. Hinc igitur militibus animorum fiducia redire, paululumq videri de rebus adversis superiorum temporum respirare Princeps, et agricolis exercendarum operarum suarum jumentis ac pecoribus liberi pastus copia fieri, {illeg} ac Theodosius quidem Imperator in hunc modum acceptis detrimentis mederi visus est. Zos l 4. Soon after these things ye Persians also who had much troubled ye Empire in ye reign of Valens, sent Embassadors to Theodosius {sic} to desire ye establishment of peace. And from that time ye a[2] whole east remained in quiet for many years, ye irruption of ye Huns only excepted wch followed ye death of Theodosius.

This was ye Change wch Theodosius on a sudden wrought in ye Empire wch was so great yt Claudian de 4 Consulatu Honorij writes

Nulla relicta foret Romani nominis umbra

Ni pater ille tuus jamjam ruitura subisset

Pondera, turbatamq ratem, certaqlevasset

Naufragium commune manu &c

So Orosius: [3] Cùm Gratianus afflictum ac penè collapsum reipublicæ statum videret, eadem provisione qua quondam legerat Nerva Hispanum virum Trajanum per quem respublica reparata est, legit et ipse Theodosium æquæ Hispanum virum, et restituendæ reip. necessitate apud Syrmium purpuram induit {illeg}. [Itaq Theodosius Alanos Hunnos et Gothos incunctanter aggressus magnis multisq prelijs vicit &c. In ijsdem etiam diebus Persæ qui Iuliano interfecto alijsq Imperatoribus sæpe victus nunc etiam in fugam acto, recentissimæ victoriæ satietatem crudè insultatione <2v> induit, Orientisq et Thraciæ simul præfecit Imperio. - Itaq Theodosius magnis multisq Alanos Hunnos et Gothos incunctanter aggressus magnis multisq prælijs vicit. Vrbem Constantinopolim victor intravit et ne parvam ipsam Romani exercitus manum assidue bellando deterreret fœdus cum Athanarico Rege Gothorum percussit. Athanaricus autem continuo ad Constantinopolim venit, diem obijt. Vniversæ Gothorum gentes Rege defuncto, aspicientes virtutem benignitatemq Theodosij Romano sese Imperio dediderunt. In ijsdem etiam diebus, Persæ qui Iuliano interfecto, alijsq Imperatoribus sæpe victis, nunc etiam Valente in fugam acto, recentissimæ victoriæ satietatem cruda insultatione ructabant, ultro Constantinopolim ad Theodosium misere legatos, pacemq supplices poposcerunt. Ictumq tunc fœdus est, quo universus Oriens usq ad nunc tranquilissime fruitur. Oros l This Orosius writ in ye year 417 as is manifest by his last Chapter.

Whilst these things were doing in ye Eastern ts &c -

< text from f 2r resumes > <3r>

Whilst these things were doing in the eastern parts, Gratian (who lately succeded his father Valentinian) was impolyed in defendi{ng} Gallia from ye incursion of ye Alemans.[4]Of these he slew about thirty thousand in battel wth their King A.D 377 & made them supplicate for peace. But {sic} then hastning eastward wth his army wth intention to have assisted Valens against the Goths: in his absence ye Alemans make a new irruption. Whereupon creating Theodosius Emperor & sending him against ye Goths, he returned back into Gallia & spent ye two next years in war wth ye Alemans, wch he concluded victoriously about ye same time yt ye peace was made wth ye Goths. Gratiano 5 et Theodos. Aug. coss. (A.D. 380) victoriæ nunciatæ sunt amborum Augustorum. Idatij {sic} fast. Sub hoc tempore Gratianus Alemannis Galatas (Gallos scilicet) occidentales adhuc {illeg} infestantibus, ad paternam imperij sortem reversus est quam ipsi fratriq ipsius gubernandam reliquerat: cum prius Illyricos et Orientis Imperium Theodosio commisisset. Res autem illi ex voto contra Alemannos ut et Theodosio contra Istrum accolentes Barbaros confecta est. Illos quidem bello subegit, hos in amicitiam populi Romani supplices recepit: a quibus acceptis obsidibus firmata pace Thessalonicam venit, \I suppose \he went/ to see Theodosius who lay sick there/ Sozomenus l 7. c 4. This was so difficult a war ut Valentinianus, saith Ammian,[5]versando sententias multiformes anxia {sic} sollicitudine stringebatur reputans multa et circumspiciens quibus commentis Alemannorum & Macriani regis frangeret fastus sine fine vel modo rem Romanam inquietis motibus confundentes. Being thus at his wits end, he first[6]sollicited ye Burgundians to his aid & then[7] attempted to take away ye life of Macrianus by treachery, & afterwards plotted to raise civil wars among ye Alemans by setting up another king \among them/ against Macrianus: all wch practises were far from ye custom of ye Romans. But \yet/ at length his son Gratian \as was said/ brought things to a happy issue by conquering ye enemy.

In the time of these actions, the Lombards also coming from the northern regions about Scandia to seek new seats <4r> enter into Mœsia & make war upon ye Vandals a barbarous people wch were formerly seated beyond ye Danube between ye Goths eastward & Marcomans westward[8]But in ye time of Constantine ye great being expelled their seats by the Goths, they were permitted by to pass the Danube & seat themselves in Pannonia, & had there continued there in absolute obedienc {sic} to ye Roman laws for about forty years. But {sic} being now disturbed by ye Lombards & not able to wthstand them, they make an incursion into Gallia, but are repulsed the next year by Gratian & forced to return back from whence they came. Anno primo Theodosij Longobardi ab extremis Germaniæ finibus Occaniq protinus littore, Scandiaq Insula magna egressi & novarum sedium avidi, Ibore et Ione ducibus Vandalos primum vicerunt. Prosper. The incursion of ye Vandals into Gallia & their repuls by Gratian Iornandes puts in ye next year when Theodosius was sick at Thessalonica.

These are ye fatal winds wch began to blow in the time of Valentinian & Gratian but from ye end of ye year 380 all are all restrained untill ye appointed time: Afric & Brittain being quieted a little before.

< insertion from f 2v >

For ye history of ye wars wth ye Scots in Brittain, wth ye Moors in Afric & wth ye Sarmatæ & Quadi in Pannonia (all wch were concluded before ye year 380) I refer you to Ammian Marcelline. And besides these you may see in Iornandes mention made of an incursion of ye Vandals out of Pannonia into Gallia: wch Vandals, as <3v> ye same Iornandes relates, had been received into Pannonia by Constantine, & lived there in perfect obedience to ye roman laws like other subjects for about 40 years before this commotion. And now they were \soon/ repulsed by Gratian & forced to return to their obedience \again/ in Pannonia. This was when Theodosius lay sick at Thessalonica.

To these I may add \also/ a commotion threatned by the Burgundians, a[9] who in ye year 380 being invited by Valentinian against ye Alemans & disobliged by breach of covenant, went back again to in anger & after three years returned again wth \almost/ eighty thousand to ye side of ye Rhene wth intention to have invaded ye Empire. But Valentinian b[10]sending Gratian against them their incursion was stayed for ye prsent. Yet they returned not back but seated themselves until at ye side by ye River untill ye appointed time. Ierom at ye end of Eusebius's Chronicle expresses ye action thus. Anno 374 Burgundionum octoginta {sic} fermè millia, quot nunquam ante, ad Rhenum descenderunt. And this I thought fit to mention here becaus though not an actual war yet it is a preparation to those wars that are hereafter to break forth & therefore may be recconed among ye winds that are at prsent checked.

I have now shown you how the winds |rose after ye death of Constantine & blew more & more \from every qter/ upon ye Empire till they almost {overturnd {sic}} it, but then were -| blew & were checked in every quarter by the Angels in every quarter, & \so/ the Empire by the ceasing of these warlike \blusterings &/ noises reduced to an universal silence & tranquility, & silence: wch commencing at ye year 380, shows that we must there date ye seventh Seale from thence. And this being established, you shall hear in ye next Proposition how the winds are again let loos \in order/ to blow upon ye Empire till they consume it.

Prop
The first Trumpet begins wth ye invasions of Grece & ye Eastern regions A.D. 395 {sic}. The second wth ye invasion ofSpain & Gallia & Spain AD 407. The third wth ye invasion of Afric AD 427. And ye fourth wth ye wars in Italy AD 536.

< text from f 4r resumes >

Prop
The first Trumpet begins wth ye Visigothic wars A.D. 395 {sic}. the second wth ye Alemanic wars A.D. 407. The third wth ye Vandalic wars A.D. 428 & the fourth wththe Ostrogothic & Lombardic wars A.D. 536.

As the four first seales were introduced by the four beasts wch stood about ye four quarters of the throne: so these four Trumpets are introduced by ye four angels wch stand at ye four corners of ye earth. Now whereas these hold ye four winds wch were to blow in those quarters we <5r> we are to understand their preserving the four quarters of the earth in peace by restraining for a time the four wars wch were to infest them & therefore by the four winds we must understand so many wars wch were to be in ye four quarters of ye Earth, & those successive becaus I as I signified above they are ye wars of the four first trumpets. As for ye order of their succession we may learn it from their analogy wth the four Beasts, namely ye first an East wind, the second a west wind the third a south wind & ye fourth a north wind, for in this order ye beasts succeed one another. And becaus ye Roman Empire is ye scene of this Prophesy we must reccon the center of that Empire, that is the Metropolis Rome, to be ye center of ye winds.

Symbol (X in a square, with two small circles immediately to either side) in text

< insertion from f 5v >

Symbol (X in a square, with two small circles immediately to either side) in textOf ye fire of ye Altar cast on ye Earth, & ye consequent noises.

Having premised these things of ye winds, I should now proceed to describe ye wars of ye Trumpts wch they signify. But first there are some other wars between them & ye half howers silence to be taken notis of. ffor ye fire of ye Altar wch ye Angel wth his censer cast on ye earth (Def       \Psal/ & ye noises consequent voices & thundrings & lightnings & shaking (Def       \{illeg}/) are all expressions of war. Now this war has these four characters. ffirst it is ye war wch puts an end to ye time of silence 2 Because ye wars of ye Trumpets are expressed by winds wch lie still during this war, therefore this war must be of a different kind. Suppose the difference be that this is civil & ye other wth a forreign enemy; ffor winds blowing upon an Empire are ye most proper representative of wars made by invaders. 3 This is to be such a war as is accompanied wth ye overthrow of some dominion. ffor so ye shaking signifies. 4 It is to be in a time wch has a \very/ great affinity wth ye time of silence; so that both those times together may make one uniform revolution, excepting so far as they are discriminated by this war in ye latter part of it. And the reason of this is becaus both together make up the whole time expressed by the performance of divine rights in chap 8 & by ye sealing of ye Saints in chap 7.

These are the characters of ye war wch is to precede ye Trumpets & these lead us to ye memorable civil wars of Theodosius wth Maximus & Eugenius. ffor those put an end to ye peace signified by the half howers silence, & were civile, & overthrew the Dominions of Maximus & Eugenius, & together wth ye time of silence made up that singular & pretty uniform period of time during the reign of Theodosius, wch ended wth the division of ye Empire & new irruptions of ye Barbarians.

Now these wars I reccon to begin about May or Iune A.D. 388. ffor between that & ye year 380, I cannot meet wth so much as one battel fought wthin the Empire. Gratian indeed in the year 383 when Maximus first rebelled led his Army against him, but having formerly disobliged his soldiers a[11] they fell off from <6v> him & Maximus,[12] insomuch that after the Armies had been only five days wthin sight of one another, hewas forced to fly \fled out of despair/ wthout giving battel, & in his flight was b[13] slain at b Leyden by the treachery of Andragatius: & Maximus succeeded in his part of ye Empire, residing at Trevirs & ruling over Gallia Spain & Brittain by the consent of Theodosius & Valentinian.

After this there came in ye year 386 a great hand of |ye| Thuringians under the conduct of Odotheus from remote norther regions to ye side of the Danube. But Theodosius hearing beforehand of their coming, lead his Army against them, & getting intelligence of their councell about passing the river, c[14] set upon them unawares in their passage wth such ships as he had in readiness & destroyed most of them upon ye river. This indeed was a battel but not wthin ye Empire, nor did ye enemy otherwise then captivated come wthin ye bounds of ye Empire to disturb its tranquility: & therefore we are not to look upon this as an interruption of ye time of silence. We may rather esteem it a wind checked in its first indeavour then suffered to blow.

The next year Maximus being desirous to inlarge his dominion \into Italy/, whilst he pretended peace led his Army secretly over the Alps: & Valentinian surprised by the unexpectedness of the action left his dominions to ye invader, & fled by sea to Theodosius. Whereupon Theodosius prepared for war & the next year advancing towards Italy, first meets wth Maximus at Sciscia & in a set battel beats him there, & then pursuing him meets towards Italy, meets & beats his Brother Marcellin at Petavion in another battel. After wch he goes to Aquileia whither Maximus was fled & besieges him there, |& sends Arbogastes into Gallia against his son whom he had|

[15]In this time ye greatest misfortune of ye Empire was, that of certain forces wch Theodosius sent against ye Franks, a part pursuing ye enemy over the Rhene into their own Country were there circumvented, & ye most of them cut off. Sigon de Dei Imp. created Cæsar & left at Trevirs; & wthin a while both of them are slain, the soldiers of Maximus delivering him bound to Thodosius. This was a manifest & notable civil war & therefore ye period of the half howers silence. And ye war wth Eugenius & Arbogastes was like this: wch being ended, Theodosius now sole Emperor, fell {sic} sick at Millain & dying left {sic} ye Empire in e[16] an universal tranquility, divided between his sons Arcadius & Honorius giving ye East to Arcadius & ye west to Honorius.

This I take to be ye revolution of time expressed by ye performance of holy rites: wch being explained I now proceed to expound the Trumpts. And wth them I shall jointly consider the Vials becaus they are collaterall & both together make up one complete prophesy, the one supplying what is sometimes wanting in the other.

< text from f 5r resumes >

The position of these winds to that center before they were restrained by ye angels we need not much regard. Its enough that there were winds in all quarters of ye Empire before ye angels restrained them, & that these four winds wch were to break out again blew somewhere among the rest, & were (perhaps not unlike naturall winds) to wheel about into ye four quarters against ye time that they were to break out. These things being premised of the winds, I proceed now to expound the Trumpets. |And together wth them I shall joyntly consider the Vials becaus they are collaterall & both together make up one complete Prophesy, the one supplying what is wanting sometimes wanting in the other.|

The first Trumpet

The wars of the first Trumpet have these three characters 1st they are to be ye wind wch blows next after that calmness wherewith the seventh seal begins. 2ly They are to be an eastern wind, that is a war eastward of Rome, & 3dly in this war there is to be a great battel wth loss to that side signified by the earth, that is to ye enemies of the Roman Empire. ffor by def.     the hail & fire mingled wth blood signify a great battel, & their being cast on the earth denotes the overthrow of that side signified by the earth <6r> & ye earth is that people wch takes {sic} part wth ye woman against ye Dragon, at length swallowing up ye waters wch ye Dragon casts out of his mouth, & consequently is at enmity wth ye Dragon, that is wth ye Roman Empire/ The people of ye Empire are signified by ye watry Element being \as by/ the waters wch ye Dragon cast out of his mouth, by the many waters where ye whore sitteth & \by/ ye sea out of wch ye ten horned beast arose, & there\fore the/ Earth must be ye enemy to ye Empire because, as I intimated above, ye earth & inhabitants of ye earth & Sea ch 12 are two sorts of people, & the {sic} winds wch hurt this earth & sea {sic} are ye wars between them whereby they are alternately hurt. |Conceive therefore yt ye compas of the Empire is this political Sea & yt ye round about it are ye earth wch bounds & comprehends it as ye natural Earth does an an {sic} inland Sea: for this similitude I suppose was ye ground of the figure. And that this earth hail storm falling on the earth will signify|

Now these characters lead us to ye Gothic wars wch broke out immediately after ye death of Theodosius. For during ye reign of that Emperor the Empire flourished very much bearing up against the indeavours of all all {sic} \forreign/ enemies & injoying a more then usuall tranquility Hunnos & Gothos, saith Iornandes,[17]qui rempublicam sub Valente defatigassent diversis prælijs vicit atq a prava vastatione compescuit - omnibusq inimicis Theodosius superatis in pace rebus humanis Mediolanum excessit. There was indeed an insurrection by Maximus & another by Eugenius & an attempt or two by ye ffranks: but these prospered not nor troubled any great portion of ye Empire. These were but indeavours of {illeg} winds checked by ye angels as often as they began to blow. They were rather gentle breathings then winds, and in comparison of the wars before & after may be esteemed a time of stilness {sic} & silence \rather then of noise/. ffor I suppose by the half howers silence it is not necessary to understand an absolute silence but a cessation \an intermission/ of those loud noises {of} ye voices & Thuders & Trumpets wch break out at ye end of this time. ffor at least ye prayers of ye saints in ye interval may be supposed to make a soft murmuring noise.

We are therefore to begin this Trumpet at ye break{ } <7r> forth of those violent wars wch were restrained in the second year of Theodosius & this is soon after his death. ffor in that very year Alaric first wth a great army of Goths & other Barbarians brake out of Thrace into Macedon {sic} sparing neither towns nor men. And going thence by Thessaly into Grece, yt is Achaia, he laid wast \rased/ all cities \in his way/ but Thebes & Athens. Then rushing into Peloponnesus he laid wast Corinth Argos & Sparta, & from thence he betook himself into Epire where he continued ye same depopulations

The next year going out of Epire he overan Achaia, & for four yeares together continued to wast it & Epire & the neighbouring provinces wth fire & depopulation. And when he had thus for five years together {illeg} harassed ye East he determines to invade ye west passes determins to invade ye Western Empire, & passes {sic} into Dalmatia & Pannonia {sic} depopulates also those regions./ The most sad state of this time, the storm still raging, St Ierom who then lived, laments thus in his third Epistle {illeg} written about this time wch was something more then twenty years after ye first irruption \in ye reign of Valens/. Viginti et eo amplius anni sunt cum inter Consantinopolin et Alpes Iulias quotidie Romanus sanguis effunditur. Scythiam Thraciam Macedoniam Dardaniam Daciam Thessaliam Achaiam Epiros Dalmatiam cuctasq Pannonias, Gothus Sarmata Quadus Alanus Hunni Vandali Marcomanni vastant \trahunt/ rapiunt. Quot Matronæ, quot virgines Dei et ingenua nobiliaq corpora his belluis fuere ludibrio? capti Episcopi interfecti Presbyteri et diversorum officia Clericorum: subversæ Ecclesiæ, ad Altaria Christi stabulati equi, martyrum effossæ reliquiæ \ubiq luctus ubiq gemitus, & plurima mortis imago/. Romanus orbis ruit \& tamen cervix nostra non flectitur/. Quid putas animi nunc habere Corinthios, Athenienses, Lacedæmonios, Arcadas, cunctamq Græciam quibus imperant Barbari? So Synesius in his oration to ye Emperor Arcadius, speaking of his father Theodosius saith Ille supplicantes (scil. Gothos) erexit et belli socios ascivit & civitate donavit, et omnium bonorum participes fecit et partem Romani agri ijs attribuit. At illi, quod Pater tuus mitem se ijs præbuit, nos in hunc usq diem derident. Sed id primus fecerat Valens.

<8r>

The next yeare (A.D. 402) the same Alaric wth his army of Goths Alans, & Huns & other Barbarians purposing to invade Italy breaks through Noricum, comes into Venetia, in a short time makes himself master of those cities, & besieges ye Emperor Honorius at Hasta, so that every one began to think of leaving their seats in Italy, but {sic} Stilico the General of Honorius raising a great army sets upon him & beats him at Pollentia \in ye a[18] year 403/ wth a very difficult victory & after another battel forces him to retire into Pannonia from whence he came. And thence soon after, having made a league & being honoured by Honorius wth a military Prefecture, he departed into Illyricum a Province of ye East.

Whilst these things were doing Radagaisus a Pagan & King of another dynasty of ye Goths prepares a far greater army then that of b Alaric consisting of Goths Sarmatians & Germans to the number four hundred thousand according if we may beleive Zosimus, or according to ye least accounts, c[19] of two hundred thousand & d[20] upward. With these he passes ye Iulian Alps & ye regions of Venetia, & having wasted many Cities in ye way, beseiges fflorence. In wch seige when Stilico understood that he was intangled, & hedged in wth mountains on all hands so that he had no room to dilate & draw up his army to battel, & that his army lay divided into three parts: Stilico wth Huldin & Sarus two confederate princes of ye Huns & Goths unawares sets upon one of ye three parts of his army wth so great success that without any considerable loss of his own soldiers he slew above a hundred thousand of ye enemy: wch St Austin in his fift book de Civitate Dei thus declares.Cum Radagaisus, saies he, agmine ingenti et immani jam in urbis vicinio constitutus Romanis cervicibus immineret, uno die tanta celeritate sic victus est utine uno, quidem a[21] non dicam extincto sed nec vulnerato Romanorum multo amplius quam centum millium prosternerentur ejus exercitus, atq ipse cum filijs <9r> mox captus pœna debita necaretur.

And this I take to be the hail storm of hail & fire mingled wth blood wch were cast upon the earth, these enemies of Rome. ffor by the former afflictions of ye Empire under the depopulations of Alaric I rather understand ye noisome & grievous sore described in the first Vial wch fell upon the men wch had ye mark of the beast, & ffor worshipped his Image. ffor the linguering pain of a sore most suitably expresses such a tedious languishing under \durable/ affliction, but the storm of hail & fire by reason of the suddenness & fury & ye blood mingled with it is ye proper \most suitable/ & most lively emblem of a fatal battel. This battel therefore I take to be ye storm of hail & fire wch consumed burn falling upon ye earth burnt up ye third part of ye trees & every kind of green herbs that is (by Def     the third part of ye Commanders & other soldiers of this great Army: as Prosper thus appositely describes.Anno undecimo Arcadij et Honorij (i.e. a[22]A.D. 406) multis ante vastatis urbibus Radagaisus occubuit cujus in tres partes per diversos Principes divisus exercitus aliquam repugnandi Romanis apperuit facultatem: Insigni triumpho exercitum tertiæ partis hostium circumactis Hunnorum auxiliaribus Stilico usq ad internecionem delevit.

After this Radagaisus terrified wth so great a slaughter betakes himself wth the remains of his army from these valleys to ye hill of ffæsula: but Stilico pursues & beseiges him there suffering none to escape nor any thing for sustenence to be carried thither Wherefore seing he could neither fight by reason of the straitnes of the place, nor subsist long there for want of sustenence, he is taken & killed flies privately from his army but is taken & killed, & then almost all the Barbarians being prest wth famin yeild themselves captive. Tanta vero multitudo captivorum fuisse <10r> fertur (saith Orosius l 7. c 37.) ut vilissimarum pecudum modo, singulis aureis passim greges hominum venderentur Sed nihil superesse Deus de eodem populo sivit. Nam illico cunctis, qui emebantur, morientibus, quod improbi emptores eorum non impenderunt turpiter pretijs, expenderunt misericorditer sepulturis.

The second Trumpet.

The next Trumpet hath these two main characters: that ye wars wch it introduces are to be a western wind that is in ye regions westward of Rome; & that during this wind a great mountain burning with fire is to be cast into ye sea, that is (by Def      ) a great a[23] City b[24] consuming by war to be cast down & sink in ye midst of that c[25] people signified by the {midst} sea, into a \very/ low {sic} condition then ye waters of that sea round about it \disturbing the waters. & by its fall to disturb the waters/ And no doubt this City is Rome ye metropolis of the \third part of the great/ political sea whose banks \are/ ye adjacent nations, its bottom the dition of ye empire, & its waters the people. For it is this City wch is every where in the Apocalyps called ye great city.

** < insertion from f 9v > & by its fall to disturb ye waters. And no doubt this City is Rome ye Metropolis of ye third part of ye political Sea whose bottom is ye dition of ye Roman dominions & its waters the people, & its banks ye circumjacent nations. For it is this City wch is every where in the Apocalyps called ye great city.

** I said that Rome was ye Metropolis of the third part of ye Roman Sea: for ye understanding of wch you are to know that Theodosius at his death divided the Roman dominions into two Empires between his sons Arcadius & Honorius making Constantinople ye seat of ye Eastern Empire & Rome of ye Western, & that the western is about the third part of the whole. ffor dividing ye whole into three equall parts according to ye length of it; Mesopotamia Armenia, Syria Arabia & Palestine amount to about one third part: Egypt, Asia, Thrace, Grece, & Illyricum to another: & Afric Pannonia, Italy, Gallia, Spain & Brittain to ye third. And ye two first are the Provinces of ye eastern Empire & ye third of ye western And hence you may understand why that wch is here called the third part of the sea is in ye second Vial called ye Sea: for as it is a distinct Empire it is a Sea by it self, although but the third part of ye whole Roman Ocean.

By the third part of the Sea we are therefore to understand the western Empire whose waters were smitten at the fall of the <10v> Imperial city & became blood &c: & consequently we are to look only {sic} wthin the compas of this Empire for ye effects of this Trumpet.

Now for ye event -

< text from f 10r resumes >

Besides this the third part of ye Roman Sea is to become blood, that is ye western Empire to be steined wth much bloodshed. ffor by the third part of the sea in this & the two foll & of all other things in this & ye two following trumpets I understand the western Empire becaus it is about ye third part of the whole as you may easily perceive by adding dividing ye whole Empire into three equall parts according to ye length of it. ffor Assyria Mesopotamia Armenia Syria Arabia & Palestine amount to about one third part: Egypt, Asia minor, \Thrace/ Grece & Thrace \Illyricum/ to another; & Africa, Pannonia, Italy, Gallia, Spain & Brittain to ye third. And hence you may understand why this last division wch is here called but ye third part of the sea is in ye second Vial called the sea: for as it is a distinct empire it is a Sea by it self, although but the third part of ye whole ocean Roman Ocean.

<10A>

Impp. Arcadius & Honorius AA. Messalæ PF. P.

Saturianorum conjurationem armis sumus, ut oportuit, persecutio: Sed aliquoties {immineret} panæ evitatione ad diversa semet latibula {illeg} contulerunt. - Dat XIII Kal. August Theodoro V.C. Conss. (399.     6 Cod. Theod. Tit 19 De Saturianis

Ευνεσίου Κυρηναίου Κατάστασις ῾ρηθεισα ἐπὶ τη μεγίστη των βαρρων ἐφόδω, {illeg} ἡγεμονεύοντος {illeg} Γενναδίου, καὶ Δουκὸς ὄντος Ιννοκεντίου Titulus est Catastaseos.

Eo tempore hanc incursionem memorat Synesius Ep 130 ad Symplicium quo Simplicius Magister militum erat {illeg} Id quo accidit AC. 396 ut docet lex 5, 6. decensit. & lex 28 de metatis lex 56 de cursu publico (8 Cod. Theod. Tit 5. lex 56.) & Lex 28 de Prætoribus. (6. Cod. Theod. Tit 4 De Prætoribus lex 28) Idem & in id tempus refert quo Gennadius Præfectus Augustalis fuit ηγεμονεύοντος Γενναδίου ut habet inscriptio Catastaseos. At quia discimus ex l 1. de Alexandr pleb. Primatib. (14 Cod. Theod. Tit 27 De Alexandr. pleb. Primati 6. lex 1.) Gennadium hunc præfectū Augustalem fuisse (P F. Augustalis AD 396.

Indic 11. Honorio 4 & Euthychiano Coss.\(398)/ Gildo comes idemq Paganus qui mortuo Theodosio Principe Africæ præerat - Africam nititur obtinere. Frater ejus Mascezel cognita ejus vesania relictisq duobus apud Africam filijs in Italiam venceat. Gildo utrumq fratris filium dolo trucidat. Mascezel fratris scelere cognito cum quinq millibus suorum contra Gildonem cum 70 millibus armatorum sibimet obviantem infestus accedit Gildonemq parricidiam fugavit. Gildo fugiens pria se manu strangulavit.

Indic 12 Theodoro et Eutroio Coss (399) Gaina Comes apud Constantinop. ad bellū civile barbaros {illeg} occultè hortatur, Vrbeq digreditur. proximo anno bellum navale contra Gainam Tyrannū inter Chersonnesum & Hellespontū gestū est. Multitudo ibidem Gothorū cæsa vel reversa sunt. Gaina Comes de evasit, sed mense febr. sequenti occiditur. Ponit ex Hæc e Marcellini Chron. Idem ponit exiliū Chrysostomi anno 403. Sed Chonol. {sic} Cod. Theod. ad an 404

Illyricum erat in Occidente ut testatur Olympiodorus apud Photium.

Ruffinus occiditur 5 Kal Decemb Arcad et Honor coss. ut testatur Zosimus l 6 Socr l 6. {illeg} c 1. Sozom l 8. c 1. Oros l 7 c 36. Marcellin \&/ Chron Alexandr alijq.

Gildo Comes Arcad 4 & Honor 3 Coss (i.e. 396.) Gildo per Africam sub finem autumni, veniente Hieme, teste Claudiano de bello Gildonico Tirannidem arripuit

Tribigildi in Phrygia Pisidia et Pamphylia motus primi huic anno \Honor 4 et Eutich Coss AC 398/ congruunt ut e plerisq Arcadij constitutionibus hoc anno editis colligit Gothofredus in Chron. Cod. Theod.

Gildo in Africa verno hujus anni \398/ tempore debellatus est: de quo Claud in bello Gild: Quam veniens induxit hicus ver perculit hostem. vide Marcellin chron et Zosim l 5.

Gainas superiore anno (400) victus, cum per Thraciam Istro transito in patriam reverti cogitaret ab Hulde Hunnorū duce cæsus est ineunte anno 401. Marcel Chron. Chron Alexandr

Gothi Alarico duce Pannonia Norico Rhetiaq superatis in Italiam brumæ tempore summa celeritate pentrarunt. Prudentius l 2 adv. Symmachum: Claudian de Bell. Get

<11r>

Now whereas at ye fall of this Mountain the third part of ye Sea became blood: by blood we are to understand first slaughter & then any kind of death, & by death ye destruction even of a thing without life. See Ezek 14.19 & 3.18, 20 & 18. 13. Amos 2.2. Rom 7.9. Apoc 9.5. And by ye third part of ye Sea we are are to understand ye western Empire becaus that was \being/ about ye third part of ye whole Roman dominions as you may easily perceive by dividing ye whole into three equal parts according to ye length of it. ffor Arabia Mesopotamia Armenia Syria Arabia & Palestine amount to about one third part: Egypt, Asia minor, Thrace, Grece & Illyricum to another: & Afric, Pannonia, Italy, Gallia, Spain & Brittain to ye third. The two first are ye Provinces of ye Eastern Empire & ye third of ye Western. And hence you may understand why that wch is here called ye third part of ye sea, is in ye second Vial called ye sea: for as it is a distinct Empire it is a Sea by it self, although but ye third part of ye whole Roman Ocean.

By the third part of ye seas becoming blood at ye fall or being made bloody at ye fall of the great Mountain, we are therefore to understand not onely much bloodshed but ye politicall death of ye Western Empire as if it were slain & its blood spilt by ye fall of its Metropolis like an animal beheaded or torn in pieces.

Now for ye event: In ye beginning of ye year 407 when the Eastern wind had newly done blowing \began to be allayed/ there brake forth a far more \another very/ vehement & pernicious irruption in ye west ffor ye Alemans, Burgundians, Vandals & Alans wth great multitudes of other Barbarous nations out of Germany & Pannonia all at once overflow Gallia, & after two or three years grassation \wasting it/ with fire & sword & rapine, the Vandals Alans & Swevians advance into & Spain & overrun that country also wth ye like desolations & at ye same time the Franks break into Gallia Lugdunensis, & ye Picts & Scots also a while after, that no part of the west might be free, invade ye Brittains. wch desolations St Ierom in <12r> his eleventh epistle hath thus partly expressed & partly hinted. Innumerabiles et ferocissimæ nationes universas Gallias occuparunt; quicquid inter Alpes et Pyrenæum est quod Oceano et Rhodano \Rheno/ includitur Quadus Vandalus Sarmata, Alani, Gepides, Heruli, Saxones Burgundiones, Alemanni, & \(O lugenda respublica)/ Pannonij vastarunt. Magunciatum {sic} capta atq subversa est, et in Ecclesia multa hominum millia trucidata. Vangiones longa obsidione ducti {sic}; Rhenorum urbs præpotens, Ambiani, Atrebates, Morini, Tornacus, Nemetæ, Argentoratus translati in Germaniam, Aquitaniæ novemq populorum Lugdunensis et Narbonensis Provinciæ, præter paucas urbes populata sunt cuncta. Non possum absq L lacrymis Tolosæ facere mentionem, quæ ut hucusq non rueret, sancti Episcopi Exuperij merita præstiterunt. Ipsa Hispaniæ jam jamq petituræ \quotidie/ contremescunt. Roma Vitam auro redimit.

After Gallia had been thus wasted for two or three years the Vandals Alans & Suevians pass into Spain & overrun yt country also wth ye like desolations, & at ye same time ye Franks break into Gallia Lugdunensis; & ye Picts & Scots also a while after, that no part of ye west might be free, a[26]invade Brittrain {sic}, forcing many of ye inhabitants to fly into that part of France wch from {sic} them is to this day called Brittain.

Whilst this torrent overwhelmed ye west; Alaricus wth his Goths, leaving their seats in Pannonia to ye Huns, \invades Italy &/ beseiges Rome & \thoug at first bought off, yet then renuing the seige/ after two years takes it in ye year 410 when it had been first so much wasted by famin & Pestilence that St Ieromsaith in Epist 16 saith Fame perit antequam gladio: et vix pauci qui caperentur inventi sunt. Ad nefandos cibos erupit {sic} uriculium rabies & sua invicem membra laniarunt: dum mater non parcit lactenti infanti, et suo recipit utero quem paulo ante effuderat. And Zosimus l 5 Famem pe (ceu consentaneum erat) pestis comitabatur, omniaq plena cadaveribus erant. Cumq non possent extra urbem sepeliri cadavera quod omnem exitum hostes observarent: Vrbs sepeliri cadavera quod omnem exitum hostes observarent: Vrbs ipsa mortuorum sepulchrum erat: adeo quidem ut alioqui etiam solitudo in urbe foret, siquæ nulla fuisset alimentòrum penuria, <13r> vel exhalans e cadaveribus odor ad inficienda corrumpendaq corpora suffecisset.

When ye City was almost taken Alaric set up Attalus a new Emperor at Rome in opp reserving to himself ye command of both armies; & sends him to beseige Honorius at Ravenna, whereupon Honorius out of desperation began to think of flying to his Brother in ye East. But when Alaric had \thus/ sufficiently derided ye lost condition of ye Empire he degrades Attalus & \But Attalus behaving him self foolishly Alaric degrades him again/ restores Honorius.[27]Quid de infelicissimo Attalo, loquar, saith Orosius, cui occidi inter Tyrannos honor, & morilucrum fuit? In hoc Alaricus Imperatore facto, infecto, refecto ac defecto, citiùs his omnibus actis penè quàm dictis, mimum risit & ludum spectavit Imperij. < insertion from the right margin of f 13r > Castinus in Hispaniam cum exercitu mittitur A.C. 422.[28]

Iwo puts Theudemir between Pharamund & Clodio, but yt can't be for Castinus who slew him \A.C. 422/ was sent wth an army into Spain A 422 to make war upon ye Barbarians there & A.C. 424 fled to Boniface in Afric. {illeg} A.C. 425 was banished & A.C. 428 Codio began.

< text from f 13r resumes >

After these things \the city being taken/ Alaric lead his army into ye furthest parts of Italy & \attempted to sail into Afric but being shipwracked & soon after dying/ there dying {illeg} his successor Adulphus returned back to Rome & spoiled it a second time. But then \he made a leage wth Honorius & soon after dying/ Honorius that A.D. 412, that he might recover Rome wth the remains of his Empire \Italy/ granted him \Ataulphus his successor/ Aquitain a Province of Gallia to inhabit: But being arrived there wch gave occasion to new \various/ fresh wars in Aquitain & Spain for about 10 or 12 \15 or 16/ years together \between ye Goths Romans Vandals Suevis & Alans./. Comes The first ten years of these & ye former wars in his country Aquitain, Prosper thus laments

< insertion from f 12v >

- inhabit; a[29]but being arrived there he begins to invade & spoile ye neighbouring regions: whereupon Honorius sends Constantius wth an army against him \who after two years war expelled him almost/ out of Aquitain & drove him upon spain. Then next \in the/ year A.D 415 Honorius makes a league wth ye Goths & sends Constantius with an army agains into Spain to recover that country from the Vandals Alans & Suevians, & wth him ye Goths joyn forces wch caused a very fierce war in those regions for about 8 or 9 years together wherin ye Kingdom of ye Alans was ruined & ye Goths possessed themselves of a great part of Spain, & were also readmitted into Aquitain upon compact for their good service done in \those/ ye Emperors wars. Yet after this, Honorius dying they turn again upon ye empire, but are repulsed a[30] & a peace concluded in ye yeare 427. ye

The first ten years of ye wars in Aquitain from ye beginning of ye invasion, you may hear Prosper thus lamenting

< text from f 13r resumes >

[31]Cumq animum patriæ subijt fumantis imago

Et stetit ante oculos quicquid ubiq perit:

Frangimur immodicis, & pluribus ora rigamus

Dumq pios agimus vertimur in quærulos

And a little after

- Heu cæde decenni

Wandalicis gladijs sternitur & Geticis.

Non castella petris non oppida montibus altis

Imposita, aut urbes amnibus æquoreis

Barbarici superare dolos atq arma furoris

Evaluere omnes: ultima pertulimus.

|And| These are ye wars by wch ye western Sea became bloody & every body politiq therein died by the corruption of ye fountain of life & tearing ye members in pieces \soul therein suffered the pains of death/, & ye third part of the ships, (that is ye towns & Cities of ye western Empire whose <14r> houses are analogous to ships) were destroyed, sinking \as it were in this tempest/ like ye great mountain by being reduced into ye power of ye enemy.

< insertion from f 13v >

But here least by {illeg} death you should understand only bloodshed & real death: I must put you in mind that blood is used to signify not only slaughter but any other kind of death Ezek 14 19 & death is a figure to express any state of affliction & misery wch for ye acuteness & misery may be compared to ye pains of death. Thus ye torments of hell, although of living men, are by ye holy Ghost called death to express their acuteness {sic}, & this kind of death is expressed by blood in Ezek 3.18, 20 & 18.13 &c. And that blood & death are here to be extended to this figurative meaning you may easily collect from the third Vial compared wth ye third Trumpet. For that wch is exprest in ye third vial by ye water's becoming blood is exprest in ye third Trumpet by their becoming wormwood, so that men died of the waters becaus they were made bitter: wch is as much as to say that through these northern invasions men drank of the waters of affliction acuated to so great a degree of bitterness as was analogous to ye pain of death.

I know not whither it may be worth ye while to take notis of Afric ye only Province of ye western Empire wch in this Trumpet escaped ye Barbarians. Yet to prevent an objection I may tell you that as it escaped so it seems exempted from ye main sea of this western Empire becaus separated \divided/ from it by ye Mediterranean.

< text from f 14r resumes >

The third Trumpet.

The western Empire being now rent into many kingdoms, & those pretty well setled under their new lords: there breaks out a {illeg} war in ye southern quarter wch is ye quarter of ye third wind. For ye Vandals AC {sic} 427 passing out of Spain into Afric, the next year invade & afflict those regions wth all kind of calamities \afflict those regions/ untill by degrees they subdued it. \/ < insertion from f 13v > ⊛ The calamity of Afric in ye first two or three years of this invasion when ye Vandals had newly beaten ye forces of Boniface & began to beseige him in Hippo; b Possidius Bishp of Calama who was present to {sic} these {illeg} miseries thus laments in his Oration upon ye Death of St Austin. Brevi, inquit, consequenti tempore, divina voluntate & potestate provenit ut manus ingens telis armata et bellis exercitata immanium hostium Vandalorum et Alanorum commixta secum habens Gothorum gentem aliarumq diversarum gentium personas ex hispania partibus transmarinis navibus Africæ influxisse & incisset: universaq per loca Mauritaniam etiam ad alias nostras trans eus Provincias & regiones, omni sæviens crudelitate & atrocitate, cuncta qua potuit expoliatione, cædibus alijsq innumerabilibus & infandis malis depopulata est, nulli sexui, nulli parcens ætati, nec ipsis Dei sacerdotibus & ministris, nec ipsis Ecclesiarum ornamentis seu instrumentis vel ædificijs. Et hanc, pergit, ferocissimam hostium grassationem et vastationem ille homo Dei (Augustinus) - profundius considerans, solito amplius fuerunt ei lacrymæ pane {illeg} die et nocte, amarissimamq & lugubrem cæteris suæ senectutis jam pene ducebat et tolerabat vitam. Videlicet enim illi homo dei civitates excidio perditas pariter cum ædificijs, villarumq habitatores alios hostili nece extinctos, alios effugatos atq dispersos <14v> dispersos, &c. [32] So Victor in his history \written many years after/ Invenientes saith he pacatam quietamq &c. < text from f 14r resumes > Invenientes {sic}, saith Victor,[33] pacatam quietamq Provinciam, speciositatem totius terræ florentis quaquaversum, impietatis agminibus impendebant, deastando depopulabantur incendio & homicidijs totum exterminantes. Sed nec arbustis fructiferis omninò parcebant: ne fortè quos antera montium, aut prærupta terrarum, vel seclusa quæq occultaverant, post eorum transitum illis pabulis nutrirentur: et sic eadem atq iterum tali crudelitate furentibus, ab eorum contagione nullus remansit locus immunis. - In ædificijs nonnullis magnarum ædiū vel domorum ubi ministerium ignis minus valuerat, tectis admodum despicatis pulchritudinem parietum solo æquabant ut nunc antiqua {sic} illa speciositas civitatum nec quia fuerit prorsus appareat. Sed et urbes quamplurimæ aut raris aut nullis habitatoribus incoluntur. Nam \&/ hodie siqua supersunt subinde, desolantur. |Nor did ye mediterranean Islands escape their fury: For {illeg} Marcelline saith A.C. 439 Theod. 17 & Fausto Coss: Vandali Piratæ multas insulas | insulas sed præcipuè Siciliam vastavere.||

Wasted When they had thus by a tedious war wth ye Emperors forces wasted Afric & subdued it, they invaded Sicily & \& Sicily, they/ from thence A.D. 455 saild into Italy & spoiled Rome carrying into Afric ye whole treasures of ye city & consequently of ye Empire wch ye more merciful & abstemious Goths had spared: & captivating ye flower of Italy. | Post exitum Maximi confestim secuta est multis digna lachrymis Romana captivitas. Vrbem omni præsidio vacuam Gensericus obtinuit - et per 14 dies continuos secura et libera scrutatione omnibus opibus suis Roma vacuata est, multaq millia captivorum prout quisq aut ætate aut aræ placuerant cum Regina et filiabus ejus Carthaginem abducti sunt. Prosper apud Euseb l 1.| Gensericus vacuam præsidio civitatem capit, et occursu Leonis Papæ mitigatus ab incendio cædibus atq supplicijs urbem immanem servavit, omnibus tamen opi <15r> bus ablatis, multa inde captivorum millia cum Augusta Eudoxia & ejus filiabus Carthaginem revexit. Paul. Diac. l. 15. Exinde Regum multarum divitias cum populis captivavit. Victor de Pers. Vand. l 1. Gazam omnem Imperatoriam in navibus positam secum in Africam tulit: ac siqua erant Romæ decora, itemq Iovis Capitolini tegularum ex ære auratarum partem dimidiam abripuit. Vnam vero ex his navibus {sic} ubi statuæ fuerant, tempestate perijsse dicunt cæteras incolumes in Africam delatas. Procop. de bello Wandal. l 1. Amongst other things were ye a[34] vessels {illeg} of ye Temple of Ierusalem wch Titus had sent to Rome. |And to these spoiles of Rome they added \at the same time/ the prey of several other Cities. Miles Genserici avidus prædæ Symbol (cross in a circle, surmounted by another cross) in text in < insertion from f 14v > Symbol (cross in a circle, surmounted by another cross) in text avidus prædæ in Campaniam incursat, Capuam evertit, Neapolin expugnat, Nolam obsidet, urbes reliquas diripit - cum ingenti captvorum numero Africam repetit. Annales Boiorum. < text from f 15r resumes > |

From this time the Vandals possessing themselves of many of the mediterranean Islands continued to play ye Pyrats & infest Europe wth very frequent incursions. Post mortem Valentiniani, saith Victor,[35]Gensericus totius Africæ ambitum obtinuit, necnon et insulas maximas Sardiniam Siciliam Corsicam Ebusum Majoricam Minoricam et alias multas superbia sibi consueta defendit. And Procopius:[36] Post mortem Valentiniani, aliquot annos Veris initio continuo longas fecit prædando & populando incursiones, nunc in Siciliam, nunc in Italiam, civitates insuper partim diripiendo partim solo æquando: ubi vero omnia delevit ad Orientis conversus Imperium Illyricum omne simul & Peloponnesum, hisq adjacentes insulas cum reliqua Græcia invadit. Ad Italiam rursum Siciliamq reversus quicquid erat reliqui diripuit. So Sidonius in his Panegyric called Anthemius: \***/ < insertion from f 14v > *** - Anthemius speaking of ye short reign of ye Emperors after Valentinian III saith

- Quemcunq creavit axe

Axe meo natum, confestim fregit in illo

Imperij fortuna rotas. Hinc Wandalus hostis

Vrget et in nostrum numerosa classe quotannis

Militat excidium, conversoq ordine facti

Torrida Cacaseos infert mihi Byrsa furores.

Præterea invictus Ricimer, quem publica

Fata respiciunt, proprio solus vix Marte repellit

Piratam per rura vagum, {illeg}qui prælia vitans

Victorem fugitivus agit quis sufferat hostem

Qui pacem pugnamq negat? Nam fædera nulla

Cum Ricimere jacit.

< text from f 15r resumes >

- Hinc Wandalus hostis

Vrget, et in nostrum numerosa classe quotannis

Militat excidium &c.

This was ye afflicted estate of Afric & Europe under the insolencies of this troublesome enemy: for ye restraining of wch [37]Leo ye Greek Emperor AD 468 set forth a navy of eleven hundred ships & an hundred thousand men wch at first prevailed but having landed a great part of their men in Afric ye Vandals set upon them afresh & burnt their ships & then beat ye forces also wch they had landed. < insertion from inline > And thus having baffled both the Emperors, they continued their Pyraticall incursions till about <15v> about ye year 500, when Theodoric King of ye Ostrogoths having newly propogated his Kingdom into Italy, made peace wth them as Baronius in his Annalls (ad Ann 500 sect 11) thus mentions: "Iam tutum inquit, redditum erat commercium inter Africanos et Italos cùm sancivisset fœdus Rex Theodoricus cum Wandalorum Rege a quo hactenus frequentes fiebant in solum Italicum incursiones. Stabilita est enim inter eos pax fœdere nuptiarum, data ei in matrimonium Amalafred{illeg} Amalafrida. De qua inita inter illos concordia hæc Enodius in Panegyrico Theoderici: Quid castigatas Wandalorum ventis parentibus eloquar deprædationes, quibus pro annua pensione satis est amicitia tua? Evagari ultra possibilitatem nesciunt. Duce sapientia affines esse meruerunt quia obedire non abnuunt."

And these I suppose are ye wars to wch ye third Trumpet - < text from f 15r resumes > And these I suppose are ye wars to wch ye third Trum <16r> pet sounded because ye onely memorable wars in the south quarter, wch is ye condition of ye third wind.

Now the effect of these wars is that a great star fell from heaven burning as it were a Lamp; that is[38] some very great Prince \from ye heaven of his dignity/ consuming by war. And this points [39] at the fall of the western Cæsar, who from that time that ye Vandals rent Afric & ye Mediterranean Islands from ye Empire & spoiled Rome & Italy, retained almost nothing but ye nameof Emperor: insomuch that some historians make that the peri time ye end of this {sic} Empire. Yet it resisted absolute death for about twenty years longer under ye titular Cæsars Avitus, Majoranus, Severus Anthemitis, Olybrius, Glycerius & Nepos \falling by the sword of one another/ untill at last A.D. 476 it was utterly extinguished under ye fatal name of \Augustus {illeg} or/ Augustulus by Odoacer King of the Heruli who \being invited by some of the Italians/ translated his nation into Italy.

The reason why I interpret this star of no less dignity then that of ye Western Emperor is becaus it is described of ye greatest magnitude, & whilst there are two Emperors in ye Roman world, it would be against nature to represent them by suns. Yet least you should think \doubt of/ this interpretation unwarrantable you may compare it wth Isa 14 12 where the fall of \as great a Monarch/ ye {sic} King of Babylon, though a greater Monarch & wthout \becaus he had \in like manner/ the king of the Medes for his/ a fellow unless ye King of ye Medes be accounted one, is expressed by the like Parable of a falling star. How art thou fallen \from heaven Con/, saith the Prophet from heaven O Lucifer son of the morning saith the Prophet, how art thou cut down to the ground wch didst weaken ye nations.

Now whereas this star is described to fall upon the third part of ye rivers & fountains of waters, it is a figure, likethat of casting ye mountain into ye Sea, to express at once both ye ruin of the star & ye disturbance of ye waters. \& embitring them by that burning wch consumed ye star/ By the third part of the rivers I still understand the people of ye Western Empire the same waters wch were before called the third part of the Sea but are now compared to rivers because no longer in one intire mass but <17r> intermixed wth ye Earth those many northern nations wch in ye last Trumpet by invading ye Sea a[40] dried up its waters & converted ye residue as it were to disseminated rivers. On these therefore & on ye b[41] towns & Cities the fountains - of these waters, the great star fell burning as it were a lamp, & by its fall & burning |(that is by the decay of the Emperors power which should have defended ye Romans & by the wars \in/ wch he consumed| smote ye waters & made them bitter as if they had been imbibed wth so much wormwood, or, as is exprest in ye third vial it turned them to blood: the plague of wch blood being there much aggravated, it will not be amis to add somthing more of history becuase there were other {sic} very great wars in Europe, contemporary to ye cardinal war in Afric, |wch \notably/ bloodied ye rivers & conduced much to ye fall of the great burning star|

[42]And first the Huns {sic} under Attila \A.C. 450/ having \for ye {illeg} five years before/ spoiled Grece & Illyricum \wth unexpressible violence/, raises a very great army in ye year 450 out \consisting/ of divers of ye Scythian & German nations, amongst wch were ye Gepides with their King Ardaricus & ye Ostrogoths lead by ye three brothers Valamir Theodomir & Vindemir. With these immens forces Attila sets forward to invade ye western regions like a whilrwind, & making towards Gallia depopulates all places in ye way. & ye Marcomans, Suevians, Quadi, Heruli, Rugi, & what other nations had ben conquered by ye Hunns, every one wth their King: their whole number amounting to b[43]five hundred thousand \their number Sigebert puts five hundred thousand or at least five/. With these immense forces Attila set {sic} forward to invade ye western regions like a whirlwind & making towards Gallia d[44] depopulated all places in the way. d[45]Chunni (saith Gregory Turonensis) e Pannonijs egressi; ut quidam ferunt, in ipsa sancti Pascæ vigilia ad Metensem vrbem reliqua depopulando pervenirent tradentes urbem incendio, & populum in ore gladij trucidantes, ipsosq sacerdotes Domini ante sacrosancta Altaria permentes, \Dein cum multas Galliarum civitates opprimerent Aurelianos aggrediuntur/ &c.

In the mean time Ætius ye General of the Emperor, <18r> & the Kings of ye west, Theodoric King of the Wisigoths Gudicar of ye Burgundians, Sangiba of another Dynasty of ye Alans, & Merovæus of ye Franks combined to oppose him wth ye utmost of their strength. And ye next year, a[46] after ye Huns had wasted a great part of Gallia, the two armies meet & ingage in ye fight there fell \ingaging/ r[47] on both sides \there fell/ a hundred & sixty two thousand besides ninety thousand Gepides & Franks wch fell ye night before. At length Attila wth much difficulty was {sic} beaten,[48] but not being pursued retired wth ye residue of his forces into Venetia& ye next year out of indignation harrassed all Italywth great violence b[49] forcing & rasing the prinicpall \severall/ Cities & scarce being prevailed wth to spare Rome it self. Yet in the end of the year he was prevailed wth by the Bishop of Rome to depart out of Italy into his own dominions \\&/ amongst wch was Aqui others Aquileia the second to Rome, but in ye heat of his fury towards ye end of the year he was a[50] curbd by a persuaded numerous army sent by the Greek Emperor Marcian, & forced to return home wth damage/, & dying ye next year \dying/, his sons quarrel \fell into civil wars/ about sharing his dominions & fall into civil wars: on wch advantage ye Ostrogoths laying hold, rebelled, & subdued them in Pannonia, erecting there a very potent Kingdom; & soon after (viz A.C {sic} 489) \{illeg}/ made {sic} war upon Odoacer King of Italy ye Heruli in Italy, & vanquishing him propagated their Kingdom thither {illeg} succeeded in ye western Empire.

These wars (besides some others of less note) since they conduced very much to ye bloodying of ye western rivers may not unjustly be recconed among ye wars to wch ye 3d Trumpet sounded. But then you will perhaps object: How can ye wars of this Trumpet be esteemed a southern wind since they happened as well in other quarters? To wch I answer j That ye four winds are not to be taken so stricktly that while they blow there shall be wars in none but ye cardinal quarter. It is enough yt ye principal war is in that quarter; & therefore when there are divers wars together, the quarter is to be estimated by ye principal. <19r> such was the Vandalic war. For though ye wars of Attila were sufficiently \wonderfully/ violent for the time, yet they were |he kept in no quarter the certain quarter \that he invaded as the Vandals did in Afric/ but {illeg} from east to west. {illeg} his wars were also| very short being {illeg} \{illeg}/ in ye western Empire) but of two \or three/ years continuance, & so may be more properly resembled to a whirlwind then a wind; whereas ye Vandalic war lasted 70 years \together/ & upward wthout any considerable intermission, & was far |much| more pernicious to ye Empire \that depriving the Empire of no one Province but this rending away all Afric wth Sicily & most of ye Mediterranean Isles, besides ye frequent Pyratical invasions of all european countries bordering upon the Mediterranean & amongst other spoiles ye carrying away ye immens treasures of Rome & other chief Cities of Italy {illeg} wth ye flower of their youth & Gentry wch was of so fatall consequence yt ye Empire never lookt up afterward, the following emperors being accounted litle more the titular, & {illeg} some reccon this the period of ye Empire \as if the following Emperors were Emperors over nothing/. The wars of Attila therefore cannot be accounted the principal wind but \may/ rather for their shortness violence & uncertain quarter, may be compared to a whirlwind or Hurricane./ 2dly In recconing up ye four winds we are to regard only such winds as blow upon ye Empire, that is such wars as are waged by ye Barbarians {sic} not against one another but against ye Romans. And this excludes almost all ye above mentioned wars except ye Vandalic. For ye wars of ye Ostrogoths were not {illeg} against ye Empire but first against ye Huns & then against ye Heruli. Nor was ye great Army of Attila at first designed against ye Empire a[51] but against ye Visigoths, he being sollicited by ye Vandals to invade them. But becaus Ætius ye General of ye Emperor (fearing least after he had subdued ye western barbarian kingdoms one after another he should turn upon ye Empire) ingaged together wth all those kingdoms against him, therefore in revenge he turned his fury upon ye Romans, & this was ye second summer only. And as for ye translation of ye kingdom of ye Heruli into Italy, whereby ye western Empire was finally abrogated |race of Emperors fel ceased|, that was done wthout any memorable war, Odoacer being called in by some of ye Italians.

There may be another objection, namely that <20r> Vandalic nation whilst in Spain concurred wth ye other barbarous nations to constitute ye western wind, & therefore the southern wind ought not also to be derived from them but from some other nation & rather from a southern nation {sic} (as ye Moors, {illeg} who \especially since they/ were in ye winds when they blew altogether before ye angels held them) \especially since they were in the wind when they blew altogether before the angels held them)/ then from ye Vandals who came from ye north. But this is easily answered by considering ye nature of winds: ffor ye same air accordingly as it moves this way or that way may constitute a wind one while in one quarter & afterwards in another quarter; & so ye same Vandalic nation accordingly as they war in divers quarters may constitute divers metaphorical \figurative/ winds. And as we denominate a wind in this or that quarter only from ye prsent motion wthout considering from what country the Air came originally, so we are here not to regard from whence ye Vandals came originally but only in what quarter they war at prsent. And for ye same reason it is not material whither ye nations wch now successively constitute ye 4 winds be ye same wth those wch constituted them when they blew all together before ye angels held them. It is enough that they break forth in ye 4 quarters wherein they blew before, though the Air be changed. And hence in ye next Trumpet because ye successive wars of ye Goths & Lombards were in ye same quarter, I consider them but as one & the same wind notwithstanding the diversity of the {sic} Nations.

<21r>

The fourth Trumpet.

The last blast of ye third wind we may reccon to be yt notable war wherein ye Vandalic kingdom was overthrown by Bellisarius: wch happend in ye years 533 & 534. And this directs us to ye fourth wind, that famous Ostrogothic war wch began ye next year (between ye Romans & Barbarians) whose main seat was on ye north of Rome, ye quarter of this wind: ffor ye main seat thereof was Venetia & Lombardy wth ye other regions between Rome & ye Alps, besides some actions in Illyricum; & ye duration was first ✝[52] about {illeg} \20 or 21/ years {illeg} wth ye Goths, in wch ye Lombards sided wth \aided/ ye Romans, & \a/[53] then wth ye Lombards for \37 or/ 38 years together \more wththe Lombards/ almost wthout intermission. Between these there was an little respite \interruption/, but ye last \war/ being \ye/ more violent & lasting yn ye f yn ye first & in ye same regions \wth ye first/, fulfilling ye desolations wch ye first began, so as to put an absolute period to ye Empire; it deserves more especially \also/ to be referred to this \the last/ wind, \& that more especially/ as being ye principal part thereof.

|Between these wars b[54] there was |also| another \a/ war wth ye Heruli under Sindual in Tuscia; of whome c[55] Anastasius says, peremibant cunctam Italiā. But this I mention only as a copula of ye years before & after.|

In ye former Trumpet you had ye fall of ye Western Cæsar, but this proceeds yet higher, even to ye darkning of ye Sun Moon & Stars, that is to ye utter extinction of ye remaining light of ye Western Empire: ffor ye understanding of wch you are to know yt ye Empire was fundamentally seated, not in ye Dominion of ye Emperour, but in that of ye city of Rome. It was an Empire before ye race of Emperours began & might have continued so long after their fall could ye city but have recovered it's pristine extent of dominion & greatnes.

<22r>

But though it could not recover them yet it continued for some time after ye fall of ye Cæsars to shine considerably. The Consulship Odoacer indeed at first took away in anger, but after two years restored it & conserved it to ye end of his reign: & then Theoderic King of ye Ostrogoths being sent by Zenon ye Greek Emperor against Odoacer & having conquered & slain him, besides Dalmatia & Rhætia wch were Odoacer's Provinces he added Sicily \& ✝[56] all Alemannia/ to his dominions & freed Italy wth ye rest of his Kingdoms from ye incursions of ye Vandals & setled it in peace. ✝[57] So far was ye dominion of Italy restored by his coming yt Ennodius in his Panegyric to him said: Interea ad limitem suum Romana Regna remearunt. He b[58] repaired also ye wals of Rome & {illeg} other buildings wth a great summ of money given for that purpose & changed no custom but retained ye Senate, Consuls, Patricij,Prætors, Quæstors, Præfects of ye City, Masters of ye hors & foot & other offices wch had been in ye times of ye Emperors, & assigned them \these Roman dignities/ only to those of ye Romans {sic} nation, as did also ye succeeding Ostrogothic Kings Athalaric & Theodatus. Thus Rome \still governed by her own Senate/ flourished under ye Goths after ye same manner as formerly under her own Emperors < insertion from f 21v > between Romans a Roman was judged, between a Goth & a Roman a Goth & a Roman. < text from p 23r-a resumes > as if she had changed nothing but ye title of {illeg} Emperors to that of Kings

<23r-b>

|And| in {sic} this degree ye western light continued to shine till ye sounding of ye fourth Trumpet, but then was quite put out. Symbol (cross surmounted by three circles) in text < insertion from f 22v > - put out. Symbol (cross surmounted by three circles) in text The Goths partly by constraint partly on their own accord a[59] dissmissed most of their dominions & amongst ye rest all Alemannia from their subjection; letting go what ever was not of present use that they might contract their whole strength into Italy; & Feb 20 A.C. 537 laid strait siege to Rome wth an army of an hundred & fifty thousand: by wch siege - - - < text from p 23r-b resumes > ffor Rome being first seized by ye Goths was betrayed to Belisarius in ye[60] begin \beginning/ of ye second \third/ year of ye war \Ian. 9/, & g[61]from Feb. 20 to March following for above a year together straitly beseiged by ye Goths wth an c[62] By wch seige her dignities being reduced to titular shaddows, ye Consulship after five years more (viz: A.C. 542) expired. Afterward ye City was again besieged & d[63]taken by Totila & for a time made destitute of all her inhabitants & a third part of her walls \or more/ demolished, & then recovered by Belisarius & again taken by Totila & retaken by Narses. After this when Iustin <24r> came to ye Empire, he to caress ye {Italians} & together assert his dominion over them took upon him ye title of Consul for his two or three first years, making a show as if he would restore ye ruined dignities of Rome: but ✝ then ye Lombards immediately invaded & wasted all Italy much more then ye Goths had done & again e[64] besieged Rome in ye time of their 30 Tyrants, A.C. 577. And partly by these desolations but chiefly by storms & fiery meteors ye City was so wasted yt ever since it hath scarce been ye tenth part of what it was before, & that too for ye most part wthout ye compas of its former foundation.

Thus was ye Imperial City, wch formerly shone gloriously wth her Consuls Senate & other dignities reduced into darknes, being made a heap of runs, & deprived of her Magistracy, & from being Queen of ye world degraded to I know not what ignoble Dukedom, & compel'd to serve under Ravenna wch formerly served under her, & (O darknes!) even to pay tribute to ye Exarchs presiding there.

This was ye conclusion of this great Empire: concerning wch I cannot but note yt it was done accomplished by the direst desolations that (I beleive) ever nation felt: God reserving his most grievous scourge for ye fountain of Apostacy & ye most grievous part of that scourge for ye last place to try ye utmost before he would give over an incorrigible insensible people. For all former desolations seem to be equalld if not outdone by ye Gothic (ye Goths & Greeks both wasting Italy as ye countrey of ye enemy,) & yet those desolations were manifestly outdone by ye Lombardic. For ye order of their {sic} history I refer you to Procopius, Iornandes de Regn. success. Paulus Diaconus, Sigonius de Occid. Imp. Aventinus's Annales Boiorum, & others, & shal <25r> only for a tast of their direness give you a passage or two out of Gregory ye great who being then Bishop of Rome both saw & felt what he wrote of.

A little before ye Lombardic invasion, as this Gregory relates, there came a revelation to one Redemptus a Bishop in these words. Finis venit universæ carnis. Finis venit universæ carnis. Finis venit universæ carnis. Which Gregory understanding of ye end of ye world, made this comment upon it. Post illam Prophetiam f[65] mox illa terribilia in Cœlum signa secuta sunt ut hastæ atq acies igneæ ab Aquilonis parte viderentur. Mox effera Longobardorum gens de vagina æ habitationis educta in nostram cervicem grassata est; atq humanum genus quod in hac terra præ nimiæ multitudine quasi spissæ segetis more surrexerat, g[66] succisum aruit. Nam depopulatæ urbes, eversa castra, concrematæ Ecclesiæ, destructa Monasteria virorum & feminarum, desolata ab hominibus prædia, atq ab omni cultore {sic} destituta in solitudine vacat terra; nullus hanc Possessor inhabitat, occuparunt Bestiæ loca quæ prius multitudo hominum tenebat. Et quid in alijs mundi partibus agitur ignoro. Nam in hac terra in qua \nos/ vivimus finem suum non nunciat sed ostendit. - Vpon wch place of Gregory Baronius writes thus. At h[67] nequis putet mendax fuisse Oraculum de fine universæ carnis prædictum: sciat his verbis non seculi consummationem significatam sed gentis Italicæ cladem: sicut olim Deum per suum Prophetam comminatum fuisse constat ubi ait, i[68] Hæc dicit Dominus Deus terræ Israel: Fini venit: venit finis super quatuor plagas terræ: Nunc finis super te &c. Sicut ergo finem universæ carnis minitante Propheta non mundi est demonstratus interritus, sed imminentes tantum clades præfiguratæ fuere, ita pariter eodem quæ prædicta <26r> sunt. Redempto accipenda erunt.[69]Certè quidem finis quodammodo tunc dici potuit advenisse Romani Occidentalis Imperij cum Longobardi Italiam invadentes rerum potiti sunt. Etenim post paucos Exarchas Constantinopoli ab Imperatoribus in Italiam missos qui Ravennæ {illeg} considere consuevere, ijsdem diu prævalentibus Longobardis, Occidentis Imperium penitus collapsum est, neq usq ad Carolum Magnum restitutum, ut tamen in Gallias fuerit ipsum translatū. Sane quidem quàm durissima fovet Longobardorum adventu grassatio ejusmodi factis divinitus vaticinijs præsignata potest intelligi, quibus mundi ipsius interritus fuit ereditus significari. Quid autem passa sit Longobardis Italia, vel hoc uno collige argumento: Si teste Procopio cum ijdem amici essent Imperatoris & laboranti Italiæ bello Gothico in auxilium Longobardi venientes longè deteriora hostibus perpetrarunt, ut opus fuerit eos dimittere: quid ab ijsdem factum potest existimari cum jam hostes redditi hostili animo Italiam invaserunt. Sane quidem adeò immensa ubiq increbuêre sub ipsis mala ut non leves quæq personæ sed ipse Gregorius Papa existimarit jam instare novissimum diem quo universi orbis conflagratio immineret.

After this I know not what can be well said more: & yet out of ye manifold lamentations of ye same Gregory I shal trouble you wth one more wch he makes thus to ye people. k[70] Destructæ urbes, eversa sunt castra, depopulati agri in {sic} solitudinem terra redacta est. Nullus in agris incola, penè nullus in urbibus habitator remansit. Et tamen ipsæ parvæ generis humani reliquiæ, adhuc quotidiè et sine cessatione feriuntur, & finem non habent flagella celestis justitiæ. Ipsa autem quæ aliquando <27r> mundi domina esse videbatur qualis remansit Roma consipcimus, innumeris doloribus multipliciter attrita, desolatione civium impressione hostidie, frequentia ruinarum. - Ecce jam de illa omnes hujus seculi potentes ablati sunt. - Ecce populi consumptæ sunt carnes, omnis defecerunt - Vbi enim Senatus? ubi jam populus? contabuerunt ossa, consumptæ sunt carnes, omnis enim secularium dignitatum ordo extinctus est, et tamen ipsos nos paucos qui remansimus adhuc quotidiè gladij, adhuc quotidie innumeræ tribulationes premunt. - Vacua jam ardet Roma. Quid autem ista de hominibus dicimus. Cum ruinis crebrescentibus ipsa quoq destrui ædificia videmus: postq defecerunt homines etiam l[71] parietes cadunt. Iam ecce desolata, ecce contrita, ecce gemitibus oppressa est &c - Hanc autem quæ de Romanæ urbis contritione dicimus in cunctis facta mundi civitatibus scimus; alia enim loca desolata sunt, alia gladio consumpta, alia fame cruciata, alia terræ hiatibus absorpta. Despiciamus ergo ex toto animo hoc præsens seculum vel extinctum. Greg. M. in Ezek. Hom. 18.

Of ye wars in other places wch Gregory here touches upon, those made by ye Hunns invading Illyricum Occidentale & Orientale & Thrace (regions situate to ye Northeast of Rome as ye seat of ye Lombardic wars inclined to ye north west) were ye most grievous & lasting. They continued from ye year 539 to ye year 558 & downward wth notable violence & soon after brake forth again. And these wth what others there were at this time wthin ye Roman world may be \in general/ referred to this Trumpet, but ye first place must be allowed to ye Lombardic as ye direst wars & those by wch ye effect of this Trumpet, that is ye extinction of ye western Empire was accomplished.

Now whereas this is exprest by ye darkning ye third part of ye Sun Moon & Stars: by ye Sun & Moon you <28r> may understand [72] ye Greek Emperour & ye next to him in dignity whether ye Empress or any other person \/ < insertion from f 27v > by their light, ye splendor & glory of their Imperial Cities \Rome & Constantinople/ by wch they irradiated the Empire, & by ye third part of that light ye splendor of Rome by wch they irradiated Italy \Sicily/ Afric & Dalmatia \Rhætia \&/ Noricum./ ye remainder {sic} half of the western Empire wch \being about one half thereof/ was therefore the third part of their prsent dominions. So by the third part of ye stars are to be understood ye Consuls Senators & other Magistrates & {illeg} dignities of ye \western/ Empire wch \formerly/ shone as stars in ye heaven of this third part. All these I referr to ye Greek Emperor as ye sun in this heaven rather then to ye king of ye Goths partly because ye Goths \never/ intermedled not wth ye government of Rome but left it wth all it's dignities (ye stars of this heaven) wholly to ye Romans to manage & enjoy after ye old manner as if still ye head city of ye western Empire \& sister of Constantinople/; & partly because ye Greek Emperor\had a right to this city wth it's territories & claimed it/ before his wars wth ye Goths claimed it as his right; but chiefly because ye Emperors forces took it for him \a little/ before ye ye darkning of ye third part of ye Sun moon & stars, (as you shall hear,) & held it during ye darkness.

ffurther by ye expression yt ye day shone not for - < text from f 28r resumes > [& by ye third part of their light,[73] the third part of their dominions, that is the Western Empire, ye right of wch by ye ceasing of its own Emperors devolved upon ye Greek Emperor & was accordingly claimed by him before & in his wars wth ye Vandals, Goths, & Lombards, & for a time recovered. And so by ye stars are to be understood ye subordinate Magistrates in ye whole Empire, & by ye third part of them ye Magistrates of ye third part, that is ye Consuls Senators & other dignities of Rome by wch as stars this Empire had irradiated & influenced ye world.] And lastly \Further by ye expression/ that ye day shone not for a third part of it & ye night likewise we are to understand ye duration of ye darknes of ye Sun Moon & Stars, that is, of ye obscure state or Eclips of ye Western Empire: interpreting day & night of one & ye same time of obscurity called day in respect of ye Sun & night in respect of ye Moon & stars. For here ye Sun, Moon & stars shine not alternately, as in nature, to constitute successive days & nights, but shine altogether & are darkned altogether. Now of ye western day & night whereof ye darknes was a third part, ye beginning must be at ye beginning of ye reign of ye Beast wch was & is not viz: A.C. 395,) because he is ye eighth king or head ye subject of this prophesy of ye Trumpets, beginning & ending together wth them; & 'tis his day & night yt is darkned. Also ye end of that day & night, (so much of it as was darkned to a third part) must be at ye end of ye darknes; not sooner because the darknes is a part of it, (viz: ye third part,) nor later because that is ye latest time of wch ye Prophesy hath hitherto taken a view & if it should extend further it would be to us indefinite. The end of dark- <29r> nes I put in ye m[74] year 607 when ye Bishop of Rome obteined ye universal Bishopric by ye grant of ye Emperor Phocas: not sooner because ye Lombardic wars continuing till ye \a[75] Papacy of Sabinian that is till ye year/ year 605, left Rome & Italy in ye lowest degree of obscurity, nor later because Rome by that concession of Phocas began again to be Empress of ye world & to irradiate ye whole west by yt hermaphroditic Luminary ye Pope, & by those stars ye Cardinals wth ye rest of his Court, wch from that time brake forth more & more out of ye cloud till they out shone all other temporal Potentates. Moreover the beginning of ye darknes I reccon at ye beginning of ye siege of Rome wch was in March \9 Kal. Feb: 20/ in ye third year of ye Gothic war n[76]A.C 537: for then {illeg} the \lost/ western dignities wch after a few years more were annihilated began to be manifestly obscured. In ye first year ye war proceeded no farther then Dalmatia & Sicily, in ye second it entred Italy but approached not Rome till yt {illeg} siege began wch continued a year & nine months \days/ & was so sharp yt in ye time thereof ye Goths & Romans had no less then o[77]threescore & nine conflicts besides several other less skirmishes, besides p[78]ye \sore/ afflictions of fa- <28v> -min & rapine wthin.[79] Then it was that ye western dignities ye light & splendor of ye Empire began to be utterly extinguished. Nothing then regarded but a soldier. Nothing remained but titles of dignities \of dignities but their titles/, ye shaddows of things that had been; & those too, ye substance being gone, \soon/ vanished of their own accord as it were in a moment. T Consules enim quarto anno post hoc obsidium cessarunt et senatus non multo post dissolutus decennio \et senatus {illeg} non multo post dissolutus/ /mox Senatus itidem. Nam nono\ anno Vrbs \anno a Gothis iterum obsessa est/ capta est a Gothis, mœnia ex parte diruta, opum reliquiæ direptæ quicquid opum erat direptum, & cives \omnes/ in Campaniam captivi abducti: post quam devastationem Roma quadraginta dies aut amplius inquit Marcellinus Roma fuit ita desolata, inquit Marcellinus, ut nemo ibi hominum nisi bestiæ morarentur. In Vrbem dein \se/ recepit belisarius, Et Gothi iterum capiunt

[iterum obsessa est et proximo anno post famem gravissimum capta. Ex civibus qui soli in urbe remanserant, in

<30r>

Supposing therefore ye desolation of Rome between ye fall of ye temporal & rise of ye spiritual Empire to be ye time of darknes & ye ascention \beginning/ of ye Beast's {sic} out of ye bottomles pit \reign/ to be ye beginning of day & night: the length of ye whole day & night will be more then 212 & les then 213 years & ye third part thereof {illeg} \between 70 &/ 71 years, & ye length of darkness wil be 70 years complete & some part perhaps of ye next year running wch agreeing so well wth ye said third part, makes good ye Prophesy that ye day & night shone not for a third part thereof.

It makes good also ye prophesy of ye seventy years desolation of Tyre, wch as we proved in Posit     was to be a seventy year's desolation of ye Imperial City betwen ye fall of ye temporal & rise of the spiritual Empire & to happen in ye time of ye 4th Trumpet & be about ye length thereof: All wch being so punctually fulfilld & applicable to no other time is a most certain character of ye right application of this Trumpet.

The correspondent Vial too confirms its' application notably. The tenour of this is that it was poured on ye Sun & power was given him to scorch men wth fire & men were scorched wth great heat & blasphemed God, &c. That is[80] ye pouring out of this Vial was an incitement of ye suprem power terrestrial potentate to torment men wth war & men were tormented wth vehement war & blasphemed God. And thus it happned. For ye Greek Emperor (ye supreme terrestrial Potentate) was ye cause of ye wars of this Trumpet by sending his armies into Italy in pursuit of his claim to those regions. The <30v> p[82] Gothic King laboured by all meanes for peace causing ye Senate to mediate for it & ye Bishop of Rome himself to go Embassadour to ye Emperour on ye same account & promising to acknowledg his p[83] Crown held of ye Emperour & that in his dominions ye nEmperour should have equal honour wth himself as by q[84] stamping both their {illeg} images together on his coyn & by r[85] ye peoples naming ye Emperor always together wth him & before him in public acclamations, &c. But nothing would satisfy but ye extirpation of ye Gothic Kingdom & for that end ye imbroyling Italy in these \scorching/ wars.

I have now done wth ye wars of ye first four Trumpets ye winds wch blew upon ye Empire till they had consumed {illeg} it, & s[86] together wth frequent Pestilences, ffamins, Earthquaks, Tempests, fiery Meteors, & other Calamities, were one continual consumption of men & Cities for above two hundred years together, leaving ye world barbarous & thin wch they found flourishing in learning & so thick peopled that ye northern nations were forced to empty themselves upon their neighbours for want of room. These four trumpets relating therefore to ye same subject were not unfitly connected wth one another & distinguished from ye next wch in troduces a new scene of things. By these \four/ he wch {hindred} being \fully/ taken out of ye way, we are now to expect ye revelation of ye man of Sin 2 Thes. 2.7 But his description belongs not to ye Trumpets. But before we But we proceede in ye explication of ye Trumpets.

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Prop.
The fift Trumpet expresses the wars of ye Saracen Empire upon ye Romans & begins with ye rise ofye Mahometan religion A.C. 609.

The conditions of the fift Trumpet are these 1. It is {sic} to begin wth ye rise of a new fals religion: ffor this ye ascention of any thing out of ye bottomless pit implies. To rise out of ye sea or earth is a phrase accommodated to expres ye rise of temporal dominions wthout respect to religion, but to rise out of ye bottomless pit expresses further the bringing up some infernal devises together wth that dominion wch arises. Thus the ten horned beast is said to rise out of ye bottomless pit (chap 11.7. & 17.8) becaus he was to rise together wth ye great Antichristian Apostacy. And so in chap 20 to express ye ceasing of fals religions for a 1000 years & afterds their springing up again, the Dragon is said to be cast into ye bottomles pit that he should deceive the nations no more till after ye 1000 years & then to be let out again to deceive them.

2. This fals religion is to rise |at| soon after ye ceasing of ye wars \end/ of ye 4th Trumpet. For this ye order of ye Trumpets requires. |Yet between ye contents of these two Trumpets some little intervall may be allowed answering to ye space taken up by ye flight of ye Angel through heaven which cryed Wo.|

3. The professors of this religion are to be very numerous, becaus exprest by a smoke so thick as to darken ye Sun & Air, & by Locusts <32r> being a very numerous insect were by ye ancient interpreters applied to numerous Armies. See Def     By the Smoke you may understand ye whole multitude of this new sect & by ye Locusts their Armies. ffor ye Locusts plainly signify armies by their description. ffor ye first to signify that they are not real Locusts but men, it is said that they should not hurt ye grass \herbs/ of ye earth neither any green thing neither any tree but only those men wch have not ye seal of God in their foreheads; that is, that they should not prey upon real herbs & green things of the earth as natural Locusts do, but upon ye figurative herbs & green things, the men wch have not ye seal of God in their foreheads. They are therefore not real Locusts but men & not peaceable men but such as are hurtfull to others. Moreover it is said that they were like unto horses prepared unto {sic} battel, & had faces like men (i.e. were horsmen,) & had breastplates as it were of iron, & ye sound of their wings was as ye sound of chariots of many hores {sic} running to battel. And to represent them ye more pernicious & dreadfull they are said to have tailes like Scorpions wth stings in them, & teeth as ye teeth of Lyons, both wch are also of a a[87]pugnacious military signification by Def     &     The Locusts therefore are soldiers: & since they come out of ye Smoke, ye smoke wch (by Def    ) signifies a multitude must be ye whole multitude of ye followers of this new religion.

4. The professors of this new religion are to constitute a kingdom. ffor it is exprest that they have a king over them.

5 Their king is ye same wth ye Author <33r> & Guardian of their religion. ffor he is called ye angel of ye bottomless pit, that is, {illeg} He (wth his successors) to whom power over the pit was given, who a little before was exprest by ye star wch fell from heaven to whom was given ye key of ye bottomles pit that he should open it. Their king is therefore both a spirituall & temporall Prince: a temporall prince as he is King over ye Locusts, that is chief commander over soldiers, & a spirituall prince as he is ye angel of ye bottomless pit.

6. This King is further described by his name, wch in hebrew is said to be Abaddon & in greek Apollyon: both wch words signifying ye same thing namely a Destroyer, it is to be supposed that there is some further mystery in ye hebrew word then the bare signification. ffor it is not likely yt ye holy Ghost would make an excursion into ye hebrew tongue for a mere tautology.

7. The {sic} generation Locusts were to be a people wth long hair & wth some ornament upon their heads resembling a crown; in that they are said to have crowns of gold & hair like weomen.

They were to be enemies of ye Roman state ffor ye Trumpets are alarms to so many plagues of war upon ye Romans, whereof this inflicted by ye Locusts is one. Those whom ye Locusts torment are described to be ye men wch had not ye seal of God in their foreheads, that is those wch stand in opposition to ye sealed saints, or wch had ye mark of ye Beast. And acording ye fift vial (wch expresses ye same thing wth this seal) is said to be poured upon ye seat of ye Beast. It is ye Beast there- <34r> fore, that is ye Roman state, on wch ye plague of this Vial & Trumpet are is inflicted, & consequently ye Locusts are their enemies.

9. They were not to kill men but torment them only; that is (as was explained above in ye second Trumpet) to afflict kingdoms by war but not utterly to ruin them. |ffor here by ye killing of men is to be understood not ye killing of single men but of Kingdoms as was explained above in ye 2d Trumpt|

10 They were to rage five months, that is, five times thirty prophetiq days or 150 years; & this repeated, vers 5 & 10. ffor this repetition I cannot but esteem rather mysterious then superfluous, especially since there is not (that I know) any where in ye prophetiq scriptures \(yt I know)/ such another instance of a repetition in {sic} continued narration of ye same type.

These are ye conditions of this seal Trumpet, & they singularly point out ye Saracenical Kingdom. For

1. There have been since ye writing of ye Apocalyps but two notable new fals religions of large extent & long duration, ye Roman & ye Mahometan. And so in ye Prophesy of ye Seales & Trumpets there are described but two states wch arise out of ye bottomless pit, ye Beast & ye Locusts. Wherefore since ye Beast is ye Roman religion state (as shall be further explained hereafter,) it remains yt ye Locusts be ye Mahometan.

2. The Mahometan is ye religion wch arose soon after ye ceasing of ye wars \at the end/ of ye 4th Trumpet. For these wars \the darkness of the Sun Moon & stars in that Trumpet/ continued till ye year 609 {sic}, & then there was a lasting peace concluded between ye Lombards & Romans whereby an end was put to ye desolations of Italy. And in ye year 609 {sic} ye Mahometan religion began to be hatched; as is manifest out of Elmacinus who in ye beginning of his history records that <35r> [88] Mahomet was \born in ye year of {illeg}/ called to ye {illeg} of prophesy /office of a Prophet\ in ye Month Rabie prior in \the beginning end of/ ye 40th year of his age, wch was in ye 20th year of Casras King of Persia \922d year of Alexander ye great/, & yt in ye 44th year of his age he began to manifest his vocation having before invited only privatly to Islamism (as they call their religion,) & in ye \beginning of ye/ 14th year of his vocation & 54th year of his age \(namely in the very beginning of those years)/ he fled to Medina entring ye City on ye 12t day of ye same month Rabie prior: from wch flight ye Æra of ye Hegira begins \ye first year thereof being ye same wth ye 54 of Mahomet/. Wherefore both by ye 20th year of Casrae wch fell in ye year 606 \922 year of Alexander wch began in september A.C. 609 & in whose first month the month Rabie prior began/ & by ye Æra of ye Hegira, wch by ye common consent of Chronologers began Iuly 17 A.C. 622, ye yeare 609 was that in wch \& wth wch ye 54th year of Mahomet was coincident/ ye Mahometan religion took its beginning /in autumn in ye year 609 of or Lord 609\. ffor from ye \Autumn in ye/ year 622 \(ye time at wch Mahomet entred Medina)/ discounting 13 {sic} years (not Lunar years of ye Hegira, but Syro-Caldaic years wch were in use wth ye Hagarenes before ye Hegira began & were equipollent to solar years,) you will fall upon \Autumn in/ ye year 609.

** |** The same is also evident out of {illeg} Abul Pharajius \history/ who writes yt Mahomet was born in ye year of Alexander 882 & died on ye 29th day in ye beginning of ye 11th year of ye Hegira having lived 63 years whereof 40 were spent before he arrogated to himself ye his prophetiq function, 13 years more whilst he was at Mecha & the last 10 years after ye Hegira during wch time he was at Medina after ye Hegira began. Sic et in Tractatu de ejus de origine et moribus gentium Arabum scribit Mahometeum post com{illeg}|

Supposing therefore Mahomet (ye Angel of ye bottomless pit) to be ye star wch fell from heaven to ye Earth & opened ye pit; we may reccon that he fell from heaven in ye year 609 {sic} when he first began to contrive his doctrine, & consequently from thence date this Trumpet; & that in ye year 612 when he first manifested his pretended vocation, he began to open ye pit & let out ye smoke; & that in ye years 622 & 623, when (as ye same Elmacinus writes) he first armed his followers, ye Locusts began to come out of ye smoke.

3. The great multitude {sic} of these Locusts is notoriously manifest conspicuous; their kingdom being as large as ye Roman Empire in its greatest extent & their armies far more numerous.

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4 & 5. Also ye qualities of their king, that he should be both angel of ye bottomless pit & king of ye Locusts do singularly agree to Mahomet & ye succeeding race of Califas, who founded & propagated as well their religion as their Empire, being Princes both spirituall & temporall in ye strictest sence. Nor hath there been, that I know, any other considerable Prince to whom this character so well agrees. The Pope indeed comes nearest to it, being such another spirituall Prince among Christians as ye Califa was among Mahometans, but in temporall power he falls short thus far short, that although he claims & exercises superiority over kings yet he never had ye absolute command of their armies. He never appeared in ye head of an army like Mahomet & ye Califas & therefore cannot be called King of Locusts.

6. As for this Kings name Abaddon it seems to allude to ye common name of ye ancient Kings of yt tract of Arabia from whence ye Saracenical Kingdom \I conceive/ took its beginning: wch tract from an ancient king Obodas (deified by his posterity) was called Oboda, & ye Kings thereof Obodas, after ye same manner that ye Kings of Egypt were called Pharaoh & Ptolome, of ye Romans Cæsars, of ye Parthians Arsacæ, & of ye people bordering upon Arabia petrea Arstæ.

Concerning Obodas ye \deified King or/ God of ye Arabians you may see Tertullian ad Nat. l 2. c 8. & ye notes of Gothofredus thereupon. Also Eusebius mentions him in his book de laudibus Constantini p 478. Ἄραβες, saith he, Δούσαρίν τινα καὶ Ὄβδον θεοὺς ἀνηγόρευσι. Of \this deified king &/ ye name of the Country derived from him {sic} deified King, Stephen a Byzantine writer, out of Vranius a writer of Arabic matters, in his 4th book saith <37r> Ὄβοδα χωρίον Ναβαταίων ὅπου Ὀβόδης ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁν θεοποιουσι τέθαπται: wch Nabathæans were Ismaelites (that is Hagarens or Saracens) so called from Nabaioth ye first born of Ismael Gen 25 13.

< insertion from f 36v > ✝ Dr Pocock out of Firanzabad tells us also how Obaid ye father of a Tribe Obadius became a patronymical word word {sic} & ى٨ٺإفت \Obida/ the name of a Province with its king among them, that is ye common name of the kings of that Province, informing us also how of Obaid the signification of ye word & of ye various names of men derived thence: both wch make ye word more fit to be alluded to by St Iohn. Inter veri Dei titulos, inquit, vocem ںøڢ ~ ~ recenset ipse Mohammedes, docente Ebnol Athir. {illeg} A themate |ى٨ڢ| nominis hujus ratio petenda, a quo ٨ڡ٨ٶڢ Maabud dicitur quicquid colitur et ى٨ٶں٥ Obudah, cultus, obedientia. - Varia autem sunt ab isto Themate derivata virorum nomina, qualia ى٨٨ڢ Obaid, ى٬٨١ڢ {illeg} Obad, ١ى٨ڢ Aabod, ى٨ٶب Abbud ى٨ڢ٥ Obdah &c. Ab Obaid patre Tribus formatur patronymicum ى٨بى Obadius, ى٨ڢ١ل, et Regis & Provinciæ in Yaman nomen teste Al ffirauzabad. Apud eundem ١٧ى٨ٶب Al Obud, Al Sacsaci septimi regum Hamy arensium filius. Hæc Pocockius in notis {illeg} in Abul Pharajium de origine et moribus Arabum. What relation this Al Obud had to this kingdom I know not but towards ye end of it Iosephus mentions \two of/ their kings twice by this name wch agrees well with what was said of this name, being common to them all. One of them was well known to ye Iews by his victory - < text from f 37r resumes > And lastly concerning ye kings of this country that they also were from hence called by ye common name of Obodas seems deducible out of Iosephus who mentions two of their kings under this name, a[89] the one well known to ye Iews by his victory over their king Alexander Iamneus whom that Arabian Obadas, having slain his whole army in the region of Galaad, compelled to fly to Ierusalem about 90 years before Christ. And him the Iews might well by a slight mutation have called Abaddon, yt is, ye Destroyer. The other b[90] Obodas was in ye time of Herod ye great, in whom ye line ended for after his death ye neighbouring King Aretas by the favour of Augustus united his Kingdom to his own. Of this Obodas Strabo also in ye Arabic expedition of Ætius Gallus makes mention; out of whom it may be collected that ye Kingdom Oboda bordered upon ye red Sea southward of Aretas's territories, where I suppose Mahometism took its rise.

7. Moreover ye shape of these Locusts, in that they had hair like weomen & crowns of gold, points out ye Arabians who, as Pliny writes, intonso utuntur crine & (mulierum more) mitrati degunt. Plin. l 6. c 28. & wth whom it is at {sic} custom prsent a custome as travellers affirm, for those that go into battel (ex proprijs capillis sibi cornua et cincinnos nectere) to adorn their heads wth their own hair tied up. Camerar. operum subcis. Tom 1. c 93. Herodotus indeed mentions that they cut their hair round underneath, but I suppose he means only upon their {sic} foreheads becaus he adds that they did it shaving their temples. However it is not to be doubted but Pliny had seen Arabians at Rome.

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8. Again ye Saracens Empire is further characterised by their wars upon the Romans, in that the Trumpets denote so many plagues inflicted upon the Roman territories by war whereof ye 5t is one of ye three greatest & accordingly ye wars of ye Saracens upon them hath been one of ye most universal & lasting plagues wch ye Christian world hath hitherto felt. As for ye universality there is scarce any Roman territory wch hath not felt them, Syria, Egypt, Afric, Spain, France, Italy, Illyricum, Grece, Thrace & Asia \& Armenia./ And ye duration was much greater then of any former plague.

9. The precise duration of this plague, exprest to be five months, & that {illeg} repated, I limit thus.

In ye 13th year of ye Hegira (wch began March 7th A.C. 634) the Saracens first entred Syria & began to make war upon ye Romans as Elmacinus writes, & ye next year in ye month Regjebo (wch was in or September A.C. 635) they took Damascus & made it the seat of their Empire. And from ye taking of this City I date ye beginning of their Empire as well becaus it laid ye foundation to their conquests (all Syria & Egypt together wth ye whole world like a flood following thereupon,) as becaus ye holy spirit usually measures ye duration of Empires by that of ye Metropolis.

Moreover ye end of this Empire I put to be in ye year 936 when ye Califa lost all temporall power & Bagdad (ye new seat of ye Empire) came into ye hands of temporal Princes. For this Kingdom is not to be extended beyond ye time that ye angel of the bottomless pit continued King of ye Locusts. Now that this downfall of ye Califa was completed in the year 936 is evident out of the same Elmacinus. ffor having described before how the severall Provinces of ye Empire were rent from the Califa, so that (Egypt <39r> in the last place being lost the year before) there was now nothing left but Bagdad: he proceeds thus to describe how Arradis ye last absolute Califa subjected both Bagdad & himself to Muhammed one of ye temporal Princes who had shared ye Empire. Anno, inquit, Hegiræ 324 (qui cœpit Novemb. 30. A.C. 935) ad se venire jussit Califa Arradis Billa Imperatorem Muhammedem f. Rajici qui Wasiti erat & ibi dominabatur; cogente ad id eum necessitate propter perturbationem Imperij & ineptitudinem Consiliarij ad eam dignitatem. Venit itaq filius Rajici Bagdadum, & constituit eum Arradis Imperatorem Imperatorum, commisitq ei administrationem regni - et jussit eum pro se concionari super suggesto, induit quoq ei vestem dignitatis ac dedit ei vexillum. Venit autem Bagdadum vicessimo quinto Dulhiggiæ (i.e. Novemb 13. A.C. 936) - curavitq ea omnia quæ curare soliti erant Consiliarij ({illeg}) Atq ab eo tempore dignitas Consiliarij Bagdadi obsolevit, neq remansit nisi nomen ejus.[91] Potestas autem omnis cessit Imperatoribus qui rerum potiebantur. Atq id duravit donec florere desierunt [92] Salgjuki (i.e. Turcarum Imperatoris) Bagdadum.

Ineunte itaq anno [93]325 (qui cepit Novemb 19. A.C. 936) mundus in manibus erat Principum qui Imperio se ingesserant & reges terræ [94] erant. Quicunq enim urbem aliquam nanciscebantur [95]Regem re ejus nominabat, alios omnes arcens. Eratq Basra [96] {limitum} & Ahwaza in manu Abu Abdallia {illeg} et fratrum ejus; Persia in manu Ama[97]duddaula, Dailami et Wasmakini; Mausila, & Diarrebia & Diarbeera in manu filiorum Hamadani; Ægyptus et Syria in manu Mahammedis Achsijdi; Occidens et Africa in manu Caijmi. Hispania in manu filiorum Ommiæ. Chorasana in manu Nasri. Iamama, Bahraina & Hagjara in manu Taheri. Tabristana & Gjorgjana in manu Dailamorum. Neq mansit in manu Chalifa & filij Rajici quicquam <40r> præter Bagdadum. Et abolita sunt telonia Regni. - Pecunia autem omnis portata est in gazophylacia Imperatorum, qui pro lubitu suo de ea disponebant & impensas imperiales omnes faciebant.

** < insertion from f 39v > ** To ye same purpose writes Abul-Pharajius \another Arabic historian/, whose words \{illeg}/ are these \translated/. Anno (Hegiræ scil.) trecentesimo vicesimo quarto impulit {sic} necessitas Al Radium ut Abu-Becrum Mohammedem filium Raycki imperatorem exercitûs crearet. Eum ergo Imperatorem Imperatorum constituens vectigalibus & tributis & curijs per omnes regiones præfecit, jussitq in omnibus suggestis nominis ejus in concionibus mentionem fieri, atq ab eo tempore {illeg} irritum factum est Vizieri munus. F. Raycki siquidem & ipsius scriba omnium rerum curam gerebant: eodemq modo quicunq post eum Imperatores Imperatorum fiebant se habebant. Omnes peculinæ in eorum Gazophylacia importebantur, easq pro lubitu erogabant, & Chalifæ nihil aliud quãm quod ipsis visum, relinquebant. < text from f 40r resumes >

This may suffice to determin ye end of this Empire of ye Chalifas: wch \deter {sic}/ yet is further confirmed by the ensuing actions. ffor before ye son of Raijci had been Emperor of Emperors two full years, Bagdad (as ye same Elmacinus writes) was taken {illeg} by one Iahcamus a Turk, & from that time often taken & retaken, being sometimes in the hands of ye Turks & sometimes of ye Saracens untill at length Togrulbec took it & there laid the founddation of ye Turkish Empire \established it to ye Turks/.

The whole duration of ye [98]Empire therefore from its beginning at Damascus [99] A.C. 635 to its end at Bagdad A.C. 936 is 301 years. [100] from wch if ye last year be exempted wherein [101] Egypt being lost there remained nothing to ye Chalifa [102] of those Provinces wch had been taken from ye Romans, [103]& consequently the Romans were no longer tormented [104] by any Locusts wch had ye Angel of ye bottomles pit [105] for their King; there will remain 300 years [106] precisely, that is twice five months of years [107] for ye whole time that men were tormented by these [108] Locusts.

< insertion from f 39v >

Eutychius ye Patriarch of Alexandria in his history wch was written two or three hundred years at least before yt of Elmacinus {illeg} ye taking of Damascus to ye 1 {illeg}th year of ye Hegyra, wch fell in wth ye {illeg} to ye year of or Lord 636 & from hence to ye end of ye empire {illeg} \a year later then Elmacinus, & so, the Empire will {illeg}/ just 300 years. Take wch computation you like best. The former is confirmed by Theophanes & Anastasius \& Cedrenus/ who put \refer/ ye taking Damaskus to ye 25t year of Heraclius; wch agrees wth Elmacinus, for Heraclius began A.C. 610. Octob 3. as Petavius (in Rationario Temporū lib 4, cap 15 & more at large in his notes ad Nicephori Breviarium) demonstrates out of Chron: Alexandr. {illeg}, Theophanes Cedrenus & others.

< text from f 40r resumes >

If you now ask [109] why ye duration of this kingdom was not exprest [110] by one round number of ten months rather then by a repetition of five months: I answer jst it was done for ye property of the type For Locusts continue but five months, namely from ye rise of the Pleiades (esteemed by ye Ancients ye end of Spring, being about a month after ye Vernall Equinox) at wch time they are hatched out of eggs left all winter in ye earth, untill ye begining of Autumn when <41r> having left eggs in ye earth for a new ofspring, they die. See Pliny lib 11. c 29. 2dly The condition of the Saracens empire required it. ffor this was not one only uniformly continued Empire but compounded of two Dynasties succeeding one another the first at Damascus ye second at Bagdad. And therefore ye holy Ghost measuring the duration of Empires by that of their Metropolis, it was not fit to combine both these in one number but to express ye duration of each apart: As if he had said yt ye Kingdom should continue five months at a seat & by ye repetition thereof in ye family of Ommia, ye second at Bagdad in ye race of ye Abasides. ffor ye Abasides wresting ye Chalifate from ye family of Ommia, took Damascus by force & pulled down ye walls, & in ye year of ye Hegira 145 (wch began April 1. A.C. 762) gave commandment that for ye building of Bagdad translating ye seat of ye empire thither so soon as it was finish the building was finished \it was habitable/. See Elmacinus lib 2. The time of this translation I find not recorded, but it seems to have been either at or before ye year 775; for in yt year Mahad was there created Chalifa, his father Almansor dying neare Mecca. Now the Empire being thus translated from one seat to another, & ye holy Ghost measuring ye duration of Empires by that of their Metropolis, it was not fit \not/ to combine both these in one number, but to express ye duration of each apart: as if he had said yt ye Empire should continue five months at a seat, & by ye repetition thereof insinuated ye duality of seats. Tis true ye duration of ye Empire at these two seats was not justly of this length, but \the difference not being great/ it may suffice that the last Dynasty exceeded {sic} five months as much as ye first fell {sic} short so that one wth another they may be recconed at 5 months a piece: perhaps not much unlike Locusts wch according to ye condition of the year may sometimes continue longer then five months & sometimes not so long, & yet their life <42r> one yeare wth another be recconed at five months, if at one time they exceed that continuance as much as they fall short of it at another.

10. In ye last place whereas it is said yt the Locusts should torment men but not kill them, I suppose it is spoken chiefly wth respect to \to distinguish them from/ ye Constan Euphratean horsmen who in ye next Trumpet killed ye 3d part of men, yt is overthrew ye Constantinopolitan Empire as I shall explain in its place: whereas these Locusts though they often harassed ye whole \whole/ Empire wth fire & sword, & beseiged Constantinople no less then 8 times, & that sometimes for two or three years together, reducing ye inhabitants to so great straits that they came even to man's flesh, yet they could not take ye city, it being not granted that the

Prop.
The sixt Trumpet conteins ye wars of the Turkish Empire upon ye Romans, & begins wth ye solution of ye four Euphratean Sultanies A.C. 1258.

The conditions of ye sixt Trumpet are these.

1. The Euphratean horsmen are to be ye next great enemy after ye Locusts wch makes war upon ye Roman territories.

2. There is a great affinity between ye Locusts & {sic} Euphratean horsmen. For ye Locusts were represented like horses prepared to battel wth faces like men & breastplates, wch is ye shape of these horsmen. Also both have tailes of a serpentine form, whereby I conceive their affinity in religion is insinuated. ffor a tail of yt shape is an emblem of their cognation to ye old Serpent, as well as of their pugnacious disposition.

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3. These horsmen were at first a quaternion of Kingdoms for they are ye army wch was loosed to slay ye third part of men & consequently ye same wth ye 4 Angels wch represent so many \that is/ |4| great bodies politiq. In ye former Trumpet an Angel was put to signify \a king painted/ ye King of ye Locusts, & thence it is obvious to collect yt ye four Angells here may signify so many kingdoms or nations, since \For as/ a King in these prophesies is used promiscuously to signify sometimes a single person & sometimes a Kingdom (as in Dan 7.17 & 8.20 & Apoc 17.10, 12,) & Angels \so may Angels be used since they/ are beleived to be no less superintendents over nations then Kings.

**|** 4. These nations were seated in a foursquare position. This is hinted by ye 4 horns of ye golden Altar from whence ye voice concerning them came. ffor ye horns by this their voice are made a type of ye Angels & consequently of their position. ffor they can typify them in nothing but their position & number, & it would be a superfluous circumstance were it only to express their number since yt is otherwise sufficiently defined.|

{sic}. These {illeg} Nations were at first seated upon Euphrates, as is manifest by ye expression yt ye angels were bound in yt river.

{sic}. This Trumpet begins at their loosing from yt River.

{sic}. The Army is described exceeding numerous. δύο μυριάδες μυριάδων, or according to some readings μυριάδες μυριάδων the word δύο being omitted. In either reading we are to understand only an immense number (as in Psal 58.17, The chariots of God are two myriads) For ye number μυριὰς רבוא or רככה is of those numerall words wch ye Hebrews use not only for ten thousand but indefinitely for any great number, especially when it is doubled, as may be seen in Dan 7.10.

{sic}. Their armour is described after a very singular manner; viz: That they had breastplates of fire & Iacynth & Brimstone, & out of ye mouths of ye horses (whose heads were as ye heads of Lyons) issued fire & smoke & brimstone whereby they killed men.

{sic}. By these three (ye fire {sic} smoke & brimstone) ye third part of men was killed.

10 {sic}. The rest of men wch were not killed by these plagees {sic} repented not.

11 {sic}. The time for wch they were prepared was an to destroy ye third part of men is an hower & a day & a month & a year.

<44r>

These being ye conditions of this Trumpet, they do after a very singular manner point out ye Turkish Empire. ffor 1 The Turks were ye next great enemy to ye Roman territories. Their's & ye Saracen's Empire have been ye two greatest & ye only two very great scourges of ye Christian world for this last thousand years, & therefore none but these can be intended by ye two first of these three great woes, unles we will suppos yt ye Holy Ghost has been very particular in describing some smaller plagues of ye Christians & taken no notis of ye greatest, wch would be to make ye parts of ye Prophesy hold no proportion wth those of history.

The common period of these two Trumpets I assigne to ye year 1258. For I measure ye whole duration of ye former Trumpet by the standing of ye Chalifate & not by ye twice five months raging of ye Locusts, that being but a more signal intermediate period. For after yt time ye world continued in ye hands of ye Saracens for many years, though not under ye dominion of ye Chalifa but broken into many temporal kingdomes \& the Chalifa himself was always of the Saracen nation & from before ye foundation of Bagdad to ye end of ye Chalifate of one & ye same family of ye Abasiom/. And therefore as this Trumpet began wth ye birth of ye angel of ye bottomles pit (exprest by ye falling of ye star from heaven) wch was before his empire was founded, so it should end wth ye deceasing of yt angel though long after his empire was rent in pieces. Now ye deceasing of this Angel was in ye year 1258 when Hulacu ye Tartar took Bagdad & put an end to ye Chalifate; & immediately after this followed ye loosing of ye four angels as shall be explained hereafter.

The Turks indeed long before this time erected severall powerfull Sultanies among ye Saracens, & were for some time Lords even over ye Chalifa. But ye last hundred years ye Chalifa shook of their yoke & became sole Lord of Bagdad wth its territories Iraca & a good part of <45r> Persia; & therefore now equalling or rather exceeding ye Turkish Sultanies in temporall greatness, & as to spirituall jurisdiction being universally acknowledged & honoured as well by ye Turkish Sultans as by ye Saracens, much after ye same manner yt ye Pope is acknowledged supreme among Christian Princes; it will be more proper to to {sic} look upon ye Turkish Sultanies hitherto as grafted into ye Saracen's Empire then as another Empire planted in its stead. This at least we must do if we will follow ye judgment of ye Eastern historians who are in this ye most competent & unprejudic't judges. For Elmacinus, although he distinguish ye Saracen Empire into three parts or Dynasties, the first conteining \its increase during/ ye reign of ye Abasides at Bagdad untill they subjected themselves to temporall Princes (wch two Dynasties I interpreted to be ye twice five months reign of ye Locusts,) & ye third its continuation after its distaction {sic}: yet at ye setting up of ye Turkish Sultanies, whether by Togrulbec or others, he makes no distinction but interweaves their history wth ye Saracen's in ye third Dynasty. And Abul-Pharajius, who divides his history into so many dynasties as there had been supreme Empires \since the creation/ & reccons ye Empire of ye Saracens in ye 9th place, extends this from their {sic} Prophet Mahomet to ye taking of Bagdad by ye Tartars & there concludes it making ye shortliv'd Empire of ye Tattars then founded upon ye ruins of ye Saracens & Turks by Hulacu to be ye 10th Dynasty or supreme Empire & ye year 1258 their common period.

By extending ye fift Trumpet thus far downward its length will be verey great in proportion to ye former Trumpets. But it was fit yt ye first Trumpets should be but short being a description of yt most criticall time wherein ye true religion was everted & ye Apostacy set up, & therefore to <46r> be delineated more articulately: & ye H. Ghost has signified ye far greater length of these last Trumpets by dwelling much longer upon their description.

2. The affinity between ye Turks & Saracens \& Turks/ is sufficiently conspicuous, ye last having been interwoven wth ye Empire of ye former, (sometimes as subjects, sometimes as neighbouring fellow Princes) for some hundreds of years together so as to be esteemed almost one people: & both being also of ye same religion.

3, |4| & {sic} The originall of ye Turkish Empire agrees also to ye prophesy yt it should be from a quarternion of kingdoms seated upon Euphrates \in a square position/. For such was ye constitution of ye Turks between ye time that they first grew powerfull & the invasion of ye Tartars \as may be learned out of ye histories of Abul-Phrajius, Elmacinus. William Tyrius & Ayton Armenus/. The first that notably promoted their state was Togrulbec (called also Togra, Tangrolipix, Dogrissa & Sadoc,) who having conquered Chorasan & Persia added Bagdad to his Empire A.C. 1055 & made that the seat thereof. And his successor Olub'Arslan (called also Asan Olbarsalan, Alpasalem, & Aspasalem) who began his reign A.C. 1063, added also Mesopotamia; a good part of wch he took from ye Greeks, captivating at ye same time their Emperour Diogenes Romanus. The third Sultan Malechsah or Melecla who began his reign A.C. 1071, sent Aksis \& Sjarfuddaulas the governour of Mausela/ to invade Syria & Cutlumuses to invade ye lesser Asia, the \two/ first of wch took Damascus A.C. 1075 & \the second & \added/ Aleppo \to Mausela/ AC 1079 [111] & between them/ subdued ye almost {sic} all {sic} Syria, & ye other made no less progress in Asia, [taking Cæsaria A.C 1079.] And now this Empire being arrived to its ἀκμὴ became after ye death of Malechsah (wch happened A.C. 1092) became rent in pieces by civil dissentions, ye subordinate Sultans of ye principal cities asserting to themselves absolute dominion over ye territories wch they formerly held by ye favour of Malechsah & his predecessors; whence sprang ye following Dynasties.

1 The remainder of ye Sultans of Bagdad, whose Sul- <47r> tans were Barchiaruc (or Belchiaroc,) Muhammed, Mahmud, David, Masud, Melechsah, Muhammed, & Solyman Shah in whom ye race of ye Salghucides at Bagdad ended about ye yeare 1160 or soon after: & from thence forward unto the taking of Bagdad by ye Tartars, the Chalifa {sic} recovered & maintained ye Supreme temporal power wthin this Sultany, wch had been intermitted for about 224 years.

The Sultany of Mausela or Mosul a city of Mesopotamia seated upon Tigris about 6 or 7 days journey a[112] westward from Bagdad, & almost one or two days journey from one of ye streames of Euphrates. Its Sultans were 1 Iagarmish. 2 Zengius fil: who began his reign A.C 1107. 3 Maudud 1109. 4 Oksenkar (or Assangur) 1121. 5 Ezzoddin fil: 1126. 6 Zengius (or Sanguin) frat: 1127. 7 Gaza fil: 1145. 8 Cotboddin frat. 1149. 9 Gazi fil: 1170. 10 Ezzoddin frat: 1180. 11 Nuroddin fil 1193. 12 Ezzoddin fil. 1211. 13 Nuroddin fil 1218. 14 Naseroddin frat: 1218. 15 Badroddin 1234. 16 Saleh fil: with his brothers 1259, whose dominions after two years were taken from them by ye Tartars. To this Sultany belonged ye southern regions of Mesopotamia together wth a good part of Assyria on ye other side Tigris.

3. The Sultany of Maredin, Mirdin, or Marde another city of Mesopotamia seated also upon Tigris northwest of Mausela. Its territories were watered by ye river Alchabur wch \is an arm of Euphrates & afterwards/ runs through ye regions of Mausela. into ye main channel of Euphrates. Its sultans were 1 Ortoc who was contemporary to Olub-Arslan, Melechsah & Barkiaruc. 2 Gazi fil. 3 Tamartash fil: who began his reign A.C. 1122. 4 Nojmoddin fil: who began 1152. 5 Gazi fil. 6 Cotboddin fil. 7 Hosamoddin fil: who began 1184. 8 Kotboddin frat: who began about ye year 1200 \& did valiantly/. * 9 Pater Modhafferi anonymus. 10 Modhaffer who began A.C. 1260.

This Sultany towards ye latter end became divided into two. ffor when Saladin invaded Mesopotamia, amongst his other victories he took from this Sultany Miepharekin a City of ye greater Armenia upon ye borders of Mesopotamia, seated a[113] about two days journey beyond Tigris. And after ye <48r> death of Saladin, Miepharekin had its proper Sultans, Abdel Modhaffer, & Ashraf, ye last of wch was slain by ye Tatars A.C. 1260.

4. The Sultany of Syria usually seated at \Damascus &/ Aleppo. Its Sultans were 1 Tagjuddaulas Tatash {illeg} ye son of Olub-Arslan. He first obteined Damascus A.C 1079, & then Aleppo & Antioch wth all Syria A.C. 1085. * < insertion from f 47v > * 2 Decac fil 1095 wth his brother Roduan. 3 Togtacin Atabec (or Doldequin Abacuc) 1104. 4 Buri fil. 5 Muhammed fil (Shehaboddin or Tegel-melud) 6 Majiroddin fil. 7 Nuroddin who began at Aleppo A.C. 1145 & at Damascus AC 1154. 8 {illeg} \Malec/ Saleh fil 1174. 9 Saladin 1175. 10 Dhaher fil 1193. 11 Aziz fil 1216. 12 Naser fil 1237 who was slain by ye Tatars A.C. 1260.

After ye death of Tajuddaulas this Sultany became divided between his sons Decac & Roduan, ye first residing at Damascus {sic}, ye other at Aleppo. And in this divided state it continued about 29 years ye successors of Roduan being Tajuddaulas fil 1113. Bulgar 1117. Solyman 1122. & Balac 1123. The next year A.C. 1124 Aleppo became subject to Oksenkar ye Sultan of Mausela, & after him to his Son Zengius untill ye year 1145. And then he dying his son Nuroddin inherited Aleppo wthout Mausela, & after 9 years reunited it & Damascus under himself. And from that Th time ye regions of Damascus continued almost always joyned either to ye Sultany of Aleppo or Egypt or divided between them. < text from f 48r resumes > [2 Roduan fil: wth his brother who began A.C. 1095. 3 Tajuddaulas \fil/ 1113. 4 Bulgar 1117. 5 Solyman 1122. 6 Balac 1123. 7 Oksenar 1124. 8 Quidam e filijs Oksenkar, 1126. 9 Zengius frat 1128. 10 Nuroddin fil: 1145 11 Malechsaleh fil 1174. 12 Saladin 1175. 13 Dhaher fil: 1193. 14 Aziz fil: 1216. 15 Naser fil: who 1237 who was slain by ye Tartars A.C. 1260.

After ye death of Tajuddaulas this Sultany became divided between his sons Roduan & Decac, ye first residing at Damascus Aleppo, ye other at Damascus. And in this divided state it continued about 60 years, namely till ye reign of Nuroddin who reunited it A.C 1154. And from that time ye regions of Damascus continued almost always subject either to ye Sultan of Aleppo or Egypt or divided between them.]

5 The Sultany of Asia seated chiefly at Iconium \& watered by an arm of Euphrates wch runs through ye midst of it/. Its Sultans {sic} were 1 Cuthumish |of| ye son \race/ of Saljuk. 2 Solyman fil. 3 Kelvi-Arslan (or Tanisman) fil: who began his reign A.C 1100. 4 Masud fil: 1106. 5 Kelij-Arslan (or Clisastlan) fil: \with his brothers/ 1152. 6 Cai-Closroes fil \wth his brothers/: 1192. 7 Ezzoddin fil: 8 Aladin frat: 1219 9 Giyathoddin fil 1237. 10 Ezzoddin fil 1244, together wth his brothers Rocnoddin & Aladin.

Besides these (& ye Sultanies of Egypt & Chorasan, wch I reccon not here \as well becaus they c as well/ by reason of their distance from Euphrates \as becaus they ceased in ye time of the fift Trumpet/) there were sometimes other Sultanies split out of these; but those were but of small extent, bearing perhaps yt proportion to these wch ye European Dukedomes & Principalities do to Kingdoms. And if any of them were at any time greater yet they were but of short continuance & extinct before ye incursion of ye Tartars \end of the fift seal Trumpet/, & therefore deserve not <49r> to be here remembred unless wth reference to ye forementioned cardinall Sultanies out of wch they were derived & into wch they returned again.

Now of these five Sultanies if ye first be omitted becaus it ceased long before ye loosing of ye Angels, & was coincident wth ye Chalifate while it lasted; there will remain only four, according to \as/ ye number of ye Angels \requires/. These four, & only these are fellows in all respects: ffor they were all of ye same people, & sprang out of ye same great Empire & took their beginning much about ye same time, & lasted together for almost two hundred years, though not wthout variety of fortune, till at length they were ruined by ye Tartars: & therefore being also situate upon ye branches of Euphrates on all sides \so as to comprehend that river/, they \& that in a square position, they/ fully answer to ye type of ye 4 angels bound in that river \in therein/.

*** < insertion from f 48v > *** Their position was not indeed exactly square. But as Daniel expressed that ye successors of Alexander ye great should be divided toward ye four winds of Heaven Dan 11.4, & yet they lay not exactly east west north & south from any common center but only something nearely approached yt posture: so here it may suffice if ye posture of ye 4 Turkish nations pretty nearly resemble a square. And this they seem to do whether you consider their dition in general or their head cities. ffor, accounting Damascus ye head of Syria as it was unquestionably in ye beginning of this Sultany & many ages before; their position, so nearly as I can gather it out of         & ye Nubian Geography, is this < text from f 49r resumes >

5. Suppposing therefore that these Tetrarchies are ye 4 Angels & that by their being bound in Euphrates is meant their residence upon yt river, the loosing of them, must be interpret as \since/ it stands in opposition to binding, must be interpreted their loosing from those seats. And this happened at ye invasion {sic} of ye Tartars, ye history of wch is as follows.

In ye year 1203 the \supreme/ Empire of ye Tartars (a name not heard of before this time) was founded by Iingiz Chan, by whom amongst other eastern & northern regions Chorasan was subdued & by his successors ye Kingdom of Armenia much afflicted & ye Sultany of Iconium also (A.C. 1243,) but not ruined. At length Mangaca Chan ye 4th Emperor of ye Tatars being converted to Christianity by means of Ayton king of Armenia, sent his brother Hulacu (or Halaon) wth a great army to invade ye Turks & root out their religion. Hulacu therefore advancing from ye east, after he had stayed some time in Persia <50r> & subjected it, came to Bagdad Ian 22 1258, & in a day & a night compassed ye city wth a wall & a ditch, & took it ye 10th of February following; & his soldiers continuing to spoile kill & make captives for seven days together, at ye end of wch time ye Chalifa was also {ye} put to death & so ye Chalifate dissolved.

After this \Hulacu/ ye same year Hulacu upon some provocation sends his son Yashmut wth part of his army to beseige Miepharekin, who in a day & a night compas it wth a wall & a deep ditch & begin to assault it, but after some sharp conflicts finding they could not take it by force, they determined to keep it shut up till it should be worn out by famin.

The next year A.C 1259 Hulacu cites ye Sultans of Syria & Asia to come to him & submit themselves, wch Ezzoddin ye Sultan of Asia wth his brother Rucnoddin did, but Naser ye Sultan of Syria refused. Wherefore he sent back ye Asian Sultans honourably & established th confirmed them in their dominions, but invaded Syria A.C. 1260 wth an army of four hundred thousand, taking first {illeg} a[114] Harran \(Churrha)/ & b[115] Roan (Edessa) wth ye adjacent regions on ye east of Euphrates wch belonged to the {eastern} \Syrian/ Sultany, & then having passed ye river, whilst his Captains invaded ye other cities of this Sultany, (amongst wch was Damascus, Emessia, Hama, Moarra &c) he himself besieged Aleppo & took it in a few days, a greater number of people being slain there then at Bagdad. Naser himself was fled before ye siege, but soon after taken & slain wth his whole family |In the mean while Naser, who wth his court resided at Damascus, hearing of ye progress of the Tatars fled wth his family into ye Desert Carac & Shaubac, & the Nobles of Damascus so soon as the Tatars approached ye City delivered it to ym. & after a while Naser wth his family was taken & slain.|

Not long after Hulacu being about to return into ye eastern regions, ye other army came to him from ye siege of Miepharekin, bringing wth them Ashraph ye Sultan thereof, & relating how they had slain all yt were in ye city, there being but few of them whom ye famin had not destroyed before, |because otherwise ye army of Tatars would \not/ have been sufficed to take ye citty|

About ye same time Hulacu, so soon as he came <51r> neare Maredin cited ye Sultan thereof to appeare before him, but he refusing, ye Tatars beseige yt city also, But ye Sultan dying suddenly, his son Modhaffer presently yeilds ye city to Hulacu; whereupon Hulacu treated him honourably & restored ye city to him wth ye rest of his fathers dominions. Yet about 30 years after this Sultany as well as ye rest was dissolved.

\Whilst Hulacu besieged Maredin, Naser wth his family was taken & slain. And/ the {sic} next year A.C 1261 Saleh ye sultan of Mausela wth his brother combining wth ye Egyptians against ye Tattars, was invaded also by them under ye leading of Samdago one of Hulacu's captains, & {illeg} Mausela beseiged & taken, ye soldiers continuing for eight days together to spoile kill & captvate. And amongst ye rest Saleh was taken & commanded to be slain by Hulacu.

[116]Vntill this time ye Greeks had constantly possessed Asia strictly {sic} so called, Paphlagonia, Bythinia, Phrygia magna, Phrygia Pacatiana, Caria & part of Cilicia. And ye rest of ye Asian Provinces to Euphrates, namely Lycaonia, Galatia, Pamphilia, Armenia, Hellenopontus, Pisidia, & Lycia belonged to ye Sultany of Iconium. But now ye Turks of Mesopotamia & Syria being molested by ye Tatars flocked into Asia to shelter themselves under ye Iconian Sultan, & to obtein new seats their severall Princes made wars upon ye Grecians. Mantachia subdued ye city Ephesus & ye Province Caria, Atin conquered Lydia as far as Smyrna. Sarchan all Magnesia to Pergamus together wth ye whole Province of ye Magedi. Carmian all Phrygia. Carasses ye other Phrygia between Hellespont & ye city Asso, & Othman all Bythinia wth part of Paphlagonia.

In ye mean time ye Iconian Sultany became much <52r> afflicted & weakned by ye Tatars pressing upon them & taking from them ye regions next Euphrates insomuch yt at ye death of Aladin it was utterly dissolved. And then or soon after, namely in ye year 1299, Othoman being grown more powerfull then ye rest of ye Turkish Princes took upon him ye dignity & title of Sultan & by degrees became ye universall Monarch of ye Turks, ye rest of ye Princes uniting under him under him ye whole body of ye Turks united by degrees: whereby being rendred more powrfull they prevailed still more upon ye Greeks, & wthin a while invaded Europe, not ceasing to propagate their victories till at length they overthrew ye Constantinopolitan Empire & on its ruins erected |  founded yt great Empire wch we see at present.

Now in this history we have first ye desolation of ye Bagdad. But this being not a Turkish Sultany like ye rest, but in ye hands of ye Chalifa who had been always of ye Saracen Nation & from before ye foundation of Bagdad |of| one & ye same family of ye Abasides; it will be most proper to refer ye desolation of this city to ye former Trumpet as ye conclusion thereof, & so there will remain these four Turkish Nations, the south-Mesopotamian, ye north-Mesopotamian including part of Armenia, ye Syrian, & ye Asian wch at this time were ye full extent of ye Turkish dominions, & all wch wthin ye compass of 30 or 40 years after ye dissolution of ye Chalifate, that is at \in/ ye beginning of this Trumpet were overrun & loosed by ye Tatars from their Eufratean seats, & forced upon ye Christians to make war upon them & erect that great Empire wch reigns at present & is ye plague of apostate Christendom threatned in this Trumpet.

The greatest objection against this interpretation is that Miepharekin was at this time a distinct Sultany & <53r> so there should have been rather 5 then 4 Angels. But if we consider yt this Sultany was neither of equall standing nor perhaps \probably/ of equall extent wth ye rest, it being but lately rent from the Sultany of Maredin & guirded on ye one hand by ye kingdom of Armenia & on ye other by ye Sultany of Maredin, whose seats Maredin & Miepharekin were not above 80 or 90 Italian miles distant; & also yt Miepharekin was seated beyond Tigris, & so not could not be so properly said to be bound in Euphrates as ye rest: it will be more naturall to refer this (as I signified above) to ye Sultany of Maredin as a branch thereof, recconing them still to make but one great Nation or Angel as formerly, then to fellow it with ye originall Sultanies. A case not unlike this we have in ye third of Daniel's universal Empires represented by ye Leopard, who had 4 heads to signify its division into 4 Kingdoms at ye death of Alexander. And yet it was divided into more then four Kingdoms. ffor besides ye Egyptian, Syrian, Asian, & Macedonian, there was (to mention no others) ye Thracian wch continued distinct about 36 years, & yet, becaus none of ye principall kingdoms, such as might properly be represented by heads of a Beast, it was not recconed among ye other four but rather {sic} referred to ye Kingdom of Macedon as I suppose becaus it was at length united to that. Compare this wth ye present case of ye Turks, & I think it will make ye interpretation clear.

Analogous to ye loosing of these Angels is ye drying up of ye waters of Euphrates in ye 6t Vial. For these two actions must correspond wth one another becaus they are ye beginnings of this Trumpet & Vial wch are contemporary. Now by ye waters of this river we are to understand ye people situate upon it by Def     that is, ye Turkish Sultanies. \And by ye pouring the |a| Vial upon this river the inflicting of some great calamity upon ye people such as was ye tartarian invasion./ And by ye \continued/ drying up the {sic} waters \of that river/, ye wasting of ye power & dominion of that people by Def       that is, ye dissolution of the {sic} \Turkish/ Sultanies by yt Tartarian <54r> invasion. And consequently by ye Kings or a[117] Princes from ye east whose way was prepared by ye drying up these waters, we must understand ye chief leaders of ye great army of horsmen wch upon ye loosing of ye 4 Angels came from Euphrates {sic} to execute ye plague of this Trumpet, that is ye Princes under whose conduct ye Turks fled from ye Tattars into Asia to invade ye Christians For these were ye Princes or Kings of \from/ ye East whose way was prepared by ye dissolution of ye Euphratean Sultanies. And of these there are recconed by historians seven eminent ones a little before they united under Othoman \besides others of inferior note wch first united under those/. Thus much concerning ye original of this great empire. Proceed we now to ye rest of ye circumstances.

7. And ye next is ye numerousness of ye Turkish armies. But how great this hath been since their loosing & still is, is better known then yt I need stay to compute it. I shall rather observe yt since these horsmen as well as ye Locusts were to be so exceeding numerous, we may thence collect that they were to be ye armies of two very great Empires, & consequently of none other then ye Saracenical & Turkish, ye only two great ones by wch ye Christian world has been hitherto afflicted.

In both these armies there is mention made only of horsmen but we are not to conclude thence yt ye armies should consist of horsmen only, but rather yt ye description is taken from ye nobler part & that part wherein they should notably excell. Yea ye foot are included in ye hors being represented by their tailes. For ye tail of a hors according to ancient Interpreters[118] signifies ye train of his rider, & ye train of an Army is ye foot. Hence it is that in this Trumpet ye tailes are said to have heads & to do hurt, yt is to fight as well as ye riders of ye horses: wch is a plain insinuation that they signify men as well as the riders.

8. The description of ye armour of these horsmen (that they had breastplates of fire & jacinth & brimstone &c) is very singular, there being no where els in ye whole scriptures such a description of armour to be met with. What therefore can be here intended but the new way of fighting not known in the world before the beginning of this

<55r>

{illeg} manner called an Angel, & kings being put for kingdomes as in Dan 7.17 & 8.20 & Apoc 17.10, 12.

4. These Kingdoms were at first seated upon Euphrates, as is manifest by ye expression yt ye angels were bound in that river.

5. This Trumpet begins at their loosing from that river.

6. The Army is described exceeding numerous. δυο μυριάδες μυριάδων, or according to some readings μυριάδες μυριάδων, ye word δυο being omitted. In either reading we are to understand only an immens number, ye number (as in Psal 58.17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand two myriads.) For ye number μυριὰς רבוא or רככה is of those words numerall words wch ye Hebrews use not only for ten thousand but indefinitely for any great number, especially when it is thus doubled, as may be seen in Dan 7.10.

7. Their armour is described after a very singular manner; viz: That they had breastplates of fire & of Iacinth & Brimstone Brimstone, & ye heads of ye horses were as ye heads of Lyons, & out of their mouths issued fire & smoke & brimstone whereby they killed men.

8. By these three (the fire & smoke & brimstone) the third part of men was killed.

9. The rest of men wch were not killed by these plagues repented not.

10 The time for wch they were prepared to destroy ye third part of men is an hour, & a day & a month

<56r>

These being ye conditions of this Trumpet, they do after a very singular manner point out ye Turkish Empire. For j The Turks were the next great enemy to ye Roman territories. Their's & ye Saracen's Empire have been ye two greatest, & ye only two very great scourges of ye Christian world for this last thousand years, & therefore none but these can be intended by ye two first of ye three great woes; unles we will suppose yt ye Holy Ghost has been very elaborate in describing some smaller plagues of ye Christians & taken no notis of ye greatest; wch would be to make ye parts of ye Prophesy hold no proportion wth those of history.

The common period of these two Trumpets I assigne to ye yeare 1258. For I measure the whole duration of ye former Trumpet by ye standing of ye Chalifate {sic} not by the twice five months raging of ye Locusts, that being but a more signall intermediate period. For after that time ye world continued in ye hands of ye Saracens for many years though not under ye dominion of ye Chalifa but broken into may temporall kingdoms. And therefore as this Trumpet began wth ye birth of ye Angel of ye bottomless pit ({illeg} exprest by ye falling of ye star from heaven) wch was before his Empire was founded, so it should end wth ye deceasing of that angel though long after ye abrogating of his Empire. Now ye deceasing of this Angel was in ye year 1258 when Haalon ye Tartar took Bagdad & put an end to ye Chalifate. And at that very time ye 4 Angels were loosed as shall be explained hereafter

<57r>

The length of ye fift Trumpet is indeed thus assigned very great in proportion to ye former Trumpets. But it was fit that ye first Trumpets \should be but/ short, being a description of that most criticall time wherein ye true religion was everted & ye Apostacy set up, & therefore to be delineated more articulately: & ye holy Ghost has signified ye far greater length of these last Trumpets by dwelling much longer upon their description.

2. The affinity between ye Turks & Saracens is sufficiently conspicuous, ye last having \been interwoven wth the Empire of ye former/ living {sic} wthin |it| ye dominnions of ye former \sometimes as subjects, sometimes as neighbouring Princes/ & warred under them for some hundreds of years \together/, so as to be esteemed almost one people; & at length erecting their Sultanies out of the other's ruins; & both being also of ye same religion.

3, & 4. The original of ye Turksh {sic} Empire agrees also to ye prophesy yt it should be from a quaternion of kingdoms seated upon Euphrates {sic}. For such was ye constitution of ye Turks when they began first to have ye face of an Empire; they then consisting of these four Kingdoms or Sultanies, the Persian, Damasacene, Alepian, & Cæsarian \Iconian/. The first of these was founded by Togrulbec (or Tangrolipix) who first subdued Chorasan & Persia, & then advanced to Bagdad & made himself master thereof in ye year 1055 fixing ye seat of his empire there & in ye year 1057 being inaugurated Emperor of Emperors by the Chalifa. Out of this Sultany sprang ye other three whereof that at Damascus was founded by Tagjuddaulus Nisus, (ye Nephew of Togrulbec) who <58r> took Damascus \from ye Saracens/ in ye year 1079. His successor was Ducathes (or Decacus) A.C. 1095, to whom, saith {sic} Scilix,[119] all ye region of Decapolis was subject, wch region bordered upon Euphrates

The Alepian Sultany was founded by {illeg} Sjarfuddaulas in ye same year 1079: whose metropolis Alepo was watered by an arm of Euphrates drawn thither by one of ye Sultans.

The fourth Sultany whose Metropolis at first was Cæsara (not Cæsarea of Cappadocia but a town a days journey beyond Euphrates \upon ye river Tigris \Orontes/ in Syria/ called Sjazarum by Elmacinus & corruptly Cæsarea for Cæsara by the Europeans as William Tyrius writes[120] ) was founded by Sedijduddaulas (a Kinsman of ye afforesaid Togrulbec,) who took Cæsara from ye Romans ye next year 1080, & he dying wthin two years after, his successors Belfeve & Soliman inlarged the kingdom on this side Euphrates even to \into Asia beyond/ Nicæa of Bythinia, although not long after they were beaten back again to {sic} Euphrates by ye champions of ye Ierusalemitan war. The sultans of this Tetrarchy though at first they made Cæsara the seat of their kingdom yet afterward they resided most at Iconium in Cappadocia, whence they were by ye Europeans called Sultans of Iconium.

In this fourfold form ye Turks {sic} Empire continued for many \almost two hundred/ years though not wthout some mutations. For ye Iconian Sultany was twice if not oftener towards ye latter end was sometimes for a while divided into two or more dynasties by ye posterity of ye deceased Sultan, & ye Damascene & Alepian Sultanies were for some time united under Noradin & again under Saladin, but after their deaths became divided again as before were reduced \returned/ to their ancient state, excepting that about ye year 1247 {sic} the Damascene Sultany fell into ye hands of ye Egyptian Sultan (who from ye year 1168 had ben of ye <59r> race of ye Turks springing out of ye Damascene Sultany:) & I know not whether it continued in this state till ye loosing of ye Angels \about 6 or 7 years after it was take from the Egyptians by the Sultan of Alepo./. But however it is enough if during these little intervalls it continued a distinct Province wth its own Metropolis & people.

For ye better understanding this busines I have here given you a table of these Sultans wth the beginnings of their reign so far as I have met wth them in ye histories of Elmacinus, W. Tyrius, Io. Herold, & some of ye Byzantine writers.

1432
BagdadCæsara & Iconium AlepoDamascus
1055. Togrulbec1080 Sedijduddaulas1079 Sjarfuddaulas1079 Tagjuddaulas
1063. Obarsalan1082 Abulmerhaf,1099 Tagjuddaulas1095 Decac
1071. Gjelaluddaulasalias Belfere, cog-1095 Roduwan1104 Abadacus cogno
nomine Cutlu-musis1117 Bulgarmine Doldequin.
1092. Barcana      Soliman      Sanguin1130 Tegel-melud
1094. Barkiaruc      Tanisman
1105. Mahammed     Clisasthan /cum fratribus.\1144 Noradin      Mejeredin
1117. Mahmud      Reucratine /cum fratribus, is {illeg}\1173 Melechsala1154 Noradin
         &cin vivis \erat/ circa an:1179 Rebedim1173 Saladin
1200.
      Aladin fil1181 Saladin1195 Sephadin
      Azatines1195 Noradin in1209 Coradin qui
vivis anno 1209ad annum 1227
Iathatines desijt     * * *in vivis anno 1227
anno 1262 a Tar     Maleroasa \vel Malchnessar/ Sul
taris depositus.tanorum ultimus a
Tartaris captus anno
1260

Besides these four, W. Tyrius[121] mentions \a fift/ at Antioch given to Accian by Belfesc, adding that it was but of narrow bounds, ye Chalifa of Egypt posses (who was of ye Saracen nation) possessing all ye regions unto Laodicea of Syria. But this lasted not above 14 years, Antioch being taken A.C. 1098 by ye Christians under Boamudas: & therefore since it was so inconsiderable & expired \was utterly extinct/ so long before ye loosing of ye angels, there is no reason it should be recconed among those that were loosed.

5 Now ye loosing of ye Angels I suppose to be ye re- <60r> laxation of ye afforesaid Tetrarchies from their Euphratean seats by ye invasions of ye Tartars. For when these Tetrarchies were first founded they began to gain grownd very much from ye Romans but were suddenly checked by ye famous Ierusalemitan expedition, & as it were confined or bound to Euphrates untill by ye Tartars they were driven from thence upon ye Romans. And therefore this must be their loosing supposing their precedent residence upon that river to be their binding therein.

As for ye time of this loosing it began to be attempted about ye year 1200 {sic} when ye Tartars first wth an innumerable army led by Changius Chan brake in upon ye Turks, but was not performed till 1258 when Haleon {sic} ye Tartar overran Persia, took Bagdad & dissolved yt Sultany {illeg} ye together wth ye Chalifate, & still proceeding \then crossing Mesopotamia/ took Alepo & Damascus A.C. 1260 & soon after Ieonium also, dissolving ye two first of those sultanies, & taking ye third from Iathatines & {illeg} dividing it between Masut & Keicubades whom he made tributaries, & then in ye sixt year of his expedition \A.C 1262/ returning home to succeed his father \deceased brother/. Thus were ye Turks wthin ye dition of these four Sultanies all at once as it were at a watch word given loosed from Euphrates & driven into ye lesser Asia \Natolia/ to make war upon ye Romans; the reliqs of them also wch after this remained beyond Euphrates in broken Dynasties being in ye year 1289 universally ejected out of Persia into ye Roman territories: wch they continually gained upon as they lost grownd to ye Tartars. For although they were now divided into many Satrapies, yet by degrees they \overran &/ possest {sic} themselves of almost all {ye lesser} Asia \Natolia/. Nor stopt they there \Nor stopt they there/ but after a while <61r> uniting under Ottoman began to rage more fiercely, invaded Europe & propogated their victories over the Christians till they overthrew ye Constantinopolitan Empire & upon its ruins erected that great Empire wch reigns at present, & is ye \main/ subject of this Trumpet.

In the sixt Vial this loosing is exprest as if ye Kings were to come from beyond Euphrates. But I suppose relation is there had only to ye Persian Sultany; that being by many degrees greater & more considerable then all ye rest put together, & at ye loosing dissipated into many Satrapies. For it was ye custom of ye Turks to sort themselves in great bodies according to their severall families, the heads of wch families were upon occasion given ready to assert their liberty. Whence by ye incursion of ye Tartars (wch as I said began first about ye year 1200) the {sic} Persian Sultany being so very large must necessarily have been broken by degrees into many second many new Sultanies (as they called all free Satrapies) some of wch (though not recconned among ye angels bound in Euphrates becaus none of ye original Sultanies but comprehended in yt of Bagdad, nor seated upon Euphrates[122] but lying beyond ye Emperor of Musula (or Nineve) who possessed Mesopotamia & \Mesopotamia a good part of wch was in ye hands of ye King of Armenia who being a christian/ was an enemy to ye Turks combining wth ye Tartars against them) yet might they probably be no whit inferior in extent of dominion to ye Sultanies on this side ye river, seing it was 30 years after the fall of ye Sultany of Bagdad before ye Tartars could conquer & expell them all. From these chiefly I conceive sprang that great number of Satrapies in Natolia, whereof there are recconned seven principall ones a little before Ottoman. And these therefore I suppose to be ye Kings of the east for ye preparing of whose way the waters <62r> of Euphrates were dried up; that is figuratively. For I conceive nothing more is intended by that expression but to signify that those kings should come from beyond that river & pass over it, & consequently come out of Persia. Thus much concerning ye originall of this great Empire. Proceed we now to ye rest of ye circumstances.

6. How numerous ye Turkish armies have been since their loosing is better known then that I need stay to compute it. I shall rather observe that since these Euphratean horsmen as well as ye Locusts were to be so exceeding numerous we may thence collect that these were to be the armies of two very great Empires, & consequently of none other then the Saracenicall & Turkish Empires, the only two great ones by wch ye christian world has been hitherto afflicted.

In both these armies there is mention made only of horsmen, but we are not to conclude thence yt ye armies should consist of horsmen only, but rather that ye description is taken from ye nobler part & that part wherein they should notably excell. Yea the foot are included in ye hors, being represented by their tailes. For the tail of a hors according to ancient interpreters signifes ye train of his rider & the train of an army is ye foot. Hence it is that in this seale \Trumpet/ the tailes are said to have heads & to do hurt, that is to fight as well as ye riders of ye horses: wch is a plain insinuation that they signify men as well as ye riders.

7. The description of the armour of these horsmen (that they had breastplates of fire & jacinth & brimstone &c) is very singular, there being no where els in ye whole scripture such a description of armour to be met with. What therefore can be here intended but the new way of fighting not known in the world before the beginning of this <63r> Trumpet? I mean wth gunns wch send forth fire & jacinthine smoke & brimstone, whereby the medium being corrupted a soldier to his enemy appears covered wth fire & thick smoke whose colour is jacinthine & substance sulphureous; & ye heads of ye horses are also made to seem more fierce & terrible as it were of Lions. For that this is to be understood not of ye reall armour of ye horsmen & shape of ye hors heads, but of their appearance by means of ye corrupted medium, is manifest from hence yt ye fire & smoke & brimstone is said to come out of ye horses mouths & consequently must corrupt ye medium. Hence in ye beginning of this description St Iohn saith: Thus I saw ye horses ἐν ὁράσει, in appearance; wch is as much as to say: This is ye description of their appearance to ye enemy, that they should seem covered as it were wth breastplates of fire & smoke & brimstone, & yt ye horses heads should appear like Lyons, & ye fire & smoke & brimstone be sent forth after such a manner that one would think it came forth out of ye horses mouths. For this is ye force of ἐν ὁράσει as may appear out of Ch 4.3 Ὅμοιος ὁράσει λίθω Ιάσπιδι καὶ ἰρις ὁμοία ὁράσει σμαραγδίνω: the only place besides in ye Apocalyps where this word is used.

Now that all this is a description of a fighting engin is manifest from hence that ye third part of men should be killed by this fire & smoke & brimstone wch ἐν ὁράσει came out of ye horses mouths. But if you examin all sorts of engins that ever were in use before guns you will not find any to whom this description has any similitude: & therefore none other then guns can be intended by it.

9. And these were the engins (as is well known) by <64r> which ye Turks killed ye third part of men, that is overthrew ye Constantinopolitan Empire wch in ye beginning of this Trumpet was about ye third part of all ye Christian Kingdoms wch sprang out of ye old Roman Empire. For ye Constantinopolitan Empire, wch I told you was at first two parts in three of ye whole, was by now diminished by about three quarters of it: having lost all that half wch lay eastward of Natolia, ye Mediterranean sea & Egypt, & also about one half of ye remainder, namely Egypt, Illyrium, Mœsia, & part of Natolia.

10. Yet notwithstanding this judgment upon ye third t of men the other two third parts wch were not killed by these plagues, namely ye rest of ye European Kingdoms wch descended from ye western Empire, repented not of ye works of their hands that they should not worship Ghosts & Idols of gold & silver & brass & stone & wood which neither can see nor hear nor walk: neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts. That the men here spoken of are these western regions \Kingdoms/ is plain since there are not nor have been for many hundreds of years any other sort of men besides ye Papists wthin ye old \compas of ye/ Roman Empire wch worship Ghosts & Idols. Nor are there any others so much guilty of murder as these have been by their massacres & daily persecution of all those they call heretiques, wch since ye execution of this plague they have been so far from repenting of that they have exceedingly aggravated it by setting up ye bloody inquisition. These also are they that stand guilty of φαρμακείαι deluding men as it were by magicall operations. For what are their miracles wch they <65r> much boast of, & their piæ fraudes but φαρμακείαι inchanted love potions \of ye whore/ whereby she {sic} intoxicates ye understandings of men, & (as is exprest in ch 18.23) deceives ye nations. How much also these European {sic} \nations/ are guilty of fornication is too notorious; especially among ye papists who blush not to incourage it by tollerating publiq stews. And I could wish yt in ye last sin here mentioned, namely cheating, exactions, & all kinds of rapaciousness wch are of ye nature of theft, ye christians exceeded not even ye ancient heathens & prsent Turks. But ye heaping up riches is ye main design of almost all men, nor care they by what means, but are so universally addicted to overreaching & all kinds of dishonesty that even amongst ye Turks we are become a reproach & proverb for it.

11 {sic}. Having run through ye circumstances by wch ye Turkish Empire is characterised, there remains only ye duration of this wo to be considered. And this I suppose is yt intervall exprest by an hower & a day & a month & a year. For that is ye time for wch ye 4 angels were prepared {illeg} to slay ye third part of men, that is, as I interpret, ye time of ye people of ye four angels for wch they were prepared to constitute an empire upon killing ye third part of men, or ye time yt ye third part of men should be killed \continue slain/ by them. For as in ye former Trumpet ye five months expressed ye main time of that wo & of ye {illeg} Empire wch inflicted it, so by analogy must this number do in this Trumpet. Now ye killing ye third part of men being, as I explained, ye dissolution of ye Constantinopolitan Empire, we are to date this time from ye taking of Constantinople whereby ye Empire was dissolved & this happened May 29th, A.C. 1453; from wch if we therefore count ye afforesaid time, recconning (according <66r> to St Iohn's computation ch 12.6, 14 & 11.2, 3) thirty days to a month & twelve months to a year, the Turkish Empire \& there be not a further mystery in the trumpet then I am aware of/ will expire \may be expected to loose Constantinople its imperial seat/ in ye year 1844, |& perhaps to expire wthin a few years after| \& perhaps the Emperors may then seat themselves for a time in Iudæa according to what Daniel seems to intend when he saith of this monarch yt he in ye conclusion that he shall plant ye Tabernacle of his Palace between ye seas in ye glorious holy mountain Dan 11.45./

Historians indeed make Ottoman ye founder of this Empire |date this Empire from ye reign of Ottoman rather then from the taking of Constantinople,| but ye rise & fall of Imperial cities being changes of ye greatest moment note, ye holy Ghost, as I signified, measures Empires rather by the standing of them yn by ye dominion of single persons. And besides, the Turkish dominions before ye taking of this City \Constantinople/ were but of a moderate extent being limited {illeg} on ye east by Cappadocia Paphlagonia & Cilicia wch belonged to ye Trapezuntine Emperor & other kings: so that we may reccon this the time when their Empire began to transcend the bounds of an ordinary kingdom. For upon this followed not only the notable enlargement of their dominions into Europe but also into Cappadocia Paphlagonia Cilicia Armenia Paphlagonia Cappadocia, Calchis, Armenia, Cilicia Mesopotamia, Syria, \Babylon,/ Arabia, Egypt, & part of Afric; & therefore this period may well be accounted the beginning of their kingdom to be an Empire, though not ye beginning of ye reign of ye Ottoman family.

If you ask why ye standing of this Empire is expressed by parts, an hower & {sic} day & a month & a year, & not by one round number; it seems to insinuate that there shall be a changing of ye imperial seat so often towards ye end. And perhaps it will be translated into Iudæa, according to Daniel {sic} \who thus concludes his/ description of this kingdom, who concluds {sic} it thus. Tidings out of ye east & out of ye north shall trouble him & he shall go forth wth fury to destroy & \utterly/ to make away many & shall plant ye tabernacle of his Palace between ye seas in ye glorious holy mountain Dan 11.44, 45. But what ye genuine interpretation of these things is ye event will determin more certainly.

I should now proceed to ye seventh Trumpet, but since that concerns ye time to come, it will be better to consider first \return to/ ye things that are contemporary to ye \Seales &/ Trumpets already explained, & in ye next place to describe at large what was hinted concerning in Posit     Arg: 5, concerning ye Beast & his horns.

[1] Sigonius de Occ{illeg}

[2] a Oros. l 7. c

[3] Oros l 7. c 34.

[4] Ammian l 31 Hieronymi chron.

[5] Ammian. l 28.

[6] Ib. l. 28

[7] Ib l 29

[8] Iornandes

[9] a Ammian

[10] b Iornand. Regn. succes.

[11] a Zosim

[12] a Zosim l 41.

[13] Gratianus ab exercitu suo proditus et ab obijs urbibus non receptus ludibrio hosti fuit, cruentæq manus vestigia parietes tui Lugdune testantur. Hieronym Epist 3. \You may see how he was slain in/ Socrates {illeg} l 5. c 11. describes how he was betrayed slain

[14] c Zos. l 4. Claudian de 1mo Honorij consulatu

[15] {illeg} d Maximus Scisciæ et Petavione et ubiq terrarum victus est D. Ambros. D. Hierom in Epist 3 calls Valentinians part of ye Empire recovered by this war recuperatum multo sanguine Imperium. The history of ye war you may see in Zosimus l 4. [Socrates l 5. c 14. Paul Diac &c.]

[16] e Theodosius composita tranquillitateq republica apud Mediolanum constitutus diem fuit Oros l 5. c 35. Omnibus in invicis Theodosius superatis in pace rebus humanis Mediolanum excessit Iorn de regn. succ.

[17] Iorn. de regn. succes

[18] a Baron. Annal. Ann. 403. sec 50 & 52.

[19] c {illeg}Marcellinus

[20] d Orosius l 7. c 37

[21] a This victory is attributed to ye virtue of Huldin & Sarus wth their Huns & Goths, whence it is like that ye Romans {came} in onely to ye slaughter after ye others had put ye east to confusion. Huldin et Sarus Hunnorum Gothorumq Reges Radagaisum continue confecerunt. Marcelin Chron.

[22] a Baron. Ann. 406. sec. 1

[23] a Def.

[24] b Def.

[25] c Def.

[26] a. Ethelwedus edit. Londi, f. 474. b.

[27] Oros. l. 7. c. 42.

[28] Prosp l 2 A.C. 425 Castinus. exulat Idat Chron Prosp l 2

[29] a Sigonius de Occid. Imp. l

[30] a Sigonius de Occid. Imp. l

[31] Prosper. in Prolog. lib. de provid. Dei

[32] b Possi. c 28.

[33] Victor de persec Wandal. lib 1 in præf.

[34] a Procop. de bello Wand. l 2. Niceph l 15 c. 11.

[35] Victor de Wand. pers l 1.

[36] Procop. de bello Wandal. l 1.

[37] Procop. de bello Wandal. l 1. Nicephorus l 15. c 27.

[38] Def

[39] Def

[40] a Fig

[41] b Fig

[42] Sigonius de Occ. Imp. l     Iornand Get. Paul. Diac. continuatio hist Eutrop. l 15.

[43] a Paul Diac l 15 b Iornand. Get.

[44] Greg. Turon. l 2. c{69}

[45] Greg. Turon. l 2. c{69}

[46] a. Hunni erumpentes et per totam Galliam diffusi partim simulatæ pacis arte tenebant urbes partim vi expugnabant. Ex vita Lupi Frecensis Episcopi apud Sur. die 29 Iulij. ✝ Tota vastation < insertion from lower down f 17v > ✝ Tota vastatio populatori Attilæ, ascribitur. Tum Coloniæ Agrippina. Tungrorū oppidum, Novesium, Vtricensium, Castra Herculis, Vetera, Ascibargium, Noviomagus, Antennacum, Bingium, Magonciacum, Borbetomagus, Sebutium, Saletio, Brocomasus, Argentoratum, Elebus, Argentuaria, Augusta Rauricorum, Vindomissa, Forum Tiberij, Vitudurum, Aventicum, et multa alia oppida funditus destructa sunt. Non multò post Ætius profligavit auxiliantibus Gothis profligavit Attilam apud Catalaunos. Beat. Rhenan. l. 1, p. 62. < text from f 18r resumes >

[47] r Sic Iornandes Get: sed Idatius ponit 150000 Hunnos & 200000 Gothos cæsos fuisse præter innumerabilem multitudinem quæ paulo post occubuit in alio prælio trium dierum inter Attilam & Thorismundum qui patrem Theodericum in priori prælio occisum ulsisci desiderans novum Gothorum exercitum collegerat. Isidorus autem ponit in utroq prælia trecenta fere millia prostrata.

[48] {illeg}

[49] b Attila continuò resumpta fiducia cruentus Italiam petit Aquileiam captam funditus eradit, Ticinumq Mediolanum regias urbes excidit. Paul. Diac. Misc. {illeg} \Hoc tempore funientes Itali Vrbem Venetorum a regione denominatum condiderunt./

[50] {sic} Isidor. Hist. Got.

[51] a See Iornandes Get. Marcellinus & Idatius

[52] ✝ The \Gothic/ war began at ye invasion of Dalmatia A.C. 535 & ended A.C 555 at ye overthrow of ye great army of Leuthares & Buccellinus whom ye Franks sent into Italy to assist ye Goths: the ✝ Procop {illeg} & Agathias History of all wch you may see at large in Procopius & Agathias & Hist. Miscel.‡ < insertion from f 21v > ‡ in Procopius & Agathias & Hist M{iscell.} To which I may add this Passage in Chronico Divionensi apud Dacherium Tom: 1 {illeg}gij. Theodebertus Rex Francorum cum exercitu Italiam ingressus eam maritimis depopulatus est, Narcete Patricio in fugam verso. Postea Buccellinus Dux jussu Theodeberti Siciliam occupavit, totamq {sic} Italiam fugam vertit, eorumq exercitum proterit. Tandem infirmatus a profluvio ventris, exercitusq suus ea infirmitate attritus, Belisario jam interfecto a Narsete superatur & interficitur. - Miserat et Theudebertus Saxones in Italiam qui ibi commovati sunt usq ad tempora Clip Longobardorum post Albuinum Regis. < text from f 21r resumes >

[53] a Viginti jam et septem annos ducimus quod in hac urbe inter Longobardorum gladios vivimus. Greg. Mag. l. 4. Epist. 34. Qualiter enim et quotidianis gladijs & quantis Longobardoum incursionibus ecce jam per triginta quinq annorum longitudinem premimur, nullis explere vocibus suggestionis valemus. Greg. Mag. lib. 11 Epist 45 Ad Phocam Imp Indic. 6. edit. Roma.

[54] b Hist. Misc. lib. 18.

[55] c. Anastas. in vita Ioan. 3.

[56] ✝ Agathius l. 1.

[57] ✝ Tenuit \Theudericus,/, inquit Grotius, Italiam, Siciliam, Rhætiam, Noricum, Dalmatiam ✝ cum Liburnia Istriáq & Suevorum ibi parte, Pannoniam illam in qua Singidon & Sirmium; Galliæ prætereæ, multa ob quæ cum Francis bella gessit, pendebant ei tributa Alemanni. Hispaniam autem regebat idem Theudericus tutoris nomine pro Amalaricho suo nepote. Quæ omnia partim apud Procopium partim apud Cassiodorum videas. Hæc {illeg} Grotius in Prolegomenis.

[58] Per Theudericum dignitas urbis Romæ non parva est restituta, muros enim ejus iste redintegravit, ob quam causam {illeg} a senatu instauratam statuam meruit. Isidorus in Chron. Patricio et Hypatio Coss: Rex Theudericus Romam cunctorum votis expetitus advenit, et Senatum suum mira affabilitate tractans Romanæ plebi donavit annonas, atq admirandis mœnibus, deputata per annos singulos maxima pecuniæ quantitate, subvenit: sub cujus fælici Imperio plurimæ renovantur urbes, munitissima castella conduntur, consurgunt admiranda Palatia; magnisq ejus operibus antiqua mimiracula {sic} superantur. Cassiodorus in Chron.     Erat Theodoricus fama quidem Tyrannus re tamen præ se veri specimen Imperatoris ferebat, ut qui vel eorum qui a principio ea in dignitate probatiores fuissent, nemini inferior fuerit: & Gothos item ac Italos pari quadam ac summâ benevolentiâ <23r-a> suapte humanitate prosequebatur, ita {illeg} omnes (quod utiq difficillimum est) ejus Imperium oblectaret. Procop. de Bello Gottico lib. 1. Idem Procopius Gothos et Belisarium sic inducit colloquentis. Gothi: Zenon Theodoricum Byzantium obsessurum suadebat ut ex Odoacre pænas ob injuriam Augustulo Imp. illatam exigeret, hunc igitur in modum nos Italiæ suscepto Imperio leges simul et Remp. salvas non minùs reddidimus quàm superiorum alius quisquam Imperatorum. - Romanorum sacraria eo in honore sunt apud nos habita ut a nullo nostratium hominum sit, qui ad ea confugerit, violatus. Omnibus præterea urbanis antehac magistratibus Romani perfungebantur, Gothus vir nemo eorum particeps factus: Vel procedat in medium qui profari nos ista non verè existimet: Addat et Consularem quispiam dignitatem, qua etsi Gothi ab Orientis Imperiatore donati Romanis tamen perfungi liberè permiserumt. Ad hæc Belisarius: Zenon quidem Imperator in Italiam Theodoricum transmisit Odoacro ut bellum inferret, non sibi ut hujus imperium vindicaret, (quid enim a Tyranno Tyrannus differt?) sed ut ea Provincia a se liberata Imperanti sibi subjiceretur. Procop. de bello Gott. Lib. 2.       Theodoricum Magistrum militum et Consulem Romanum Zenon Imperator Italiâ donavit, Senatum Populumq Romanum ei commendans. Iornandes & Get {sic}. & De Regn. success. Evagrius Historicus Theodericum & Athalaricum vocat Administratores Occidentalis Imperij. Alij Imperium Occidentale ad Gothos translatum dicunt. De his vide plura apud Sigonium aliosq.

[59] a Agathias l 1.

[60] ✝ 4 Id. Decemb. Anastas: in vita Silvesij.

[61] g. 9 Kal. Mart Anastas. ib.

[62] c. Vrbem Romam ire mox pergit Vitiges equitum peditumq ad centus et qunquaginta millia dectans quorum pars maxima armis munita, vel equos ipsos {illeg} Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[63] d A.C. 547. Indic 10. Totila dolo Isaurorum ingreditur Romam die 16 Kal. Ian. ac evertit muros, domos aliquantas igne comburens, ac omnes Romanorum res in prædam accepit, hos ipsos Romanos in Campaniam Captivos abduxit: post quam devastationem quadraginta aut amplius dies Roma fuit ita desolata ut nemo ibi hominum nisi bestiæ morarentur. Marcellin. Chron.

[64] e De hoc obsidio sic meminit Anastasius in Vitis Pontificum. (A.C. 577.) Pelagius 2dus ordinatur absq jussione Principis eo quod Longobardi obsiderent civitatem Romanam, & multa vastatio ab eis in Italia fieret. Eodem tempore tantæ pluviæ fuerunt ut omnes dicerent quia aquæ diluvij super nos inundantur, & talis clades fuit - qualem a seculo nullus meminit.

[65] f. Greg. m. Dial. lib. 3. cap. 38.

[66] g Ex illa plebe innumerabili quanti remanseritis aspicitis & tamen adhuc quotidiè flagella urgent, repentina casus opprimunt, novæ res et improvisæ clades affligunt. Greg. Magn. Hom. in Luc. 21.

[67] h. Baron. Ann 567. § 15, 16.

[68] i. Ezek. 7.

[69] NB

[70] k. Greg. M. in Ezek. Hom. 18.

[71] l. Vetus est Vaticinium: Roma a Gentibus non exterminabitur sed tempestatibus, coruscis turbinibus, ac terræ motu fatigata in semet ipsa marcescet. Cujus Prophetiæ mysteria nobis facta sunt luce clariora, qui in hac urbe dissoluta mœnia, eversas domos, destructas Ecclesias turbine cernimus, ejusq ædificia longo semis lassata, quia ruinis crebrescentibus prosternantur videmus. Greg. Dial. lib. 2. cap. 35.

[72] Fig.

[73] Fig.

[74]

m. Phocas Imp. cœpit Novemb 23. A.C. 602, ut Petavius in Rationario temp. & notis ad Nicephori Breviarium, ex Chron. Alexandr. Theophane, Paulo Diac. Zonara, Cedreno, alijsq probavit. Et Gregorius Magnus obijt anno secundo Phocatis (P. Diac \Beda/ Anastasius, Regino, Marianus Scotus, Hermannus Contractus \Otto ffrisingensis,/ Vincentus in Speculo Hist. Cameracenas &c) Mart. 12 (Anastasius, Marian Scotus Platina, Martinus Chron. M.S. Onufrius &c) & vacat sedes mens. 5, dies 18 (Anastas. Platina, Martinus, Onuphrius) Tunc sedet Sabinianus An. 1, mens. 5, dies 9 (Anastas. Hermannus, Platina, Author ffaciculi Temporum, Onuphrius) vel ann. 1, mens. 10 adjuncta præcedente vacatione (Marian. Scot.) Martinus tamen ponit ann 1 mens 8 dies 9 absq ista vacatione. Obit autem Feb. 22 (Anastas.) vel 11 Kal. Mart. hoc est Feb. 18 (Marian Scot.) vel Feb 24 Indic. 10 (Cameracenas,) & vacat sedes mens. 11, dies 26. (Anastas. Platina, Onuphrius.) Dein Bonifacius 3 electus anno quinto Phocatis (Marian. Onufr. sedet mens. 8, dies 28, (Anastas. Hermannus, Martinus, Fascic. Temp. Platina,) & obit Novemb. 12 (Anastas.) vel 3 Id Decemb. (Marian. Sc. Cameracenas.) Patet igitur totum Papatum Bonifacij incidisse in annum 607 inter Feb. 18, & Novemb. 12.

Tempus obitus Gregorij Baronius e veteribus Monumentis stabilivit cæterisq hic allatis numeris (præsertim Anastasianis) assensum præbuit, nisi <30r> quod posuerit {sic} Sabinianum sedisse tantum menses quinq & dies novem, asserens omnes tam Græcos quam Latinos scriptores referre \et/ initiam & finem ejus ad {illeg} eundem annum. Sed hallucinatus est et forte per occitationem transtulit ad Sabinianum quæ de Bonifacio observaret.

[75] a Anastasi & Platina in vita Sabin.

[76] n. Belli Gothici primus annus docente Procopio incidit in Consulatum Belisarij hoc est in A.C. 535. Vnde initium obsidij anno tertio necessario cadet in A.C. 537. Id quod ex Macellino {sic} confirmatur qui non tantum initium hujus obsidij ad Annum secundum post Cons. Belisarij Indic. 15, hoc est ad A.C. 537 refert, sed etiam res in alijs belli hujus annis narrante Procopio gestas, ad correspondentes annos Consulum et Indictionū. Adde quod Obsidium hocce contigit annis 60 completis post Romam ab Odoacro captam occupatam (Procop.     Evagr. l. 4, c. 19.) Odoacer autem occupabat eam A.C. 476, (Marcellin. Chron.) Cassiodor.). |Quare cum Anastasius diem apposuerit 9 Kal Mart. Erit initium obsidionis Feb 20 5 an: 537. Feb: 20.|

[77] o. Procop. De Bello Got. lib. 2.

[78] p Vide Anastasium

[79] NB. Martinus Chron. Ms. in Archivis Trin. Coll. Cantabr.

[80] Fig.

[81] p. Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[82] p. Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[83] p. Procop De Bello Got. l. 1.

[84] q Hodiè reperta extant numismata inscripta hac DN. IVSTINIANVS AVG. illac DN. THEODAHATHVS REX. Baron. Ann. 536, § 8.

[85] r.

[86] s. Præter Calamitates in his Commentarijs descriptas aliæ multææ fuerunt eæq gravissimæ: et inter cæteras pestis stupendus annorum {illeg} quinquaginta duorum \pestis/ qui ab A.C. 544 incipiens per totam ferè hanc quartam Tubam, vastabat orbem. Evagr. Hist.

[87] a Def.

[88] {illeg} natum {illeg} etiam {illeg} et Hist. Saracen. Vide Pocockij notas in Abul{illeg}rajium de origine et moribus Arabum.

[89] a Ioseph. de Antiquit. Iud. l 16. c 11, 13 bello Iuda. l 1. c 3.

[90] b Ioseph. de Antiq. Iud. l 16. c 11, 13, 14, 15.

[91] nisi nomen ejus

[92] desierunt

[93] Ineunte itaq anno

[94] et reges terræ

[95] nanciscebantur

[96] Eratq Basra

[97] Ama

[98] whole duration of ye

[99] beginning at Damascus

[100] A.C. 936 is 301 years

[101] be exempted wherin

[102] nothing to ye Chalifa

[103] taken from ye Ro

[104] no longer tormented

[105] of ye bottomles pit

[106] remain 300 years

[107] months of years

[108] tormented by these

[109] If you now ask

[110] was not exprest

[111] [added Aleppo to Mausela A.C. 1079

[112] a Geogr. Nubiensis clim 4. part 6.

[113] a Geogr. Nubiensis

[114] a Carrhæ

[115] b Edessa

[116] Ducæ Hist. Byzant.

[117] a. NB. Βασιλεις wch we usually render Kings signifies not only was applied by ye greeks not only to such great monarchs as we stile Kings but also Princes of lesser note.

[118] Apomasar cap 152.

[119] Scilix apud Christophorum Richerium

[120] W. Tyr. l 18. c 18.

[121] W. Tyrius l 4. c 11.

[122] Quære

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