<1r>

Megacles a potent Athenian slew Cylon \& his friends \{illeg}// for offending his \attempting/ to be king of Athens & was afterwards wth his family expelled Athens by the posterity of the slain. Alcmæon the son of Megacles enterteined & conducted the Messengers whom Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos & for doing so was invited by Crœsus & rewarded wth much riches. And in the of the Amphy|i|ctyons \in their war/ against Cyrrha be \by ye made him advice of Solon made \this/ Alcmæon/ & Clisthenes king & Sicyon & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army. And the Cyrrhæans were conquered Ann. 2 Olymp. 47 according to ye Marbles. Megacles the son of this Ac Alcmæon Married Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes, & by her had Clisthenes II & a little before the tyranny of Pisistratus she & Pisistratus & Lycurgus commanded the three factions into wch the Athenians were then divided. But When Pisistratus obteined the tyranny (vizt an 4 Olymp. 54) Alcmæon \Megacles/ & his friends were banished but soon after ejected Pisistratus & five years after Pisistratus by marrying the daughter of Megacles recovered restored him & gave him his daughter but a while after restored \ejected/ him again. Afterwards Pisistratus recovered ye tyranny again & after the death of Megacles \& Pisistratus his sons/ was|ere| again ejected by Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista. an 1 Olymp 67, anno Darij 10mo.

The Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Alcmæon the son of Megacles an Athenian & Clsithenes kings of Sicyon & Eurolycus king of Thessaly commanders of their army in their war against Cyrrha & the Cyrrhæans were conquered an 2 Olymp 47 according to ye Marbles. This Alcmæon entertained & conducted the Messengers wch Crœsus sent to consult the Oracle at Delphos & for doing so was sent for invited by Crœsus & rewarded wth much riches. And Clisthenes proposing proclaiming that he would marry his daughter Agarista within a year to the most deserving, there came to court her Megacles the son of this Alcmæon, & Leocides the son of Phidon \the Argive/ & several others & Clisthenes gave his daughter to Megacles. This was that Phidon king of Argos who appointed the weights & measures |& coined silver money in Ægina, & invading Clis presided in the Olympiads, as Herodotus sufficiently describes|. A Megacles by Agarista had a son called Clisthenes who Megacles wa Phidon therefore was of contemporary to Clisthenes & Alcmæon |Alcmæon both of them to Clisthenes| & Solon & their son|s| Megacles was \& Leocides were/ contemporary to \one another & to/ Pisistratus. ffor a little before ye tyranny of Pisistr Megacles, Pisistratus & Lycurgus commanded the three factions into wch ye Athenians were divided a little before ye tyranny of Pisistratus & when Pisistratus obteined the tyrrany m|h|e married ye daughter of Megacles & he & Megacles ejected one another by turns & at length Clisthenes the son of Megacles & Agarista expelled the posterity \sons/ of Pisistratus An 1 Olymp 67 according to the Marble. So then Phidon flourished in ye 47th Olympiad, that is about 6|7|0 years before the reign of Darius Hystaspis \death of Cyrus/ or 240 years after \Temenus &/ ye return of ye Heraclides: wch space being & in this time [& in this time there were 10 generations from Temenus to Phidon inclusively, or nine intervals, wch is \a reasonable proportion being/ after the rate of about 28 years to a|n| generation interval or generation. But Chronologers make the reccon about 511 years from ye return of the Heraclides to ye 47th Olympiad wch is after the rate of 57 years to a & account Phidon the seventh from Temenus which is after the rate of 85 years to a generation & therefore not to be admitted. <1v> After his example Solon regulated the weights & money of ye Athenians. for ffor the pound weight wch before conteined 73 drachms Solon appointed to consist of 100 drachms. And [in law his laws he appointed mulcts of \in/ drachms of silver] whereas the mulcts in Dracos laws (wch were made about 100 years before ye reign of Darius Hystaspis) were called Oxen, Solon appointed mulcts in drachms of silver. ffor the Greeks at first used only rude masses of metal of the value of Oxen {illeg} for the convenience of buying & selling sheep & Oxen & sheep recconing about ten Sheep to an Ox & thence they called these masses of metal \were calld/ Oxen & Pecunia. These masses were usually of in the form of long barrs {illeg} \&/ from their shape were called Oboli. Such was the iron money of Lycurgus & the iron obolus of & from their shape {illeg} they usually were \were they/ called \them/ Oboli they being usually in the form of long barrs. Such money Homer & Draco call Oxen, & but Solon calls his money drachms, wch implies that when he regulated weights he also regulated the Athenian money by {sic} {illeg} those weights \& such was the iron money of Lycurgus & the money of all Greece {illeg}/ before Phido & Solon regulated it by weight. [Asia minor abounded first in silver & gold & there coynage began. [For Crœsus had much coyned \gold/ money & the wife of Midas coyned gold & \in {Greece} the opinion of Herodotus Phidon was the first who coyned in Greece/ there is a \/ coyn of Atys a much older king of Lydia] Among the Greeks Phido is the first who coyned silver money & {illeg}|Philip| the father of Alexander the first who coyned any quantity of gold. The Romans were still poorer then ye Greeks & therefore coyned no copper money before ye reign of Ancus Martius, no silver money till about 300 years after \3 years before the first Punic war/, an 1 Olymp. 128, no gold money till about 62 years after that. Now Strabo tells us that Phido was the 10th from Temenus not the tenth king \(for between {illeg} Phido & Cisus ye son of Temenus they reigned not)/ but the 10 by generation from father to son including Temenus, or the 9th excluding him & these 9 generations taking up the 250 years from Temenus to Phidon, there were about 28 years to a generation one generation wth another wch is a moderate rate. But if wth Chronologers {illeg} reccon {illeg} &c

[Editorial Note 1]

Now So then the Greeks have made the reigns of their kings too long & by that means have raised their antiquities. The Olympiads being quadrennial al could not be stirred stirred, but in adjusting the reigns of their kings to the Olympiads they have made them reign earlier then they did. ffor Iulitus who restored the Olympiads they have made \above an/ 100 years older then the first Olympiad \wherein Gordæus was victor/ & to reconcile the difference they have suppose that there were many Olympiads before ye 1st the memory of wch has been buried in oblivion lost. that is they ground their Chronology upon suppositions of things wch they know nothing of. And by the \same/ means they make the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus about 328 years older then the Olympiads whereas it was scarce above 60 or 70 years older.

<2r>

– nine of Arcadia. Now from the return of the Heraclides to ye end of this t And their reign according to Chronologers took up 379 that is one reign with another the 11 kings one with another reigned 3412 years the 10 a piece the ten 38. years & the nine 42 years a piece wch is much too long for the course of nature. Pausanias tells us out of Tyrtæus a very old Poet who flourished in the time of ye second Messenian war that the first Messenian war lasted 20 years. Euphaes reigned \in Messene/ 13 years & Aristodemus six years & some months & it lasted all their two reigns & five months more. Deduct the 20 years of this war from the 379 & there will be 359 years from the return of ye Heraclides to the beginning of this war wch interval of time being taken up by the \reign of the/ eight first kings of Messene makes 45 years ten a piece to a reign one reign with another wch is very much too long for the course of nature.

Eu\r/yleon the son of Ægeus \commanded the main body of the Messenians in the fift year of the first Messenian {illeg} war &/ was in the fift generation from Oy|i|olycus the son of Theras the brother in law of Aristodemus & Tutor of his sons Eurysthenes & Procles \as Pausanias relates/ & by consequence he was in the six generation from Theras Pausanias tells us that Aristodemus married Angia the sister of Theras & by her had Eurysthenes & Procles \whom h/ & left them {his} son under the tuition of their unkle Theras from ye return of the Heraclides wch was in the days of Theras to ye fif battel in the \fift year of the/ first Messenian war there were six generations. Now this interval of time according to the vulgar chronology took up 364 years wch makes|ing| about 60 years to a generation one generation with another & therefore is very much too long for the course of nature.

By all these instances Chronologers \in collecting times past from the number of reigns or generations \of kings// have made the times between the return of Heraclides & the first Messenian war very much too long [for ye usual course of Nature & therefore If \we therefore/ we will reduce it to such a length as suits best wth \& it ought to be corrected, & reduced to such a/ \{sic} length as suits with best best wth/ the course of nature, {illeg} ff which will be done by recconning the reigns of the kings at about 20 or 21 years a piece one wth another. Let us say reccon therefore the eleven reigns of ye kings of Sparta by one race at 20 years a piece & the {illeg} tenn by another race at 22 years a piece & the ten of Messene also at 22 years a piece \& the nine of Arcadia & the nine of Arcadia at at / one reign with another & the interval between the return of the Heraclides & the end of ye first Messenian warr will amount to 220 years which is full long enough \if not still too long/. ffor \thus/ the nine kings of Arcadia will reigne 2412 reigns one years a piece one with another & the eight first kings of Messene will reign \200 years that is/ 25 years a piece one wth another & the six generations from Theras to Euryleon will take up 205 years that \wch/ is 34 years a piece \to a generation/ one with another Thus is this period \of time/ confirmed by six several ways of recconing.

<2v>

After the first Messenian warIn the race of the Spartan kings descended from Eurythenes \after him/ there \Polydorus/ reigned these kings Eurycrates I, Anaxander, Eurycrates II, Leon, Anaxandrides \fil/, Cleomenes \fil/, Leonides \frat/, & {sic} in the other race \after Theopompus reigned/ Zeuxidamus, Anaxidamus, Archidamus, Agasicles Ariston Demaratus Leotychides. [Cleomenes & Leonidas were the sons of Anaxandrides & reigned in the days of Darius Hystaspis, {illeg} \&/ Leonidas was slain \at/ in the {illeg} battel at Thermopylæ in the sixt year of Xerxes being then an old man. Demaratus was banished by Cleomenes & fled into to Darius Hystaspis & the kingdom was given to Leotychides] Cleomenes was & Demaratus \were conten/ flourished in the reign of Darius Hystaspis] Neare the beginning of the reign of Darius Hystaspis. Polycrates king of Samus being slain about ye 7th year of Cambyses was succeeded by Mæandrius who in \& Darius Hystaspis in or neare/ the beginning of this reign of Darius invading Samus Mæandrius fled to Cleomexes king of Sparta (Herod l. 3 prope finem) & t Some years after when \{Ionia} rebelled/ Darius proposed to conquer Greece he sent messengers to all Greece to demand fire \earth/ & water & the Islands submitted & amongst the rest Ægina. Whereupon Cleomenes king of Sparta to whom that Island belonged sailed to Ægina to comprehend the persons offending as if they fell awa revolted to ye Persians, But & in his absence was accused by Demaratus king the other king of Sparta, but upon his return caused Demaratus to be deposed as a bastard, & Leotychides to succeed him & then about 3 or 4 years after slew himself & was succeeded by his brother Leonidas who was slain by the Persians at Thermopylæ in the sixt year of Xerxes, Whence & Demaratus being deposed fled to ye Persians & remained among them till after the invasion of Greece by Xerxes at wch time Demaratus was alive being fled to ye Persians. \Vpon the death of Cleomines a war broke out between the Athenians & inhabitants of Ægina & the Athenians by the advice of Themistocles built ships as well against an expected invasion of the Persians as against the people of Ægina/ By all wch it seems to me that Cleomenes began his reign about the same time wth Darius \or within 2 or 3 years after/ & {illeg} reigned till about ye 30th \28th or / year of that king & that Demaratus was deposed about ye 24|9|th year of Darius & lived above 18 years longer. So then between the {illeg} end {illeg} of the first Messenian war & the reign of Darius there were about five reigns in both races of the kings of Sparta wch at 20 years apiece one reign wth another make the space of about an hundred years. But Chronologers make it 202 years wch is about \more then/ 40 years a piece to the five reigns one wth another.

Polydectes {illeg} \king of Sparta/ being slain before the birth of his son Charillus or Charilaus, left ye tuition of his kingdom & his to his brother Lycurgus who \the Legislator/ & Lycurgus upon the birth of Charilaus became his Tutor \to the child/ & published his laws in ye reign of Agesilaus the king of Sparta |successor of of {sic} Darissus| in the other race of |ye| kings \of Sparta./ {illeg} Now Aristotel finding the Now the name of Lycurgus being upon the Olympic Disk Aristotle concluded thence that Lycurgus assisted in instituting \was the companion of Iphitus in restoring/ the Olympiads And The Discus was produced in the games called Quinquertium \(Pausan: l 5 c. 19) wch were boxing, running, leaping, the Discus, & wrastling./ & therefore Lycurgus flourished in the 18th Olympiad [wch goes very well wth or recconing \& {as}/ ffor according to or recconing the 18 Olympiad was celebrated in ye 17th year of Ageslates in whose reign Lycurgus published his laws. But \reign/ So then the 18 Olympiad in wch Lycurgus assisted in instituting the Discus <3r> ought to fall in ye reign of Agesilaus in wch Lycurgus published his laws. And so it doth according to or recconing & therefore confirms this recconing. But according Chronologers reccon Lycurgus as old as Iphitus & both of them almost 200 years older then ye 18th Olympiad. Now the name of Lycurgus being on the Olympic Disk Aristotel concluded thence that Lycurgus was the companion of Iphitus in restoring the Olympiads. {illeg} But it is to b But Iphitus did not restore all the Olympic games. He restored the {illeg} racing, with Chariots in the first Olympiad Coræbus being victor. In the 14th Olympiad the double Stadium was added & in 18th the Quinquertium Hypænus being victor & in the 18th the Quinquertium & wrastling were restored Lampis & Eurybatus being victors (two Spartans) being Victors. & \Now Pausanas tells us that/ the Discus was produced in the Quinquertium, [& others say that the Quinquertium consisted of these five games, running, leaping, wrastling, coiting & boxing.] And therefore Lycurgus whose name was on the Discus, flourished \not in the first but/ in the eighteenth Olympiad. & Charillus & Agesilaus reigned So then Chronologers err in making Lycurgus & his contemporaries Agesilaus & Charillus as old as Iphitus & all of them almost 200 years older then the 18th Olympiad & {illeg} In our account \of time/ the 18th Olympiad falls in the reign of Agesilaus & minority \Tuition/ of Charillus as it ought to do. Now the Disk was one of the games of the Quinquertium & Pausanias tells us that there were three Disks kept in the Olympic treasury at Altis & produced in the games of the Quinquertium. One of \those games./ Probably \Doubtless/ these were dedicated by Lycurgus & had his name \they which had the name of Lycurgus/ upon them, being dedicated by him. So then the \game of the/ Disk was restored in 18th Olympiad & therefore Pythan Lycu that Olympiad fell upon the Tui minority of Charillus |ye| Tuition of Lycurgus & |ye| reigh of Agesilaus. Now ffrom the middle of the reign of Agesilates to the end of the reign of Anaxandrides there were 912 reigns wch at 20 years a piece come to 190 years & these years counted backwards from ye beginning of the reign of Darius \Hystaspis/ place the middle of ye reign of Agesilaus upon the 2d year of ye 17th Olympiad, wch being but three years before ye 18th Olympiad, shews that or way of recconing comes very neare the truth. So there \And/ Chronologers have been mistaken in making Lycurgus as old as Charillus & Agesilaus as old as Iphitus & all of them almost \as old as Iphitus & all of them about 180 or 200/ 200 {sic} years older then the 18th Olympiad. Thucydides (who was older then the Chronologers) tells us that there \were/ three hundred years & a few more to the end of the Peloponnesian war from the time that the Lacedemonians had used the same admistration {sic} of their commonwealth, that is from the Legislature of Lycurgus. And this agrees perfectly with or recconing. ffor ye 18th Olympiad was 304 years before the end of the Peloponnesian war. This testimony of Thucydides I lay the more stress upon because \he wrote while/ that government of the Spartans was very singular & very advanta yet in being. ffor that government being very singular & very advantageous to the Spartans, its very probable that while it lasted they retained a memory of it's antiquity & \antiquity &/ first institution. & of its antiquity

We told you that upon the return of the Heraclides returned into Peloponnesus under the conduct of Temenus, Cresphontes & Aristodemus, & that Temenus reigned at Argos. He was succeeded by Afte him reigned Cisus, M{illeg}, Thestius, Acaus, Ares his son \{illeg}/ & then Corinth deposed & her kings until Phidon invaded the kingdom. Phidon is by some recconed |He was succeeded by his son Cisus & then the kingdom ceased untill Phidon the tenth from Temenus recovered| <3v> Phidon \was potent for a time &/ invented weights & measures & was the t coyned money in Ægina of Gold & Silver in Ægina, \& w/ & was the {illeg} being the first of the Greeks who coyned such money. His son Leocides was contemporary to Megalles the son of Alcmæon, both of them at ye same time being woers of Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes king of Sicyon. And Alcmæon was contemporary to Crœsus. ffor And therefore Phidon was \also/ contemporary to Crœsus or not above one generation older. Chronologers make Phidon {above} 200 years older. & A I will therefo |Chronologers make him much older but I had rather trust to Herodotus.| Let us \therefore/ suppose yt he was \Phidon/ flourished about fifty \sixty/ years before the reign of Darius Hystaspis, & that is about 27|6|0 years after the return of the Heraclides, & since (\as/ Strabo tells us) that) he was the 10th from Temenus, there will be nine generations in 260 years which is 29 years to after ye rate of 29 years to a generation wch is a reasonable allowance.

In ye elective kingdom of the Romans, ninety or an hundred years may be a reasonable allowance for the reign of the seven kings before the Consuls, especially since all of them except Numa either died violent deaths or were deposed. And according to this recconing Numa who was a Pythagorean philosopher & coyned coyned {sic} copper money might live after Pherecides Syrus, Thales & Pythagoras had brought philosophy into Europe & be contemporary to Phidon who coyned money in Greece.

<4r>

When \Europa &/ Cadmus & his captains be \& their kindred & captains/ came with Colonies into \Crete &/ Greece, they|re| were accompanied with a body of Phœnician Priests \among them a sort of men/ called Curetes or Corybantes Delchines These setled some in Crete where they were called \also Curetes &/ Idæi Dactyli,2, some in Th Samothrace where they were called Cabyri,1 some in Ph\r/ygia where they were called \Curetes/ Corybantes, some in Ætolia where they were called Curetes,3 some in Rhodes where they were called Telchines, some in & others in \Eubæa, Lemnos &|I|mbrus &/ other places. And a considerable body of them setled in Ætiola which was thence called the country of the Curetes untill Ætolus invaded it & called it by his own name. Strabo. l. 10. p \464,/ 465, 466 &c. For all the Curetes in all these places were men of the same \kind kind./ differing very little from one another \in manners/. At the sacrifices they appeared seized wth a divine fury, & danced in armour with great clamour tumult & clamour & bells & drums & pipes & weapons wth wch they struck upon one anothers armour in musical time. And this is recconned the \first/ original of music in Greece. This noisy dancing they pretended to be in memory of their attending \& guarding/ Rhea or Cybele & (otherwise called Cybele & Magna mater) & her \young/ son Iupiter. They were skilled in arts & sciences \& brought many arts into Greece./ t|T|heir actions were mystical |about religious mysteries by the coins| & they were \by the people admired &/ accounted impostors & jugglers \& servan \conjurers/ & magicians/. They first {made a} wrought in brass \& copper/ in Eubæa in a city thence called Chalcis \& in other places where they setled/ & afterwards found out iron in Creat mont {sic} Ida in Crete & wrought \also/ in that metal. Also in Crete & |first in Crete & then they had shops in| Lemnos \& I/ & Rhodes \{Imbrua}/ & other places. Strabo l. 10. p 466, 7, 8, 9, 472, 473 & l. 4. p. 365. In Phygia {sic} the|y| \instituted/ mysteries were only \only/ about Rhea called Cybele & Magna mater, in Crete they|ir| \mysteries/ were also about her son Iupiter. These These the Idæi Dactyli represented that when Iupiter was born in Crete his mother Rhea caused him to be educated in a cave in mount Ida under the|ir| care, of them & that they danced about him in armour \& that they armed themselves in his defence & danced about him with a great noise that his/ with a great noise that his {sic} father Saturn might not hear him cry \& their mysteries were in memory thereof. Whence I conclude that \& when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father \& in memory thereof instituted their mysteries///. |Now| [This Iupiter can be no other \king of Crete/ then Minos. < insertion from f 5r > & armed themselves in his defence against his father Saturn & danced about him with a great noise that his father might not hear him cry & when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father & in memory of these things instituted their mysteries. Stephanus [in Γαζα] lets us know that In Gaza they called him Marnas wch \{name}/ signifies king of men. In Crete he was such another king. Iupiter was worshipped in Gaza a city of Phœnicia after the same manner as in Crete, & this is an argument that the Curetes came originally from the country of the Philistines. In Gaza they called him Marnas wch {illeg} word signifes the king of men. In Crete he was such another king. And I take this king to be Minos.

For Minos was born soon after the coming of \Asterius was grown up & began to reign before/ Europa & the Phenicians came into Crete in the reign of Asterius & Minos was born soon after \their coming/ & its probable Europa being a Phœnician would be apt to trust {illeg}her countrimen \the Curetes/ with the care & education of her child

For the ancients gave the names of Saturn & Iupiter to the two first kings of a kingdom & Saturn \Asterius/ & Iupiter \Minos/ were the two first kings of all Crete mentioned in history & Minos was the most famous & potent & famous of all the kings of Crete & on that account deserves the name of Iupiter above them all. {illeg} He was the Lawmaker of Crete & \was/ so famous for justice as to be accounted the \principall/ judge of hell Hades \Hel/ & justice was the distinguishing character of Iupiter. Minos was a great warrior & \the \most/ potent of all the Greeks of his age &/ had the dominion of dominion of {sic} the seas & was the first of the Greeks who had that dominion & Iupiter was the greatest of all the Gods & had a scepter in one hand & a thunderbolt in the other to shew that he was a warlike king. [Asterius was grown up & began to reign before Europa & the Phenicians came into Crete &] Minos was the first king of Crete who could be educated by the Curetes. He was born soon after they came into that into yt Island & its probable that his mother being a Phœnician would commit the care & education of her child to her countrymen. Mount Ida was {illeg} excavated \throughout/ by art with walks & \many/ winding intricate passages wch they called the Labyrinth. There the Idæi Dactyli might & their weomen might educate the child. There they might find out minerals & {illeg} make armour first of copper & then of iron & by the help of this armour after Minos was grown up overcome the native Cretans & depose \expell/ Asterius & set Minos upon the throne. & in memory of these things institute their mysteries & compose the fable of Iupiter's education & of his expelling his father by the assistance of ye Curetes. And by being educated under these men he might \might/ become so wise a lawmaker as to have his laws consulted by \the wisest of the/ following Lawmakes {sic} & with his brother Rhadamanthus so exact in the administration of justice as on that account also to be celebrated above other men to all posterity. He <5v> was buried in the same cave where he was educated: for Pythagoras went down into the Idæan cave to see his sepulchre [Pophyrius {sic} in vita Pythag.] Whence Lucian \(in Sacrificijs)/ tells us that the Cretans do not only recount relate that Iupiter was born & buried amongst them but also shew his sepulchre. And the Scholiast upon Pindar (Ode 1 in of Callimachus [Ode 1 in Iovian] v. 8] tells that Cicero in numbering three Iupiters saith that the third was the Cretan Iupiter Saturns son \whose sepulchre was shown in Crete/, & the Scholiast upon Callimachus [Ode 1 in Iovem v. 8] lets us know that this was the Sepulchre of Minos. By Saturn Cicero \who was a Latine/ understands the Saturn of the Latines. For when {illeg} Aurelius Victor tells us that the Saturn {soon} came \being expelled by Iupiter fled in sailed a ship/ from Crete into Italy. About the same time some other Greeks carried colonies into Italy as Oenotrus the youngest son of Lycaon & Ianus who received Saturn into part of his kingdom. And this is the first memory of things done in Italy. < text from f 4r resumes > [For Minos was born when the Curetes came first into Crete & was the greatest king who of the kings of Crete having the dominion \of the seas wth/ a potent fleet & conquering many of the Greek islands. His father Asterius was the {illeg} first king of all Crete of He & his father Asterius were the two first kings of all Crete mentioned in history ||And| Being educated by the Curetes he became an excellent king in civil as well as in military affairs. And being \He was/ the greatest \& most celebrated/ king of his time among all the Greeks, {illeg} \& therefore/ deserved the name of Iupiter above them all & his funeral {illeg} deserved most to have his funeral celebrated by the Curetes with a greater solemnity then that of any other king.| of whom {sic} there is any certain mention in history & by consequence they were the Saturn & Iupiter of ye Cretans. And \For/ The Scholiast upon Callimachus tells us that Minos was the the sepulchre of Minos was by the Cretans called the Sepulchre of Iupiter [Schol. Callim. Hymn. 1 in Iovem v. 8.] And Cicero[1] that numbering three Iupiters saith that the third was the Cretan Iupiter Saturn's son whose sepulchre was shewn in Crete, & the scholiast upon Pindar a[2] lets us know that this was the sepulchre of Minos. His father Asterius was the first king of all Crete so far as appears in history, & the two first kings of every kingdom were {illeg} usually by the ancients reputed the Saturn & Iupiter of the kingdom.] Stephanus [in Gaz Γαζα] lets know that Iupiter was worshipped in Gaza a city of Phœnicia after the same manner as in Crete, & this makes it proble {sic} that the Curetes came originally from the country of the Philistines.

Amphictyon the son of Deucalion reigned in Athens next before Deucalion \Erectheus as above/ & Xuthus the youngest son of Hellen the son of Deucalion married the daughter of Erectheus & therefore Deucalion|s| [was between one & two years \generations or about 40 years/ older then Erectheus &] his flood was just before the coming of Cadmus into Europe & the reigns of Erectheus flood was a little before the reign of Erectheus. \The marble makes it ten years before the coming of Cadmus into Europe./ The Poets represent it occasioned by the wickedness of Lycaon, who offered humane sacrifices to Iupiter, & therefore being \since they feigned ito {sic} be/ a punishment inflicted on him for his wickedness, it was \happened/ in the end of his reign & |by consequence| therefore \was/ about the time that Cadmus came into Europe. The eastern nations of those days in their figurative Now the Poets tell us that next after This flood was \succeeded by/ the four ages called the Golden the silver the brazen & the iron ages.// The fourth age ended with the wars against Thebes & Troy as Hesiod tells us expresly. But Hesiod living in the age next after the four calls his own age the fift & translates the name of the iron age from the fourth to this, recconing every age to be worse then the former & his own to <4v> be the worst. And these five ages he reccons to be so many generations of men describing that every age ended when the men of the age were buried & deified & a new generation of men arose, & saying that the men of the fourth age perished at \in/ the warrs against Thebes & Troy & that Iupiter would destroy the fift age in wch he lived when ye men of that age should grow hoary headed.

The third age ended with the Argonautic expedition that was ffor that was one age before the destruction of Troy recconing three ages to an hundred years or about 33 yars to an age, & the Poets tell us that Talus who guarded the island Crete was the last man of the brazen age & died when the Argonauts in returning home arrived at that island.

The second age was the reign of Iupiter & fell in with the reign \days/ of Minos. ffor the Poets tell us that Niobe the daughter of {Phoroneus} was the first woman & Alcmena the last with whom Iupiter lay. And that Chiron who{illeg} lived till the \Argonautic expedition or/ end of the brazen age was begot of Phy|i|llyra by Saturn in the golden age when Iupiter was educated among the Idæi Dactyli as Apollonius relates. The Cretan \The Cretan/ Iupiter was therefore educated \in Crete/ by the Idæi Dactyli in the golden age & \by consequence/ reigned in the silver age according to the Theology of the Curetes & |since Theseus overcame the Minotaur & Minos was slain about 39 years before the| the lifetime of Chiron comprehended the brazen age & the silver age & part of ye golden age \& lasted about one generation or 33 years longer then the reign of Minos,/ this Iupiter can be no other then Minos. |For Theseus overthrew {illeg} no other king of crete was educated by the Idæi Dactyli when Chiron was born &| |Theseus overcame the Minotaur about 33 years before ye Argonautic expedition & Minos| was slain soon \presently/ after, that is one generation b \& no other king of Crete was educated by the Idæi Dactyli when Chiron was born./ The whole time between the \Argonautic expedition & the/ coming of Cadmus & \the Curetes with/ Europa & Cadmus into Crete & Greece & the Argonautic expedition was about an hundred years, wch being divided into three equal parts allows about 33 years for the golden age & reign of Asterius the father of Minos, 33 years more for the silver age & reign of Minos, & {sic} 33 years more for the iron age & reign o brazen age & reign of {illeg} over Asia & a good Thrace & part of Greece part of Europe, & the iron age took up about 33 years more till the ruin of Troy.

The Eleans in giving an account o people of Elis in giving an account of their own originals say that Saturn reigned first in the kingdom of heaven & that the men who reigned first in \were called/ the golden age built a temple to him in Olympia & that his wife Rhea when Iupiter was born committed the custody of the child to ye Idæi Dactyli otherwise called the Curetes & that five of these Idæi Dactyli \(whose names were Hercules Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasius & Ida/ coming afterwards from Ida a mountain of Crete into Elis there instituted the game of racing once every \in/ four years wch was the Original of the Olympic games Pausan l. 5. c      A The Iupiter therefore who reigned in the silver age was certainly the Cretan Iupiter educated in the golden age in mount Ida by the Curetes Idæi Dactyli, & the Parable of the reign of Saturn & Iupiter in the golden & silver ages was brought from Crete into Greece by the Idæi Dactyli, And because commenced with The \first/ coming of the Id and being formed by the|m| Idæi Dactyli commenced with their first coming into Crete in the reign of Asterius, or with \& by consequence/ in \or with/ the reign of Asterius. After ye end |or at the soonest with the beginning of his reign. For we have already shewed that the Saturn & Iupiter of the Idæi Dactyli were Asterius & Minos, the name of Saturn being given to Asterius by the Latines in memory of his lying hid in Italy.| The Th Now Ath {illeg} his {description} of the Poets agree to the four generations here described \above mentioned/. In the first \of the four/ ages men lived upon \roots,/ berries apples peares acorns & other spontaneus fruits of the earth \without the toill of {plowing} & sowing/. In the second the Greeks began to plow & sow & {make bread} & grow potent at sea & mult by the invention of iron to multiply arts. In the third they grew more warlike & in the fourth invented the constellations & \invented the constellations & {illeg} & began to build long ships/ grew more warlike but still used armour & weapons & utensils of copper. In the fourth, iron \& wealth in metals/ began to abound & men grew \still more wealthy &/ more injurious & violent {illeg} being tempt & improved navigation building long ships & making long viages at sea. And these are the characters of the four ages given by <5r> the Poets In the end of the third they invented the constellations & began to built a long ship & began to make long voyages. In the end of the {sic} fourth they riches in metals increased & men began to grew more injurious & violent & built long continued to mak build long ships & {illeg} improve navigation. And these are the characters of the four ages given by the Poets.

They tell us that the Cretan Iupiter expelled \conquered made war upon/ his father Saturn & that Saturn fled \made him fly/ from Italy into Crete into Italy: wch makes it probable yt {illeg} ye Saturn of the Latines was Asterius the father of Minos. for ffor Minos was a very warlike p|P|rince \&/ being the son of a forreign woman might come to the crown by force.

<5v> [Editorial Note 2]

[3]The Eleans recconed Aëthlius the son of Iupiter \Æolus/ their first king He was the father of Endymion the father of Pæon, Epeus, & Ætolus & Eurycida. Epeus succeeded his father in the kingdom & left it to Ætolus & from him the people were called Epeans. In his reign Pelops came into Peloponnesus & succeed Oenomaus in the kingdom of Pisa & took Olympia from Epeus Epeus was succeeded first by his brother Ætolus & the his brother & then by Eleus the son of his sister Euricyda. \For Ætolus killed Apis the son of Phoroneus \& {illeg}/ (Conon Narrat. 27. Apollodor l. 1 c. 7. sec. 6)/ From Eleus the people were called Eleans. He was succeded by Augeas whose stable Hercules cleansed. Augeas was then an old man & denying Hercules the reward promised him there ensued a war between them. Augeas was assisted by the sons of Actor the grandson of Epeus: but Hercules slew them, & took Elis & gave the kingdom to Phylus the son of Augeas. Hercules was therefore one generation younger then Augeas & six \seven/ generations younger then \Æolus the father of/ Aethlius, & by consequence Aethlius was contemporary to S \Æolus/ flourished about 160 or 170 years before Hercules, that is in the latter end of the Priesthood of Eli. And since his son \grandson/ Endymion was an Astronomer, we may reccon that {illeg} & & the native Greeks in those days were ignorant of all arts & sciences we may reccon that \his grandfather Æolus the came with his/ his {sic} family came from Egypt in the days of his father As Aëthlius Eli.

The Eleans in giving an account of their own originals say that Saturn reigned first in {illeg} the kingdom of heaven that is in Olympia, & that the men who were called the golden age built a temple to him in Olympia & that his wife Rhea when Iupiter was born committed the custody of the child to the Idæi Dactyli otherwise called \the/ Curetes. & that five of these Idæi Dactyli \whose names were Hercules, Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasius & Ida/ coming afterwards /afterwards\ from Ida a mountain of Crete into Elis, there instituted the game of racing once in four years, wch was the original of ye Olympic games. Pausan. l. 5.

Hellen by his sons Æolus Xuthus & Dorus had a numerous ofspring. He was contemporary to Cadmus & Erechtheus: for his second son Xuthus married one of the daughters of Erechtheus. He reigned in Thessaly & {illeg} wth his sons Æolus & Dorus & grandsons Achæus & Ion \(the sons of Xuthus)/ gave names to the Hellenes, Æolians, Dores, Achæans & Iones. Hellen is by some reputed the son of Deucalion \the son of Prometheus/, by others the son of Iupiter (Conon Narrat. 27. Apollodor l. 1. c. 7. sec. 2.) The first seems improble {sic}: for Prometheus was an Egyptian & Deucalion an Hyperborean & both of them younger then Hellen.

Oxylus the son of Acmon.

<6r>

D Diodorus tells us that the {illeg} mysteries & sacred rites left taught by Orpheus & thence called Orphici were those wch Bacchus instituted & left wth in Trace {sic} with Charops & {Oeagrs} from whom Orpheus had them. that Linus \who was/ the master of Orpheus Thamyris & Hercules & by consequence flourished in the times between the Expedition of Sesostris & that of ye Argonauts, wrote the actions of this Bacchus in the old Pelasgic letters, & that Dionysius wrote ye history of Bacchus & the Amazons, the Argonautic expedition & the things done at Troy, that is, he wrote the history of the Greeks beginning wth the expedition of Bacchus & the Amazons, going on wth ye expedition of ye Argonauts |& proceeding to the expedition of ye Argonauts| & ending wth ye destruction of Troy, & therefore this Bacchus flourished in the times next before the Argonautic expedition. Had he been much older his actions would not have been remembred for want of ye use of letters |Had he been older then Sesostris his actions would not have the actions of Sesostris would h in Greece would have bee|i|n|g| fresher in memory & come between those of Bacchus & ye Arg.|

Homer places Thebes in Ethiopia, &

The Ethiopians reported that the Egyptians were a colony drawn out from them by Osiris & that thence it came to pass that most of the laws of Egypt were the same with those in Ethiopia & that ye Egyptians learnt from ye Ethiopians ye custome of deifying their kings. Diodor l. 3. p. 101.

Letters might be invented long before in the lower Egypt, {illeg} the Egyptian reed being used as \the/ papyr and calle supp being the oldest papyr. ffor Moses who wa the Egyptians were learned before the days of Moses & he being skilled in all their learning wrote down the law in letters upon tables of stone & in books. But And this became the vulgar way of writing \in Egypt/ after the conquest of Egypt by the Ethiopians. but the P \while/ while \But/ the Priests of Egypt in their sacred books used the Ethiopic character hieroglyphical character \of the Ethiopians/. And this shews that the religious & sacred rites wch prevailed in Egypt after the expulsion of the Shepherds were ye Æthiopic. And whilst the Æthiopians had no letters to write down sounds but used another way of writing, they wrote not down the names of men, but represented the men by hierglyphical {sic} figures, as by painting Ammon &c.

And therefore \this/ Bacchus was contemporary flourished in the times next before ye Argonautic expedition & was contemporary to Sesostris. Had he been much older his actions would not have been remembred for want of ye use of letters.

<7r>

For Thebes & its territory were anciently distinguished from Coptos & its territory, {illeg} the former being called Æthiopia [Αἰα Θήβων] till Homers days.

\The kingdoms of/ Ægypt before the rise of the Monarchy, became dist reduced into three or four principal ones \kingdoms countrys differing in language/. One was Thebes with its territory called Æthioppia by Homer. Another was Coptus & its terr the lower Ægypt called Misraim in {sic} in scripture & Aeria from \Mizraim/ the capital Mizraim \of the first inhabitants/ & Aeria from Abaris or Αουαρις the capital of the Shepherds. And a third was Coptus & its territory ffor called. For the language of \all/ Egypt was \afterwards/ called the Coptic that is till the days \times/ of the Greek & {sic} Latine Empires \called the Coptic/, that is the language of the city Coptus & its territory of Coptus. And therefore this city conquered all the rest & by conquest conquered spread its language into all AÆgypt, & together with its language it spread its name Αἰα Κοπτου Ægypt. For Herodotus tells us tha

Ægypt like other nations being at first divided into many little kingds & those kingdoms growing bigger & bigger till they grew all united {illeg} into one monarchy, the \main chief/ kingdoms wch flourished next before \the rise of/ that monarchy (suppose in ye in ye days of Eli \& the Iudges/ seem to have been Thebes with the territory called Æthopia by Homer Mizzraim \those of Misraim Thebes & Coptus, {neither} that is/ the lower Ægypt called Mizraim from the \old {illeg}/ capital Mizraim as above & Aeria from the capital of the shepherds Abaris or Αὀυαρις; Thebes with its territory called Thebe Æthiopia by Homer [Αἰα Θήβων] by Homer: & Coptus wth its territory called Ægypt; [Αἰα Κόπτου] by Herodotus \Ægypt whence comes the name of Egypt/. ffor Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt, & therefore that name was given to the upper Ægypt before it was given to the lower. |And| The language of all Egypt wall|s| called the Coptic till the times of the Greek & Latine Empire & therefore was originally ye \that is therefore was originally/ \originally the/ language of Copto the city & territory of Coptus & \therefore it/ was propagated from thence \Coptus thence/ to all Egypt together with the name of A by conquest, together with the name of Egypt. The Kings of Coptus first \first/ conquered Thebes & its territory & thereby extended the name of [Αἰα Κόπτου] {illeg} Ægypt to all the upper part of Egypt before they conquered \& then by expelling/ the Shepherds extended their name & language to all Egypt.

And these three spake different at languages originally, the language of Thebes being Æthiopic, that of Mizraim {semi} Ph the language of Coptus the Coptic & the Shepherds & that of the lower Egypt a dialect of the shepherds. But the Coptic prevailed & became the language of all Egypt till the times of the Greek & Latine Empires & therefore the kings of Coptus conquered all Egypt. They first conquered Thebes & thereby extended the name of Ægypt to all Thebe their country And Ægypt to {illeg} all Thebais, & then by & then by expelling the shepherds they extended the same name to all {illeg} the lower Egypt. For Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently \called/ Ægypt & therefore this name was given to all the upper parts of Egypt before it was given to the lower. When the Coptites conquered Thebes they might also conquer This & Elephantis unless those cities were conquered before by by {sic} Thebes. But there is no distinct account now remaining of the actions \& fate/ of those kingdoms. Mephramathosis or his predecessors reduced all the upper Ægypt into one kingdom. He & his successor Amosis expelled the shepherds, Ammon & Sesac extended the monarchy westward to the \lesser Syrtes & even to the/ mouth of ye straits, southward over \all/ \in to/ Æthiopia above the cataracts \above the Cataracts/ & \to/ Arabia felix eastward into India & northward to Caucasus \the black sea/ & Thrace.

Now if Sesostris was \slain/ in ye 5t year of Asa & Ægypt was invaded by Boccharis

And between the death of Sesostris in ye 5t year of Asa & the Æra of Nabo |{o}{r}| 23|2|th year of Boccharis, there will be 11 Kings reigning 210 years wch is after the rate of 19 yeeres a piece one wth another.

[Editorial Note 3]

\Herodotus tells us that/ The Egyptians collected a list of 341 \names of/ kings between the reign of Menes & that of Sennacherib Sethon who put Sennacherib to flight

Herodotus tells us that the Egyptians & their Priests recconned 341 generations from the reign of Menes to that of Sethon who put Sennacherib to flight, 341 generatio{ns} \of men/ & as many High Priests of Vulcan & as many kings of Egypt: & that 300 generations make 10000 years. becau (ffor saith he, three generations of men make a|n| thousand years hundred years.) And the remaining 41 generations make 1366 years 1340 (he should have said 1366 years.) & so the whole time from the reign of Menes to that of Sethon was 11340 years. And by this way of recconing \& allotting {illeg} long reigns to the Gods of Egypt/ Herodotus tells us from the Priests that from Pan to Amasis were 15000 years & from Hercules to Alasis 17000.

<7v>

The Egyptians had before the days of Solon made their antiquities above 9000 Monarchy 9000 years old, & now they reccon to Herodotus a succession of 330 kings reigning so many generations (that is, 11000 years) before Sesostris. But \we are to begin wth Sesostris & his {illeg} grandfather &/ if wth Herodotus we omit the names of those \kings/ who did nothing memorable & consider only those whose actions are rec the rest reduced into due order will give us all or almost all the kings the kings of Egypt from the days of the expulsion of the shepherds by the grandfather of Sesostris downwards to the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses. For Sesostris – – – – Amasis Psemmiticus {illeg}

While the shepherds \Before the expulsion of the shepherds who reigned at/ reigned /While the shepherds reigned at\ Abaris over the lower Ægypt, that part of Egypt was \sometimes/ called Aeria, I think from the capital city Abaris (or {illeg} Ἀούαρις) by a small corruption of ye word name. And Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Egypt \& Homer gives the names of Æthiopia to Thebais/. But after the expulsion of the shepherds the name of Ægypt was extended to the whole. Whence its probable that the names of Ægypt & Æthiopia came from Aia Coptia & Coptus Aia Theophi & Thebais came from Aia Co had its name from Coptos.

Before the expulsion of the shepherds \were expelled/ out of Egypt that par the lower Egypt that \lower/ part of Egypt \(called Mizraim in Scriptures)/ was sometimes called Aeria I think from the capital city Abaris [Ἀούαρις] where they \shepherds/ reigned. And Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt: whence its probable that that name was derived from Coptos [Αἰα Κόπτου] & that the kings of Coptos {illeg} conquered first Thebais & then the lower Egypt \Aeria/ & thereby gave \extended/ the name of Egypt to the whole. Misphramethosis & Amosis conquered Aeria, & then Ammon & Sesac carried on the conquest westward to the mouth of the straits, \southward into Æthiopia & Arabia felix/ eastward to India, & northward to {illeg} Caucasus & Thrace. < insertion from lower down f 7v > pro\ba/ble that the name was deduced from the \Thebes the name of the old/ Metroplis {sic} of Thebais [\the land being calld/ Αια Θηβης or Αια Θεοφι] & intended then by conquest to take \given first to Thebais only & then extended by conquest/ southward to the {illeg} regions now called Æthiopia & either in the reign of Ammon who conquered them \& reigned at Thebes & in that of Sesac who governed ✝/ < insertion from lower down f 7v > ✝ Æthiopia (including Thebais) by a President residing at Thebes, & in that of < text from higher up f 7v resumes > or in that of Amenophis or Memnon who reigned ever \over/ Thebais & Æthiopia tog\e/her {sic} while Osarsiphus reigned in the lower Ægypt. < text from f 7v resumes > Homer gives the name of Æthiopia to Thebais. Whence its probable < insertion from lower down f 7v > probable that the name Æthiopia came originally from Thebes the \name of the/ old metropolis of Thebais, & was given first to Thebais only by calling it Αια Θεβης the land of Thebes \(meaning the Province above Coptos above Coptos) & below the/ & then extended by conquest southward o ye regions now called Æthiopia: & that this was done in the reign of Ammon who conquered Æthiopia & reigned at Thebes, & in that of Sesac who governed Thebe Æthiopia by a president residing at Thebes, & in that of Amenophis or Memnon who reigned over all {illeg} the upper Egypt \Thebais/ & Ethiopia together while Osarsiphus reigned in the |over| the lower Egypt.

< text from f 7v resumes >

Pheron is by Herodotus –– Nuncoreus.

Proteus reigned – – – or President.

Amentophis reigned – – – at This & Susa.

But these kings being \who were/ much older then Sesostris might (many of them) reign over \many/ little kingdoms in several parts of Egypt long before the days of Eli & Samuel & so are not under our consideration; If with {especial} If with Herodotus – & who left splendid monuments of their having reigned \over that over Egypt Monarchy/ (such as were Temples dedicated to them, & \& statues & Pyramids & Obelisks, Palaces/ dedicated \or ascribed/ to them;) these kings reduced into due order will give us all or almost all the kings from the days of the expulsion of the shepherds & founding of the monarchy do\wn/wards to the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses.

The language of Egypt in the time of the Greek & Roman Empires was was {sic} called ye Coptic, that is the language of Copts the city & region of Coptus spread over Ægypt [And from Αια Κόπτου the land of Coptus came the name Ægypt. [ffor Herodotus tells us that Thebais was anciently called Ægypt. The name of Egypt was \therefore/ extended by conquest from Coptos \first/ through all the upper Ægypt & then to all Egypt.] \This language then spread from Oi Coptus into all Egypt./ \And/ With this language spread the name of Ægypt. For Herodotus tells us that this Thebais was anciently called Ægypt. [The name therefore was propagated from ye upper Ægypt into the lower. Αἰα Κόπτου the Land of K|C|optus is Ægyp] And the name Ægypt [Αἰα Κόπτου] signifies the land of Coptus. The name therefore was propagated with the language from Coptus first over all the upper Egypt by conquering Thebes & then over the lower Egypt by e{illeg}

<8r>

Chap. IV.
Of the Babylonian Empire

After the regions upon Tigris & Euphrates became free from the Dominion of Egypt, Babylon \& Nineveh/ (a city|ies| built soon after the flood) continued for some time under her|their| own kings. And when the kings of Nineveh began to conquer |t|he|i|r neighbours, \Semiramis & soon after her/ Nabonasser reigned over Babylon. In his days a body of Egyptians flying from Sabacon carried to Babylon the Egyptian year of 365 days, & founded the Æra of Nabonassar as above, beginning the years thereof on the very same day with the years of Egypt. And in the year of Nabonassar 68 Asserhadon king of Assyria conquered Chaldea & Susiana & captivated the people placing many of them in Samaria, & carried the people of Samaria captive into Assyria. And henceforward Chaldea & Samaria {Susiana} became Provinces of Assyria for some \a/ time, but at length revolted & in conjunction with the Medes, destryed {sic} Nineveh.

By the fall of the Assyrian Empire, the kingdoms of the Chaldeans & Medes grew great & potent. The reigns of the kings of the Chaldeans grew great & potent are stated in Ptolomy's Canon: for understanding which, you are to note that every kings reign in that Canon began with the last Thoth of his Predecessor & ended with the last Thoth of his own reign, as

<10r>

the prophet Hosea[4] in the time of that interregnum (Hosea X.3, 6) \or soon after/ mentions Iarib {sic} king of Asyria \mentions the king of Assyria by the name of Iarib./ And p{illeg}|e|raps {sic} Iarib \there/ might be the first \a/ king of all Assyria but the first who carried his victories beyond the bounds of Assyria seems to be Pulus He invaded Israel |called Iarib, but whether he preceeded or succeeded Pul is uncertain. The first whose And if he preceeded him yet it appears not that he carried his conquests beyond the Province of Assyria. Pul seems to be the first who extended his conquests beyond those bounds. He invaded Israel, but| < insertion from f 10v > the Prophet Hosea in the time of that interregnum or soon after mentions a king of Assyria by the name of Iarib. And perhaps Iarib might be the name of one of their kings before he began to reign: & if he reigned before Pul he might be the first king who reigned over all Assyria. But the first who carried his victories beyond Assyria seems to be Pul. He \He {sic} conquered Calneh with its territories \in the reign of {Ieroboam}/ (Isa 10.8 {illeg} Amos 6.2) & soon after/ invaded Israel |in the reign of Menahem| \(2 Kings. 15. 19)/ but stayed not in the land being bought off by Menahem for a thousand talents < text from f 10r resumes > but staid not in the land being bought off by Menahem for a thousand talents of silver. In his reign therefore therefore the kingdom of Assyria was advanced on this side Tigris. For he was a great warrior & seems to have conquered Haran & Carchemish & Rezeph, & Calneh & Thalasser & all Chaldea & founded or enlarged the city Babylon & left it under its proper Kings. \governed it by Deputy Princes Kings./ For the Æra of Nabonasser (the first king of Babylon alone) \(the first of those Kings in the Canon)/ began about the time that Pul's reign ended \son soon after the reign of Pul this king/: & Isaiah who lived & prophesied in the days of Pul & his successors, thus describes the founding of Babylon. Behold, saith he, the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness [that is for the Arabians] they set up the towers thereof, they raised up the palaces thereof. Isa. XXIII.13. |And the short reigns of the first eleven kings shew that they were but deputy Pr|K|ince|g|s put in & out at the pleasure of ye Kings of Assyria. The city is said to have been built by Semiramis the widdow of ye first king of Assyria \a woman/ five generations before older then Nitocris the widdow of Nebuchadnezzar. Which makes it probable that Semiramis might reign there next before Nabonassar. These Princes reigned at Babylon before Asser\{illeg}/hadon: those that succeeded him, by their long reigns appear to have been kings for life.|

Tiglathpilaser warred in Phenicia & captivated Galile wth the two Tribes & an half in the days of Pekah king of Israel & placed them in Halath & Habor & Hara & at the river Gozan, places lying in the western border of Media between Assyria & the Caspian Sea (2 King. XV.29. 1 Chron. V.26) & about the fift or sixt year of Nabonasser he came to the assistance of the king of Iudah against the kings of Israel & Syria, & overthrew the kingdom of Syria wch had been seated at Damascus ever since the days of king David, & carried away the Syrians to Kir as Amos had prophesied, & placed other nations in the region of Damascus (2 King. XV.37 & XVI.5, 9. Ioseph Antiq. l. 9. c. 12). Whence it seems that the Medes were conquered before & that the Empire of the Assyrians was now grown great. For the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria & the spirit of Tiglathpilaser king of Assyria to make war 1 Chron. V.26.

Salmanasser (called Enemesser by Tobit (chap. 1){)} invaded a[5] all Phœnicia, took the city Samaria, & captivated Israel, & placed them in b[6] Chalach & Chabor by the river Gozan, & in the cities of the Medes{sic} & peopled Samaria with captives brought from Babylon & from Cutha & or Susa & from Ava & from Hamath or Antioch & from Sepharvaim & therefore reigned over those cities. He seems to be called by Ezr

Sennacherib in the 14th year of his reign Hezekiah invaded Phœnicia & took several cities of Iudah, but laying siege to & attempted Egypt, & Tirhakah king of Egypt Ethiopia & Egypt coming against him he lost in one night 185000 men, as some say by a plague, as others by being disarmed by mice or perhaps surprized by Tirhakah & returning in hast to Nineveh was there slain soon after by two of his sons who fled into Armenia, & his son Asserhaddon succeeded him. At that time did Merodach-Baladon or Mordoke{illeg}|m|pad king of Babylon send an embassy to Hezekiah king of Iudah.

Asserhaddon, corruptly {illeg} called Sarchedon by Tobit, Assardan <11r> by the seventy, & Sargon by Isaias (Tob. 1.21. Isa. XX.1) peopled Samaria with captives brought from several parts of Assyria the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, & the Elamites (Ezra IV.2, 9) & therefore reigned over all these nations. [7]In the year of Nabonassar 68 he began to reign immediately over Babylon. He invaded Iudæa, took {illeg}|Az|ot, carried Manasses captive to Babylon, & captivated also Egypt & Thebais & Ethiopia above Thebais, & by this war he seems to have put an end to the reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt.

< insertion from f 10v >

Pul seems to be the first who

Pul conquered Calneh

< text from f 11r resumes >

And now the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness being united under one Monarch, & conteining Assyria Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldæa, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phœnicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, & part of Arabia, & reaching eastward into Elymais & Parætacene. For Strabo reccons these two among the Provinces to which this Monarchy had given the name of Assyria, & Herodotus makes Parætacene a province of the Medes. And if Chalach & Habor where Salmanasser placed part of the ten tribes be Colchos & Iberia (as some think) we are also to add these Provinces with the two Armenias.

Asserhadon seems to be the Sardanapalus who reigned over Media & Babylonia till those nations revolted, the name \Sardanapalus/ being derived from Asser-hadon pul. a[8] Cle\it/archus saith that he died of old age after he had lost his dominion over Syria \& perhaps his old age as well as his luxurius & effeminate life might give occasion to the revolt of the nations/. Herodotus represents that the Medes revolted first & by force of arms defended their liberty & gave occasion to other nations to revolt, & not long after elected Dejoces their king & built Ecbatane. \/ In the year of Nabonassar 81 the reign of Assarhaddon over Babylon \ceased/ & by the revolt of the Babylonians & western nations Manasses was set at liberty to return home & fortified Ierusalem. < insertion from f 10v > Aserhadon seems to be the Sardanapalus who reigned over Medea & Babylonia till those nations revolted, the name Sardanapalus being derived from Asser-hadon-pul. Cleitarchus a[9] saith that he died of old age after he had lost his dominion over Syria, others say that he slew himself. The Scythians of Turan or Turquestan beyond the river Oxus, began in those days to infest the Persians & Assyrians & perhaps by one of their inrodes might give occasion to the revolt. Herodotus represents that the Medes revolted first & by force of arms defended their liberty & gave occasion to other nations to revolt, & not long after elected Dejoces their king & built Ecbatane. \And perhaps they might revolt after then once. For others say that they revolted/ They revolted under the conduct of Arbaces who was a Mede, & one of the general commanders of the forces of Sardanapalus \& who in the book of Iudith (if I mistake not) is called Arphanad/. He was encouraged to revolt by the luxurious & effeminate life of his king & conspired wth Belesis another commander of the Assyrian forces. And Eusebius tells us that the writers of the Babylonian affairs (I suppose he means Because & some others) say that Arbaces made Belesis king of the Assyrians. I suppose he means, king of so much of the Assyrian Empire as after the revolt of the nations remained in subjection to Nineveh. This revolution happened in the year of Nabonassar 81. For at that time Asserhaddon was succeeded at Babylon by Saosduchinus. And by this revolution Manasses was set at liberty to return home & fortifi|y|ed Ierusalem. And the Egyptians also < text from f 11r resumes > And the Egyptians also, after the Assyrians had reigned three years over them (Isa. XX.3, 4) were set at liberty & created twelve contemporary kings over themselves. These kings reigned fifteen years, & then one of them called Psammiticus conquered all the rest, & reduced Egypt again into a monarchy & built the last Portico of the Temple of Vulcan founded by Menes, but made Sais the seat of his kingdome. He died in the 131th year of Nabonassar & was succeeded by his son Pharaoh Nechao.

Ctesias represents that the luxurious & effeminate life of Sardanapalus gave occasion to Arbaces & the Medes to revolt. His old age might also promote the revolting of the nations. He is said to be the son of Anacyndaraxis or Anabaxaris (I suppose they mean Sennacherib) & to have built Tarsus & Anchiale in one day. The kings who reigned after him at Babylon were Saosduchinus, Chiniladon, Nabopolasser & Nebuchadnezzar: & those at Ecbatane Dejoces Phraortes Astyages, Cyaxeres & Darius. But the series of the kings who reigned at Nineveh. I

< insertion from f 10v >

Sardanapalus is said to have built Tarsus & Anchiale in one day, & to have been the son of Anacy|n|daraxis or as others name him, Anabaxaris. I suppose they mean Sennacherib. The kings who reigned after him in Media were \Dejoces/ Arbaxes, Dejoces, Phraortes \or Arbaxes/ Astyages Cyaxeres & Darius; those at Babylon were Saosduchinus, Chiniladon, Nabopolasser & Nebuchadnezzar with his sons; & those at Nineveh, I think were Belesis, Nebuchadonosor & Saracus. [By this Nebuchadonosor I understand that king of Assyria who is mentioned in the book of Iudith:

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<12r>

[10]Chap: 1
Of the Monarchies of the Assyrians Babylonians & Medes.

Of the Assyrian Monarchy we have very litle of certainty besides what is mentioned in sacred writ. In d|t|he days of David, Solomon & several \some/ of their successors the Israelites re\i/gned over Syria as far as the river Euphrates. In \Till/ the days of Ionas the kings who reigned at Nineveh were only called kings of Nineveh. Soon after \his day/ their kings Pul, Tiglath-pul-asser, & Salman-asser conquered far & wide & were called kings of Assyria \& therefore may be recconed the founders of this Monarchy/. While this Monarchy stood the kingdoms of the Babylonians & Medes were but small & deserv so as not to deserve the name of Empires till they subdued the kingdom of Assyria & shared its dominions. This kingdom was subdued by Nebuchadone{illeg}sser & {Clethseterus} \Ahsuerus (Tobit    )/ & \therefore/ these two may be accounted the founders |of| the fi \{illeg} two/ Empires of ye Babylonians & Medes. Assuerus \Oxyares/ or Axeres is he whom ye Greeks call Cy-Axeres. |that is, Prince Axeres, & the Masoretes Ahasuerus.|

Of all the kings of the Medes Cyaxeres was the greatest warrior. Herodotus tells us[11] that he was much more warlike then his ancestors & that he was the first who reduced the irregular & undisciplined forces of the Medes into discipline & order & divided the kingdom into Provinces, wch is as much as to say that he was the first who by conquering mak|d|e the kingdom big enough to be divided into Provinces. When a {illeg} Æschylus who flourished in ye reign of Darius Hystaspis & died in the reign of Xerxes & is the oldest Greek author who mentions these things, introduces this Darius reciting his ancestors the kings of the Medo-Persian Monarchy in this order.

Μηδος γὰρ ἠν ὁ πρωτος ἡγημὼν στρατου.

Αλλος δ᾽{ο} ἐκείνου παις τὸ δ᾽ ἔργον ἤνυσε

Τριτος δ᾽ ἀπ᾽ {illeg} ἀυτου ποης Κυρος ἐυδαίμων ἀνήρ.

He that first commanded the army was a Mede

The next, was he {sic} son, finished the work.

The third from him was Cyrus a happy man.

Whence it appears that before the reign of Cyrus there were but \two/ kings in the Empire of the Medes & Persians & those were both Medes, the second being the son of the first. T And who those were is disco\ve/red by Daniel who lets us know that Darius the son of Ahsuerus reigne of the seed of the Medes reigned over Babylon before Cyrus. For \this/ Darius reigned ove by the laws of the Medes & Persians (Dan 6    ) & therefore he reigned over the Medes & Persians as well as over Babylon, & the Medes being set first, were uppermost in his reign. You may know also by the number of Provinces in his kingdom that he reigned over \all/ these nations. For he set over the whole kingdom 120 Princes & afterwards in the reign of the \Ahsuerus/ (that Ahsuerus whom ye Greeks call Xerxes,) when the Provinces of Egypt Thebais & Libya were added to the kingdom, the whole conteined but 127 Provinces. So{illeg} then Darius reigned over the Empire of the Medes Persians & Babylonians before Cyrus & by consequence his father Ahsuerus {illeg} was the first king of this Empire. He first led the army conquering the expelling the Scythians \who had invaded his kingdom/ & conquering the Assyrians & Persians eastward & Armenians westward as far as the river Halys & his son Darius finished the work by subduing the kingdoms of the Lydians & Babylonians.

The conquest slaughters of ye Scythians, Assyrians & Persians by Cyaxes is thus described by

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Chap.
Of the Monarchy of the Persians.

Cyrus having translated the monarchy of the Medes to the Persians \Anno Nabonass. 212/ & |having| reigned seven years was succeeded by C \left the Kingdom to/ his son Cambyses in Spring Anno Nabonass 219 who reigned \{illeg}/ |who beg {sic} his {illeg} \reign {illeg}/ in spring anno Nabonass 219 as is certain by two Eclipses of the Moon in {sic} his reign He reigned seven years| & five months, in the three last years of his reign subdued Egypt, & dying in autumn was succeeded anno Nabonass. 226, was succeeded by Mardus or Smerdes the Magus who feigned himself to be Smerdes the younger br. of Cambyses. Smerdes reigned seven months ye months & in – – – antistitem

Cyrus having translated the Monarchy to the Persians & reigned seven years was succeeded by his son Cambyses [in spring anno Nabonass 219 [as is certain by two Eclipses of the Moon] Cambyses \who/ reigned seven years & five months, \&/ in the three last years of his reign subdued Egypt, & dyed in autumn Anno Nabonass 226 & was succeeded by Mardus or Smerdes the Magus who – – – – antistitem. By Zoroaster's – – – – – – subjection to Darius.

C

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While the kings of Egypt instead of conque imploying their wealth & people in their warrs abroad imployed both at home in these useless works at home they lost their dominion abroad by degrees & became divided at home into several dominions untill Sabacon the Ethiopian invaded them. ffor at Sais reigned Stepanates Nechepsos & Nechus, at Memphis & Heliopolis ye or one of them ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & at Thebes Mycemius \Memphis/ Asychis & Anysis or Amosis & at Thebes Gnephac\h/thos (called also Neochabis & Technatis) & his son Boccha\ris/ //Gnephachthus leading an army into Arabia through desert places his provision failed so that he was fain to take up with \such/ mean food as ye he could then be supplied wth wch he relished so heartily that he forbad all excess & luxury & cursed the king \Menes/ who first brought in a \sumpteous &/ luxurious way of living & caused the curse to be entered in the sacred records \cut on a Pillar & placed/ in the Temple of Iupiter at Thebes wch {illeg} the \made the fame &/ reputation of Menas to be clouded in future generations. Diodorus L. 1. p 59. Plutarch de Iside p. 354. {illeg} A And accordingly Alexis {illeg} tells us that Boccharis & his father Neochabis used a moderate diet. (Apud Athenæum Dipn. l 10. p. 418e.) Boccharis was of a little \man of an/ infirm body but for prudence & justice he was famous to a proverb. He was very quic piercing & quicksignted in judgmt. & is recconed ab amongst one of the lawmakers of Egypt. He sent \let/ in a wild Bull upon the Ox Mnevis wch the {illeg} the Ox slew, & for d|t|hat act the {illeg} Egyptians hated him (Ælan de Animal. l 11. c. 11. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Diodorus reccons Boccharis ye 4th king from Mycerinus but tells us not who names not the intermediate kings. Perhaps they were Guephac\h/t\h/us & Boccharis the father of this Boccharis. ffor Diodorus in another place calling him Vchoreus – – – cities in the world. However Memphys was built before by Me{illeg}|æ|nes & now only repaired & {illeg} better fortified & perhaps enlarged \& adorned/ by Boccharis.

Anysis was blind & {illeg} to in his reign Sabacus or Sabocon King of Ethiopia invaded & conquered Egypt, [Anysis in the meane b flying into ye fenny places of Ep neare Pelusium & there lying hid during that reign of while Sabacus reigned] \He \Sabacus/ punished none with death but condemned offenders to carry earth to the cities |of Egypt| for raising them higher. By wch means this king \he/ raised the|m| cities of Egypt much higher then Sesostris had done before. he These two kings Anysis & Sabacus are by Diodorus called Amotis & Actisanes. the Ethiopian Amosis/ {illeg} These two kings are by Diodorus called Amotis & Actisanes Amosis {sic} was cruel & put many to death for wch reason his subjects {illeg} upon the invasion of Actisanes revolted from him so that he was easily conquered. by the Ethiopians but Actisanes who was merciful & obliging to his subjects |&| Instead {sic} of putting robbers to death he cut of their noses & banished them into a barren place between Egypt & Syria thence called Rhinocorera.

While the kings of Egypt isntead of imploying their wealth & p{illeg}eople in their wars abroad imployed them \at home/ in building Pyramids, They lost \the Egyptians by degrees lost/ their dominion abroad by degrees & became divided at home into severall kingdoms untill Sabacon the Ethiopian invaded them. ffor \there reigned/ at Thebes reigned Gnephachthus & \his son/ Bocharis. At \Tamis & {Pelusium} reigned Amos{illeg}is/ Heliopolis & some time at Memphys or one of them reigned Asychis & A\n/ysis & at Sais reigned Stephanates, Nechepsos & Nechus successively \& T Ani at Tanis & Pelusium Anytis/ And when {illeg} Sabachus invaded Egypt he took Boccharis & burnt him alive {illeg} /slew {Asichis} and made\ Anysis fly into the fenns \into the fenny places neare Pelusium where he lay hid during the reign of Sabachus/ & slew Nechus.

Gnephacththus (called also Neochabis & Technatis) leading an army – – – enlarged by Boccharis. And while Boccharis or Asychis reigned at And while Boccharis succeeded Asychis at Memphis was lord of Memphis whether he inherited it from Asychis or took it from Anysis there remained only the eastern parts of the lower Egypt about Heliopolis & Pelusium for the seat of Anysis.

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In the kingdom of Sais the last king Nechus was the father of Psammiticus who reigned afterwards & his predecessor Nicepsos with one Petosiris is reputed the author inventor of Iudicial Astrology & the first that wrote the a|A|rt of predicting by the starrs. |[He lived about the time that \immediately before/ the Assyrians built Babylon & borrowed from the Egyptians their year & study of the stars.] And besides these three kingdoms \of Egypt/ there might be others of wch we have|

When Sabachus invaded Egypt he took Boccharis & burnt him alive, & slew Nechus & made Anysis fly into the fenny places of Egypt \wch abouded neare/ wch neare Pelusium where he lay hid all the r \in the Island Elbo/ during the reign of the Ethiopians Their reign according to Herodotus lasted 50 years & began and ended under Sabachus. But in the Dynasties of Africanus Sabachus reigned only 8 years & was succeeded had two Ethiopian successors, Sevechus his son who reigned 14 years & Tirhakah who reigned 18. Sevechus seems to be the Sua or So king of Egypt with whom Hoshea king of Israel conspired against the Assyrians three or four years \in the fourth year of Hezekiah two or three years/ before ye captivity of the ten Tribes 2 King. 17.4. &|A|nd Tirhakah was that Pharaoh king of Egypt on whom Hezekiah trusted \in the 14th year of his reign/ when Senacherib invaded Iudea & that Tirhakah king of Ethiopia who \in the same year/ came out against Senacherib in behalf of Hezekiah 2 King. 18.21, 24 & 19.9. T If we may supposed that Tirhakah succeeded Sevechius in \about/ the middle time of these two periods & {illeg} that is about ye 8|9|th year of Hezekiah & from thence count backwards ye 22 years of Sabacon & Sevechus, the invasion & conquest of the kingdoms of Egypt by Sabacon will fall upon the third year of Ahaz 239 \240/ years after the death of Solomon |or thereabouts & the end of the reign of Tirhakah upō ye 27th year of Ezekiah, after whom some reccon that another king reigned before Egypt was freed from the dominion of the Ethiopians.|

Herodotus giving an account of the action between the Ethiopians & Assyrians & how the Asyrians were slain – Egyptians & Ethiopians into captivity Isa 20 \{illeg} at wch time they conquered also the Iews & carried Manasseh captive to Babylon 2 Chron. 13.11/ This conquest putting an end to the reign of Tirhakah who was about the 27th year of Ezekiah |because he reigned 18 years| And thus the Monarchy of Egypt

After Egypt was freed from the dominion of the Ethiopians (wch seems to have been by this victory of the Assyrians) there was – – – – ever since in servitude

These various kingdoms are all pointed at by Isaiah where he saith I willl set the Egyptians against the Egyptians & they shall fight every one against his brother & every one against his neighbour city against city & kingdom agt kingdom – And the Egyptians will I give over into the hand of a cruel lord & a fierce king shall rule over them. – The princes of Zoan are fools – how say ye unto Pharaoh, I am ye son of ancient kings – The Princes of Noph are deceived. they have also seduced Egypt, even they that are the stay of the Tribes thererof. Isa 19. Here the Prophet \seems to/ mentions two \of the/ kingdoms \of Egypt/ the one seated at Zoan \or Tanis/ the other at Noph or Memphis, & there might be others in other places.

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When the Ethopian Sabacon or Actisanes invaded Egypt, there were the Egyptians {sic} were divided into several kingdoms. ffor Sabacon took Boccharis & burnt him alive, slew Nechus king of Sais & made Anysis fly into ye fenny places of Egypt neare Pelusium where he lay hid in the Island Elbo during the reign of the Ethiopians. Anysis {illeg} therefore reigned in the Arabic part of the lower Egypt

In Sais reigned Stephanates Necepsos & Nechus successively. Nechus was the father of Psammiticus who reigned afterwards & his predecessor Nicepsos with on {sic} Petosiris – by the stars.

At Thebes reigned Gnephac\h/t\h/us & his son Boccharis successively. Gnephachthus –

Besides these three kingdoms of Egypt its probale {sic} there might be some others seated at Bubaste, Tanis, Xais, or Heliopolis ffor in the canons we find kings of Tanis, Bubaste, Xais, &c but also & some other cities. Thebes & Isaias speaking of the|i|se times {illeg} points at a kingdom of \{illeg} time seems to mentions several kingdoms one of wch was seated at/ Zoan or Tanis where he saith I will set – thereof. Isa 19. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ So then the Monarchy of Egypt in the reign of those kings who built the Pyramids, became divided into several kingdoms at home & by consequence lost their \its/ dominion abroad. While the kings of Egypt imployed their people & wealth in their armies abroad their Monarchy flourished but when they imployed \them/ in drudgeries at home {illeg} the neglect of their affairs abroad put an{illeg} end to their dominion dominion over the nations. And the Egyptians being {illeg} thus weakened were & the Ethiopians who were formerly the subjects of Egypt being {ever} fallen of from them invaded them & became their Lords. Herodotus

Herodotus

The reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt according to Herodotus lasted 50 years – – – upon ye 27 year of Hezekiah.

Herodotus giving an acct

Cambyses conquered Ægypt in the {1}9t or 6t year of his reign. Reccon backward the reigns of the last \six/ kings of Egypt & the reign of the 12 \contemporary/ Kings will begin in the 13th year of Manasses, \& if/ the conquest of Egypt by the Assyrians will fall upon ye 10th or 11th year of Manasses & that of or if \was {illeg} \about/ two years before &/ the Ethiopians reigned over Egypt about 50 years \as Herodotus relates/, the reign of Sabacon will begin about ye 6t year of Ahaz, or 243 years after the death of Solomon & [that of Tirhakah about [ye 12 year of Hezekiah or one \that is about/ two years before the conquered \Ethiopians {wrote} Tirhakah granted/ the Assyrians. as] two years before he routed the army of Sennacherib [the slaughter of ye army of

[Editorial Note 4]
<18r>

Chap. III.
The Monarchy of Egypt at Thebes.

Herodotus[12] in giving an account of the ancient state of Egypt tells us that the Priests of Egypt affirming Menes to be their first king, read to him out of a Book the names of 330 following kings of Egypt who all reigned before Sesostris, & amongst whom were 18 Ethiopians & a forreign woman named Nitocris who acquired the kingdom by a memorable revenge of her brothers death, & that the Priests affirmed nothing done by any of the rest except one who was the last of them & was called Mæris. But Mæris as we shall presently shew reigned after Sesostris, & so did Nitocris if she reigned over both{illeg} Egypt & Ethiopia as Iosephus mentions & built the third Pyramid at Memphis as affirmed by Manetho. Herodotus therefore justly passes over in a few words all the ages of Egypt before Sesostris as obscure & conteining nothing memorable, & begins his history of the kings of Egypt wth this king the former kings (except two or three of his immediate predecessors) reigning not over all Egypt successively but divers of them at once in several parts of Egypt, wch renders them the less memorable. In the time of the Monarchy of Egypt Herodotus who has given the best account of this kingdom sets down their kings in this order, if Memnon & Mœris be duly inserted. Sesostris, Pheron, [Memnon & his Viceroy] Proteus, Rhampsinitus, [Mœris,] Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Asychis, Anysis, Sabbachus the Ethiopian, Anysis again, Sethon Priest of Vulcan, Twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus, Necho, Psammis, Apries, Amasis, Psammenitus. Before Sesostris is to be placed his father Belus or Ammon, & before Ammon may be set Tethmosis \Thmosis/ or Amosis the successor of Misphragmuthosis & founder of the Egyptian Monarchy

Iosephus[13] tells us out of Manetho that after the Shepherds went out of Egypt into Iudea, Tethmois \or Thummosis/ who expelled them reigned 25 years & 4 months & then was succeeded by his son Chebron, after whom reigned Amenothis \wth his sister. Then returning back/ And after another king or two he names \{illeg} Mephres,/ Mephramuthosis \or Abisphrag{illeg}thosis/, Thmosis \or Thummosis/, & Amenophis & Orus {illeg} \as reigning in order/ reigning in order. And after some other kings \or Princes/ wch {illeg} placed out of order (as Armais or Danaus) \one of wch was Armais or Danaus. And then again returning back he/ he names Armesses Miamun \other Princes of Egypt contemporary to Orus. And then again, with some other Princes of Egypt contemporary to Orus, one of wch was Armais or Danaus. And then again returning back he names Armesses Miamun &/ {sic} his son & successor Amenophis & his son & successor Sethosis the brother of Armais or Danaus. The same kings are recited out of Manetho by Africanus & Eusebius with a little variation of the names as follows in the following Table

[Editorial Note 5] <19v>
AfricanusEuseb gr 1
AmmenemesAmmenemes
Gesongoses fSesonchoris f
AmmanemesAmmenemes
Sesonchosis
SesostrisSesostris

Manetho in his 11th & 12 Dynasties \as he is cited by \Africanus &/ Eusebius &/ names these kings of Thebes as rei \as reigning in \order// Ammenemes, Sesonchoris ejus filius \Gesongoses his son/, Ammenemes & Sesostris ab Euneuchis \suis/ sublatus & & Sesostris. S|G|esonchoris|goses| is by Eusebius called Sesonchoris & should Sesoncholis but \The word/ should be Sesonchosis. The two first of these four kings Ammenemes & Sesonchosis are the same with the two last Ammenemes & Sesostris. Whence I gather that the father of Sesonchosis or Sesostris was Ammenemes or Ammon as above & was slain by his Eunuchs.

|So| Again {sic} {illeg} Manetho in his 18 Dynasty naming several kings of Thebes {illeg} in wch he represents the same kings \are represented/ several times {illeg} |naming {illeg} \{illeg} the kings \of Thebes/ wch reigned between \at Thebes from// the expulsion of ye Shepherds &|do|wn to Orus| repeats the same kings several times. ffirst he \ffirst/ He {sic} tells us that after the shepherds went out of Egypt into Iudea Tethmosis who expelled them reigned 25 years & 4 months & then was succeeded by his son Chebron, after whom reigned Amenophis & his sister. Then returning back he names Mephres Mephramuthosis, Thmosis Amenophis & Orus as reigning successively & subjoyns some other Princes of Egypt contemporary to Orus one of wch was \his unkle/ Armais or Danaus. And then again returning back he names Armesses Mamun & his son & successor Amenophis & his son & successor Sethosis the brother of Armais or Danaus. These kings are recited out of Manetho by Iosephus, Africanus |&| {illeg}|Eusebius| with a little variation of the names as in the following Table.

|From him the city Thebes was called No-Ammon & the Ox there worshipped was called \called/ Mnevis|

He is also called Sesostris, Sesoosis, Sessoses, Sesochris, Sesonchis, Sasyches & in Scripture Sesak.

Orus or Horus.

To him ye city No-Ammon \or Thebes/ & the Ox Mnevis there we were dedicated.

Th Diccarcus makes Osiris the Sesonchosis the immediate successor of Osiris Isis & Orus, according to wch recconing Osiris & Isis must have been contemporary to Saul & David.

{illeg} By Apis & Serapis Osiris is to be understood for the Egyptians worshipped Osiris in the Ox Apis & his father Ammon in the Ox Mnevis, & thence they said that ye Mnevis was the father of Apis

While As Osiris built temples to in Thebes to his father Ammon so the Egypti who \had/ reigned in that city before him, \him,/ so the Egyptians dedicated the city \it self/ to Ammon calling it No-Ammon & Ammon-No that is the city of Ammon, or as the Greeks render the word, Diospolis, the city of Iupiter{sic} Whence I gather that this city \Ammon. The city therefore being the royal seat of Ammon/ grew great in Ammons \his/ days, tho \tho {yet}/ his son Osiris only built it more sumptuously. This age was \And thus was therefore this age/ memorable for the building \founding/ of new royal cities: David built Ierusalem, Hiram Tyre, [Adad Damascus] & Ammon |& Sesak| Thebes, [& Theseus Athens.] And about \at/ ye same time Rezon erected a kingdom at

[The Egyptians worshipped two Oxen, one at Heliopolis called Mnevis & the other at Memphys called Apis, & Mnevis was accounted the father \of/ Apis, the former being dedicated to Ammon \as the name imports &/ the latter to his son Osiris |&| tho some affirm that both Oxen were dedicated to Osiris yet they seem consecrated to several Gods because Mnevis was sacred to ye Sun & Apis Apis to ye Moon.]

|built| Damascus & erected a new kingdom there. For when David smote Hadadezer ({illeg} \or/ Hadad-Asser) king of Zobah & \slew/ the syrians of Damascus who came to succor \assist/ him, Rezon fled from his Lord Hadadezer & gathering a band of men became their captain & went & reigned at in Damascus \over Syria/ 1 Sam 8.3 & 10.18 & 1 King. 11.23, 24, 25) & was an enemy to Israel all the days of Solomon. His successors name He is called Hezion 1 King 15.18 & his successors were Tabimon \Hadad or/ Benthadad, Hazael, & others untill the reign of \Ben hadad, {illeg} &/ Rezen. In w|t|hose|e| reign \of Rezen/ Tiglathp\h/ulaser captivated the {illeg} Syrians & put an end to the kingdom Hadadazer & Benhadad & Hazael for enlaring {sic} the kindom {sic} & adorning Damascus were worshipped \deified/ by the Syrians as Gods till even after the fall of their kingdom. For Iosephus tells us that \even/ till his days <19r> [Editorial Note 6] both Adar (that is Adad or Ben{illeg}adad) & his successor Hazael were worshipped as Gods for their benefactions & for building Temples by which they adorned the City Damascus. ffor they \[the Syrians]/ dayly celebrate solemnities in honour of these kings & boast their antiquity not knowing that they were novel & lived not above 1100 years ago. Thus far Iosephus. \/ < insertion from lower down f 19r > ‡ Iustin calls ye first of these two kings Damascus & saith that ye Syrians city was \had its/ named from him & |yt| in honour of him the Syrians made a Tem {illeg} used his {illeg} in making a Temple of the {illeg} sepulcher of his wife Arathes, wors worshipped his wife Arathes as a Goddes having \using/ her sepulcher for a Temple. By these instances it appears that the eastern nations of those ages

Nicolaus Damscenus makes Adad a common name of

For Pharaohs daughter staid in Ierusalem till Solomon had made an end of building his one house & the house & the house of ye Lord. & the wall of Ierusalem (1 King. 3.1) that is till the twentith {sic} year |after the laying of ye foundation of the Temple or 24th y.| of Solomon (2 Chron 8.1) And when she removed from Ierusalem to the house wch Solomon had built for her, she was {illeg} called Pharaohs daughter wch implies that her father was {then} alive \{was still} Pharaoh/ & therefore reigned in Egypt till {illeg} ye 20th year of Solomon or above then Pharaoh till the then alive the Pharaoh then reigning in Egypt \then alive/ & therefore he reigned from before the flight of Adad into Egypt \in Davids reign/ till the 24th year of Solomons reign or above < text from f 19r resumes > And here we have \it appears by/ a notable instance of yt ye eastern nations of those ages deified their kings forebears conquests & \{illeg}/ benefactions \such of their kings as were conquerors {illeg} \{who have}/ & benefactors/ And therefore since |Ammon was the first conqueror abroad & {illeg} enlarged Thebes king of Egypt who conquered abroad & his {illeg} conquests were large & his son| Sesostris {illeg} ye exceeded all the kings of Egypt in the greatness |both| of his conquests & of his benefactions {sic} to the Egyptians, we need not wonder if the Egyptians worshipped them \these two/ above all their kings, tho not \Sesostris was not worshipped/ by that name of Sesostris \or {Sesac}/ but by that|e| \name/ of {illeg} Osiris or Sirius or that Sesostris should be the \great/ God Osiris whom the Egyptians chiefly worshipped. ffor since they did not worship him by the name of Osiris Sesostris or Sesak, he must be one of ye Gods yt {illeg} whom the|y| Egyptians worshipped by another name, & the chief of them.

The Egyptians worshipped their greatest Gods in the Oxen Apis & Mnevis. The Ox Apis was worshipped \kept/ at Memphis, & {illeg} consecrated to ye Moon. & in h] Osiris. The Ox Mnevis was \kept {at}/ Heliopolis & consecrated to ye Sun was accounted the father of Apis: whence I gather that he was consecrated to Ammon ye father of Osiris

{illeg} Because Sesostris \having/ cut channels into all Egypt for ye river Nile |canales from the river Nile into all the lower Egypt| the Egyptians did consecrated that river to him \& worshipped them \him and the river/ together/ & called them both by the same names. So Homer calls that River Ægyptus & Manetho tells us that \the brothers/ Sethosis & Armais were by ye Greeks \was also/ called Ægyptus. & Danaus. Again \Also/ the River was called \a[14] Sihor/ b[15] Siris \& Osiris/ by the Ethiopians [as Dionysius Afer \& Pliny/ affirms,] & Sihor by the Prophets Hebrews: And the king was {illeg} c[16] called Siris {illeg} or Sirius & by the Greeks O-siris. And at length when the river {illeg} was called Nilus or Nuchul wch \Afterwards/ from ye word {illeg} נהל Nahal wch signifies a river, & the name of Nilus was also give to the King was also called |a Torrent the River was called Nilus & the River & the king were worshipped together| by the same name. For d[17] Diodorus tells us that Nilus was that king who cut Egypt into canales to make Egypt \the River/ more useful. Cicero[18] makes Nilus the father of \Mercury/ Minerva Vulcan & Bacchus, but he was rather Bacchus himself.

<20r>

Chap.
Of the Greek & Latin Empires.

After the death of Alexander the great

Alexander the great \died at Babylon Anno Nabonassar 425 &/ was succeeded by his bastard brother Philip Aridæus {illeg} \but/ after a while his captains shared the Empire, & \Philip being slain by {illeg} & she & the children wife & kindred of Alexander \Philip & his other kindred being slain,// & brake \by Cassander the captains of Alexander \put crowns on their heads &/ shared the Empire & brak it/ into many kingdoms the chief of wch were seated in {Greece} \Macedon/ Egypt Syria & Asia {illeg} minor, under the dominion of {illeg} Cassander Antigon Ptolomæus, Antigonus & Seleucus.

Demetrius the son of Antigonus slew Alexander the son of Cassander & seized his kingdom but was 6 years after conquered by \Ptolomy/ Seleucus, Lysimachus king of Thrace & Pyrrhus

Alexander the great \having conquered having conquered {sic} the Persian Empire/ died at Babylon \in spring/ Anno Nabonass. 425 & was succeeded by his bastard brother Philip Aridæus, but about 12 or 16 years after his death, his brother & other kindred being slain, his captains {illeg} put crowns on their heads who had the government of \who governed/ several Provinces \of the kingdom/ put crowns on their \own/ heads, & reigned the chief of wch were Cassander, Antigonus, Seleucus & Ptolomy reigning over Macedon, Asia, Syria & Egypt.

\Then /Afterwards\/ Demetrius the son of Antigonus slew Alexander the son of Cassander & seized his kingdom, but was six years after succeeded in Thrace & Greece by Pyrrhus king of Epire & he seven months after by Lysimachus king of Thrace & one of Alexanders captains. Thus were \one of which was |one of Alexanders captains & king of Thrace, by wch means|/ the kingdoms of Thrace & Macedon \became/ united. An. Nab. 460 And about ye same time Seleucus assisted by Demetrius \&/ Lysimachus assisted by Ptolomy drove Lysi took Asia minor from Demetrius.

Alexander the great died in spring at Babylon in spring anno Nabonass 425, & his captains gave the Monarchy to his bastard brother Philip Aridæus |&| & shared the government of the Provinces thereof amongst themselves making \made/ Perdiccas Procurator or Genera Administrator of the kingdom, & Mel |Perdiccas made| Meleager Genera commander of the army under Perdiccas Seleucus Master of the horse & Craterus Treasurer of the kingdom & committing the government of Macedon Greece & Epire to Antipater & Craterus, \that/ of Thrace to Lysimachus, of \{sic} divided the rest of the Captains he made governors of Provinces./ < insertion from lower down f 20r > of Ægypt & Libya to Ptolomy, of {lesser} Asia minor Cappadocia & Paphlagonia to Eumenes, of Pamphylia, Lycia, Lycaonia & Phrygia major to Antigonus, \of Phrygia minor to Leonnatus,/ of Caria to Cassander the son of Antipater, of Syria & Phœnica to Laomedon of Armenia to Neoptolemus, of Mesopotamia to Arcesilaus, of Babylonia to Archon &c, of Media to Atropates &c.

< text from f 20r resumes >

Alexan Roxane the wife of Alexander being left big wth child was soon after brought to bed of a son whom they called Alexander & saluted king, joyning setting co joyning him with Aridæus in the throne of the kingdom.

About three years after, Perdiccas & Craterus \Neoptolemus Leonnatus/ being slain Antipater was made the Guardian of the two kings \chosen administrator of the kingdom/ & made a new partition of the Provinces \among the captains/ giving Babylonia to to Seleucus, [Mesopotamia & Arbelitis to Amphimachus] & constituted Antigonus commander of the army & guardian of the two kings & joyned with him his son Cassander the governor of Caria

About two years after Antipater dying left Polysperchon administrator of the Empire Anno Nabonass 429. And two years after \the Greek cities revolt to Alexander Cassander and/ in \this/ September Philip Aridæus wth his Queen Eurydice were slain \in September/ by the command of Olympias the mother of Alexander, after he had reigned 6 years & four months.

And three years \a year or two/ after \Anno Nabonass 433,/ Cassander the son of Antigonus affecting the kingdom of Macedon slew Olympias the mother of Alexander & married Thessalonice the sister of Alexander & imprisoned Roxane ye widdow of Alexander wth her \young/ son Alexander the king. young king

<20v>

five years after, Anno Nabonass. 437, Cassander Ptolomy & Lysimacus made peace wth Antigonus with this covenant that Cassander should be chief commander of the forces of Europe untill Alexander the young {illeg} King Alexander the son of Roxana should be grown up, & that Ptolomy \Lysimachus/ should govern Thrace Ptolomy Ægypt Libya & Arabia & Antigonus all Asia. Selecus had possest himself of Mesopotamia Babylonia Susiana & Media the year before

Cassander seing the young king Alexander grow up & that rumors were spread throughout Macedon as if it were time that the young king should be brought out of custody & receive his fathers kingdom, commanded that he & his mother Roxane should be {slain} \the Governor of the Castle to kill him & his mother/ Roxame {sic} & conceate {sic} their deaths. This was anno Nabonass 438.

The next \same/ year or the next Polysperchon accusing A{illeg} Cassander sent for Hercules the bastard son of Alexander & Barsines, out of Pergamus & recommending him to the enemies of Cassander, prayed that they would place him in his fathers kingdom, but in the year of Nabonassar 440 \& raising a great army declared him king but/ Cassander fearing least the Macedonians should revolt to Hercules contrived the death of the king & his mother Arsine Anno Nabonass. 440

And about two years after Antigonus governour of Asia & Syria pro {sic} {illeg} upon getting a \great/ victory of \at sea/ over Ptolomy {illeg} took upon himself the title of king & after his example gave the same title to his son Demetrius, & after their example the other Princes \Ptolomy/ Seleucus {illeg} Cassander & Lysimachus did the like. & the next year Ptolomy having repulsed Antigonus did the same. ffor the reign of Ptolomy begins wth this year according to the Canon Ptolomy reigned over Egypt & Libya, Seleucus over all the east from ye river Euphrates to India, Antigonus over Asia minor & Syria Cassander of over Macedon \&/ Greece & Lysimachus over Thrace. The Canon allots {illeg} \7/ years to the reign of Philip Arideus & 12 more to reign of young Alexander & king (including {illeg} the reign of Hercules) & begins the reign of Ptolomy & by consequence that of the kings of Macedon \Thrace/ Asia & Persia with the year of Nabonassar 444. At this time therefore according to ye Canon, the Monarchy of the Greeks brake {illeg} into the kingdoms of Egypt Persia, Asia, {illeg} Macedon & Thrace.

[Editorial Note 7]
<21v>

Chap
Of the Empire of the Greeks |under their own kings.|

Alexander the Great died at Babylon \in spring May a month before ye summer solstice/ in ye year of Nabonassar 425 an 1 Olymp. 114, & his captains gave the Monarchy to his bastard brother Philip Aridæus & {illeg} a man disturbed in his understanding & made Perdiccas administrator of the kingdom, & Perdiccas \wth their consent/ made Meleager commander of the army, Seleucus master of the horse, Craterus Treasurer of the kingdom, |Antipater governor of Macedon & Greece, Ptolomy governor of Egypt Antigonus {illeg} \governor of/ Pamphilia Lycia Lycaonia & Phrygia major| & the other captains governors of /other\ Provinces. And the Babylonians began now to count by a new aera wch they called the Æra of Philip & used it instead of the Æra of Nabonassar recconing the 425 year of Nabonassar to be the first year of Philip. And Roxane the wife of Alexander being left big with child & about 3 or 4 months after his death brought to bed of a son, they called him Alexander & saluted him king |joyning him wth Philip in ye throne of the kingdom|.

Philip reigned three years under the adminstratorship of Perdiccas two years \more/ under the administratorship of Antipater & \above/ a year & some months more under the administratorship of Polysperechon, in all six years & four months, & then was slain wth his Queen Eurydice in Novemb September by the command of Olympias the mother of Alexander the great an 4. Olymp. 115. And the Greeks being disgusted at the cruelties of Olympias fell of revolted to Cassander the son of Antipater.

Cassander affecting the dominion of Greece slew Olympias & |soon after| shut up the young king Alexander wth his mother Rhoxane in ye castle of Amphipolis under the charge of Glaucias An. 1. Olymp 11{illeg}|6|.

The next year Ptolomy Cassander & Lysimachus \by the means of Seleucus/ made a league wth against Antigonus who declared against Cassander [who declared against Cassander for killing Olympias & impriso] & after {illeg} certain wars made peace wth him upon t an 2 Olymp 117 upon these conditions that Cassander should be command ye forces of Europe till Alexander the son of Roxana came to age, |&| that Lysimachus should govern Thrace, Ptolomy Ægypt & Libya & Antigonus all Asia. [But Cassander the same year \or soon after/ seeng {sic} that Alexander the son of Roxana grew up & that it was discoursed throughout all Macedonia that it was fit he should be freed fro set at liberty & take upon him the government of his fathers kingdom commanded Glaucias the keeper governour of the castle to kill both Roxana & the king, & conceale their deaths.] Seleucus had possest himself of Mesopotamia Babylonia Susiana & Media the year {illeg} before. About 3 years after Alexanders death he was made governour of Babylon by Antipater, then expelled by Antigonus & now recovered & enlarged his government |over a great part of the east, wch gave occasion to a new Æra called Æra Seleucidarum. This Æra according to the Iewish account began in Spring An. Philip. 12. An. 4 Olymp. 116 \but/ according to the Chaldean account it began the next spring & according to ye Antiochian & Alexandr acct it began in Autumn between|

Not long after this peace (Diodorus saith the same Olympic year) Cassander, seing that Alexander the son of R\h/oxanæ grew up, & that it was discoursed thoughout Macedonia that it was fit he should be set at liberty & take upon him the government of his fathers kingdom commanded Glaucias the governour of the Castle to kill R\h/oxanæ & ye \young/ king \Alexander/ & conceale their deaths. Afterwards \Then/ Polysperchon set up Hercules the {illeg} son of Alexander the great &|b|y Barsine to be king, but by & \soon after/ at the great sollicitation of Cassander caused him to be slain. {illeg} And soon after \that/ upon a great victory at sea got by Demetrius the son of Antigonus over Ptolomy, Antigonus took upon himself the title of king & gave ye same title to his son & {illeg} An 2 Olymp. 118. And after his example Seleucus Cassander Lysimachus & Ptolomy did the like set crowns on their own heads the same yeare took upon themselves the title & dignity of kings, having absteined from this honour while there remained any of Alexanders race to inherit the crown. And thus the monarchy of the Greeks for want of an heir was broken into many \several/ kingdoms, four of wch seated to the four winds of heaven were very eminent. For Ptolomus

<21r>

Iustin represents that Hercules was slain before Alexander, \&/ the Canon produces the reign of Alexander to the 19th year after the death of his father Alexander the great, \&/ making|es| the 20th year of Philip to be the first of Ptolomy. Whether the Monarchy was diso \was dissolved &/ became divided into several kingdoms this year or a year or two before is of no consequence.

At the time of this division Ptolomy reigned over Greece Egypt & Libya \& Æthiopia/, & Seleucus {illeg} Antigonus over Asia & Syria, Seleucus over \Babylonia &/ all the east from Euphrated|s| to India & Cassander {illeg} over Macedon Greece & Epire. And thus was the Monarchy of the Greeks at its first dissolution divided into four great kingdoms to the four winds of heaven. \{illeg}/ Thrace was not part \absolutely/ a part of Alexanders monarchy \kingdom/: Lysimachus \wth a small body of Alexanders forces/ made war upon the /king of the\ Thracians & subdued them after Alexanders death.

Cassander being afraid of the power of Antigonus combined with Lysimachus Ptolomy & Seleuc{illeg}us against him. {illeg} And whilst Lysimachus invaded the Asia the parts of Asia next the Helespont, Ptolomy invaded the cities of Syria \subdued {illeg} Cœbyria & {Cyprus} Phœnicia/ & Selecus having newly made peace wth Sandrocottus king of India came down with a powerfull army into Cappadocia, & joyning the confederate forces fought Antigonus in Phrygia, & slew him & shared \seized/ his kingdom an 4 Olymp 119. After wch Seleucus built Antioch & \Seleucia & many/ other cities in Syria & Asia.

Yet Demetrius the son of Antigonus retained {illeg} some \a small part/ of his fathers dominions & at length \lost Cyprus to Ptolomy but/ killing Alexander {illeg} \the son of Cassander/ king of Macedon seized his kingdom An 3 Olymp. 121 & sometime after preparing a very great army to invade \recover/ his fathers dominions in Asia, Seleucus, Pyr Ptolomy & Lysimachus & Pyrrhus king of Epire combined against him, & Pyrrhus invading Macedonia put De corrupted the army of Demetrius, put him to flight seized his kingdom & shared it wth Lysimachus, & after seven months Lysimachus beating Pyrrhus took Macedonia {illeg} from him & held it five years & an half, uniting the kingdoms of Macedon & Thrace.

{illeg} Lysimachus in the \his/ wars with Antigonus & Demetrius, had seized taken \from them/ Cana, & Lydia from them \& Phrygia/ & [had his Treasy\{tise}/ in the castle of Pergamus of wch \one/ Philetærus was governour. Philetærus In the last year of Lysimachus Philetærus revolted from him] had a Treasury in Pergamus a castle on the top of a conical hill in Phrygia by the river Caicus & had committed the custody thereof to one Philetærus who was at first faithfull to Lysimachus but in the last year of \Lysimachus/ his reign revolted. ffor Lysimachus by the instigation of his wife Arsinoe slew first his son Agathocles & then those who lamented him. Vpon wch the wife of Agathocles fled wth her children & brothers & some others of their friends & sollicited Seleuchus to make war upon Lysimachus. And now Philetærus \also/ grieving at the death of Agathocles & being accused thereof by Arsinoe, revolted & sided wth Seleucus. & the Seleucians who \And/ Lysimachus going into Asia fought Seleucus in Phrygia & was slain in slain in battle On this occasion Seleucus & Lysimachus met \& fought/ in Phrygia & Lysimachus being slain in the battel lost Seleucus his kingdom to Seleucus \an 4. Olymp 124/. Thus the great monarchy \Empire/ of the Greeks \wch at first brake into 4 great kingdoms/ became divided \now reduced/ into two great monarchies called by Daniel the kings of the north & south \henceforward \notable ones/ henceforward called by Daniel the kings of the south & north./ [& the king of the south was strong & one of his {illeg} Princes (or one of the Princes of the migh] \\For/ Ptolomy now reigned over Ægypt Libya Æthiopia Arabia Phœnicia Cœlosyria Cyprus, & the kingdom of Seleucus was/ both wch were {sic} mighty & the northern mightier then the southern as is thus exprest by Daniel |that of Seleucus \was/ a very mighty dominion scarce inferior to the Monarchy of the Medes & Persians. And all this is thus described by Daniel| The fourth king of Persia [Xerxes] shall stir up all against the realm of Greece. And as a mighty King \[Alexander]/ shall stand up & that shall rule wth great dominion & do according to his will. And when he shall stand up his kingdom shall be broken \[after the death of sons/ & shall be divided towards the four winds of heaven, \[under Ptolomy Seleucus Antigonus & Cassander]/ & not be, but not to his posterity [they being dead before this division |this division not commencing till they were \all/ dead|] nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled: for his kingdom shall be [shared between Ptolomy, Seleucus Antigonus & Cassander &] pluckt up even for others besides those. And the king of the south \[Ptolomy]/ shall become strong, & one of his Princes [Seleucus one of Alexanders Princes] shall become strong above <20v> and have dominion: his dominion shall be a great dominion. D

After Seleucus had reigned seven months over Macedon Greece Thrace Asia Syria & all the east as far as India, he was slain treacherously by Ptolomæus Ceraunus one of the sons of Ptolomæus Lagi the brother of Ptolomeus Philadelphus slew him treacherously & seized his dominions in Europe & Antiochus Soter the son of Seleuchus succeeded his father in Asia Syria & most of the east, & \after 20|19| years or 20 years/ was succeeded by his son Antiochus Theos who having a tedious lasting war wth Ptolomæus Philadelphus composed the same by marrying Berenice the daughter of Philadelphus & after a reign of 15 years left his kingdom to {illeg} Seleucus Callinicus his son by Laodice another wife |was poisoned by his other wife Laodice poisoned him \&/ set her son Seleuus Callinicus upon the throne|. And Callinicus \in the beginning of his reign/ by the impulse of his mother Laodice slew \beseiged {illeg}/ Berenice \in Daphne & slew her/ wth her youg son \& many of her weomen/. Whereupon Ptolomeus Euergetes the successor of Philadelphus & brother of Berenice made war upon Callinicus, \Phœnicia/ Syria Cilicia Mesopotamia Babylonia {illeg} \Susiana Susiana/ & the \some other/ regions eastward |& carried back into Egypt 40000 tallents of silver & 2500 Images of the Gods amongst wch were the Gods of Egypt carried away by Cambeses.| All wch is thus signified by Daniel. And in the end of \after certain/ years they [the kings of the south & north] shall make an agreement how associate t make friendship: for the kings daughter of the south \[Berenice]/ shall come to the king of the north to make \establish/ an agreement but she shall not retain the power of the arm & she shall not stand nor her seed, but she shall be delivered up & she{illeg} \[Callinus]/ that bro\u/ght her & he whom she brought forth & they that strengthened her in [those] times \the siege of [or defended her in the siege of Daphne]/ But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his seat \[her brother Eucrastes]/, who shall come with an army & shall enter into the fortress \[or fenced cities]/ of ye king of the north & shall act against them & prevail And shall carry captives into Egypt, their Gods with their Princes & pretious vessels of silver & gold, & he shall continue some years after the king of the north. Daniel describes further how the king Antiochus magnus the son of Callinicus should

<22r>

Chap. V
Of the Empire of the Greeks.

The kingdom of Macedon was founded by Caranus the brother of Phidon according to some. But Herodotus who lived nearest those times & was best able to inform himself is most to be credited, & he tells us that Perdiccas founded that kingdom & that from the founding thereof reigned these kings Perdiccas, Argeus, Philippus, Aeropus, Alcetas, Amyntas, Alexander, the last of wch was contemporary to Xerxes. So also Thucydides tells us that agrees wth Herodotus ffor he tells us that there were eight Kings of Macedon before Archelaus the son of Perdiccas the son of Alexander & therefore Alexander was the seventh as above. Let their reigns be recconed at about 18 or 20 years a piece the one with another & counted backwards from the death of Xerxes & the recconing will place the beginning of this kingdom between the 43th & 48th Olympiad.

Herodotus tells us also that Perdiccas was of the posterity of Temenus & fled from Argos into Macedonia & Thucydides that Alexander the seventh king of Macedon was of the posterity of Temenus & came from Argos & obteined the sea coasts of Macedon & reigned there expelling the inhabitants of Pieria by war.

|1.| 2 When the Heraclides returned into Peloponnesus under the conduct of Temenus Cresphontes & Aristodemus, Temenus became king of Argos & was succeeded by his son Cisus, & then the kingdom ceased & became divided among the posterity of Temenus untill Phidon recovered it conquered them & reunited the kingdom ffor Phidon subdued to himself the whole possession of Temenus till then divided into many parts. 3 Strabo tells us that Phidon was the tenth from Temenus (not the tenth king {illeg} (for between Cisus & Phidon they reigned not {illeg}) but the tenth by generation from father to son inclusively, so that there were 9 generations (or about 243 years{)} from the birth of Temenus to the birth of Phidon recconing 27 years to a generation & about as much from the expedition of Temenus with the Heraclides to the wars of Phidon upon his kindred. Count these years from the retur And therefore the Heraclides returning about 45 years before the beginning of the Olympiads, the wars of Phidon will fall upon the {49}|50|th Olympiad or thereabouts, Or perhaps a little earlier ffor some tell us that Phidon was the seventh from Temenus. Now the posterity of Iphitus presided in the Olympic games till the 26th Olympiad, & so long the Victors were rewarded with a Tripus. but In the Then the Pisæans getting above the Elians began to preside & rewarded the victors with a crown & instituted the Carnea to Apollo & continued to preside till Phidon interrupted them & presided himself that is till about the time of the 48th or 49th Olympiad. ffor in the wars between the Pisæans & Eleans wch happened in 48 & 49 Olympiads. In ye 48th Olympiad the Elians entred the country of the Pisæans \with an army/ suspecting their designes, but were prevailed with to return home quietly. Afterwards the Pisæans confederated with several other Greek nations viz Phidon & those under him) & made war upon the Eleans & in the end were beaten. In this way I conceive it was that Phidon presided in the Olympic games, suppose in the 49th Olympiad. ffor we are told that <22v> he presided; & in the 50th Olympiad, for putting an end to the contentions between the kings about presiding, two men were chosen by lot out of the city of Elis to preside, & their number in the 65th Olympiad was increased to nine & afterwards to ten, & those judges were called Hellenodicæ. Pausanias tells us that the Eleans called in Phidon & together with him celebrated the eighth [he should have said, the 49th] Olympiad, but Herodotus that Phidon removed the Eleans. And both might be true. The Eleans might call in Phidon against the Pisæans & upon overcoming them claim the presiding in the games & be refused by Phidon & then confederate with the Spartans & by their assistance overthrow the kingdom of Phidon & recover from the Pisæans their ancient right of presiding & set up the Hellenodicæ So then Phidon \a little before the 48th Olympiad/ overcame his kinsmen who reigned as Princes in \several/ parts of the kingdom of {illeg} Tisamenus & reunited their Principalities into one Monarchy under himself a little before the 48th Olympiad, suppose in the \43th or/ 44th Olympiad or thereabouts. And at that time his \the/ conquered kinsmen \Princes/ Caranus his brother & Perdiccas his brother kinsman \& others/ fled from Argos with Colonies into Macedonia \Emathia/ & there founded the kingdom of Macedon. ffor Iustin tells us that Caranus {illeg} wth a great multitude of Greeks sought new seats in Greece Emathia afterwards called Macedon \&/ by the command of the Oracle following a flock of Goats took ye city Aedessa made it the seat of his \a new/ kingdom & from ye Goats called the city Aegeas, \& subdued the neighbouring Princes Midas & others/ & was succeed {sic} in the kingdom by Perdiccas

{3}|4|. Herodotus tells us that three brothers who were of the posterity of Temenus & whose names were Gauanes, Æropus, & Perdiccas fled from Argos into Illyricum & thence into \the upper/ Macedonia to ye city Lebæa where they served the king of that city some time & then retired into another part of Macedonia neare the Gardens of Midas the son of Gordius, & there made war upon the neighbouring people & thereby Perdiccas {illeg} Perdiccas came to the kingdom \of Macedon/ & was succeeded therin by Argæus, Æropus, Philippus, Æropus, Alcætas, Amyntas, Alexander, the last of wch was contemporary to Xerxes. Now \the reign of Carneus &/ these eight /seven\ kings at about 18 years a piece amounts to 144 years wch counted backward from the death of Xerxes will place the beginning of ye kingdom of Macedon upon the 43th Olympiad or thereabouts as above. After Alexander reigned Perdiccas Archelaus Orestes & others unto Philip the father of Alexander the great.

4|2|. The kingdom of Macedon was founded by Caranus the brother of Phidon & some mak of the king of Argus of the posterity of Temenus & some make Phidon as old ancient as Iphitus & tell us yt the kingdom of Macedon was founded before the Olympiads: but Phidon was not so ancient \by 200 years./ The Amphictyons by the advice of Solon made Almæon – – – – – – – – or 240 after the return of the Heraclides

4|5| Alexander the great &c.

<24r>

Mæris is set immediately before Cheops three times in the Dynasty of the kings of Egypt composed by Eratosthenes & once in the Dynasties of Manetho & in the same Dynasties Nitocris is set after the builders of the great Pyramids. And thence I gather that the kings of Egypt mentioned by Herodotus ought to be placed in this Order. Ammon, Sesostris, Pheron or Orus,

The Egyptians originally lived on the fruits of the{illeg} earth & absteined from animals & fared hardly. Menes \taught them to adorn their tables & beds with rich carpets &/ brought in amongst the|m| Egyptians a sumptuous \delicious/ & voluptuos way of life, \teaching them to adorn their tables & beds with rich carpets/ & about an hundred years after his death was cursed by \for it/ by Gnephaitus king of the upper Egypt & \one of his successors cursed him for it & caused/ the curse /to be\ entred in the Temple of Iupiter Ammon at Thebes: wch made \& |by| this curse diminished/ the honour of Menes \was diminished/ among the Egyptians.

Si corpus vi tertia P in loco A impressa \dato illo tempore/ ferretur ab A ad E: motus ex tribus viribus \impressis/ resultans is esset qui copone\re/tur ex motibus AD et AE, & sic deinceps in infinitum.

Et motus composito vis insita quia corpus in motu illo perseverat, est ut proportionalis est.

<24v>

Dn Legatus, Exemplaria 2

ProfessorAstronomiæ \Pollenus/ Paduensis. 1
Manfredus Bononiensis 1

Nobilis Venetus D. Trivisanus, {illeg} Senator 1.

Christinus Martinellus Nob. Venetus, Astronomiæ studiosus, 1

Vrsatus Discipulus Reinaldini et Montenari, Astronomiæ studiosus 1.

Abbas Angloi, Astronomiæ valde studiosus, Parisiensis 1.

Ds Conti Nob. Venetus, Senator, 1.

Pater Grandi Pisanus Professor – 1

Dns Bernoulli uterq – 2.

<25r>

And as Hercules was his \{illeg}/ General \in the parts of Egypt Neptune was his/ so Neptune was his Admiral & reign reigned in Libya & therefore {illeg} Antæas was Neptune For Neptune was the father of Atlas & Atlas was the father of Calypso & |Antæus seems to have been his Admiral & this Admiral was the Neptune of ye ancients so Neptune was his Admiral| For Calypso the daughter of Atlas the son of Neptune flourished in the time of the Trojan war & therefore Atlas was one generation old & Neptune two generations older then that war & Atla Atlas flourished in the time of ye Argonautic expedition & Neptune in the age before, that is in the reign of Osiris. ffor Neptune had several sons in ye Argonautic expedition as Euphemus Erginus \Nauplius/ & Ancæus & His son Glaucus \a sea captain/ seized Ariadne in ye Island Naxus, & he himself in the reign of Laomedas \& Apollo or Orus the son of Osiris/ assisted in building ye walls of Troy in the reign of Leomedon.

Antæus who governed Libya had his royal {illeg} royal seat at Irasa a city of {illeg} Greece |Hirassa or Irasa a seaport town of city of| Pentapolis neare \neare where the city the city Cyrene haven Apollonia {sic}/ Cyrene ffor Pindar tells us that Irasa was the city of Antæus, was afterwards \the city Cyrene/ built by Battus. The haven {illeg} was called Apollonia For Pindar tells us that Hirassa was the city of Antæus. The haven of the place was called Apollonia. There Battus afterwards built the city Cirene the Metropolis of the Province. In all the the {sic} sea coasts of Egypt from Ioppa in Palestine to Parætonium in Libya for ye space of above 600 miles there was not one safe harbor to be found except Pharus, but from Parætonium along the sea coasts of Marmarica & Cyrene were several good ones & there Bochart & Arius Montanus place \the Naphthuim/ a people sprung from Misraim Gen. 10.13. And therefore the Egyptians {illeg} before the conquest of Libya in were \could/ not be potent at sea for want of Ports but upon upon the conquest of Libya meeting there with convenient ports & {illeg} plenty of tib timber they set out a fleet potent fleet of long & tall ships & this being in \region being at that time under/ the government of Antæus he was the Neptune of the ancients. For |Neptune was first worshipped in Africa & from thence his worship was propagated into other countries & therefore he reigned in Afric &| the Cretans affirmed that Neptune was the first that set out a fleet having obteined this Prefecture of Saturn, whence posterity recconed things done in the sea to be under his government & Mariners honoured him with sacrifices. By Saturn I understand here the father of Iupiter Belus & Pluto Neptune & Pluto & shall presently shew that Iupiter Belus was Sesostris. Whence it follows that Iupiter Bel Nep{illeg}tune was the brother of Osiris an Egyptian & the brother of Osiris & by consequence the Typhon of the Egyptians & by consequence | therefore that Ammon was the first king of Egypt who set out a fleet in the Mediterranean. & therefor Ammon \their father/ was the first king of Egypt who set out a fleet in ye Mediterranean. ffor Typhon was the husband of Nephtys & was the interpreted by the Egyptians to signify the sea & the Priests of Egypt abominated the sea & had Neptune in no honour. |They said that Osiris signified the Nile wch in overflowing copulated with the land of Egypt signified by Isis & in running into the sea & being dissipated therein perished by Typhon.| And in telling the story of the war between the Gods of Egypt & the Giants they sometimes put Neptune for Typhon, & where Lucian saith that Corinth being full of fables tells the fight of Sol & Neptune & where Agotharcides tells \relates/ how the Giants gods of Egypt fled from the Giants till the Titans came in & saved them by putting Neptune to flight. The [name Neptune is Egyptian signifying a Lord of the sea coasts: for the] outmost parts of the earth & promontories & whatsoever borders upon the sea the Egyptians called Nephtys. \And/ I|i|n ye sea coasts of {illeg} Marmarica & Cyrene Bochart & Arius Montanus place the Naphtuim a people sprung from Misraim Gen. 10.13. And therefore Neptune & his wife Nephtys are also to be placed there the words Neptune Nephtys & Naphtuim signifying in the language of the Egyptians the King & Queen & people of the sea coasts. {illeg} Certainly Neptune was contemporary to Sesostris & {Anc}æus; for to in the reign of Laomedon king of Troy he assisted \& Apollo Orus/ assisted in building the walls of Troy that is fortifyed {illeg} that city for Sesostris. His son Glaucus took Ariane from Theseus in the Island Dia & lay with her. Others of his sons as Euphemus Erginus Nauplius & Ancæus were in the Argonautic expedition, & his <25v> son Atlas was contemporary to the Argonauts being the father of Calypso who flourished in the time of the Trojan war \& after that war convened with Vlisses/. Neptune therefore being two generations older then the \warriers at Troy/ Troj|y| {sic}an war & one generation older then ye Argonauts was contemporary to Sesostris & therefore was his Admiral & he & Antæus reigned {illeg} at once over \the kingdom of/ one & the same \portion of/ Libya \& so/ must be one & the same king, & his son Atlas must be his successor in the kingdom. For the gardens of the Hesperides were in this|e| kingdom \of Atlas/ & are placed by Ptolomy, Pliny, \& Strabo/ neare Cyrene. \And/ Atlas was \{illeg} well/ skilled in sea affairs \& had a fleet potent fleet/, for Homer saith of him Θαλάσσης πασης βένθεα οἰδεν He knows the depths of all the sea, when & others that Phorcys who reigned over Sardinia & Corsica was overcome by him \Atlas/ in a sea fight & {sic} drowned, & Clemens Alexandrinus that Atlas was the first that built a ship & sailed upon the seas, that is in the reign & by the direction of his father Neptune. And in the war between the Gods of Egypt & the Giants \Titans/ A{illeg}|t|las \assisted his father/ was skilled in captain of the Titans or Giants & therefore assisted his father \&/ in the end of the war had the \sign of/ heavens placed upon his sholders, that is he assisted his father \Typhon or Neptune/ in that war & then succeeded him in ye kingdome ffor kingdom of Afric. ffor the Ancients represented a kingdom by the heaven earth sun Moon & stars & putting the Sun putting the stars for the great \frame of the world/ putting the sun moon & Stars for the king the people & the princes of the kingdom. Cyrene wa The country of Cyrene was famous for the breed & management of good horses \& Egypt was supplied w. h. from thence, {illeg} especially after the conquest of Libya by Ammon./ And thence Neptune Pallas & the Amazons were called eques The Scholiast upon Pindar (Pyth Ode 4) saith Equestrem Neptunum Poeta vocat And Pamphus who is reputed the author of ye oldest hymns amongst the Athenians calls Neptune

Ι῾ποσωντε δοτηρα, νεωντε τ{illeg}|ε|᾽ ἰθυκρηδέμων

The inventor \author/ of \horses/ & of tall ships wth sails. |Chariots were drawn by horses before his days, but he is reputed the author of riding & fighting on horsback.|

For before the conquest of Lybya {hors} by Ammon, horsmanship & longs {sic} ships wth sails were not known in Europe \Horses were u/

In the Pliny tells that ships of war were first rigged out by Ægæon & others make Ægeon \the son in law of Neptune/

When the Egyptians applied themselves to Navigation, that they might \have/ the sea coasts \by wch men had hitherto sailed/ & guid guide themslves in the middle of the seas by the Sun Moon & starrs, they bega their kings & Admirals {sic} Princes began to stu began to \& chiefly their Admirals applyed themselves to the observation of the heavens &/ study of Astronomy \{illeg}/. Atlas was eminent for this his skill in this science, Antæus observed the course of the Moon wch was the hardest part of Astronomy, The Atlantides a people of Libya \was Tutor to Bacchus & in Libya & came from thence into Greece &/ {sic} in the reign of Ammon, Aristæus who married the daughter of Cadmus, carried Astronomy \{with hi}/ from Libya into Greece The Atlantides a people of Libya say[19] that Vranus was their first king who reduced them from a salvage couse {sic} of life & taught them to live in towns & cities & that he \reigned over a great part of the world &/ measured the couse year by the course of the Sun & the Months by the course of the Moon & divided the days into hours & was familiarly acquainted wth the risings & settings of the stars, & after death for his merits & skill in Astronomy was honoured as \a/ God. By Vranus they mean Ammon They say also that he was the married his sister Titæa or Terra & by her had the \many children called/ Titans two of wch {illeg} called Hyperion & Bisilea were the parents of Helio & Selene, & that the Titans assassinated Hyperion & drowned Helio in Eridanus \(not in the Po but in the river Nile)/ & thereupon Selene threw herself from a house \top/ & Fitæa her mother Basilea went distracted & disappeared, By wch circumstance & all of them were deified. By wch circumstances its manifest that Cœlus Hyperion Helio & Selene were Ammon, Osiris, Orus & Bubaste, Ammon being deified by the name of \Vranus or/ Iupiter Vranius. And the Cretans reported[20] that Hyperion the son of Cœlus was the first that by his own industry found out the motions of the Sun & Moon & other stars & the seasons & distinctions of time measured out by them, that <26r> is he studied Observed \& studied Astronomy &/ the stars in his fathers reign for advancing navigation |assisted his father in these matters for advancing navigation being instructed by Aristæus|. So then And hence it appears that he was the Iupiter Belus of the Chaldeans. ffor Pausanias tells us that Iupiter Belus in Babylon had his name from Belus an Egyptian the son of Libya (as he is reputed) who built the temple in Babylon & Strabo{illeg}: Durat ibi (Babylon) Iovis Beli templum: inventor hic fuit sideralis scientiæ. And Diodorus: the Egyptians report that many colonies out of Egypt were disperst over all parts of ye world (vizt by the wars & {illeg} of Sesostris) & that Belus the son of Neptune & Libya led a colony into the Province of Babylon & fixing his seat at the river Euphrates consecrated Priests & according to the custome of the Egyptians freed them from all public taxes & impositions. These Priests the Babylonians call Chaldeans who observe the motions of the stars in imitation of ye Priests Naturalists & Astrologers of Egypt. Cheræas wrote that there was wine in Babylon wch the inhabitants called Nectar & thence it appears that \Bacchus &/ the Gods of Egypt were at Babylon this wine being there\ir/ drink. of the Gods Bacchus & the Gods.

When Ba{illeg}|c|chus invaded the nations he found them wthout swords & other weapons of iron wch made his conquests easy. |When Ammon conquered Libya they used clubs. So Hyginus: Afri et Ægyptij primum fustibus dimicaverunt postea Belus Neptuni filius gladio belligeratus est, unde bellum dictum.| In Europe Cadmus first found {illeg} out Copper in Bœotia & then the Idæi Dactylj found out iron in Crete in the reign of Minos, & by the use of iron \tools/ Minos was enabled to prepare a fleet by wch he gained the dominion of the seas, The islands Cyclades were at first uninhabited but Minos & Rhadamanthus peopled several of them & Rhadamanthus giving to each of his captains some Island or City placed Thoas in Lemnus. There Thoas \reigned &/ exercised the Smiths trade having perhaps learnt it of the Idei Dactyli in Crete & build|t|ing the city Hephæstion \& being furnished wth iron from thence. He built & reigned in the city Hephæstion, & when Sesostris ye great Mars of the Greek Islands ancients conquered the Greek Islands he made armor for him, &/ became the Hephæstus \or Vulcan/ of the Ancients. \/ < insertion from the right margin of f 26r > ✝ Apollonius taking Thoas for the son of Bacchus saith that Bacchus left his purple cloak to his son Thoas & Thoas left it to his daughter Hypsipyle Queen of Lemnus. Apol. Argonaut IV. v. 426. < text from f 26r resumes > He married Calycopis the daughter of Otreus king of Phrygia & taking {illeg} Sesostris \Mars (that is, Sesostris)/ in bed with his wife composed ye matter so as exchange {illeg} Lemnos for \to obtein the government of/ Cyprus \& Byblus/. Then Mars that is Sesostris went presently with violence \(that is, with his army)/ over the Hellespont into Thrace & Venus Calycopis sailed in rich apparrell to \Cythara & thence to/ Cyprus & landed at Paphus where she was washed & adorned by her weomen called the Graces & became the Venus of the ancients. lived splendidly in costly aparrel adorned with gold, becoming the Venus of the ancients \& where Vulcan afterward married Agalia the youngest of the Graces/. In her way to Cyprus she sailed first to Cythara an Island of Greece between Peloponnesus & Crete. \In Cyprus she lived in adultery with Gingris the son of Gin Thoas/ Thoas for his skill upon the harp was called Cinyras. ffor Cy|i|nyras \lived with Venus in Cyprus & afterwards \Vulcan/ married Aglaia the \youngest/ of the Graces attended the \{illeg}/ O{illeg} &/ was an inventor of arts & found out tiles, & copper in Cyprus, & the hammer & anvil & tongues & laver, & impoyed workmen in making armour & other things. – – – – – with Apollo on the harp. \– times of the Trojan war./ And after the death of his wife he deified her wth lustful Orgia whereby she becam the Cyprian Venus – – – – – – huc appulsam Tacit Hist. 2. p. 238. This Venus before she went to Cyprus lay wth Anchises on mount Ida & at Cyprus she lived in adultery wth Ado Gingris the son of Cy|i|nyras; & when Cinyras deified his Venus he deified also his son by the name of Adonis

<27r>

The names of the Gods Moloch Milcom Adramelech Anamelech, Melecartus.

[Editorial Note 8]

|institu| building Temples to Venus & Adonis in Cyprus & at Byblus in Phœnicia & instituting their worship with orgia & lamentations for the death of Adonis much after the manner that Adonis was w Osiris was worshipped in Egypt. Or rather, he instituted the worship of \his great benefactor/ Osiris under the name of Adonis pretending to yt & joyned ye worship of his son wth & the Cyprians applied the \name &/ worship to his son. ffor Adonis signifies The Lord & so agrees to Osiris but not to Gingris, {illeg} & Lucian tells us that he saw at Amathus Byblus a great Temple of Venus Byblia – – – – – – – – called Dea Syria as well as Dea Cypria. And from the Temples built to her in several places she was also called Cytharea, Paphia, Amathusia \Byblia/ &c. So then Sesostris was the Adonis of the Phœnicians Syrians & his mistress was their Venus, & ye maker of his armour was their Vulcan

So then the great Gods of Egypt vizt Ammon, Osiris – – – – – – – – – Antæo eripui.

But after some further broiles the war was composed & Isis & Orus reigned in Egypt for some time till the Ethiopians under Hercules invaded Egypt & Libya \drowning Orus in the Nile & taking Libya from Atlas/ & then came out against Asa king of Israel with a very great army \of Ethiopians Libyans & Troglodytes/ & were beaten by him & expelled \driven out of the lower Egypt/ by |by {sic}| the \revolting/ Egyptians {illeg}/un\till the reign of Amenophis.

Pliny tells us: Ægyptiorum bellis attrita est Ethiopia – – – – – – – – Philstims from Caphtor Amos 9.7. And thus by the \civil/ broiles in Egypt & the revolt of the nations, the \great/ Empire of the Cophtites seated at Thebes, \was sch/ came to an end period.

This Empire may be distinguished into four ages according to the reign of their kings Thmosis, Ammon Sesak \Osiris/ & Orus. For \these were the ages of the great Gods of Egypt/ these seem to be the four ages of the Gods of Egypt, in imitation of wch the Greeks \formed the/ four ages of their Gods.

In those days the Egyptians using to write in Hieroglyphick affected to represent \all/ things by symbols as by putting a trident for ye |in the hand of an Admiral to represent the| three squadrons of his fleet, a rod writhen about wth two serpents for the symbol of an Embassador reconciling two nations, |a man {illeg} wth a syth for a king of a corn-country, a man wth rams horns for a king a country abounding wth sheep| a man riding upon an eagle wth a thunderbolt in his hand for a great warrior soaring high in dominion, a man wth a sith in his hand for a king {illeg} globe |the world| for a kingdom, |a giant for a great man great in power a man wth many heads & hands for a king with his kingdom or many a Captain wth his army| \water for people/ a flood for an invasion, &c |a new world after a flood for a new kingdom set up after an invasion, {sic} golden apples for {scar}ce & precious & valuable fruit, a Dragon keeping the gardens of the Hesperides for an army keeping a country abounding wth fruit-bearing trees, a horn of the sea for a river, the horn of Amalthea for a \{illeg}/ river with {illeg} fertile meadows on both sides given to that Queen \by Ammon to his Queen/ for her her {sic} maintenance. And| So when {illeg} Hercules took the Globe from Atlas it is to be understood that he took his kingdom from him, & So by the four first ages after a flood is to be und Deucalions flood are to be understood the invasion of Greece in the reigns of \those kings Ogyges &/ Deucalion; & by the four ages next after a flood is to be understood the four first reigns ages of a kingdom erected by an invasion. ffor in this sense a flood is used in scripture \waters being put for peoples & multitudes & nations {illeg} 8.7, 8 & tongues Apoc. XVII./ Isa. 59.19. Ier 16.7, 8. & 47.2, 3 Amos 8.8 & 9.5. The Lord bringeth upon them the waters of the river strong & many even the king of Assyria & all his glory; & he shall come up over all his channels & go over all his banks; & he shall pass through Iudah & go over, he shal reach even to the neck Isa. VIII.7, 8. Who is this that cometh up like a flood, whose waters are moved as the rivers. Egypt riseth up like a flood & his waters are moved like the rivers: & he saith, I will go up & will cover the earth; I will destroy the city & the inhabitants thereof. Ier. XLVI.7, 8, Waters are peoples & multitudes or nations & tongues Apoc. XVII, See also Isa LIX.19 Ier. {illeg} XLVII.2, 3. Am VIII.8. < insertion from between the lines > a golden age for a happy age golden apples for pretious apples. a man or Beast with two or more heads or faces or heads for a king wth two or more kingdoms collateral or successive. And

And from these & such like symbols truly interpreted the history of the mystical ages may receive some light. {illeg} ffor Saturn has a sith to signify that he conquered {illeg} the lower Egypt, a country abounding with corn. The The Egyptians painted him with two faces becausse he conquered reigned over two kingdoms an old one & a new. Iupiter Ammon has ram's horns because he conquered Libya a country abounding wth sheep. Iupiter Belus has a thunderbolt in his hand to signify that he was a great warrior. He rides upon an egle to signify his soaring high in dominion. Mercury has an Embassadors rod writhen about with two serpents in memory of his {illeg} composing the wars between the nations of Egypt & Libya. Hercules has a club to signify that \because/ he was of ye nation of the Megabar Ethiopians next above Egypt who fought with clubs. He took the sphere from Atlas, that is the kingdom of Libya A dragon kept the gardens of the Hesperides, that is, an army kept the kingdom of Libya. Amalthea \the mother of Bacchus/ had a horn filled wth flowers & fruit, that is a river with fertil meadows on each side given her by Ammon for her maintenance. Greece was overflowed in the days of Ogyges & Deucalion that is overspread with forreigners.

< text from f 27r resumes > <27v>

before Psammiticus reigned over all Egypt. Menes & his succesors reigned afterwards \at Memphis/ & built that city sumptuously. [Memphys was by the Egyptians called Menopeh, Moph, Noph, from Amenoph{illeg} or Amenophis & {illeg} Menoph is the founder] And therefore Menes was Amephnophis \the Ethiopian called Amenophis/. Memphis was by the \by the Greeks. Memphis was by the {sic}/ Egyptians called Menoph, Moph, Noph, Menoph comes from | is an abbreviation of Amenoph & was easily chang{illeg}ed into Menes. \From/ Amenoph passed \came/ into Menoph & Menoph into Menes & from Menoph came Menes from A from the founder whose name Amenoph \easily/ passed into Menoph & Menoph into Menes.

After the death of Asserhadon \(or soon after)/ reigned at Babylon Saosduchinus, Chiniladon Nebuchadnezzar Nabopolassar & {illeg} \& Nebuchadnezzar/, at Nineveh \Ecbatane D{illeg}/ Phraortes, Astyages & Cyaxeres \& Darius/ & at Nineveh I think Nebuchadonosor, Anacyndaraxis, & Sardanapalus. ffor the history of Nebuchadonosor king of Assyria mentioned in the book of Esther suits wth these times. For Nebuchadonosor in the 12th year of his reign &c.

And by his reigning next after the Gods of Egypt \& placing his throne at Memphis/ you may know that he is the Menes \of ye Egyptians/ who built Memphis & [reigned next after the Gods & built Memphis. As Thebes was called \by the Egyptians/ No-Ammon from Ammon the father of Sesak \who made it the seat of his Empire/, so Memphis was by the|m| Egyptians called Menoph, Mnoph, Moph Noph from \the founder/ Amenoph |who first reigned there. And Menoph by an easy change became| And Menoph {sic} by an easy is change became Menes. He was succeeded by Ramses or Rhampsinitus, Mœris, Cheops Cephren, Mycerinus, Nitocres, Asychis Anysis & perhaps some other intermediate kings. All these reigned at Memphys & there buil & adorned the city & there built

Menes founded \built/ the

[Editorial Note 9]

enter ino open rebellion & become false churches called in scripture Synagogues of Satan & Antichrists. These are they that separate themselves, saith Iude of

– on ye other side Iordan, & there they began first to be called Ebionites

They gloried in this name & said that they knew of no such man as Ebion – – – a poor man. This is the account wch they gave of themselves, but Ierome Epiphanius Ierome & some others took Ebion for the name of a man. Vpon the commencing of the Iewish war the Christian Iews or Nazarens fled from Ierusalem into other countries & chiefly into Peræa on ye other side \of/ Iordan And there continuing \{illeg}/ by their poverty they \seem to have/ gained the name of Ebionites & \by/ the number of those prevailing who refused to communicate with ye uncircumcised beleivers, the{illeg} name of Ebionites became \at length/ appropriated to ye those Nazarenes who were \Nazarenes/ of this opinion.

Sect. II.

I have hitherto considered the Church as {illeg} an agr \of God or/ or {sic} host of heaven as an aggregate of men united into one body by mutual friendship love & charity & into one kingdom by subjection to the laws of \one/ God {illeg} & Christ their supreme king & \of one/ Christ their Lord. It remains that I say something of their unity in \the forms & ceremonies of/ worship & government. And first in They worship For For the Iews had but one Tabernacle & one Temple & one High Priest \for sacrificing/ & one great Sanhedrim or great Council \of seventy Elders/ seated in the Temple for governing the \whole/ nation, & under these were synagogues in every city for praying & preaching & in every synagoge a Council \of Elders/ for governing the city, & the Council anciently sat in the Gate of ye city Ruth 4.1, 2, 11.

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omnia regit cum potentia cui resisti non potest.

Pag 433 l 1, 2, 3. Æternus est et Infinitus, \Omnisciens & Omnipotens/ id est, durat ab æterno in æternum \omnia cognoscit quæ \fiant &/ sciri possunt & omnia regit quæ {illeg} sunt./ et adest ab infinito in infinitum. \Non est æternitas vel infinitas sed æternus & infinitus./ Non est duratio sed durat semper /{illeg}\ \& durando durationem constituit./ Non est locus vel spatium sed \durat &/ adest \& sic præsentiam suam locum constituit./ ubiq. |Durat semper & adest ubiq & existendo semper et ubiq durationem et spatium constituit æternitatem & infinitatem constituit.| Cum unaquæq spatij particula sit semper, & unum quodq durationis indivisibile momentum ubiq; certe rerum omnium Fabricator ac Dominus non erit nunquam nusquam. Omnipræsens est non per virtutem solam sed etiam per substantiam. Nam virtus sine substantia subsistere non potest. In ipso *[21] continentur et moventur universa, sed absq mutua passione Deus nihil patitur ex corporum motibus: illa nullam sentiunt resistentiam ex omipræsentia {sic} Dei. Deum summum necessario existere &c.

Pag 484 lin. 17. Adjicere jam liceret nonnulla de Spiritu quodam subtilissimo corpora crassa pervadente & in ijsdem latente; cujus vi et actionibus particulæ corporum ad parvas distantias se mutuo attrahunt & contiguæ factæ cohærent, &

[Editorial Note 10] <28v>

After this war Nebuchadonosor in the 18th year of his reigne sent {his} Holof his captain Ho|O|lofernes with a great army to avenge himself on all the west country because they had disobeyed his commandment, & Olofernes went forth wth an army of of {sic} 12000 horse & 120000 foot & reduced Arabia & {illeg} Cilicia & Mesopotamia & Syria & Damascus & \part of/ Arabia & Madian & \then/ came against Iudæa. And {illeg} this came |was done when| the government was in the hands of the High Priest & ancients of Israel (Iudith 8) & by consequence when \when/ Iosiah was a child. In times of prosperity – – – from danger. When the king of Assyria had \was/ reduced|ing| the western nations & \prepared to/ come against Iudea, then were the Iews terrified & they fortified Iudea – – – – Ierusalem from Idolatry. Herodotus tells us that the Medes revolted before the rest

Misphragmuthosis was the first man who reigned over all Egypt including Thebais. Ammon conquered Libya \or Amenemosis/ extended the Empire over Libya {illeg} \thence called Ammonia & over/ Ethiopia & the coasts of the red sea \on both sides/. Sesac added the rest. \Sesac or Sesostris/ going for westward to ye straits mouth & eastward to ye straits mouth |to {sic} through Persia & Media & northward through \into/ Syria \Assyria Mesopotamia/ Anatolia Thrace| & setting up pillars in all his conquests. ✝ < insertion from lower down f 28v > ✝ He \built Temples &/ set up Oracles to his father Ammon at Thebes & in {illeg} Asia \M{illeg}/ Libya & Ethiopia # < insertion from lower down f 28v > # whence Ammon became & perhaps in Arabia Felix. {illeg} \whence For/ all these nations worshipped Iupiter Ammon. He divided Egypt & Thebais into Nomes, & cutting channel < text from higher up f 28v resumes > \& divided Egypt & all Thebais into Nomes/ &, cutt|ing| channels from ye Nile to all the \head/ cities of Egypt \all the Nomes,/ raised the cities higher with ye earth dug out, built a Temp Temple in every city \for the nome/, appointed the God, the religion & the annual festivals \of/ every Nome \Temple/ /nome\, \&/ setting up an \an/ Oracles in the Temple to ye God of the Nome causing his Princes several Princes to be worshipped in the several Nomes & himself & his wife in them all. After his death &c Whence came the several Gods & religions of ye several Nomes of Egypt. Some of their Oracles remained till the days of Herodotus. < text from f 28v resumes > After this death \of Sesac/ Libya revolted & invaded Egypt but was repelled \repulsed by the army of Egypt & Ethiopia/. Then ye Ethiopians {illeg} invaded Egypt slew the Son & successor of Sesak, & under Zera came out against the Iews. \For While {sic} these things were doing Asa revolted & had rest ten years & fortified Iudea & got raised a great army/ Zerah being beaten /by Asa\ so that he could not recover himself the people of the lower Egypt under the conduct of Osarsiphus called in a great body of ye victorious Iews, & drove back the Ethiopians. But after 15 years Amenophis with his son Ramesses came down from Ethiopia wth a great army, subdued the lower \all/ Egypt \&/ drave out ye Iews & placed their royal seat at Memphis \& founded a new dynasty of Kings who/ And this \{illeg}/ was recconed the second expulsion of ye shepherds. Amenophis by this victory \conquest/ founded a new Dynasty of Kings who of Egypt who reigned at Memphis. ffor he is Menes \who reigned next after the Gods {illeg} or deified kings of Egypt & who |&| Thebes & {illeg}/ who built Memphis from him called by the Egyptians Menoph, Mnoph, Moph, Noph. & ffrom the word Menoph came his name \is/ Menes. {illeg} After him reigned \at Memphis/ Ramesses or Rhampsinitus, Mœris, Cheops – – – \at Memphis/ & there they built the sumptuous temple of Vulcan & the Labyrinth & the Pyramids & made the great lake of Mœris wth two Pyramids in it. In ye reigns of Asychis & Anytis \– – – –/ by Asserhadon.

For it was hitherto in fashion for ye eastern \nations/ to deify the founders of their kingdoms. An instance of wch we have in the kings of Damascus founded by Rezon \or Hezion/ in the latter end of Davids reign. [Afer {sic} Hezion reigned Tabrimon, Benhadad, & Hazael, Benhadad, \**/ Rezin successively in|at| Damascus & till the Assyrians conquered Rezin. And the Syrians of Damascus] & enlarged by Benhadad & Hazael. For the Sy Iosephus lets us know that the Syrians worshipped Adad & his successor Hazael as Gods for their benefactions. And so by the Gods of the \other/ nations <28r> conquered by Pul the Assyrians are to be understood their kings who founded or enlarged their kingdoms. / in these \& some other/ institutions he seems to have copied from \those of/ the Iews, his sister having been Solomons Queen. The High Priest of the nome ware judged the people & ware a badge adorned wth gemms hanging about his neck by a golden chain \& adorned wth gemms/ & named {illeg} Truth.

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Manetho Iosephus tells us out of Manetho & Choeremon that in ye reign of Amenophis thes son of Rhampsis & grandson of Sethos {illeg} a great body of leprous /leprous\ Egyptians revolted at Pelusium & had a \their/ polity & laws given them by O one Osarsiphus priest of Heliopolis & called in the Iews from Ierusalem to their assistance & that Amenophis fled to Ethiopia became \where/ the King of Ethiopia was freely subject to him & afterwards \thirteen years/ returned to & \wth his young son {illeg}|Ramasses| (so called from his Grandfather Rhampses)/ drave out ye rebells & Iews to ye borders of Syria The|is| story Manetho & Cheremon \have distorted/ apply|ing| /it\ to the Iews in ye time of Moses as if they Osarsiphus was Moses {illeg} was O taking \as if Moses was/ Osarsiphus for \were/ Moses & these Israelites wch they led \Moses led {illeg}/ out of Egypt to be \were/ these Iews & leprous \leprous/ Egyptians \said to be/ now expelled by Amenophes. Let the story be purged from what belongs to that fiction & it will amount to this that after the Iews had beat ye Ethiopians \were routed/ at Maresah, The the Amenophis \the Egyptians/ called in ye \victorious/ Iews to their assistance & \then Amenophis/ leaving a competent force at Pelusium pursued the \flying/ Ethiopians wth his main army as far as Ethiopia & when he had \by a 13 years war staid in those parts 10 or 12 years till he had/ reduced them to obedience /& then\ returned & the & wth his young son Rhampses drave out ye Iews [either by perswasion or by force] obliged ye Iews to withdraw into Syria. And to this action Ramesses seems to relate in ye \when he/ inscription|bed| on his Obelisk (according to the interpretation of Hermapion that he had saved Egypt by expelling forreigners.

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About ye beginning of this kings reign {sic} \[22]In this or the next kings reign & in ye 14th year of Asa/ Zerah \king of {illeg} {Egypt}/ wth a|n| great army of \army of a thousand thousand/ Ethiopians & b[23] Lybyans invaded {illeg} Iudea [& were routed by Asa king of Iudah] wch makes it probable that they first invaded Egypt \& {illeg} Their way was {illeg} & Asa \through Egypt & they/ seem to have made some \a/ considerable stay there/. ffor before they invaded Iudah, Asa \king of Iudah/ had peace fo 10 years & made \before they invaded him & \long/ expected their coming. ffor/ while ye time \land/ was \yet/ before him \he \destroyed {Idolatry &}/ sought the Lord &/ fortified the cities of Egypt Iudea wth walls & towers & gates & bars & prepared an army of 500000 \This he did without any help from ye Egyptians & they consequently the Egyptians had work enough at home/. With this army Asa \he/ routed the Ethiopians & was there met by \At length when they {illeg} advanced from Eypt Asa met & routed them, so that they could not recover themselves./ Azariah ye Prophet told said to him went out to meet him & said [24]Hear ye me Asa & Iudah & Bejamin {sic}. The Lord is with you while ye be with him & if ye seek him he will be found of you but if you forsake him he will forsake you. Now for a long season (viz from ye invasion of ye land by Sesach|k|) Israel hath been wthout a true God & without a teaching Priest & wthout Law. And in those days times there was no peace to him that went out nor to him that came in but great vexations were upon all the inhabitants of ye countries & nation was destroyed against of Nation & city of city: for God did vex them with all adversity \[vizt during the wars & dominion of Sesack.]/. But when Israel in their \trouble/ did turn unto ye Lord & sought him he was found of them. \Israel was therefore \in/ troubled about ye Ethiopians when asa sought the Lord & fortified the Cities of Iudah./ Thus did the King of Iudah shake of ye dominion of Egypt {illeg} & recover its ffor henceforward |\For now he/ he {sic} brought into ye Temple the {illeg} silver & gold & vessels wch he & his father had dedicated since ye spoiling of the temple by Sesak: & henceforward –| he & his son Iehosaphat had peace & flourished in power & wealth for 50 years together. The Ethiopians & Libyans being thus routed were probably expelled also by ye Egyptians. ffor {illeg} Ramestes inscribed on an Obelisk (according to ye interpretation of Hermapiō) that he had saved Egypt by overcoming forreigners. Yet by this invasion the dominion of Egypt was shaken so that Herodotus was not much out when he wrote that Sesostris was the only King that enjoyed the \Egyptian/ Empire. However a considerable part of ye {illeg} nations conquered by Sesostris continued still in subjection to Egypt.

By this action Iudah shook of ye dominion of Egypt. ffor whereas \the th/ Sesak had spoiled the Temple & took away & takē away all the tre\a/sures of ye Temple & Asa now brought into the Temple the silver & gold & vessels wch he & his father had dedicated in ye room of wt Sesak had taken away & henceforward Asa & he & his son Iehosaphat – – – together.

The Ethiopians & Libyans being thus \totally/ routed were probably expelled by the Egyptians ffor Ramestes –

His mother was a Queen \\& the d/ & the dau/ & therefore we may reccon him the son of ye \royal/ race of Sesostris. \On his mothers statue was a triple crown to denote her a Queen/ By the riches of his predecessors – – musical voice.

He built also the Labyrinth – – end of wch was a square – – –

structure \like a temple/ ten fulongs {sic} in circuit wth several stately Porticos & Galleries. At ye entrance of one of ye Porticos were three very great statues, his own his mothers & his daughters wth this Inscription

I am Osimandes King of Kings. I If any would know how great

I am & where I lye let him excell me in any of my works.

I am Osimandes King of King {sic}

If any would know how great I am & where I lye

let him excell me in any of my works.

Iosephus tells a story out of Manetho & Chœremon of ye Iews a body of \leprous/ Egyptians revolting \at Pelusiū/ \in ye reign of Amenophis ~ ~ ~ ~ the son of Rampses & grandson of Sethos And/ & calling in ye Iews from Ierusalem to their assistance & that Amenophis fled \wth his army/ from them into Ethiopia because ye king of Ethiopia was \freely/ subject to him εκ χαρυτος & after some years \time/ returning wth his young son Remesses out of Ethiopia vanquished the rebells & drave them out of Egypt to ye borders of Syria.

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– – – – – – – – greatness of their tribute & their army of a thousand thousand. But these inscriptions being upon seveal structures \& {Obelisks}/ {may} relate to more kings then one & those structures being in the City Thebes they seem to contein an account \chiefly/ of the greatnes of the Theban Empire & giving an account of the power & dominion of that city are to be undertood {sic} \chiefly of the power {rich} & wealth of more kings then one & chiefly/ of the kings wch reigned there /in Thebes\ before the translation of the Empire to Memphis & Ramesses here may be Sesostris: for Sesostris is sometimes called by that name.

Pliny tells us that the first Obelisk was made by Mitres who reigned in that city Heliopolis & afterwards other kings – – – – – – – one of 80.

Herodotus who travelled into Egypt & is the oldest author who has given us an account of the kings of that place, tells us that the Priests of Egypt \affirmed Menes to be their first king/ read to him out of a book the names of 330 kings who reigned after Menes, amongst wch was Nitocris a famous Queen & that nothing memorable was told him of any of the rest except the \last/ of them called Mœris, who & that after Mœris reigned Sesostris, Pheron, Proteus, Rhampsinitus, Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Asychis, Anysis, Sabacus, Senechus, Taralus, \Anysis,/ Sethon, twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus Nechus, Psammis, Apries, Amasis. But Menes Nitocris & Mœris who reign This is the best account of the kings of Ægypt now extant, but not wthout mistakes \some/ faults. Menes Nitocris & Mœris \were later then the Gods &/ reigned at Memphis, {illeg} & there he did great works & therefore are to be placed after Sesostris & his son Pheron {illeg} who reigned at Thebes & were two of the Gods. Mœris b Menes built the \magnificent/ temple of Vulcan at Memphis & Mœris added \built/ the northern Portico of that Temple & therefore reigned soon after Menes so that there is not room for {illeg} 330 kings between them. For it is not to be imagined that the temple of Vulcan could be 5 or 6 thousand years in building. Proteus reigned in the time of the Trojan Nitocris The last of the three great Pyramids was buit {sic} some say by Nitocris \others by Rhodope/ others by Mycerinus. \Mycerinus died before it was finished/ & therefore she is to be joyned with Mycerinus \placed after him./ Proteus was contempor reigned in the time of ye Trojan war & therefore was contemporary to Memnon. & his son Rha Proteus is not an Egyptian name but a Greek word translated out of \from/ the language of Egypt as Herodotus tells us. It signifies a Prince & so may be either Memnon himself or his deputy governour of Egypt. If Proteus \reigned at Memphis & if he/ was the father of Remphis as Diodorus affirms, he must be Memnon himself. {illeg} As Memnon built the temple of Vulcan so Proteus {illeg} on ye south side of that temple built the Temple of Venus Kospita ({illeg} that of the |ye| wife of Vulcan & the relation between those Temples \& time of their building/ import that they were works of the same king, but Memnon might imploy his Vice-roy to take see the buildings erected. After Sethon w Instead of Sabacus Anysis & Sethon {illeg} Manetho has Sabacon, Sevechus & Taracus wch names agree wch better wth Scripture. ffor when Senancherib inva lost his army Tirhacha Sethon reigned over Egypt according to Herodotus & Tirhakah according to scripture & {illeg} the predecessor of Tirhakah was \So or/ Sua according to Scripture that is Sua or Sevechus. Let \all/ these corrections be made, & the Canon of the kings of Egypt \set down by Herodotus/ will be as follows. Sesostris, Pheron, Menes, or Memnon, Rhampsinitus, Mœris Cheops, Cephren, Mycerinus, Nitocris, Asychis, Anysis, Sabac{illeg}|on|, Seoschus, Taracus, twelve contemporary kings, Psammiticus, Nechus, Psammis, Apries, Amasis. [Between Rhampsinitus \Osimandyas/ & Mœris Diodorus puts Euchoreus \the father & son, &/ Manetho puts Anenemes & Thuoris, so that Euchoreus & Thuoris seem to be one & the same king. All these kings \22 reigns (omitting that of Sesostris)/ took up the time from about ye middle of Solomons reign |fift year of Rehoboam| to ye 5t year of Cambyses, amounting to about 4{illeg} \412/ years And the 12 contemporary kings & 5 king wch \being/ about 1912 years to a reign, agrees wth ye course of nature. |And| According {sic} to this recconing there reigned 18 or 20 kings between the death of Sesostris & the beginning of the reign of Amasis, that is in the space of about 390 years, wch amount one reigne wth another making about 2{illeg}|1|23 years to a reign, answers well \well/ to the course of nature, especially if another king or wo be inserted.

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Between Osimanduas & Miris, that is Memnon & Mœris, Diodorus places Vchoreus – – – – – – – – – – By these works Vchoreus seems to be the same \man/ with Echerophes the first king of Memphis in the Dynasties \of Manetho/. Memnon built Memphys but resided for the most part at in other places, as at Abydus & Susa, \&/ Abydus: Vchoreus enlarged & beautified the place & made it his seat. Vnder Achero Echerophis the Libyans revolted but upon an extraordinary increase of the Moon \out of {relief}/ returned to obedience.

Among the stupendious works of – – – – – long staff.

After these kings reigned Gneph\ar/thus – – – – under his dominion.

Anysis was blind & in his reign & the reign of Boccharis Sabacon the Ethiopian – – was called Rhinocolura.

The reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt – – – – in or about ye beginning of the æra of Nabonassar. Whence its probable that that Æra was set on foot by some Egyptians who fled from the Ethiopians ffor the con that Conqueror. For the year of Nabonassar was in all respects the same wth the Egyptian year & began upon ye very same day, & therefore came from Egypt.

The reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt according to Herodotus b

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Tatian in his book against the Greeks relates that amongst the Phenicians flourished three ancient historians Theodotus Hypsicrates & Mochus who all of them delivered in their histories (translated into Greek by Lætus) that under one of the kings happened the rapture of Europa, the voyage of Menelaus into Phœnicia & the league & friendship between Solomon & Hy|i|ram when Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon & supplied him with timber for building the Temple, & that the same is affirmed by Menander of Pergamus. Vnder one of the Kings, that is within the compass of the age of a man. For so the phrase is used by Isaiah, chap. XXIII.15. Iosephus lets us know that the Annals of the Tyrians from the days of Abibalus & Hiram were extant in his days, & that Menander of Pergamus translated them into Greek, & that Hiram's friendship to Solomon & assistance in building the Temple was mentioned in them. And by the testimony of Menander & the three ancient Phenician historians the rapture of Europa happened not long before the building of Solomons Temple |& therefore Minos the son of Europa flourished in the days of Solomon & his duaghters Ariadne & Phædra in the days of Rehoboam.| The voyage of Menelaus might be in pursuit of Paris and Hellena twenty years before the destruction of Troy. |Hence Solomon therefore reigned in the times between the raptures of Europa & Helena. And|

The expedition of Sesostris was one generation older then the Argonautic expedition. ffor in his return back into Egypt he left Æetes at Colchos, & Æetes reigned there till Ηου{illeg} Europa & her brother Cadmus flourished in the days of the \David/ & Minos the son of Europa flourished in the days of Solomon & the children Deucaleon the Argonaut |children of Minos namely Androgeus his eldest son, Deucaleon his youngest son,| Ariadne the mistress of Theseus & Bacchus, & |&| Phædra the wife of Theseus \& Deucaleon the Argonaut/ flourished in \or neare/ the days of Rehoboam, & his grandchildren Idomeneus [Phlias & Eumedon being \the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne/ were Argonauts, & his grandchild \&/ Idomeneus \the son of Deucaleon/ was at the war of Troy, & therefore the Argonautic Expedition was] & Phlias \&/ Eumedon the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne being Argo also Argonauts the

The great conquerors Osiris & Bacchus agree in their actions Dicæarchus represents them two generations older then Sesolstris, saying that after Orus the son of Osiris & Isis reigned Sesonchosis.

Osiris was also king of all Egypt & a great conquerour & conquered Thrace & there killed Lycurgus, & his history agrees wth that of Bacchus. B

Osiris was also king of all Egypt & a great conquerour \& reigned not above three generations before ye Arg exp as above/ & the sacred history admits not of | leaves no room for such a king before the days of Sesak admits not of such a conquering king of Egypt in the reign \days/ of Samuel Saul David & Solomon. before the reign of Sesak. Sesac is the first king of this Sesac is the first king of this kind.] Osiris kille conquered Thrace & killed Lycurgus & therein he agrees wth Bacchus, & by the consent of all antiquity both Egyptians & Greeks Osiris & Bacchus were one & the same king of Egypt. The histories of Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris agree wth one another. All three {illeg} \by the relation of historians/ were kings of all Egypt & there were no kings of all Egypt including Thebais before the expulsion of the shepherds. who reigned a long time in the lower Egypt All three reigned at Thebes about the same time, & were very potent by land & sea. All thre were great conquerors & conquered the same regions & carried on their conquests by land \through Asia/ as far as India. All three came over the Hellespont & were there in danger of losing their army

[Editorial Note 11]

Apollodorus tells us that Cy|i|nyras married Metharme the daughter of Pygmaleon king of Cyprus, & th

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1Celeus was the son of Rharus the son of Cranaus the successor of Cecrops 2Car the son of Phoroneus the son of Inachus built a temple to Ceres in Megara 3Arcah the son of Callisto the daughter of Lycaon the son of Æzeus received corn from Triptolemus & taught his people to make berad of it. 4Myles the son of Lelex was the first who set up a hand mill or Quern in Greece to grind corn, & Pelops came into Peloponnesus in the days of Belos reign of Epeus the son of Endymion the son of Aethlius the son of Æolus 5Polycarn the brother of Myles married Messene the daughter of Tropas the son of Phorbas the brother of Pirasus. 6Pelops came into Peloponnesus in the reign of Epeus the son of Endymion the son of Aethlius the son of Æolus & Ætolus the brother of Epeus slew Apis the son or grandson of Phoroneus. And by these circumstances Cecrops, Inachus, Æzeus, Lelex, Æolus, Phorbas & Pirasus \& Æolus/ {illeg} flourished two or three generations before the coming of Cadmus & Europa into Europe. Certainly their|y| coming could not be earlier because Cadmus brought in letters & it is not likely that any thing done in Europe could be remembred before above three generations before the use of Letters. These men came wth colonies from Egypt & began to build towns soon after their coming \& these \towns/ seem to be ye oldest towns in Europe./ ffor before the seas began to be \were/ navigated, {illeg} Europe could be peopled only by Scythians from the north side of the Euxine sea, & the Scythians long after those days lived wthout towns or houses.

The ancient Egyptians & Greeks agree that Osiris & Bacchus were one & ye same king of Egypt. Now

The ancient Greeks who made the fables of ye Gods relate that Io the daughter of Inachus [or {illeg} was carried into Egypt & there became the Egyptian Isis & that Apis the son of Phoroneus after death became the God Serapis. \And/ Others {sic} represent |yt| Epaphus, that is Osiris, {illeg} to be \was/ the son of Io. And therefore Osiris & Isis in the opinion of the ancient Greeks who made the fables of the Gods, Osiris & Isis were not above two or three generations older then the Argonautic expedition. //The ancient Egyptians agree that [And there is no roome for ye great conquests of Osiris king of all Egypt before the days of Sesak.] The {illeg} \The ancients, both/ Egyptians & Greeks, agree that \the great conquerors/ Osiris & Bacchus were one & the same king of all Egypt |& they agree in their actions. Both \conquered {illeg} & the great conqueror Bacchus king of Egypt/ came over the Hellespont conquered Thrace slew Lycurgus king of Thrace & there put a stop to their victories.| Now Bacchus \this Bacchus/ loved two weomen, Venus & Ariadne Venus \{in her youth}/ was the mistr mother of Æneas \& thus was \{illeg}// not above or 60 or {65} 70 years before ye destruction of Troy, & Ariadne was two generations contemporary to Theseus & the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts as above. \This Bacchus was potent at sea – – – – – – one & the same man./ And therefore this Bacchus flourished but one generation before the Argonautic expedition & so can be not other then Sesak.

The p Plutarch tells us that the people of Naxus, {illeg} contrary to what others relate \wrote/, pretended that there were two Minoses & two Aria\d/nes, & that the first Ariadne married Bacchus & the last was carried away by Theseus. {illeg} This opinion seems to have arisen from hence that some of the Greeks made Osiris & Isis three generations older then the Argonautic expedition \as above/. But Homer Hesiod – – – – – were Argonauts. Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris by the relation were contemporary, & by ye relation of historians were all of them kings of all Egypt, & were very potent by land & sea. All three were great conquerers & conquered the same regions & carried on their conquests by land through Asia to India as far as India – – – – – – – – – no conqueror of Syria India Asia & Europe before Sesak.

[25]Leek. And this sort of {worship} \Idolatry/ was older then the days of Moses as is manifest by the second commandment, & gave occasion to the Thebans & Ethiopians who in the days of Samuel Saul \& {illeg}/ & David conquered \conquered/ the lower Egypt to set up the worship of their own kings in the same manner.

– in Hieroglyphicks. And this way of writing seems to have spread into ye lower Egypt before the days of Moses. ffor thence came the worship of their Gods in \the/ various shapes of birds beasts & fishes forbidden in the fourth co second Commandmt. Now this emblematical way of writing gave occasion to the Thebans & Ethiopians who in the days of Samuel Saul David Solomon & Rehoboam to represent their Kin conquered Egypt & {illeg} Libya & Asia & erected a great Empire, to represent their \conquering/ Kings & Princes by various Hieropglyphicks figures, as by representing \painting/ Ammon wth rams horns &c.

[Editorial Note 12] <32v>

{illeg}y find in history that a[26] Osiris {illeg} \{illeg}/ the first king of Egypt dedicated a Temple to his father Iupiter Hammon. b[27] That {illeg} his wife \his widdow/ Isis who \with/ reigned after him {illeg} & is {illeg} by some some writers called Balilea |was his Queen {illeg} & or Balilea who was Lemnia Queen of who reigned after him Egypt|, after the death of her son |& daughter| Helius & Selene \or Orus & Bubaste/ required her subjects to worship them as Gods & that ye Egyptians so soon as she{illeg} was dead {illeg}|{ad}|ed her worshp to yt of her children. That {illeg} Thoth or Mercury who \was secretary & Counseller to Osiris & Isis &/ reigned next \after them/ in Egypt c[28] ordeined the worship & sacrifices of the Gods & d[29] invented their figures of their images \& thereby laid the foundation of worshiping these Gods by pictures & {illeg} statues/. And \his/ institutions were so well observed as to become the religion of yt {illeg} nation till the times of he it was succeed {sic} by Christianity. And here we may wth better reason place ye rise & original of Idolatry in the Gods wch their first kings set up being worshipp For these Gods & these their figures were obteined in Egypt all that time. & have been \then/ \{illeg} Thus ready was the ambition vanity or superstition of Princes to introduce &c. Here then/ we may wth more reason place ye rise & original of idolatry after ye flood then amongst Conventicles in private families or conventicles \the inferior people as you do without gr/ wthout any ground in history. For we shall scarce find any other footsteps of Idolatry so ancient.

* That {Isi} the worsh lamentation of solemnity of ye sacred Ox \solemn worship of Osiris by every 4th year by/ lamenting \every year/ this|e| death of Osiris \& seeking his scattered members/ & drowning every 4th year {sic} the Ox wch was consecrated to him, was nothing else then his funeral solemnity instituted at first to be oberved {sic} yearly & every 4th year \& {seven days}/ in honour of his memory & by {illeg} consequence \that it was/ instituted by the authority of the nation soon after his death. That Isis when he \Osiris/ was first slain \drowned by Typhon his wife/ Isis gathered up his scattered members & covering them well with put \entombed/ them in wooden ox & yt g[30] she & Mercury {illeg} in memory of these things instituted in memory of these things instituted the above mentioned \divine honours &/ sacred rites as to a great {illeg} endeavouring & promoted his worship adding much \many things other things/ mystically force to his worship that they for magnifying the by wch they might magnify the power of this God. That Mencheres \or Mycerinus/ the 12th King of Memphis who (according to Marsham) reigned \in Egypt/ about ye time that Abraham left came \went/ from Vr of ye Chaldees into Canaan & who is called Mencherinus by Diodorus & Mycerinus by Herodotus, h[31] did in imitation of Isis bury \intomb/ his daughter in the belly of a wooden Ox guilded Ox & placed it in a room ado\r/ned for that purpose that odors might be daily offered to her & a lamp be burnt in ye night. That the same Isis k[32] erected a stately Temple to her parents Iupiter & Iuno that is to Iupiter Hammon & two other {gilt} temples one of wch was to ye same Iupiter Hammon & that she erected other Temples to other Gods & instituted honours & Priests to them. That Basilea (she is ye same Isis) after the death of her son & daughter Helius & Selene (yt is Apollo & Diana or Oris & Bubaste) required her subjects to worship them as Gods & yt ye Egyptians so soon as she was dead added the worship of her to that of her children. |And| That {sic} Thoth or <32r> Mercury – – – – all that time. And thence it became a tradition of Egyptian Priests a[33] that in the worship of ye Gods was commanded them yt beginning by their kings from ye beginning. So then if {illeg} the Ægyptian Priests understood ye originalls of their own kingdom (& what {illeg} I nation I pray had more ancient records then they?) the Worship of their Gods sprang not up are \crept not in/ by degrees among ye inferior people as you would persuad have it but suppose be presume \conjecture/, but was {illeg} ordeined by their first Kings \& conserved by all ye rest/ in honour of their family. & for ye same reason perpetually enjoyned by all ye kings which followed. For how much they affected to glorify themselves in their descent from ye Gods you may understand by that \ye proud/ inscription of \of king Ramestes on/ an Obelisk made by Ramestes one of interpreted by Hermapion & \in part/ conserved by Ammianus. & wch {illeg} is nothing else then a perpetual continual glying of glor glorifying of {illeg} E So ready was ye ambition vanity & supertition {sic} of Princes to introduce their predecessor into ye divine wp of ye people to secure to themselves the greater veneration from their subjects as descended from ye Gods & erecting such a worship & such a religion \Priesthood/ as might awe the blinded & seduced people into such an obedience as they de {sic} desired. Here then we have the true original of ye corruption of the religion of Noah \& the true cause of its spreading so early & so generally/. ffor this policy of ye kings of Egypt was soon fell took wth ye kings of other nations.

Was not ye great God of ye Eastern nations \Baal or/ Iupiter Belus the first king of Assyria founder of the Ass first king of Assyria? And which I pray is more likely that ye Court should promote ye honour of ye Kings among ye people or ye people find out these refined ways of doing it & introduce them into Courts? Was it ye business \interest & {illeg}/ of ye p{illeg} people to cheat themselves into slavery by these {illeg} fals religions \such kinds of state policies/ or was it not not {sic} rather the interest business of ye court to do it? And Diodorus[34] tells us that {illeg} Belus brought colonies out of Egypt & instituted Priests there after ye manner of ye Egyptians. And do now you think \will you say/ that he \& his successors/ did not by these Priests introuce the Egyptian superstitions {illeg} & \{illeg}/ apply them to |t|his|eir| own family for establishing |t|his|eir| kingdom?

What Idolatry does your History tell you of in \among the/ Greeks before Phoroneus & Danaus kings of ye Argivi, & Cecrops & Theseus kings of Attica, & Cadmus king of Thebes \Epopeus king of the Sicyonij & the rest some others/ introduced it? And why did they introduce it but to deify their ancestors by applying to them ye ffables & worship of ye Egyptian Gods? For what else were the Gods of the Greeks but their ancient kings? And whence {illeg} \{illeg}/ came that And whence came ye apotheosis of ancient custome of ye ancient Greeks of calling \even/ their \living/ Kings ἰσόθεοι & ἰσα Θεω but from the \state/ polity of {illeg} placing {illeg} images raising their estimation among the people by an opinion of divinity?

<33r>

And all the Diet put into one & the same Box of Diet shall be of Plate of one & the same standard in fineness. And as often as the Diets And if any Plate shall be bespoken eleven ounces ten penny weight fine the same shall not be made \may be \then/ made of that fineness & not/ coarser upon the penalty aforesaid, & it shall be marked with                                                    & the Diet thereof shall be kept upon \in/ a Box \of Diet/ apart And as often as the Diets of the Goldsmiths of York, Bristol, Exeter, Norwich, Chester, & Newcastel have not been tried at the trial of the Pix of |ye| new coined moneys within two years before; the Assaymasters of those towns shall annually upon notice in writing from the Wardens of the \said/ Company of Goldsmiths or any three of them, bring or send their several Diets to the Hall of the said Company in London, to be there tryed by the Committee of the said Company at the same time & in the same manner with the Diet of the |sd| Company: all wch Diets shall be of one & the same standd

But \such/ Plate of eleven ounce ten penny weight fine \of this fineness of this fineness/ shall not be made \of this fineness/ unless

<33v>

became Tutor to the child & then travelled into Crete & Asia till the child grew up & brought back with him the Poem of Homer \suppose about the 21 or 22 Ol. & the public by his {Rams}/ suppose in about the or 22th Olympiad \suppose about the 22 Oymp [& this was/ in the reign of Agesilaus the son & successor of Dosissus or Doriagus in the other race of the kings of Sparta.] |& might be about the 22th Olympiad. And therefore Lycurgus & Agesillaus flourished a little after th published his laws a little after the 18th Olymp suppose in from the 18 \migh/ published {sic} his laws about the 22th Olympiad. Terpander| < insertion from lower down f 33v > [Editorial Note 13] & then travelled into Crete & Asia till the child grew up, & brought back with him the Poesy of Homer & published it in Greece, suppose about the 20 or 22th Olympiad, & soon after published his laws. Terpander was a Lyric Poet < text from f 33v resumes > Torpender was a Lyric Poet & imitated Orpheus & Homer & sung his own verses & Homers & wrote the Laws of Lycurgus in verse & therefore flourished after Lycurgus had brought the Poesy of Homer \returned/ out of Asia & published it \his laws/ in Greece. He \This Poet/ was the first who distinguished the modes of Lyric \music/ by several names. And Ardalus & Clonas soon after did the {illeg} like for wind music. And from henceforward several eminent Musicians & Poets flourished in Greece unto perfection as Archilochus, Polymnestus, Thaletas, Xenodamus, Xenocritus, Sacadas, Tyrtæus, Tlesilla, Alcman, Arion, Stesichorus, Mimnermus, Alcæus, Sappho, Theognis, Anacreon, Pindar, by whom the Musick & Poetry of the Greeks was brought to its perfection.

Lycurgus published his laws in the reign of Agesilaus kin the son & successor of Dorissus or Doriagus \in/ the other race of the kings of Sparta From the return of the Heraclides – – – Olympiad as above.

When Lycurgus

<34r>

God \& altars for offering oyle & drink offering./ For as we build temples & set apart the places so its reasonable to beleive that the Ancients before they began to build \such/ temples set apart certain places for Gods worship & marked the places by erecting \only/ stones or altars. For when God had appeared to Iacob in Bethel \his way to Haran/ he Iacob said surely the lord is in this place & I knew it not. \How dreadful is this place./ This is none other but the house of God & this is the gate of heaven. And then to mark the place he took ye stone he had slept upon & set it up for a pillar & poured oyle upon it & called not only the stone but the whole place Bet & the adjacent city Bethel, that is the house of God & vowed that if he returned in peace that stone should be Gods house & he would there give the tenth of all he had to God. This offering of tenths shews that he set ye place apart \as {illeg} a P{rytanæū} as prophe as/ for Gods worship by \continual/ sacrifices \as in the temples or {prytanæa} /as in the prytaneum or temples of those days\/. ffor after his return he \went &/ dwelt there & built an altar to God \that is he built a prytaneum/. And indeed the pillar it self was nothing else then an altar for such things as could be offered upon it. ffor when Iacob \was/ returned thither & God appeared again to him, he set up another pillar \of stone/ & poured a drink offering & oyle upon it, & called ye place Bethel as before. Now Betyls the heathen Betyls being nothing else then {illeg} or Bethels were no doubt originally of the same kind with Iacobs \as the name imports/ & therefore they were at first nothing else then {illeg} marks of places set apart for Gods |ye| worship \of the true God/ & altars \set up/ for offer drink offerings & oyle to ye true God |offerings to him And these erecting such altars seems to have been in use from ye beginning. ffor such no doubt were the pillars of \erected by/ Hercules & Bacchus & from this practise the name Bætylus was given to Canaan & {illeg} to the stone which Rhea gave {illeg} Saturn instead of her son Iupiter.| But when the heathens began to worship fals Gods they abused these Bethels & made \feigned/ them \to be/ the houses or habitations of their fals Gods & made them the objects of their worship whence & so as to be animated by them as λίθους ἐμχύχους animated stones as Sanchoniatho calls them \that is animated by the souls of their Gods dwelling in them/, & made |on this ground \account/ they made| them the objects of their \{as they}/ worship. \These stones were Bethels were/ At {sic} first they were such rude stones as Iacob found in the feild but afterwards they gave them regular Geometrical figures forming them either a conically or b square or c Oval & at length & when men grew still better artists the {sic} shaped them like men & weomen & sometimes like bruit beasts. And this I take to be the true original of the worship of Idols. \For Porphyrius tells us / < insertion from the left margin of f 34v > Porphyrius tells us that Damascans a people of Arabia did every {illeg} /sacrifice\ a boy & bury him under the {altar} υπὸ βομὸν χρωνται ὡς ξοάνης where the under the altar, wch they worshipped as used {illeg} as a statue. This altar was therefore a Betyl. ffor < text from f 34r resumes > And because the nations turned this sort of Altars into Idols then Moses commands that ye great Altar should be made of unhewn stones.

Now{illeg} whilest the Heathens \Nations/ feigned the stars & elements \& columns/ & statues \& certain Beasts & Birds/ & other things to be inhabited by the souls of their Gods & by means of those souls to \be Gods &/ govern the world, they recconed that these things by their motions & other {illeg} \influen operations/ were significative of things to come & thence invented divers divinatory arts (as Astrology Augury \Haruspicine/ Necromancy, \Haruspicine conjuring/ Southsaying) by wch & ye crafty artifice of ye people Oracles \& figments of statues & columns fallen from heaven/ & such like tricks the superstition of ye people toward these Gods was extreamly increased & the whole world deceived. \I name conjuring because that seems to have had its rise from the practice of animating pillars & statues by certain forms of consecration/. And these were the heathen superstitions from wch Moses made a reformation.

Chap. III.
The History of the first Ages.

The passage in ye Recipe symbol in text is to be thus mended. – et hujus sublimati partes tres cum dabus vitrioli abstrahantur \primum a/ {sic} duabus Vitrioli Deinde a plus cerussa \deinde a tribus vel quatuor cerussæ. Postea {illeg} de cerussa illa/ cum aqua pluvialia (addito si opus est aceto destillato q.s. sed præstat aceto non uti) extrahatur saccharum. Hac saccharum I have seen Mr Craigs new piece but had not time to read it. If yor friend should go into fflanders or any thing else should fall out so yt you cannot go to work this winter, what if you should spend ye winter here. About a fortnight since I was taken ill of a distemper wch has been here very common, but am now pretty well again.

<34v>

Gods: but the worship of statues was of a later date. |Bardesanes Symbol (cross surmounted by 3 circles arranged in a triangle) in text| < insertion from f 34r > Symbol (cross surmounted by 3 circles arranged in a triangle) in text For \g/[35] Bardesanes \who lived in the reign of the Emperor Marcus/ {illeg} tells us that the Taini & Saracens & those of the upper Lybya & the Moorers & inhabitants of the {illeg}|Mo|uth of ye Mediterranean Sea & those in ye further parts of Germany & in ye upper Sarmatia & Scythia & the nations on ye north of the Euxine Sea & those in all Alania & Albania, & Otenes Saunia & the golden {illeg} Chersonesus had neither Carver nor Painter nor Architect & by consequence neither Pictures nor images nor Temples but cōtented themselves with; such Prytanea as ye Persians used. < text from f 34v resumes > ffor the a[36] Romans worshipped them not till after ye reign of Numa \and the Greeks \not/ till the reign of Theseus king of Attica/ & Lucian tells us that anciently the temples not only amongst the Assyrians but also amongst the Egyptians were without Statues. So then Their original in {illeg} \Europe/ & Asia minor is thus described by Athenagoras. The Images of the Gods saith he were not so much as named until the \plastic arts or/ arts of forming images of clay, that of painting & that of making statues came into use were found out, by ye by \Saurias/ Saurias the Samian, Craton the Sicyonian & Cleanthes ye Corinthian & {sic} Core a Corinthian woman then flourishing. ffor Saurias found out the way of delineating {illeg} \by/ the shaddows of things, describing a horse by his shaddow in ye Sun; & Craton found out painting describing in a white table the shadows of a man & woman & Core found out the Coroplastick art describing for when she had described in a wall the shaddow (or picture of one whome she was in love with while he slept, she her father \who was a Potter,/ being delighted wth the exactness of likenes of ye draught piece, described it copied it & filled it out with clay. And this type \effigies/ is still kept conserved in Corinth. After these came Dædalus & Theodorus the Milesian & found out ye art of pl statuary & plastick arts. And so little a time is it since ye invention of Statues that we can recite even ye very names of the Artificers who made ye Gods. ffor the \old/ statue of Diana in Ephesus made of an olive tree & that old one of Minerva made of an olive tree & sitting were made by Endyus ye disciple \scholar/ of Dædalus. The Pythian Apollo is ye work of Theodorus & Telecles. The Delian Apollo & Diana of Idectæus & Angelion. The Iuno in Samos & Argos of Smilis. The rest of ye Statues were made by Phidias. Venus {illeg} Hetæra in Chydus was ye work of Praxelitis Praxiteles The Æsclapius in Epidaurus of Phydias. {illeg}|A|nd in short all statues every where were made by men. T So then there were \in those parts regions/ no Statues {illeg} in Temples before ye days \age/ of Dædalus who was contemporary to Minos king of Crete & {illeg} Theseus king of Athens. Yet by the sta golden calf & the Cherubims in the tabernacle \& the Images of Laban/ we find that ye Statuary art was grown to sufficient perfection |in the East| in Egypt \& Syria/ & ye {illeg} \before before/ the days of Moses, & ye images of Laban sh \Iacob/ c[37] Epiphanius tells us that Idol in the days of Serue ye son of Rehu Idolatry began in pictures & that T afterwards Thara the father of Abraham {was the first} {illeg} found out ye art of making \solid/ statues of clay & other materials & proposed them to be worshipped.

But the worship of Idols began first in rude stones. ffor Clemens tells us[38] that before the making of statues accurately the ancients erected columns & worshipped them as the statues of the Gods. And e[39] Pausanias \gives/ us some instances of rude{illeg} stones anciently worshipped by ye Greeks, one for ye statue of Hercules another for that of Cupid others for those of the Graces. \Symbol (obelus with 4 uprights) in text/ < insertion from the right margin of f 34v > Symbol (obelus with 4 uprights) in text And q[40] speaking of a \certain/ statue of Mercury he saith: Neare the statue of this God are \erected/ slmost 30 stones erected of a quadrangular figure {illeg} They worship each of them giving /calling\ them by certain names of the Gods. And {truly} it was ffor indeed anciently rude stones instead of {sic} instead of images were honoured \as for Gods/ by all the Greeks instead of Images p 10 < text from f 34v resumes > Such stones they worshipped also are at first in Syria calling them Bætyls & saith f[41] Damascius they dedicated several Bætyls to several Gods, the Saturn, Iupiter, \the Sun/ & others. And Cedrenus tells us that in ye age of Serach when statues \solid Images/ were not yet invented Men began to honour their ancestors with ἀνδριάσι στηλων with statues of columns & to adore them as Gods & sacrifice to them. \And such pillars as these Moses forbids in Levit. 26.1./ These stones columns see stones seem to have been \originally/ nothing else then marks of places set apart for ye worship of the true

<35r> <36r>

Alania, great Russia, Chersonesus, Dacia, Poland, Germany Denmark Sweden In Vntill the times of the Council of Constantinople A the Bishop of Cæsarea sent metropo bishops to the govern the Christians in [Albania Circassia Alania &] the region in the neigh regions of Caucasus & beyond it, the principal of wch regions was Alania up|se|ated upon the river Tanais: In & the bishop of Heraclea in Thrace did the like to ye Christians in great Russia & Chersonesus. ffor the Christian religion had been propagated into these regions by the Christians who in the times of persecution & particularly in the persecutions of Decius, Dioclesian & Maximinus had fled out ye Empire into those parts & continued in subjection to the Churches from wch they fled.

<37r>

About two years after the death of Codrus was the Ionic migration \into Asia/ under his sons Neleus & A\n/droclus \into Asia/, & about twenty \20 or 30/ years after [the cities of these colonies combined under an Amphictyonic Council for their common safety. * & these colonies built Miletus.] was an Amphictyonic \a {sic} common/ Council \called Panioniun/ set up over Panionia these new Colonies, now called Panionia & convened from the twelve cities Miletus, Myus, & Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos Clazomenæ, Phocea, Samus, Chius & Erythrea. Herod. l. 1.

About two years after the death of Codrus was the Ionic migration {illeg} \into Asia/ under his son Neleus & \& who/ soon after \also was followed/ under his yonger {sic} sons Androchus & Cyaretus. And about 26 or 30 years after {illeg} his death, {illeg} these new colonies set up over them a common council called Panionium to which the \composed of/ Counsellours were sent from the twelve cities Miletus, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomenæ,Phocea, Samus, Chius, & Erythrea.

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And the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus \king of Athens/ might be about 3|1|86 years earlier [or \about/ 34 years after the return of the Heraclides,] & the death of Codrus about \twelve fifteen/ twenty years earlier \then that migration/ or about 14|6| years after the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus.

And the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus \late/ king of Athens might be about 186 years earlier & the death of Codrus about twelve years earlier then that migration, or about 16 years after the return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus.

And the Ionic migration under the sons of Codrus might be about ten or 15 years after their fathers death, at wch time they built Ephesus was built by Androclus the son of Codrus.

[Editorial Note 14]

So Arnobius: Tyrine Hercules in finibus sepultus Hispaniæ.

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Response
An Account of the Observations upon the Chronology of N|S|r I. Newton

Pharamund
X Claudian
Meroveus
Childric
Clovis X
ClothaireChildibert
Childibert \Churcart/Claudimer
ChilstericThierry
Clothaire
{illeg}
Dagobert.
Clovis
Clothaire
Childeric.
Thierry.
Clovis
Childebert
Dagobert
Chilsteric
Thierry
Childeric
Pepin
Charlemaine
Lud. Pius
Carolus
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the fables of ye Gods, have feigned that Apis the son of Phoroneus & Io his sister went into Ægypt & became the Apis & Isis of the Egyptians that is their Osiris & Isis. ffor the Egyptians worshipped Osiris in the Ox Apis & feigned that his soul resided in the Ox. So then Osiris, Isis, Apis & Bacchus \of the Egyptians/ in the opinion of the ancient Egyptians \Greeks/ were not above two generations older then Sesostris or Sesac, & by consequence they could not be older then the reign of David. \And if their wars & conquests suit not with his reign nor with Solomons they must be those of Sesac in the reign of Rehoboam./ //|9.| And yet the fabling Egyptians have made them older then the world, feigning that when ye great men of Egypt in the history of their Gods who shared the whole earth between them {over} 9000 years ago |their Gods 9000 years before the Neptune the father of Atlas, Vulcan, Minerva the wars of their Gods who days of Solon| shared the earth (that is the Egyptian Empire) between themselves \& that in the history of the wars of those Gods/ mention was made of many Greeks as Cecrops Erechtheus Erechthonius Eripichthon & others who|se| names resem resembled theirs who \flourished/ long after flourished in the times next before Theseus, & |yt| \in the same wars/ the habit & statue of Pallas (the foundress of \Sais &/ Athens) was also \there/ described in those {men} \the weomen in those days warring wth ye men/ & in the division of the earth between the Gods the Island Atlantes \(a part of which (seated at the straits mouth) was called Gador)/ was said to have fallen \fell/ to ye lot of Neptune the father of \who left it to his son/ Atlas. But Homer lets us know that the Calypso the daughter of Atlas reigned \there in/ the times of the Trojan war; & therefore the wars of the Gods of Egypt in the days of her grandfather were \being/ but two generations before older, must fall in with the wars of \wch/ Sesostris & his p|P|rinces made upon the earth. Homer places Calypso in the Island Ogygian island 18 or 20 days sail westward from the island Pheacia or Coryra. And so many days sail Gades \or Gadin/ is from Corcyra, recconing wth the ancients a thousand stadia to a days sail. Her grandfather Neptune had several children who were \either/ Argonauts \or contemporary to them/ & he with Apollo (that is \or/ Orus the son of Osiris) built the walls of Troy in the days of Laomedon the father of Priamus.

10 The great Bacchus loved two weomen Venus & Ariadne. Venus was |the mistress of Anchises wch| the|and| mother of Æneas \both wch lived till the destruction of Troy/, & two of the sons of Bacchus & Ariadne were Argonauts. This Bacchus was potent at sea, conquered eastward as far as India, brought his army over the Hellespont, conquered Thrace & killed \killed Lycurgus the king thereof & killed also/ Pentheus the son of Echion the of ye contemporarie|y|s of Cadmus |&| gave the kingdom of Lycurgus to Tharops, & one of his minstrells called by the Greeks Calliope to Oeagrus the son of Tharops & of Oeagrus & Calliope was born Orpheus who sailed with the Argonauts in his youth. And by all these arguments this Bacchus was \but/ one generation older then the Argonauts & so \was/ contemporary to Sesostris or Sesak; & both being kings of Egypt & potent at sea & great conquerors & carrying their conquests into India & Thrace they must be one & the same man, &. And the same thing is to be said of Osiris. He The Egyptians relate that he was king of all Egypt & a great conquerour & subdued Thrace & there killed Lycurgus & therefore his expedition falls in wth that of Bacchus. Osiris Bacchus & Sesostris were all of them \by the relation of historians/ kings of \all/ Egypt at \& reigned about/ ye same time & were very potent by land & sea: All three were great conquerors, & conquered the same regions, & carried on their conquests by land \thro' Asia/ as far as India. a|A|ll three came over the Hellespont & were there in danger of losing their army: All three conquered Thrace & there put a stop to their victories & returned back from thence into Greece Egypt.: & all three left pillars wth inscriptions in their conquests: & therefore they must be one & the same king of all Egypt, & this king can be no other then Sesak. All Egypt including Thebais, Æthiopia & Libya had no common king before the expulsion of ye Shepherds, no conqueror of Syria India Asia & Europe before Sesak. |The sacred history admits of no Egyptian conqueror of Phenicia Palestine before this king.|

11 The Greek {sic} reccon Osiris & Bacchus to be the sons of Iupiter, & the Egyptian name of Iupiter is Ammon. – – – – – – – & all three one & ye same king wth Sesak.

12 The lower part of Egypt being yearly overflowed

<41r> < insertion from the left margin >

Et vice rectæ HX duci potest rec per punctum I recta ipsi BD parallela.

< text from f 41r resumes >

Hypermnestra the daughter of Danaus Priestess of Iuno Argiva.

1 Phemonoe. Callithyia

*

3 Alcinoe in tertia ante Troica ætate

5 Elometa Eurysthei filia.

4 Hypermnestra Danai filia

5 Admeta Eurysthai filia.

6 Cydippe.

7 Chrysis

8 Phainis

[Editorial Note 15]

The first Priestess of this Goddess was Phemonoe Callithyia the daughter of Pirasus or Piranthus [& grand-daughter of Argus & Euadne the son of Niobe & grandson of Phoroneus] called Criasus by Castor. And Pirasus was the son of Argue the son \& grandson the son or brother of/ of {sic} Niobe the daugher of Phoroneus. Callithyia was succeeded by Alcinoe about three generations (or 100 years) before the taking of Troy, that is about the middle of {illeg} Solomons reign. In her days the Siculi passed out of Italy into Sicily. After her was \Then/ Hypermnestra the son \daughter/ of Danaus \became/ Priestess of this Goddess. & then Admeta the daughter of Eurytheus. She flourished in the times next before the Argonautic expeditiō And Admeta the daughter of Eurystheus was |her| Priestess \of this Iuno/ about the times of the Trojan war.

<41v> < insertion from the left margin of f 41v >

In pag. 19. l. 11. after the words Lemmate XXIII, add the words ejusq Corollina

Pag. 22 l. 15 for hujus ætatis write ætatis novissimæ

Pag. 25 l. 6 from ye bottom; after corpus B add quiescens.

Pa Pag. 23. lin 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 may stand.

Pag. 23. lin 32. for corpus B put corpus B quiescens

Pag. 24. lin. 32. for in write In

< text from f 41v resumes >

where Phemonoe became Priestess of Apollo & gave aswers {sic} in

Bochart \(in Canaan l 1. c 15)/ deduces them from Palestin & thinks that that they had the name of Curetes from the people among the Philistims call {sic} Crethim \or Cerethites/ Ezek. XXV.16 Zeph. 11.5, 6. 1 Sam. XXX.14, 16.

And so Curtius lib. 5: Semiramis eam condiderat, vel ut pleriq credidere Belus, cujus regia ostenditur And b[42] Abydenus Fama est Babylonem Belum mœnibus cinxisse, quæ cum tempus abolerisset, nova mœnia struxisse Nebuchadonosorum. And Abydenus Ferunt, inquit, [loca hæc omnia jam inde ab initio aquis obruta fuisse, marisq nomine appellata: verum suam singulis regionem &c] Belum Babylonem mœnibus cinxisse ac deinceps mortalium oculis ereptum esse: postea vero Βηλον Βαβυλονα τείχει περιβαλειν τω χρόνω δὲ ἰχνευμένω ἀναφανεσθαι ἀφανισθηναι. τειχάσο() δε ἀυθις Ναβουχοδονοσορον &c Belum, ferunt, Babylonem, muro mœnibus cinxisse, eoq tempus \quæ tempora/ abo{illeg}lita fuessint\runt/, & Nebuchadonosorum \deinceps/ nova mœnia æneis portis distincta struxisse quæ ad usq Macedonum imperium steterunt. Euseb. Præp. l. 9

<42r>

excepting that the Marbles make things a little to anci

But the Marbles Greeks had corrupted their Chronology before the Marbles were made, &|so| as to add to the antiquity of all things done before the wars of ye Persians against the|m| Greeks. And therefore I would {illeg} a little diminish the antiquities se the war against Cyrrha may \have/ be|en| put a little later suppose an 2|1| Olyp. {sic} 51|2| & the massage {sic} of Crœsus to the Oracle at Delphos may be an 1 1 Olymp 58. & the expulsion of the sons of Pisistratus an. 1 Olymp. 68 or bef{ore} And suitably to these recconings the Legislature of Draco might \may/ bee in the 50 Olympiad, that of Solon in the 54th Olympiad & the death taking of Sardes by Cyrus in the 59th Olympiad The first annual Archon of Athens in the {illeg}|48|th Olympiad. The fir And The first decennial Archon of Athens about 30 or 40 years before, some of these Archons dying in their regency. And the Ionic migration under the conduct of the sons of Codrus 18 \or 20/ years before the Olympiads, & the death of Codrus 6|5| or {8}|10| years before that migration

And therefore the war against Cyrrha may have been a little later suppose an. 1. Olymp. 53 & the message of Crœsus to the Oracle at Delphos an. 1 Olymp 58 & the expulsion of the sons of Pisistratus an 1. Olymp. 69. And suitably to these recconings the Legislature of Draco may have been in the 51 Olympiad, that of Solon in the 55th Olympiad & the taking of Sardes by Cyrus in the 59th Olymp. The first annual Archon of Athens in the 49th Olymp. The first decennial Archon in the 39th Olymp. \or not long before, some of the 7 Archons dying in their regency./ The death of Codrus was \may have been/ about 25|30| or 3|4|0 years before the Olympiads. And the Ionic migration about \under the sons of Codrus scarce above within/ 5 or 10 years after his death.

Diodorus tells us that the Egyptians sent many colonies out of Egypt into other countries & that Belus the son of Neptune & Libya carried colonies thence into Babylonia & seating himself on Euphrates instituted Priests free from Taxes & publick expences after the manner of Egypt, who were called Chaldæans & who after the example of the Priests of Egypt might & Astronomers of Egypt might observe the starrs. By calling him the son of Neptune he is here represented a seaman like Oannes; \/ < insertion from f 42v > &|A|nd by his being King of Egypt & Lord of Chaldea & \{illeg} & that/ & celebrated by the name of \whom they {illeg} called/ Belus \who was/ the son of Neptune & Libya, he can be no other then [the [Busiris or Osiris of the Egyptias {sic}. For Eusebius tells us that Busiris king of E{gypt} was the son of Neptune & Libya. Hereby it appears w \And the daughter of Epaphus/ & Apollodorus tha{t} Busiris king of Egypt was the son of Neptune & Libyanassa the daughter of Epaphus. And hereby it appears & that Belus king of Egypt was the son of of {sic} Neptune & Libya & father of Ægyptus & Danaus] Ammon or Sesac. For Apollodorus tells us that Belus the son of Neptune & Libya & king of Egypt was the father of Ægyptus & Ammon Danaus, & this Belus was Ammon. He tells us also that Busiris king of the son of Neptune & Lyb Lisianassa [lege Libyanassa] the daughter of Epaphus was king of Egypt: & Eusebius calls this king Busiris the son of Neptune & Libya the daughter of Epaphus: & here by Busiris they seem to mean Osiris. Ammon went not out of Egypt, & therefore the Bel{us} who \carried colonies colonies {sic} into Chaldea &/ seated himself upon Euphrates & must be Osiris. And hereby it appe{ars} why \the Chaldeans made/ Oannes older then the flood of Xixuthrus: for the Egyptians made Ammon & Sesac as old. So then Astronomy, Letters, Agriculture, \Architecture/ cohabitation in cities & erecting of temples to the dead were carried into Chaldea by the fleets of Edom \Edomites who fled by sea from David/ & Egypt \in the days of David & Solomon, that is/ about the same time time {sic} that those \ye same things/ came from the same countries into Libya Asia minor & Europe. In Persia they erected no Temples to the Gods before till above 500 years after these days.

By his being the son of Neptune he was a seaman like Oannes. By his being the Belus of the Chaldeans & the son of Neptune & Libya & a king of Egypt he can be no other then \wch carried Colonies \thence/ into Chaldea he must be either/ Ammon or Sesac. {illeg} /For\ Apollodorus & this was in the days of David & Solomon. < text from f 42r resumes > & by his calling him \being king of Egypt & the Chaldean Belus &/ the son of Neptune & Libya, he is Busiris or Osiris. ffor Eusebius lets us know that Busiris king of Egypt was the son of Neptune & Libya. And hereby it appears why the Chaldeans made Osiris \Oannes/ older then the flood of Xixuthrus: for the Egptians made Osiris as old. So then Astronomy Letters agriculture & Architecture were carred into Chaldea by the fleets of Edom & Egypt in the days of David & Solomon |about the same time that they came from the same fountain into Libya Asia minor & Europe.|

[Editorial Note 16]

Draco makes laws Olym. 50. 1. Phidon overthrown.

The Amphictyons by ye advice of Solon make war upon ye Cyrrheans & take Cyrrha Olym. 53. 2

Solon makes laws. Olymp. 54. 2. Solon dyes Olymp. 39.

<43r>

– the beginning of his reign

Astyages a[43] married his daughter Mandanes to Cambyses a Persian & of them was born Cyrus & after he \& of them was born ✝ Cyrus/ < insertion from the right margin of f 43r > ✝ who being grown up commanded the armies of the Medes & Persians & after various warrs first overcame Crœsus King of Lydia < text from f 43r resumes > \[When Astyages had/ had {sic} reigned 35 years he was b[44] succeeded by his son Cyaxeres who in \& Cyaxares neare/ ye beginning of his reign sent to A Cambyses for assistance against the Assyrians \who reigned at Babylon –/ & Cambyses thereupon sent his Son Cyrus wth an army to \thereupon Cyrus received an army of his ffather & went with it {illeg} to |ye| Media|es| | Cambyses sent Cyrus with an army to the Medes/ the [Medes. {illeg} This was the beginning of the actions of Cyrus & so may be recconed {illeg} the beginning of the 30 years reign of Cyrus {illeg} attributed to Cyrus \him/ by the Greeks, thô Cyrus \he/ was not yet king of Persia but warred under Cyaxeres kings of the Medes & Persians. [In these his warrs he vanquished Crœsus King of Lydia & addded his kingdom (wch was a rich & flourishing one) to that of ye Medes, And then] ffor Chronologers by common consent reccon that he began his reign in Persia, (vizt upon his first receiving an army there from his ffather \that is began to command the Army,/) An. 1 Olymp. 95. Iul. Per. 4155 in Spring & reigned full thirty years & died or was slain in spring an. I. P. 4185.] Neare In his warrs he first subdued overcame |& \Cyrus/ in the ensuing warrs who {illeg} commanding|ed| the armies of the Medes & Persians & after various warrs overcame| Crœsus king of ye Lydians & thereby added all Asia minor to ye kingdom of the Medes & Persians. For Crœsus reigned at Sardes over all Asia minor on this side the river Halys except Cilicia & Lycia & his kingdom was rich & flourishing as well as potent & large & potent. Afterwards in the 17th year of Labynitus Nabonedus Cyrus {commanded} Babylon led the Army into Babylon of ye Medes & Persians into Babylonia & then \beat the Nabonassus \the Babylonians in battel// army of the Kings of beseiged Babylon & \took it/ either that year or ye next {sic} |At that time Nabonedus reigned in Babylon. Herodotus calls him Labynitus the son of Labynitus & Nitocris King & Q|ueen| of Babylon & by Labynitus the father understands that king of Babylon \by/ whose meanes peace was made between Abattes king of Lydia & Cyaxeres king of the Medes presently after the great Eclips predicted by Thales that is the great Nebuchadnezzar. In the 17 year of Nabonidus ye son, Cyrus invaded Babylonia, beat ye army of the Babylonians & beseiged Babylon & took it either that year or the next| (Ier. 51.46) ( in Summer (v. 39) in ye time of a ffeast when ye Babylonians were dissolute & in drink (Herod. l. 1 Z|X|en. Cyrop. l 7 Ier. 51.39, 57) by diverting the river Euphrates & entring the City through ye emptied Channel (Herod. l. 1. Xenophon Cyrop. l 7.) & by consequence after midsummer. ffor ye river – – – – – designe in execution.

In Cy-a|A|xeres \or Achsu\e/rus/ left his throne to his son Darius {illeg} \Dan 11.1./ either [before ye taking of Babylon or soon after] & Darius left it to Cyrus who being born in Persia & educated in Persia \of a Persian ffather/ set the Persians above ye Medes. Herodotus ends the reign of the Kings of the Medes wth ye|t| Death of Astyages but it's more agreable to Scripture to continue them \it/ (wth /as\ Xenophon \& Iosephus doe/) till after the taking of Babylon. ffor Babylon was invaded & taken by the Medes Isa. 13.17          & the King wch then reigned \& invaded Babylon/ is called king of ye Medes Ier. 51.11, 28 & the Medes were till that time \after the taking of Babylon/ placed before ye Persians Dan 5.28 & 6.8, 12, 15 And Darius the Mede the son of Achsuerus of the seed of the Medes reigned over Babylon before Cyrus Dan       & governed the kingdom be |Which argues that Cyrus did not yet reign over the Medes but only led their armies. against Babylon.| treated the Babylonians Chaldeans as a conquered people governing them by the \forreign/ laws of the Medes & Persians Dan. 6.       wch argues that Darius was King of the

<43v>

Herodotus Ctesias & the Author of Bel & ye Dragon make Cyrus the immediate successor of his Grandfather Astyages \in the kingdom of the Medes/, Daniel makes him the \immediate/ successor of Darius the son of Achsuerus of the seed \of the Medes/ or|th|at is of the race of their kings And Xenophon makes Cy-Axeres or Achswerus the son & successor of Astyages. Whence there seems to have been two \six/ kings of the Medes between Astyages & Cyrus. ffor Dejoces, Praortes, Cy-Achswerus, Astyages, Cy-Achswerus & Darius. ffor Darius & Cyrus being being 62 years old when he took the kingdom of the Chaldees was contem might well be the grandson of Astyages, being contemporary to Cyrus.

Cyrus therefore took Sardes & Babylon in \during/ the reign of the Medes \before/ ffor Babylon was destroyed by a nation out of the North (Ier 50.3, 9, 41) by the Kings \& captains & rulers/ of the Medes (Ier 51.11, 28 by the kingdoms of Ararat Minni & Ashchenaz (Ier 51.27) \by the Medes (Isa 13.17, 19)/ by the Kings of the Medes & the captains & rulers thereof & all the land of his Dominions (Ier. 51.11, 28) And accordingly Daniel \(chap. 5)/ told Belshasser that his kingdom was betw divided (from him) & given to the Medes & Persians, first to ye Medes under Darius & who the Mede who after Belshazzer tooke was slain took ye kingdom being about 62 years old, & then to the Persians under Cyrus & his successors. And the Angel tell told Daniel \(chap. 10.20 & 11.1)/ that he went forth \returned/ to fight with ye Price {sic} of Persia, for when he was gone forth the Prince of Greece should come & the {illeg} that in the first year of Darius the Mede he stood to confirm & to strengthen him, that is \he stood/ to assist him \Darius/ in conquering ye kingdom of Babylon as he was \should/ afterwards to assist Alexander the great in conquering the kingdom of Persia. And this is further confirmed by the laws by which Darius reigned over Babylonia. ffor \{reig}/ he governed them not by the \preserved not the laws of the Babylonians but/ introduced the \immutable/ laws of the conquering nations the Medes & Persians (Dan 6.8, \12/ 15) & the Medes in his reign are set before the Persians \(Dan. ib. & 5.28)/ as the the {sic} Persians were afterwards set before the Medes (Esther 1.3, 14, 18, 19) wch shews that Cyrus & the Persians \warred under Darius &/ reigned not over the Medes till after his \the/ death of Darius of Darius but warred under him at ye taking of Babylon. And therefore Xenophon (who he {illeg} wrote ye life of Cyrus after ye manner of a Romance yet he was not mistaken in having learnt some things concerning Cyrus made out all the rest so as to feigned all the rest so as to write \his life/ as particularly as if he had lived in his court) was not mistaken in producing the reign of the \Kings of the/ Medes till after the {illeg} conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, & making Cyrus king of neither Media nor Persia till after that conquest but only the Commander of their armies \of those nations/ under their kings. But Cyrus \by his victories/ having made himself \more/ famous \then other Kings/ by his victories & the Greeks D 1 Cyrus being more known to ye Greeks {illeg} s the by \And if/ many of the Greeks he might be \have/ recconed \him/ king of those nations from ye time that he \first/ led their armies before, it was because \Cyrus \he/ was most known to them &/ in those early ages {illeg} the name of King was usually given to all leaders \by the Greeks to every head Commander/ of |an| armies|y|.

This Darius the Mede (not the father of Xerxes but another earlier king) \{illeg}/ coyned a great number of \four pur square/ pieces of pure gold called Darics or Stateres Darici weighing each worth eight \twenty/ Attic drachms of silver & \& five of them worth a pound of silver. & he/ was the first King of the Medes or Persians who coyned such money. They had ye Effigies of Darius on one side & an Archer on the other. The following kings of Persia coyned only silver money. See Brissonius de Regn. Pers. Lib 11. pag 277, 278. The occasion of this coynage seems to have been the {illeg} example of the Kings of Lydia conquered by the Medes & Persians. ffor they \the Lydians/ coyned money before the Medes invaded them, & being very rich might not only teach their conquerers the art & use of money but also supply them with gold. Whence it's probable that they were conquered by Cyrus in the reign of Darius.

<44r>

Persians as well as of the Medes &that Cyrus only commanded his armies

After Cyrus had taken Babylon he made some other war

|For| The {sic} antiquity of these institutions appears \by the names & founders of the cities of Egypt & also/ by the ancient fable of the Egyptian Gods being me hiding themselves \at ye death of Osiris from the Gyants/ in the shapes of various beasts in the warr of ye Giants upon the death of Osiris \at at the death of Osiris/ the father of Hermes & also by the names & founders of the cities of Egypt. ffor in Egypt only among all the countries in the word {sic} sa |in wch shapes they were afterwards worshipped \by the Egyptians/ ffor whereas the Gods are by Homer & the Mythologists accounted to be born out of the Ocean Diodorus tells us that the \Egyptians account their/ Nile is|to| |be| that| Ocean. ffor in Egypt only, saith he, among all the countries in the world are many cities built by the ancient Gods, as by Iupiter Sol Mercury Apollo Pan Elithia & many others. Diodor l. 1. c. 1. It appears also by the ancient fable of the Gods hiding themselves from the Giants in the shapes of various beasts at the death of Osiris the father of Hermes in wch shapes they were afterwards worshipped by the Egyptians.

[45]Bella canit superum.

[Editorial Note 17] <44v>

Iosephus (Antiq. l.    ) makes Babylon overthrown by Darius King of ye Medes & Cyrus of Persia.

– the beginning of his reign.

Astyages married his daughter Mandanes to Cambyses a Persian & of them was born Cyrus who leading the armies of the Medes & Persians conquered the Kingdoms of Lydia \Sardes/ & Babylon. By the first conquest he added – large & potent.

About 40 or 50 years before \the overthrow of Crœsus/ the Medes had invaded this kingdom & after five years warr uppon a great eclips of ye Sun wch was predicted by Thales & appeared in the \darkened the day/ turned day into night in the time of a battel, they made peace by the meanes of Labynitus king of Babylon as Herodotus relates. This Labynitus was \the great/ Nebuchadnezzar |as is manifest by the {ti}me of ye action|. And in the reign of another Labynitus the son of this Labynitus & Nitocris an eminent Queen of Babylon, Cyrus invaded Babylon \(as Herodotus also relates)/ in the 17th year of his reign Cyrus invaded Babylonia routed the army of Labynitus beseiged Babylon & took it – execution. |This Labynitus is by Iosephus called Nabonidus & Naboandel & said to be Balthazaar the son of {Nebuchadnezzar} \Some reccon Laboasardach the/ predecessor of Labynitus to have been Belhassar but he was a child when he reigned whereas Balhasar was born before the 5t year of Zedekiah (Baruch 1.11, 12) & therefore was above 3{illeg}|3| years old at the death of {illeg} & {illeg} \Nebuchadnezzer./|

Labynitus about this time took

Herodotus Ctesias & the author of Bel & ye Dragon {illeg} \& most of the Greeks/ make Cyrus the immediate successor of his Grandfather Astyages: according to wch recconing the dominion of the Medes must have ceased before the taking of Sardes & Babylon. And yet by the scriptures tis certain that ye Medes reigned till after the taking of Babylon \as Xenophon also writes/. ffor Babylon was destroyed by a nation out of the north (Ier 50.3, 9, 41) by the kingdoms of Ararat Minni & Ashchenaz, (Ier. 51.27) by the Medes (Isa 13.17, 19) by the kings of the Medes & the capttains {sic} & Rulers thereof & all the land of his dominion (Ier 51.11, 28) & Darius the Mede reigned of over Babylon before the kingdom came to Cyrus the Persian (Dan.      ) {illeg} The kingdom of Belthasar was divided from hi \broken/ & given to ye Medes & Persians (Dan      ) first to the Medes under Darius & then to the Persians under Cyrus & his successors. ffor Belthasar making a great feast was slain that night & Darius the Mede took the Kingdom (Dan 5.31 & 6.28) & governed & reigned like a conqueror for he preser observed not the laws of the Babylonians but \like a conqueror/ introduced the \forreign/ laws of the conquering \reigning/ nations the Medes & Persians (Dan 6.8, 12, 15) & the Medes in his reign are set before the Persians (Dan ib & 5.28 \& 8.20/) as the Persians were afterwards in the reign of Cyrus & his successors set before the Medes (Dan 10.1, 20 & 11.2 & Esther 1.3, 14, 18, 19)

Darius was therefore king of the Medes & by the assistance of Cyrus conquered Babylon & this is \further/ confirmed by ye Angel who told Daniel that he would return to fight with the Prince of Persia for when he was gone forth the Prince of Greece should come, & that \{illeg}/ in ye first year of Darius the Mede he stood to confirm & to strengthen him (Dan. 10.20 & 11.1) that is to say he assisted the Med \& strengthened/ Darius in the conquest of Babylon as he should \was/ afterwards \to/ assist Alexander ye great in the conquest of Persia.

By the conquest \After {illeg} Vpon the Vpon the/ overthrow of the Kingdom of Babylon Daniel under in ye first year of Darius understood \by books/ the number of years whereof the word of ye Lord came to Ieremiah that he would acomplish 70 years in ye desolations of Ierusalem Dan 9.2. ffor upon ye overthrow of that kingdom the Iews were to be released Ier 24.12.

Iosephus tells us that Cyrus king of the Medes \Persians/ & Darius king of the Medes made war upon Belthasar \in ye 17th year of his reign/ & {illeg} that Belthasar while Babylon was beseiged by them Belthasar made a great feast & saw ye hand-writing upon ye wall wch Daniel interpreted to him, & then the city was taken. in ye 17 year of Belthasar. Ioseph. Antiq. l 10. c 12.

Xenophon makes \writes that/ Cyaxes \was/ the son & successor of Astyages king of the Medes & continues that kingdom till after the taking of Babylon &

Xenophon writes that Astyages left his son Cyaxeres his successor in ye kingdom of the Medes to his son Cyaxares & that Cyrus only led the Armies of Media & Persia against Babylon & was not king of either nation till after ye taking of Babylon & that he entred Babylon through the river in the night of a great feast when the Babylonians were in drink & slew the king of Bablylon {sic} the same night. Xenophon produces ye reign of Cayxires to ye taking of Babylon, B|b|ut Daniel tells us that \the king of the Medes who then reigned was/ Darius the son of <44r> {Achswerus} that is of Oxyares {illeg} or Cy-Axeres. So that there were six kings of the Medes before Cyrus naml|e|ly Dejoces, Pharaortes, Cy-Achswerus, Astyages Cy-Achswerus & Darius. ffor Darius might well be the grandson of Astyages being contemporary to Cyrus.

This is that Darius who coyned a great number of square pieces of pure gold called Daricts each worth or stares Darici. each worth 20 Attic Drachms \of silver/ & five of them worth a pound weight of silver ffor these were coyned not by the father of Xerxis but by an earlier Darius, the first king of the Medes or Persians who coyned such money. They had ye Effigies of Darius on one side & an Archer on ye other & were of the same value with the Attic \stater or/ piece of gold money \weighing 2 Attic drachms/ or |with| 20 Attic drachms of silver. Its probable that in his reig the Medes borrowed \he learnt/ ye art & use of money from the rich Kingdom Crœsus \whom he/ conquered by Cyrus in his reign. ffor the conquered kingdō of the Lydians, {illeg} & coyned their which was /& coyned their gold. ffor they were exceeding rich.\ See Brissonius de Regn. Pers. Lib. 11. pag. 277, 278.

In those early ages the name of Kings was usually given more common then at present \being given to \comm{illeg}anders of armies & Viceroys so that inferior Princes//. & \So that/ The Kings of Persia stiled the|i|mselv|f|es the King of Kings & the great King \& the great King./ & i|I|n this sence Cy the Greeks might call Cy reccon Cyrus \might be recconed/ a king from the time that he first began to command ye army of the Medes & Persians. And this might make him accounted give occasion to \many of/ the Greeks to reccon him the immediate successor of Astyages in the throne of Media, tho he was king only under ye two next kings untill \tho he succeeded not reigned not till after the/ the {sic} taking of Babylon & death of Darius. Then he succeeded in the throne \of the kingdom/ & set the Persians above the Medes & from that time \(saith Xenophon)/ spending the seven winter months at Babylon the three spring months at Susa & the two winter months at Ecbatane he came the seventh time into Persia & there died. Xenophon Cyrop. l. 8.

By the Canon & consent of all Chronologers he \Cyrus/ died in spring the year of Nabonassar 218 & therefore \since he reigned seven years he/ succeeded Darius in the year 211. And \by/ this consider \thereby/ it may be understood how Daniel continued \(or lived)/ to ye first year of Cyrus (Dan 1.21) & yet prophesied in the 3d year of ye same king, Dan 10.1. ffor ye year 212 was the first year of Cyrus alone & his third year in common wth Darius. ffor as the Iews recconed the reign of Nebuchadnezzar from ye|his| conquest of Iudea in the life time of his father, so they might sometimes reccon the reign of Cyrus from his conquest of Babylon in the life time of |King| Darius, & so Ptolomy reccons it in his Canon.

<45r>

Manetho tells us that Ægyptus & Danaus (\whom ye Greeks reccon/ the sons of Belus or Iupiter) were St|e|thosis & Armais & that Sethosis having forces by sea & land & sea left the governmt of Egypt to his brother Armais while he invaded & conqured Cyprus, Phœnicia, Media Persia & other nations. Whence its plain that this Sesostris Sethosis was ye same conqueror with Sesostris & lived lived in the age of Cadmus the son of Agenor after Agenor the reputed brother of Belus & father of Cadmus.

From the Greeks receiving Agenor to be the brother of Belus the Egyptian Belus I {illeg} seem to collect that Belus was king of Egypt when Cadmus came into Europe that is in the

|By Belus we {illeg} I understand Iupiter Ammon. For|

Whom the Phœnicians \Syrians & Babylonians/ call Belus |&| the Europeans call Iupiter & the Egyptians |call| Ammon. And thence I seem to gather that when Cadmus Ammon was king of Egypt when Cadmus {illeg} \came/ into Europe.

The Greeks {thus} recon Ægyptus & Danaus \are by ye Greeks recconed/ among ye sons of \this/ Belus [& \therefore they flourished after ye coming of Cadmus into Europe./ Manetho tells us that Ægyptus & Danaus were the Sethosis & Armais & that Sethosis having forces by sea & land left ye government of Egypt to his brother Armais while he invaded & conquered Cyprus Phenicia Media, Persia & other Nations.] & therefore they flourished in ye after the coming of Cadmus into Europe Whence its plain that Sethosis was the same conqueror with Sesostris. Had the wars of Ses The Greeks have recorded \transmitted to posterity/ many things concerning the wars & actions of Sesostris, |all| wch they could not have done \must have been forgotten/ /they could not have done\ \all wch must have been forgotten/ had those warrs been ancienter then ye use of letters brought in by Cadmus. And therefore Sesostris flourished between |reigned after ✝| < insertion from f 45v > ✝ reigned after the days of Samuel, [Herodotus saw some of Sesostris his pillars erected in Palestine in memory of his conquering that country.] & by consequence after the Days of David & Solomon. For Herodotus saw some of Sesostris his Pillars erected in Palestine in memory of his conquering that country, & this \such a conquest/ cannot agree to the warlike & victorious reign of David nor to the peaceable & flourishing reign of Solomon, nor is there any mention of an invasion of Iudea by the Egyptians in the days of ye Iudges or at any time before ye fift year of R{illeg}ehoboam. But n Nor could {illeg} it be long after: for all antiquity make Sesostris older then the Trojan war; & the ship Argo was I reccon him a little oder then Argonautic expedition because \the Greeks built/ the Ship Argo was built in imitation of the long ship in wch Danaus sail upon the return of Egyptus or Sethosis into Egypt sailed with his 50 daughters to Greece. Sethosis therefore returned into Egypt about 10 or 20 years before ye Argonautic Expedition that is about 50 years before the Tre & by consequence invaded the nations in the reign of Rehoboam, & so can be no other king then Sesak.

Well therefore doth Iosephus[46] affirm that Herodotus ascribes to Sesostris the actions of Sesak & particularly his invasion & conquest of Iudea erring only in ye name of ye King. Which is all one as to say that Sesak was that conqueror whom Herodotus calls Sesostris. < text from f 45r resumes > the coming of Cadmus & the Argonautic Expedition. ffor all antiquity make Sesostris older yn ye Trojan war, & |into Europe ✝. All Antiquity make him older yn ye Trojan war & I reccon him older a little older then the Argonautic expedition because| the Greeks made \built/ ye ship Argo in imitation of ye long ship in wch Danaus sailed into Greece & after \upon/ the return of Ægyptus or Sethosis into Ægypt sailed wth his \50/ daughters to Greece. So then Sethosis or Sesostris lived in ye age of Solomon & Rehoboan {sic} & therefore can be no other king then Sesak.

We are told in Scripture that Sesak – – – – answers to it. Sesostris in memory of his victories set up pillars in ye conquered countries wth the genitalls of a man if ye conquered people beh resisted & behaved themselves valiantly, otherwise wth ye genitals of a woman & Herodotus tells us that he saw \there were/ pillars in Iudea wth the genitals of a woman. & th Iudea therefore submitted with little or no resistance & this cannot agree to the warlike & victorious reign of David nor to the flourishing & peaceable reign of Solomon. But th Nor is there any mention of an invasion of Egypt by Iudea by the Egyptians in the times of the Iudges before or at any time before the 5t year of Se Rehoboam Then but in that year Sesak came out of Egypt wth an army of Libyans Troglodites & Ethiopians wch had been subdued before & subdued Iudea & the kingdoms of the ea\r/th the Iews submitting & thereby preserving their king & government. Well therefore doth Iosephus[47] affirm that Herodotus ascribes to Sesostris the actions of Sesak & particularly his invasion & conquest of Iudea erring only in the name of ye king. Which is all one as to say that Sesak was that king \conqueror/ whom Herodotus erroneously calls Sesostris.

[Editorial Note 18]

Menes was the first of ye kings who reigned at The Memphys: Let us first give an acct of ye kings who \those before him/ reigned at Thebes, & their history is as follows.

<45v>

– – – Volcanus, the God of Canaan

Cinyras having been very beneficial to the kings of Egypt \in their wars/ by making them armour, was after his death honoured by them wth a very sumptuous Temple built at Memphys by Memnon, & adorned with magnificent Porticos by following kings. And on ye south side of this Temple the Egyptians \was/ built a smaller Temple to his Venus, whom the Egyptians called Venus hopsita because she was a forreigner. Herodotus The Priests told Herodotus that Venus hospita was Hellena. But \if/ Helena \ever was in Egypt she/ did nothing to merit such a Temple in Egypt there. The building of this Temple by the Temple of Vulcan discovers that she was Vulcan's Venus.

Diodorus tells us.

– Memnonia & returning into Egypt dec built several magnificent structures there. He turned built Memphys & there made a bridge over the Nile as above \turning the river into a new channel/ & in Memphys |he| built the \magnificent/ Temple of Vulcan A as above. At Abidus he built a stately Palace – –

Whether Zerah was Sardus or one of his captains is not material The names do not much disagree.

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CHAP. III
The Monarchy of Egypt at Thebes.

Herodotus in giving an account of the ancient state of Egypt tells us that the Priests of Egypt affirmed Menes to be their first king & that they read to him out of a book the names of 330 kings of Egypt who all reigned before Sesostris & amongst whom were 18 Ethiopians & a forreign woman named Nitocris. – – – – – – – of her childhood had no breasts.

After Amosis had expelled the shepherds & established his kingdom at home, Amon sent an army under the command of his son Sesostris into Arabia – – – – –

She had also a Temple in Egypt \at Memphys in Ægypt built on ye south side of ye temple of \Vulcan &// dedicated to her under the name of Venus Hospita. This Temple was Some took this to be ye Venus to be Helena

The third age preceded the use of iron wch was found \out/ in Crete by ye Idæi Dactyli about        years before the            according to the Marbles. The fourth age he ends with the wars of Thebes & Troy.

And as he ends the fourth age wth the wars of Thebes & Troy, so he seems to end the third age wth ye invention of iron, saying by the Idei Dactyli in Crete \in the reign of Minos/, saying that in that \the third/ age iron was not yet found out.

Antæus, Atlas, Typhon & Neptune neare kinsmen to Sesostris if not one & ye same man.

Sardius & Zerah the same man.

Memphys built by Menes after ye expulsion of ye Iews & restauration of ye Monarchy, & return of Memnon into Egypt from his conquests in Asia.

Asterisms formed between the Argonautic expedition & Trojan war. The beginning of the \12/ signes fell upon ye middle of ye Asterisms of ye Zodiac. The story of Perseus in Perses Cepheus, Cassiopea, Andromeda, Persess {sic}, Pegasus, Cete; of the Argonauts in Aries, Taurus, Gemini Argo, Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Chyron, \Ara/ Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Lyra Orphei, Hercules: of Icarus in Auriga, Plaustrum majus, Erigone or Virgo \& Bootes/; of Herules {sic} in Hercule, sagitta, Vultus Leo nemeus, of Orion in Orion ye two doggs & ye h|H|are & Scorpio. Ariadnes crown, Ophiuchses {illeg} Bootes If these were formed by Orpheus ab soon after the Argonautic expedition, suppose 40 years after ye death of Solomon in imitation of ye Egyptian Sphere invented a little before by Atlas, the r or 2640 years ago, the Equinox will be moved backwards (after ye rate of 50″ per an) [2520 + 120] 36gr 40′, & so much ye {illeg} vernal Equinox is now distant from ye first point of Aries middle of ye Asterism of Aries & ye {illeg} entrances of ye rest of ye signes from ye middles of ye other Asterisms of ye Zodiac.

The 14th & 15th year of Hezekiah a sabbatical year & Iubile

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For Helladius[48] tells us that a man called Oes or Oannes \or Oannes/ who appeared in the red sea with the tail of a ffish (so they painted a sea-man) taught Astronomy & {illeg} letters And Hyginus[49] that Euhadnes (that Euhad is Oannes) who came out of the sea in Chaldea \was the first who/ taught Astrology the the first, \any man {sic}/ he means Astronomy. And Apollodorus \Alexander Polyhistor/ from Berosus[50] that Oannes taught men \the Chaldeans/ letters & Arts & |to sow| corn & reap a agriculture. Oes, Oannes & Euhadnes are the same man, & therefore Astro Letters & Astronomy & arts & agriculture came into Chaldea from the red sea.

<47Br>

Before the Phœnicians began to sail by the starrs (wch they could not it is not likely that they could find the way to the Island Cyprus. And this could not be long bef {sic} then they began to sail as far as Greece for the sake of Trafique And And Eratosthenes tells us that Cyprus – – & above 40 long even till Cæsars days. But since the invention of iron in the days of Minos those woods have gradually been almost cut down to make room for mankind.

When \navigation was so far improved that/ the Phenicians began to leave ye sea shore & sail through the Mediterranean by the starrs it may be presumed that they \began to/ discovered the Island|s| Cyprus \of the Mediterranean/ & for the sake of trafric {sic} began to sail as far as Greece, & soon after \this was not long before they/ carried away Io the daughter of Inachus. And Eratosthenes a[51] tells that Cyprus was at first so overgrown with wood that it could not be tilled; & that they first cut down the wood for melting of copper & silver, & afterwards when they began safely to sail safely upon the mediterranean, they built ships & even navies of it; & when they could not destroy the wood they gave every man leave to cut down what wood he pleased & to possess all the grownd wch he cleared of wood So Europe at first abounded very much with woods, one of wch called the Hercynian took up a great part of Germany being ful nine days journeys broad & full \above/ 40 long ever since Cæsar in Cæsar's days|.|, notwithstanding that they |And yet the Europeans| had been cutting it {sic} down \their wood/ to make room for mankind ever sin since the invention of iron in they days of Minos, |& therefore in his days Europe was much more woody|

Diodorus tells us \als further/ that the Cyclade Islands (those neare Crete) were at first desolate & uninhabited, but Minos the son of Europa having a powerfull fleet {illeg} sent many Colonies out of Crete & peopled many of them & particularly that the Island Carpathus was first seized by the soldiers of Minos. Syme lay wast & desolate till Triops came thither with a Colony under Chthonius. Strongyle or Naxus was first inhabited by the Thracians in the days of Boreas. Samus was at first desert & inhabited only by a great multitude of terrible wild beasts. Aristæus who married \Autonoe/ the daughter of Cadmus, carried a Colony into from Thebes into Cœa an Island not inhabited before. The Island Rhodes was at first called Ophiusa being full of Serpents before Phorbas a p|P|rince of Argos went thither & made it habitable by destroying the serpents: in memory of wch he is delineated in the heavens in the Constellation of Ophiuchus. The discovery of this & some other islands made a report that they rose out of the sea. In Asia Delos emersit & Hiera et Anaphe et Rhodus: Ammian. l. 17. Claræ jamdudum insulæ Delos et Rhodos memoria produntur enatæ; postea minores, ultra Melon Anaphe, inter Lemnum et Hellespontem Nea, Inter Nebedum et Teon Alonæ &c. Plin. l. 2. c. 87.

Diodorus tells us also that the seven islands called Æolides between Italy & Sicily were desert & uninhabited till Liparus & Æolus about the time of the Trojane war went thither \from Italy/ & peopled them. And that Malta & Gaulus or Gaudus on the south side of Sicily were {illeg} first peopled by Phenicians, & so was Madera without the straits. And it is not likely that Great Britain & Ireland could be peopled before navigation was propagated beyond the straits mouth.

A further argument we have of the first peopling of the Earth not long before the times hitherto mentioned is the first discovery of the Islands of the Mediterranean & the cuting down of the woods with; wch the earth was covered when the before mankind cut them down to make room for themselves

[Editorial Note 19]

{illeg} \Dionius/ The {sic} Egyptian Hercules upon recruited his army with the people whom he conquered, & |then| {sic} coming fom his war with Gerion in Spain {illeg} to the costs of Piemont was resiste & endeavouring to pass the Alps into Italy was strenuously opposed by the Liguras, but afterward got into Italy & there slew Cacus, & [after the Sicanians had served the him him {sic} in Chuse] made some conquests & {illeg} in wch he might seat the Sicanians.]

<47Bv>

Abraham was the fift from Peleg & \all/ mankind lived together \& spake one language {sic}/ in Chaldea till the days of Peleg under the government of Noah & his sons till the days of Peleg, & till those days \so long they/ were of one language & one religion, & then they divided the earth & began to spread themselves in the several countries wch fell to their share, carrying along wth the laws & customes & religion under wchthey had till those days been governed by Noah & his sons. And these laws were \haded {sic} down to Abraham Melchisedec & Iob &/ for some time after put in execution \observed/ by the Iudges of the countries Iob 31.11, 28, & at length inserted by Moses into his laws

about af about the beginning of Solomons reign at wch time Minos was 15 or 20 years old. For Minos lived long & was dead above 25|30| years before that expedition.

– ever since the days of Minos.

All these footsteps there are of the first peopling of Europe. Chaldea Assyria Syria Phenicia & Egypt were peopled some ages before. Abraham was the fift fom Peleg, & \all/ mankind lived together in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons untill the days of Peleg{illeg}. And So long they were of one language & one religion: And then perhaps they divided the earth, being perhaps disturbed in Chaldea by \the rebellion of/ Nimrod |& forced to leave of building the tower of Babel|. And from thence they spread themselves into the several countries wch fell to their share carrying along with them the laws customes & religion under \wch/ they had till those days been {illeg} educated & governed by Noah & his sons. And these laws were handed down to Abraham, Melchizedec & Iob & {illeg} for some time |they| were observed by the Iudges of the eastern countries Iob. 31.11, 28. Several of them are mentioned by Iob chap. 31, vizt \not/ to worship any \the Sun or Moon or/ other Gods then the supreme \least you should deny the God above/, not to deceive, nor defraud, nor kill, nor steal, nor commit adultery, nor covet, nor trust in riches, nor oppress the poor or fatherless, nor curse your enemies nor rejoice at their misfortunes, \nor defraud nor kill,/ but to be friendly & hospitable & merciful to the needy & to releive the poor & needy. This was the morality \& religion/ of the first ages; this was \the scope of end of all/ the Law of Moses & the Prophets comprehended in the two great commandments of loving the th Lord our God with all our heart & mind & strength & our neighbur as our selves & enjoyned {illeg} to ye strangers within the gates of Israel as well as to the I people of Israel; \Israelites:/ & this is the moral law of \both Iews &/ the Christians to this day. – this was the religion of Moses & the Prophets comprehended in the two great Commandmts of loving the Lord our God with all our heart & soul & strength \mind/ & our neighbour as our selves, this was the religion enjoyned to the stranger within the gates of Israel as well as to the Israelites, & this is \or ought to be to this/ the moral law & religion of both Iews & Christians & of to this day & of all m to this day, & ought to be the \standing/ religion of all mankind \nations/, & without it all other religions are vain.

God is every where without being seen or felt Iob. 9.8, 11 & 11.7, 8, 9. & 22.12, 14. & 23.8, 9. Omnipotent & omniscient. Iob. 42.2

[Editorial Note 20]

Some of these laws are recited by Moses as not to curse God nor blaspheme his name nor \to/ kill nor injure but but to make satisfaction for accidental injuries {illeg} either by paying the price or \& to {sic}/ loosing an eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth \a breach for a breach/ Levit 24.15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22 \& Gen 9.6/ & to be merciful even to bruit beasts so as not to strangle them or cut of their limbs alive \or eat them with the blood/ but to kill them for food by letting out their blood Gen 9.4. Levit 17.10, 12, 13. nor were they to eat any blood or any thing wch died of it self or was torn by wild beasts Levit 17.15. Of the Laws see Selden concerning the 7 Precepts of the Sons of Noah.

These Corybantes danced \at the sacrifices/ in armour \like the Idæi Dactyli/ & behaved themselves at the sacrifices {sic} as seized with a divine fury like the Idæi Dactyli & [thereby these mysteries appear to be Phenician.] the Godess was drawn drawn by Lyons & had a Corona turrita on her head & a drum in her hand like the Astar Phenician godess Astarte. And in

For Teutamus the father of Asterius came was on th came \{illeg} went into Crete with commanded a colony/ from Olympia with a colony of Eleans into Crete & {illeg} upon the flight of Asterius \some of/ his friend {sic} might \retire/ into Elea \their own country & be pursued &/ & be there conquered /there\ by Hercules Idæus.

[Editorial Note 21] <48v>

For mankind lived together in Chaldea under the government of Noah & his sons till the days of Peleg; & then they divided the earth between them & \began to/ spread themselves into their several countries \wch fell to their share/, carrying along with them the Laws & Precepts customes under wch they had been governed by Noah & his sons till that time [which laws have been since called the Precepts of the sons of Noah [& the laws of nations The & were observed by Abraham & his family, Melchizedec & his city & other nations Iob & the Ma his friends & the Iudges of his country where he lived.] And Abraham was the fift from Peleg.

Before \When Before \When// the Phenicians began to leave the sea coast & sail through the Mediterranean by the help of the starrs, |\that is, before \when// they began to sail as far as Greece for the sake of trafic & before they & carried away Io the daughter of Inachus than {sic}| the Islands of the Mediterranean {illeg} remote from the continent, could not \began to/ be discovered. And accordingly \For/ Diodorus tells us that the Cyclade Islands (those neare Crete) were at first desolate – – – – – straits mouth

I meet wth no cities in Crete older then the arrival of the Phenicians there with Europa & her brother Atymnus. [Tectamus or Teutamus the father of Asterius & grandfater of Minos, carried thither some \a/ coloni|y|es of Dorians from \Laconia & the /{illeg}\/ the parts of Peloponnesus neare Olympus & \from/ those of Laconia, & a little before] The first inhabitants of this Island are called Eteocretans: but whence they were & how they came thither is not said in history. Then sailed thither a colony of Pelasgians from Greece & soon after Teutamus the grandfather of Minos carred thither a colony of Dorians from the parts of Peloponnesus near Olympus. And these several colonies spake several languages & fed on the spontaneus fruits of the earth & lived \quietly/ in caves & huts till the invention of iron yt in the days of Asterius the son of Teutamus, & at length were reduced into one kingdom & one people by Minos their first lawgiver, who built many towns & was their first Law-giver, & built many towns & introduced plowing & sowing & provided a potent fleet

And the Island Cyprus was discovered by the Phenicans {sic} not long before. For Eratosthenes tells us – – – – – invention of iron in the days of Minos, & in Cæsars days. And Europe must have been much more woody when first discovered by the Phenicians. ffor the Europeans have been cutting down their woods ever since the invention of iron tools in the days of Asterius & Minos

The Laws \customes & customes Precepts/ by wch Noah & his sons governed all mankind \in Chaldea/ till the days of Phaleg, & wch upon the first division of the earth were propagated thence into all \other/ countries, were those observed by Abraham & his family, by Melchisedeck & his city, & \&/ by Iob & \his/ friends & the Iudges of his country. [Moses inserted them into his law & the strangers within the gates of Israel were to observe them, & the Iews still call them the Precepts of the sons of Noah.] & in general by the nations till they began to worship their dead Kings & Heros. Moses inserted them into his Law; & the stangers {sic} within the gates of Israel were to observe them, & the Iews still call them the Precepts of the sons of Noah. And they were, to worship no other God but the supreme Iob. XXV.26, 27, 28 not to blaspheme his name Levit. 24.16. not to commit adultery Iob. 31.9, 10, 11. not to \deceive nor oppress nor steale nor/ covet nor defraud nor kill Iob. 31.\5, 7, 13,/ 24, 25, 38, 39 & Num. 35.15. to be merciful even to bruit beasts so as to sacrifice \not to kill/ them not by strangling but only by letting out their blood. Levit 17.12, 13, 14, < insertion from the left margin of f 48v > not to deceive nor steale nor commit adultery nor oppress \nor covet/ Iob. 31.5, 7, 9, 11, 13 \24, 25/. o releive the poo to be merciful & hospitable poor Iob. 31.16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 32. not to curse your enemy nor rejoice at his misfortunes Iob 31.29, 30. not to defraud nor kill Iob. 31.18, 39

< text from f 48v resumes >

Sicily was peopled before the death of Minos who was slain there, & the first inhabitants are called Sicani. Philistus saith that they were transplanted from the river Sicanus in Spain. {illeg} They might be left there \transplanted {illeg} {Osiris}/ /transplanted\ by Sesostris in the reign of his father Ammon \when he returned by Spain from ye {Sicani}/. ffrom {illeg} many cities \of the Sicani/ each with its own king it may be gathered that they were not much ancienter.

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Lesbos was lay wast & desolate till Xanthius the son of Triopas a prince of the Pelasgians who came from Argos, sailed \thither/ from Lycia with a body of Pelasgians & divided the island among them \colony/. Diodor l. 5. c. 4. – till Macarius the son of Crinacus peopled it, as he did also the islands Chius & Coos.

And Tenedos lay desolate till Tennes the son of Cyrnus or Cygnus a little before the Trojan war sailed thither with a colony from Troas & peopled it.

Dardanus king of the Trojans |Clemens Alexandrinus (Admonitione ad Gentes) tells us that Dardanus king of the Trojans instituted the worship of Cybele mysteries of the mother of the Gods He| |He {sic}| was the brother of Iasion & Harmonia & Cybele \was/ the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia was \&/ the wife of I\a/sion, & {sic} Corybas the son of Iasion & Cybele, after the death of his father going into Phrygia instituted there the worship of his {meo}ther of his mother or of Europ {Aunt} Europa that of Europa \Cybele in the reign of Dardanus./ after the manner of the Egyptian Rhea & the Phœnician Astarte.

For his grandfather |For| Teutamus the father of Asterius \& grandfather of Minos/ carried a colony of Æolians Dorians \into Crete/ from Laconia & the regions of mount Olympus & Laconia in Peloponnesus & this region afterwards \(I think upon the expulsion of Saturn)/ became the Terra Curitum [where the games were celebrated in honour of Iupiter] Olympius. And th{illeg}|en| Iupiter had a Temple \& Altar/ erected to him in Olympia where the games were celebrated, & was thence called Iupiter Olympius. And Lucian tells us that the {illeg} it was the Cretan Rhea the mother of this Iupiter who was worshipped in Phygia {sic}. But Diodorus tells us that the Phrygians worshipped the Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & the wife of Iasion \who was/ the brother of Dardanus king of the Trojans & of Harmonia the wife of Cadmus; & that Corybas the son of Iasion & Cybele goin after the death of his father, going into Phrygia, instituted there the worship of his mother Cybele of, & gave the name of Corybantes to her Priests, & these Corybantes danced in armour like the Idæi Dactyli. And she was represented in form of woman in a chariot drawn with Lyons & a corona turrita on her head & a drumm in her hand like the Phenician Astarte. \And the Corybantes danced in armour like the Idæi Dactyli./ When Cadmus came into Europe he landed in Samothrace & there married Harmonia the sister of \Dardanus,/ Iasion; & after the death of Ceres the Phenicians mistress of Iasion, the Phenicians instituted mysteries there to the Dij Cabyri of whom she was chief. And in the island Thasus where Cadmus left one of his brothers, the Phenicians built a Temple to Hercules not the son of Alcmena but an older whom Cicero calls ex Idæis cui inferias inferunt. And thus the Phenicians &c.

And Diodorus that Dardanus Iasion & Harmonia were born in Samothrace of the same parents, \yt Cadmus coming into that island married Harmonia, & learnt the Samothracian mysteries/ that Iasion married Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & of her begot Corybas, that Iasion \lay wth Ceres &/ learned the mysteries of in Samothrace {illeg} yt after his death Dardanus Cybele & Corybas went into Prygia {sic} & carried thither the mysteries of the mother of the Gods, & that Corybas called those that celebrated the sacred mysteries of his mother (in a furious rage like madmen) after his own name, Corybantes; & that Dardanus built the city Darnanas afterwards called Troy & founded the kingdom of the Trojans. /But the{illeg} mysteries of Ceres were instituted {illeg} Elusis by with Egyptian ceremonies by Celus & Eumolpus & Melampus, in the end of the reign of Eretheus, {illeg} & other Samothracian mysteries were instituted to her & her daughter \& Pluto/ soon after \in Samothrace/ by the Phœnician names of Dij Cabiri, Anieros, Axiokersa, \&/ Axiokers, that is, the grat {sic} Gods, Ceres, Proserpina & Pluto. ffor Cadmus landed in Samothrace \with his Phœnicians/ & \{sic} there/ married Harmonia this sister of Iasion & Iasion lay with Ceres & of her begot Plutus \& Cadmus & Iasion were initiated in these mysteries./ & [Dardaus {sic} Iasion & Cer \Dardanus &/ Harmonia were born in Samothrace of the same parents &] Iasion married Cybele the daughter of Meones king of Phrygia & after the death of Iasion Dardanus Cybele & Corybas went into Phrygia & carried thither the mysteries of the mother of the Gods & Corybas called those that celebrated the sacred mysteries of his mother, Corybantes.

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– king of Assyria 1 Chron. V.26

1. The histories of the Persians witten {sic} by the Saracens now extant in the Persia \East/ represent \that the/ the \two/ oldest Dynasty of the \Dynasties of the/ kings of Persia to be \were/ those whom they call Pischdadians, & the oldest next after these that Kaianides, & say that the Dynasty of the Kaianides imemediately succeeded that of the Pischdadians. And the three last kings of the {P} second Dynasty they call name Ardschir Diraz, Darab his bastard son & Darab who was conquered by Ascander Roumi, that Artaxeres Longimanus, Darius Nothus & Darius who was conquered {by} Alexander the Greek. They omit the kings between these two Dynasties Darius's which shews that their history of this kingdom is imperfect: but by the names of the kings here mentioned tis certain that by the second Dynasty{illeg} they mean that of the kings of Media & Persia mentioned in scripture: & by consequence by the first Dynasty they mean either the kings of the Assyrian Empire or those of Persia beyond Assyria contemporary to them. And this is the k others who were contemporary to them & reigned in Persia beyond Assyria. And \perhaps/ this might be the kingdom which carried the Assyrians captive to Kir. Amos 9.7.

2. The Oriental Saracen historians of Pers the \who write of the/ Persian affairs call Ardschir Diraz by the name also of Bahaman & ascribe to Bahaman the actions of Darius Hystaspis & Darius Medus taking perhaps Diraz & Darius for one & the same name. For they say that Bahaman went westward into Mesopotamia & Syria & conquered Balthazar the son of Nebuchadnezzar & gave the kingdom of Babylon to Cyrus his Lieutenant general over Media & Assyria & Persia Chaldea: & there they take Bahaman for Darius Medus. They say also that Bahaman was the grandson of Kishtasp or Hystaspes & that Kishtasp was contemporary to Zaradust or Zoroaster the legislator of the Ghebers or fire-worshippers & established his doctrines throughout all Persia & that father of this Bahaman was not a king: & here \they take/ Bahaman for Darius Hystaspis. And this confusion of persons makes it further appear that the oriental histories of those ancient kingdoms are very uncertain imperfect & uncertain.

3. And the same is further confirmed by the long reigns which they \Oriental historians/ ascribe {illeg} to their kings {illeg} of th{illeg}|es|e two Dynasties. For they tell us that some of the Pischdadian kings lived a thousand years a piece & that they reigned above all together above three thousand years. And to the first king of the second Dynasty they assign a reign of 120 years; to the second a reign of 150 years; to the third a reign of 60 years; to ye 4th a reign of 120 years, to the fift as much, & to the sixt called Artaxerxes Longimanus a reign of 112 years. [Let these reigns be reduced to a moderate length, & whereas the oriental historians tell us that \Afrasiab king of/ the Scythians of Touran or Turquestan beyond the river Oxus invaded & conquered the Persians in the reign of the eighth king of the Pischdadians & reigned over them twelve years together, let the revolt of the nations from Assyria & the beginning of the reign of the Kaianides be placed at that time, & the reign of the Pischdadians will not \scarce/ be much ancienter yn that of the kings of Nineveh in ye days of Ionas] So then as the Egyptians have made their \two/ first Dynasty|s| of |ye| kings \of their Empire/ (those who reigned at Thebes \& Memphis/) much ancienter then the truth, so the Persians have done the like to the two first Dynasties of their kings. And we are to expect as little of certainty from the {illeg} records of Persia concerning their two first Dynasties of kings as from the records of Egypt from concerning theirs.

5 The Oriental historians tell us \also/ of that in those days there was a the Scythians on the north side of the river Oxus wch runs westward into ye Persian Gulph Caspian sea had \having/ erected a potent kingdom wch they call the kingdom of Touran or Turquestan, & under their king Afrasiab invaded Persia several times \under their king Afrasiab/, & that in the reign of the eighth king of the Pischdadians Afrasiab invaded & conquered Persia & reigned over it twelve years together, & then <49v> was repulsed & by the tenth king of the Pischdadians & invaded it again in the reign of ye 11th & last king of the Pischdadians & was at length slain in the mountains of Media by the third king of the second Dynasty. If for reducing the reign of Afrasiab to such a more such a reas length as exceeds not the course of nature, we may suppose that upon \the Scythians by/ their first invasion the nati \of Persia/ gave occasion to yt revolt of the western \Medes & other/ nations from the Assyrians & other nations \which is/ mentioned by Herodotus: there will be but seven kings of the Pischdadians before the revolt of reign of Afrasiab & the revolt of the Medes & three more of the Caianides before the reign of Lohorasp & th or Cyaxeres & the the {sic} taking of Nineveh by him & Nebuchadnezzar. And these ten reigns will being recconed at about 18 or 20 years a piece will place the beginning of the first Dynasty of the Pischdadians about 180 or 200 years before the fall of Nineveh. So then the Persians have no memory of any thing done in Persia above \180 or/ 200 years before the fall of Nineveh & the reigns of Cyaxeres & Nebuchadnezzar.

4 The Oriental historians say that the fourth king of the|ir| second Dynasty whom they call Lohorasp, was the father of Kischtasp & the gradfather {sic} of Cyrus & great gradfather {sic} of yt {illeg} Bahaman who was the grandson of Kischtasp & by |that| these is, of Darius Hystaspis: & by these recconings they make Lohorasp as old as Cyaxes. They say also that Lohorasp was the first of their kings who reduced their armies to good order & discipline & Herodotus affirms the same thing of Cyaxeres. And they say further that Lohorasp went eastward & conquered many Provinces of Persia & had wars with the kings of Touran or Scythia beyond the river Oxus \which runs westward into the Caspian Sea/ & that one of his Generals whom the Hebrews call Nebuchadnezzar & others call Rahan & Gudarz went westward & conquered all Syria & Iudea & took the city Ierusalem & destroyed it. And by these circumstances they thi take Lohorasp for one & the same king with Cyaxeres, calling Nebuchadnezzar his Generall because he assisted him in the taking of Nineveh before they separated & went, the one easward {sic} against the Provinces of Persia & the other westward against Syria & Phœnicia. The second Dynasty of the kings of Persia began therefore about three reigns or sixty years before the fall of Nineveh & by consequence at that time when the Medes & other nations revolted from the Assyrians.

6 I have hitherto taken a view of the times reputed fabulous by the Greeks & Latines & shewed that before the reign of Pul or his Predecessor & the beginning of the Olympiads – – –

<50r>
From Ian. 1. 1713|4| to May 3d following14.10.712Pd 15 Guin.
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Many islands of the Mediterranean \covered wth woods & inhabited only by serpents & wild beasts/ have been peopled be since the coming of Lelex & Cecrops with colonies from Egypt. The Hercynian wood covered a great part of Germa Europe even till the days of the Roman Empire.

So then we need not wonder that the Egyptians have made the two \kings of \in/ the/ first Dynasti|y|es of the kings of their Monarchy so very ancient t \so very ancient/ (those who reigned at Thebes & Memphys in the days of David & Solomon)) & at Memphys in the days of the successors of Solomon so very ancient & so long lived, since the Persians have done the like to the kings of their first Dynasty of their kings who reigned \in Persia/ above 200 years after the days of Solomon.

The earth in those days was f overspread \filled overspread/ with woods, [The Tyrians found Cyprus \such as were the wood wch/ overspread with woods. & The Hycinian {sic} wood ran through the middle of Germany {sic} Poland & Muscovy to the Ocean] which have been since cut down gradu by degrees to make room for mankind. The \Many/ Islands of the mediterranean were unpeople \have been/ {peopled since} the Egyptians & Phenicians brought navigation into Greece.

N{uma} was the first lawgiver of the Romans, {illeg} \{illeg} was the first Zeleucus of the Locri, Draco/ of the Athenians, Lycurgus of the Spartans, {illeg} Phoroneus of the people of Argos, Minos of the Cretans \Amon &/ Sesac of the Egyptians, & Moses of the Hebrews. And by the imposition of Laws {men} were by degrees reduced from a rambling vagabond salvage life to live to{gether} in towns & cultivate arts convenient for life.

{illeg} began to be built in E\u/rope –– – Argonautic expedition. And

{The} first houses were rude small & rude there being no iron tools \& in consequence no artificers/ in all {illeg} before the days of Minos king of Crete who was contemporary to Solomon {& the} first towns were small \unwalled/ villages. Troy was not walled before the days of Laomedon the father of Priam. Thebes was not walled before the reign of Amphion & Zethus who were contemporary to Laius the great grandso{n} of Cadmus. And it will be difficult to name a town in all Europe wch was walled before the expedition of Sesostris death of Solomon. The founder of ye town {illeg} first {illeg} [when these towns \kings/ conquered {illeg} of the king became {illeg} wch gained dominion over others {illeg} & the first city wch reigned over a{illeg} {Rome} – – – – – between Egypt & Euphrates. Numa was the first lawgiver of the Romans – – – – & cultivate arts & imployments conve\nie/nt for life. The first ships were small round vessels of burden with oars for sailing \upon lakes &/ between the Islands of that shallow sea wch lies between Egypt & Arabia: & the first long & tall ships with sails were built by Ammon & Sesostris in the days of David & Solomon & the Ship Argo was the first long ship built by the Greeks built after the form of the ship {illeg} wch Danaus brought from Egypt \wch was the first long ship built by the Greeks was built 40 years/ after the death of Solomon in imitation of the a ship wch Danaus brought from Egypt. The earth in those early ages was overspread with woods & infested with wild beasts, & the first men lived in planes well wat\r/ed with rivers such as were those upon Tigris & |ye| Nile: & \where kingdoms & civility began/ the beasts have been destroyed & the woods cut down to make room for man Phœnicia & the regions upon Tigris – – – – – – – fled from Ioshua conquered Egypt. \Corn was not known in Europe before the days of David. And Diodorus tells us that the Libyans/ Diodorus tells us that the Libyans {sic} say that Vranus |the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helius & Selene that is Ammon the father of Sesac| was their first king & caused the public who then wandred up & down, to dwell in towns & cities, & reducing them from a lawless & salvage course of life taught them to use & lay up the fruits of the earth, & \do/ many other things useful for mans life.

& Arabia Petræa & Nabatea as well as Phœnicia have been peopled by the seed of Abraham besides the nations prung {sic} from Keturah whom Abraham sent eastward. And the remoter regions of Libya & Europe were peopled still later & civilized still later, & a great part of Tartary is not yet civilized. Corn was not known

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Of the Empire of the Greeks

When Amosis drave out the Shepherds out of {illeg} all Egypt, some of them under the conduct of Cecrops Lelex {illeg} Inachus & others fled into Greece. \Before that time Europe was peopled only from the backside of north side of the Euxine {sea} {illeg}/. Misphragmuthosis & made the {remaining} |ye {sic} shepherds {go}| \out of Egypt/ into Phenicia where they mixed principally wth the Philistines & made their armies \of the Philistims/ very numerous \against Saul/. The victories The victories of David over the \Philistims C{arm}ites & other/ {nations} round about him, made many of them under the conduct of Cadmus {illeg}blyarius                                          {illeg} seek new seats in Asia minor Greece & Libya. \These nations brought into Greece their arts & sciences & the worship of ye dead several of the posterity of Cadmus & his sister Europa being d{eified}/ [Cadmus brought letters into Greece & it is not likely that any thing done in Europe above an hundred years before the use of Leters could be remembred.] Sesak {illeg} Sesak or Sesostris \came out of Egypt in the 5t year of Rehoboam & spent {a y in that expedition} {illeg} was one {illeg}/ invaded Asia minor Thrace & Greece {illeg} the Argonautic expedition. ffor the ship Argo \being the {illeg} \{first}/ long ship of the Greeks/ was built in imitation of the long ship in wch Danaus wth his 50. daughters fled from his \{returning}/ brother Sesostris &           the son of Anymone the daughter of Danaus was one of ye Argonauts. By the expedition of Sesostris the Gods & Oracles of the Theban kingdom \of Thebes/ in Egypt were brought into Greece in the days of Theseus \& applied to the Heros of Greece/. {and} Cadmus was the father of Polydorus the father of Labdacus the father of Laus the father of Oedipus the father of Eteocles & Polynices, who slew one another in their youth in the war of the seven captains at Thebes {illeg} which happened within soon after the Argonautic expedition, And suppose about 50 years after the death of Solomon. And therefore recconing about 28 years to a generation by the eldest sons, {illeg} Cadmus was a young man in the beginning of Davids reign, & \& into Greece with his young son Polydorus a little before the middle of his reign, might fly into Greece {illeg} with his young son Polydorus/ The sons of \many of/ the Argonauts were at the Trojan war & therefore that war was one generation later yn the Argonautic expedition, & so might happen about 70 or 75 years after the death of Solomon. The |At| return of that time flourished Memnon Amenophis or Menes the founder of the \first/ Dynasty of |ye| Ethiopian Kings \of Egypt/ reigning at Memphys. Homer wrote soon after & celebrates Thebes, but makes no mention of Me\m/phis. That city was not yet grown famous. The return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus was about 70 or 80 years after the Trojan war, being in the fourth generation from Hercules the Argonaut ffrom ye time of that return there reigned two races of kings at Sparta in one race; in one race nine kings, in the other ten & in a race of In ye end of the first Messenian war, & in the same interval of time there were ten kings of Messene & nine of of Arcadia: wch at 18 or 20 years to a reign one reign wth another make up about 180 \200/ years. ffor Between ye end of that war \said return/ & the battel at Thermopyle in the end of the sixt year of Xerxes there six yea were seventeen reigns in each race of the kings of Sparta wch at 18 or 20 years a piece to a reign make up about 340 years. To wch if And \therefore/ the destruction of Troy was about 420 years before the battel of Thermopylæ. For Kings reign one with another but \only/ about 18 or 20 years a piece at a Medium \according to ye course of nature. Accordingly Herodotus reccons {illeg} Homer & Hesiod but 400 years older then himself/ But the |{last}| Greek Chronologers making \{reccon}/ the reigns of Kings equal to generations & recconing about 36 years to a generation have made the said 17 reigns equal to {illeg} 622 \years/ wch is about 280 years too long. And this Chronology was feigned by Timæus Siculus about sixty years after the death of Alexander the great. The former Chronologers, \as/ Pherecides Athenensis, Epimedicdes, Acusilaus, Hellanicus, digested the antiquities of Greece only by Genealogies & the reigns o successions of kings or Priests. Timæus was the first who reduced these antiquities & to ye Olympiads & in {so} doing {illeg} {he set do}wn what number of years he pleased to the reign of every {king} & made the number of reigns \years/ much too long for the course of {nature.} {illeg}

<51v>

The Introduction

1 Ctesias & the ancient Greek & Latin writers – – – – – to please his reader. If these fables be layed aside, the Assyrian Empire will appeare no older then ye days of Pul

The Greeks have made the kingdom of Sicyon as old as the flood within 200 years & above seven hundred years older then Cadmus, whereas Cadmus was the first ma letters were first brought into Europe by Cadmus & it is not likely that Cadmus & it is not likely that the actions or names of kings or any thing done in Europe could be remembred above \80 or/ one hundred years before the use of letters. || [ffor making this kingdom ancient the Greks have made two kings of two names of one king Apis & Epopeus \divided Apis the son of Phoroneus into two kings taking his two names Apis & Epopeus for two men/ & between them \have/ inserted {illeg} 12 names feigned names of kings between \who did nothing memorable/ & made them reign 620 years wch is above 50 years a piece one wth another: whereas kings according to the course of nature reigne one with another one with another at a medium but about 18 or 20 years a piece; & there is not \scarce/ an instance to be found in any kingdom where the reign of 12 kings taken together has equalled 300 years. So instead of one Minos & one Ariadne some of the Greeks have made two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & instead of one Pandion one Erechtheus kings of Athens they have made two, giving the name of Erechthonius to the first Erechtheus. And whereas Inachus had seveal sons {illeg} Phoroneus                                          reigning in several parts of Argos & these again divided their dominions amongst their sons, the Greeks have to make the kingdom of Argos look ancient have reduced several of these collateral into one race of kings reigning successively at Argos.

So in the kingdom of Damascus wch was founded by          in the latter end of Davids

So Iosephus tells us that ye Syrians of Damascus worshipped their kings Adar & Rezon \Hazael/ as very ancient though they reigned not it was \not knowing that they were but novel, it being then/ not        eleven hundred years since their reign. ffor that kingdom was founded in ye latter end of Davids reign by Rezon who was succeeded by Tabrimon, Hadazzer,Benhadad, Hazael, Benhadad II \& grew great under/ & grew gret|a|t in ye days of Iehosaphat & Ioas under her kings Benhadad & Hazael the two kings whom they worshipped und by the names of Hadar or Hadad

2 The kingdom of the Syrians of Damascus was founded \by Ben/ in the end of Davids reign, & \&/ grew great under its kings Benhadad {illeg} & Hazael in ye reign of Iehosaphat & {sic} Ioas & worshipped these two king Iosephus tells[52] that they worshipped these two kings as Gods for their benefactions recconing them very ancient & not knowing boasting their antiquity & not knowing that they were novel & lived not above 1100 years before his days. And Iustin tells us[53] that ye Syrians worshipped also Arathes (the wife of the of those things \founder of the city/ as a Goddes

In like manner the Ægyptians made their deified kings as old a very ancient, though they were no older then the days of David Soloman {sic} & Rehoboam. These Gods reigned at Thebes & were the first kings who reigned over all Egypt including Thebais. And the next race of kings reigned at Memphys & adorned that city. Thebes therefore Homer celebrates Thebes but makes no mention of Memphys & therefore the Gods of Egypt reigned a little \had & adorned Thebes/ before Homers days & the Kings of Memphys had not then made but Memphys was not yet th{illeg} grown splendid & famous \afterwards/ by the reign of her kings. \but Memphys by the reign of her kings grew splendid & famous afterwards./ The Egyptians reccon Meres the that Meres reigned next after their Gods & {illeg} founded \built/ Memphys & the b \the/ magnificent Temple of Vulcan \therein/: & by consequence that one of his sons built his palace in that city. Menes was therefore the founder of the Dynasty of kings who reigned at Memphys & so could not be much earlier then Homers days. four of his successors Rhampsinitus, Mœris, Asychis & Psammiticus built four sumptuous Porticos to that Temple, & Psammiticus reigned \above/ 300 years later then Sesak & it is not likely that that Temple could be above \above/ 300 years in building. & therefore Menes was not so old as Sesak. {illeg} But the Egyptians for magnifying the antiquity of their Gods & Kingdom have made him older then the world flood \world/ & for making out this recconing have multiplied the names of their kings & given us a very confused account of their antiquities. Herodotus tells us that the Egyptians read out of their books the names of 330 kings who reigned between Menes & Sesostris who is Sesak, & yet Sesostris reigned at Thebes & Menes then afterwards & his successors reigned afterwards at Memphis.

In the days of the patriarchs kingdoms were but small & almost every city had its king. The lower Egypt – – – & made the great lake of Mœris with two Pyramids in it. In the reigns of Asychis & Anyses, Egypt became divided into several kingdoms. Gnephactus – – – – – – – – & then Egypt & Ethiopia were invaded & conquered by the Assyrians.

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4 Inachus had several sons who reigned in several parts of Peloponnesus, as Phoroneus & there built towns as Phoroneus who built Phoronicum afterwards called Argos from Argus the|i||s| grandson, of Phoroneus Ægialeus who built Ægialea afterwards called Sicyon from Sicyon the grandson of Erechtheus, Phegeus who built Phegea aftward {sic} called Psophis from Psophis the daughter of Lycaon. And these were the oldest towns in Peloponnesus. Phoroneus had also several children & grandchildren who built new t reigned in several places & built new towns as Apis Car Spartus Apis. And this division & subdivision of territories has made great confusion in the {illeg} history of the kingdoms of Peloponnesus. But the later Greeks to make the kingdom of Argos look ancient have collected several of thes collateral kings \Princes/ into one series of kings \pretended to/ reigning successively at Argos.

5B Apis was the grandson of Ægyaleus by the fathers side & the grandson of Phoroneus by the mot his mother Niobe {illeg} by |t|his|e| mother|s| Niobe side, being the son of Niobe the daughter of Phoroneus & Herodotus tells us that Apis in the Greek tongue is Epaphus. But the later Geeks {sic} \to make the kingdom of Sicyon look ancient/ have made two men of these two names & {illeg} \Apis & Epopeus &/ between them inserted 12 feigned \names of/ kings between them \who did nothing/, making those kings the reign 620 years wch is above 50 years a piece one wth another: whereas kings according to the course of nature reigne one wth another at a medium but 18 or 20 years a piece, & there is scarce an instance to be found in any kingdom where the reign of 12 Kings taken together has equalled 300 one half of 620 years.

6. And as of one Apis or Epaphus the Greeks have made two kings so of one Minos & one Ariadne some of the Greeks have made two Minoses & two Ariadnes, & of one Pandion & one Erichtheus \king of Athens/ they have made two, giving the name ofone Erechthonius to the first Erechtheus, & of one Inachus & one Io his daughter they have made two, corruptly writing Iasus for the second Inachus.

3 And whereas The Greeks before the times of the seven wise men wrote only in verse & had no history or Chronology in prose but recconed times only by genealogies & {sic} \by/ the reigns of k number of kings reigning successively \in any Kingdom/ & the number of Priests succeeding one another in any Temple; & the Greeks who first wrote of these things in prose made it their busines to collect the Gre genealogies & generations|alogies| \of men/ & reigns & |ye| successions of \Kings &/ Priests & the names of the successive Olympic victors: at king Then they conjectured at the number of years {illeg} by the number of generations or reigns between things done, & at length Timæus Siculus sixty years after the death of Alexander the great adapted these recconings to ye Olympiads, & \so/ framed a chronolgy {sic} by the Olympiads wch wth very little alteration has been ever since followed by the Greeks. But in doing these things the Greeks have multiplied the reigns number of reigns beyond the truth & made the reigns of \single/ kings very much too long for the course of nature

4|5| The kingdom of Sicyon founded by Ægialeus the brother of Phoroneus, the Greeks have made as old as the flood within 200 years & above 700 years older then Cadmus whereas letters were first bought into Europe by Cadmus & it is not likely that that {sic} the actions \or names/ of kings or any thing done in Europe could be remembred one hundred years without the use of letters. Apis was the grandson of Ægialeus – – – – one half of 620 years.

7 The intervall between the {illeg} return of the Heraclides into Peloponnesus & the invasions of Greece by the Persians, the Greeks have made stated by the reigns of the kings of Sparta in that interval \recconing a reign equal to a generation &/. There were two races of these kings & seventeen successive kings in each race. And recconing a reign equall to a generation, they have made these kings reign one with another about 36 years a piece, \& thereby/ they have made this interval about 370 years too lo great. {illeg} ffor kings reign one with for the co ffor kings according to the course of nature reign but about 18 or 20 years a piece one with another at a medium. And by this means all things done in Greece before the return of the Heraclides are made \were represented/ 270 years older then the|y| truth would otherwise have been

[Editorial Note 22]

As the churches both Greek & Latin in the days of Tertullian accounted accounted the Montanists guilty of polytheism: so here the Bishops of the Greek Church declare the opinions \of Montanus/ about the Deity to be blasphemous & with r with relation to the opinions of Sabellius Paul of Samosat & Marcellus & such like heresies call him the father of ringleader of all the hereticks, that is of all wch flourished after him. And And this was \continued to be/ the opinion of the Greek church concerning Montanism till the middle of the fourth Century.

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The chief of the Gods of Egypt were Osiris & Isis & the ancient Greeks |who| \made the fables of the Gods/ recconed that they were not so ancient as Phoroneus. {the son} ffor they feigned that Apis the son or grandson of Phoroneus, & Io the sister or daughter of Phoroneus went into Ægypt & there became the Osi Apis Osiris & Isis of the Egyptians. The Gods of Egypt \therefore/ reigned at Thebes & adorned that city & were the first kings who reigned over all Egypt. between the days of Phoroneus & Homer.

# Be{fore}|cause| the Sesostris cut channels from ye Nile to all the cities of Egypt & thereby made that river very usefull, the Egyptians dedicated that river to him & after his death named called him by its names Ægyptus, Sihor or O-siris, & Nilus.

decreed the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome over all the churches of the Christian world \in cases of appeal/ & thereby actually set it up over their own churches in the west & in Egypt for a time \& endeavoured to set it up over the eastern con/ four or five years. At the end of wch time Constantius the Emperor Constantius \conquere {sic}/ the western part of the Empire, & caused the western Bishops to desist from their pretence of superiority over the eastern – – – – & made him rest contented with his provincial power \authority/ over the {illeg} suburbicarian Churches. An

[Editorial Note 23]

Sesac called by the Greeks Sesonchosis & Sesostris, came of Egypt in the {illeg} of Rehoboam, spent 9 years in invading the nations, came over the Hellespont conquered Thrace & invaded Greece but was repulsed by {illeg} the joynt forces of the Greeks under the conduct of Perseus & of the Scythians under Perseus \commanded by Perseus & of ye Scythians calling ym by them &/ commandin|ed|g the Greeks & by                 the Scythians. The {Scythians} Then he returned back into Egypt wth many captives in the {illeg} Rehoboam \amongst wch was Tethonius the sister {illeg}/ & his brother Danaus \at the same time/ fled from him into Greece wth his 50 daughters in a long ship after the pattern of wch the ship Argo was built. This was the first long ship built by the Greeks. The builder was Argus the son of Danaus; & Nauplius the son of Amymone one of the daughters of Danaus, born after her coming into Greece, was one of the Argonauts. The expedition \or Embassy of the Argonauts/ was therefore above 20 years after the return of Sesac \into Egypt/ & might happen about 36 or 40 years after the death of Solomon [being occasioned (as I conceive) by the civil wars of Egypt \in the reign of Asa/ & |ye| victory of Asa over Zerah whereby the Theban Empire was boke in pieces, & ffor the Expedition was \looks like/ an Embassy to all the Princes upon the coasts of ye Euxine & Mediterraneans {sic} seas wch had been subject to Egypt.] Cadmus was the father o The Phenicians Cadmus was the father of – – – reigning at Mempys [Hesiod recconing\ed/ up five ages or generations of men in the first of wch Sesac Chiron the son of Saturn & Phy|i|li|y|ra was born, {illeg} the third ended wth ye Argonautic expedition & death of Talus the \brazen/ Son of Minos & last man of the brazen age, the fourth ended with the wars at Thebes & Troy & the fift was to end when the men who were contemporary to Hesiod should grow hoary & drop into ye grave. Hesiod therefore & his contempory {sic} Homer wrote when within one generation after the destruction of Troy, & Homer celebrates Thebes the Egyptian Thebes but makes no mention of Memphys. That city was but newly founded by Menes & was not yet grown famous. Herodotus \the oldest Historian of Greece/ tells that Homer & Hesiod lived but 400 years before he|im| wrote his History: & therefore the destruction of Troy could not be earlier then we have assigned.

The Romans whom conquered Carthage & had opportunity to consult the records of that city, recconed tell us that Carthage stood 7 years & was built by Dido who fled from her brother Tyre & Virgil tells us that before her flight she conversed wth            w       who in the end of the Trojan war came from that war to Troy Cyprus. in the reign of her father. Carthage was destroyed Ann     Olymp.     Count backwards        years & the Encœmia of Carthage will                         & by or recconing, the destruction of Troy was about      years before.]

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In the time of the revolt of the lower Egypt under Osarsiphus & the retirement of Amenophis into Ethiopia the Amphicty the Greeks built Argo & sent in it the flower of Greece to Æates \at Cochos & to/ Prometheus & \many/ other Princes on the coasts of the Euxine & Mediterranean seas. And [such a project was scarce to be put in execution without the approbation & assistence of the kings \Princes/ & Coucils {sic} of Greece. ffor] this ship Argo was built after the pattern of an Egyptian ship \wth 50 Oars/ in wch Danaus with his 50 daughters a few years before sailed {illeg} for came from Egypt into Greece & was the first long ship with sails built by the Grekks. And such an improvemt of Navigation & the building of such an improvement of navigation wth a designe to send the flower of Greece to all the Princes upon the sea coasts of the Euxine & Mediterranean seas |was| too great a|n| designe \undertaking/ to be set on foot without the concurrence of the Princes \& states/ of Greece pursuant to an order \& the approbation/ of the Amphictyonic Council. This Council always met upon state affairs for the welfare of Greece. &c.

the letter Μ being worn out it so as to leave nothing more of ye word ΜΕΝΕΘΗΣ in the manuscript the {sic} ΕΝΕΘΕΣ or VΕΝΕΘΗΣ

pag. 29. lin 1. after Homer add. And therefore Homer flourished in the beginning of the reign of Mœris or but a not long before

In the Syria became subject to Egypt in the days of Tabimon & recovered her liberty under Benhadad, & in the reign of the last Rezen

l. 2. p. 36 l. 11. – & saw him. {illeg} He He seems to be the same man with Atlas, for both of them were sons of Neptune \& reigned over Afric,/ & both of {them} made war upon the Egyptians & contended with Hercules, & the names agree. Antæus might by the Egyptians be called Atal-Antæus cursed Antæus, & by contraction \Atlantes,/ Atlasis, or Atlas. In his wars wth Egypt Hercules took the Libyan world from his sholders & made him pay tribute out of his golden Orchard the kingdom of Libya & at length slew him. The invasion of Egypt by Antæus Ovid hath relation unto where he make {sic} Hercules say, – sævoq alimenta parentis Antæo eripui

\– eastward of Assyria./ The name Kaianides or Kaianians, seems to be taken from the word Kai wch signified a Giant or great King & was frequently \according to Herbedotius & is put before the/ put before the {sic} names of {illeg}|several| kings \in this \in this {sic} Dynasty named recied {sic} by him as Kaicobad Kaicaus Kaicosroes.// Whence we may reccon Cyaxeres or Kai-Axeres to have been one of them. He erected the kingdom of the Medes and a great Monarchy And by the names Kai Axeres of the Kings of this Dynasty we may conclude that it was the Medo-Persian Monarchy domin |a king of this Dynasty. He conquered the \kingdom of the/ Perians {sic} \called Elam in scripture/ & therein set up the Medo Persian Empire wch makes it probable that the Dynasty of the Pischdadians was this Kingdom of Elam. For this kingdom & that of the Medes continued distinct till the fourth year of| {illeg} Iehojakim or first of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier. 25.25) but soon after the beginng {sic} of the reign of Zedekiah or eighth of Nebucadnezzar Elam wth her King & Princes was conquered, Ier. 49.34.

So then the first great Empire in the world was that of Egypt founded by Ammon & Sesac & this Empire began to be shockt by civil wars in Egypt upon the death of Sesac & lost some Provinces upon ye Euxin & mediterraneans seas about the time of ye Argonautic expedition, but kept its dominion over {illeg} Chaldea, Susiana, Elam, \Assyria/ Armenia &c till the reign of Mœris or his successor Suphis. And then the|o||se| Persians nations becoming free from the dom set up the kingdoms of Elam, & Assyria, Babylon & Media. And these are the first great kingdoms in the world on this side India. Great Empires are always accompained {sic} with great imperial cities

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In Daniels prophesy \vision/ of the four Beast {sic} [the first is said to like {sic} a Lyon with eagles wings & second {sic} like a Bear wch wch raised it self up on one side & had three ribs in it's mouth] The |the first Beast agrees to the kingdom of Babylon including Susiana & his| Eagles wings \of the first/ agree to the kingdoms \Provinces/ of {illeg} Babylon & Media \Susa/ wch reigned till the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus. Then reigned \And the 2d Beast is agrees to/ the Medo-Persian Empire, wch raised \itself/ up on one side, the Medes getting up first, & it had \the/ three ribs in its mouth |agree \to/| the kingdoms of Babylon Egypt & Sardes. Those kingdoms were in its possession not as parts of its body but \only/ as limbs \bones/ in its mouth. |ffor the kingdom of Babylon was \the body of/ the first Beast that of Egypt & Sardes belonged to the body of the third.|

In Daniels vision of the Ram & he Goat the two horns of the Ram are \agree to/ the kingdoms of Media & Persia under one Monarch & the higher horn (that of Persia) rose up last.

The seventy allot weeks determined \decided or allotted or {sic} cut out/ upon the people & upon the holy city of Daniel, to finish the transgression, & to make an end of sins, & to make reconciliation for iniquity, & to bring in everlasting righteousnes & to seal up the vision & the prophesy, & to annoint the most holy, \agree to the intervall {illeg} of time wch/ ended {illeg} with the death of Christ & began with in the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus \(Anno Nabonass 291)/ when Ezra \had/ obteined a commission \to return \from Babylon/ wth the {illeg} to Iudea to Ierusalem \captivated Iews/ &/ to restore the worship of God at Irusalem {sic} & to set up Magistrates & Rulers wch might judge \all/ the people \of Iudea/ &|a|ccording to the laws of God & the king. ffor thereby the Iews, after their body polytick had been dissolved by the captivity, \were again incorporated &/ became again a people & a holy city: {sic} And from thence to the death of Christ were seventy weeks recconing a day for a year as was usual among the Iews. See Gen. 29.27. (Num 14.34. {illeg} Ezek IV.4, 5, 6.) \& a week for a week of years. For/ The {sic} Iews had \by a week used a week sometimes for a/ weeks of days (Dan. 10.2) & \sometimes for a/ weeks of years (Gen 29.27, 28.)

Now the historie|y|s of these kingdoms is consonant to the description given of them by Daniel. In his vision of the four Beasts the first Beast answers to the kings of Babylon including Susiana & his Eagles wings to the Provinces of Babylon & Susa. And the second Beast answers to the Medo-Persian Empire wch raised it self up on one side, the Medes getting up first. And the three ribs in its mouth answers to the kingdoms of Babylon Egypt & Sardes, wch were in its possession but not as parts of it {sic} body, Babylon belonging to the body of the first beast & Egypt & Sardes to ye|t| body of the third.

In Daniels vision of the Ram & he Goat the two horns of the Ram answer to the kingdoms of Media & Persia under one Monarch & the higher horn (that of Persia) rose up last.

Of all things wch happened in the time of the Medo-Persian Empire the most memorable was the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, with an army of a million (some say ye two or three millions) of people: & this is thus described by Daniel There shall stand up yet three kings in Persia, & the fourth shall be far richer then they all: & by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece.

If from the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus when Ezra came to Ierusalem with a Commission

T

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Herodotus tells us that \all/ Media was peopled by δήμοι unwalled towns with their villages untill they revolted from the Assyrians & built Ecbatane \the first city which they walled about/ with walls Troy was not walled before the days of Laomedon the father of Priam. Thebes was not walled before the reign of Amphion & Zethus who were contemporary to Laius the great grandson of Cadmus. And it will be difficult to name a town in all Europe wch was walled before the death of Solomon. \For/ Tools {sic} of iron for working in wood & stone were \not/ known in Europe before the days of Cadmus & Europa. The antiquities of Libya were not much older then those of Greece \Europe/: for Diodorus tells us that the Libyans had a tradition that Vranus the father of Hyperion & grandfather of Helius & Selene, that is Ammon the father {of} Sesak was their first king & |{sic} caused the people who \then/ wandered up & down to dwell in towns & cities & reducing them from a {illeg} lawless & salvage course of life| taught them to \use &/ lay up the fruits \taught them to {sic} use & lay up the fruits/ of the earth & do many things other things useful for mans life. And when Ioshua conquered the land of Canaan every city had its own kingof the Canaanites had it's own king \like the cities of Europe before the Olympiads/: which is an argument that towns began to be built there \in Canaan/ not many ages before For in the days of the Patriarchs they \wandred in Tents & through Canaan &/ fed their flocks wherever they pleased, the grownd fields of Phœnicia being not yet appropriated. {illeg} The eastern countries which were first inhabited by mankind were \in those days/ so thinly peopled that four kings from the coasts of Shinar & Elam invaded & spoiled the Rephaims \& the Zuzims & the remains/ & the inhabitants of the countries of Moab Ammon Amalec \Edom/ & Amalec & the kings of \the kingdoms/ Sodom Gomorrah Admal & Zeboim & yet were pursued & beaten by Abraham with an armed force of only 318 men, the whole force wch Abraham & the Princes confederate with him could raise. And Egypt was so thinly peopled before the death \birth/ of Moses that Pharaoh said the of the Israelites, Behold the people of the children of Israel are more & mightier then we, & to prevent their multiplying caused their & growing too strong, caused their male children to be drowned. [So the countries first inhabited by mankind were very thinly peopled in the days of Abraham, & the building of houses & towns which began upon the rivers Tigris & Euphrates was propagated thence into the neighbouring countries in the days of the Patriarchs & reached not Europe before the days of Eli & Samuel & David.] These footsteps there are of the first peopling of the earth by mankind not long before the days of the Patriarchs & of the build overspreading it with towns & cities untill & their growing into kingdoms first smaller & then greater untill the rise of the great monarchies of Egypt, \Elam,/ Assyria, Babylon, Media |&| Persia, Greece & Rome.

The third Beast

In the Vision of Daniels four Beasts |ye| third Beast \or Leopard answers to ye Greek Empire expresented by ye Goat & \&// reigned with four wings & four heads till the Romans conquered Macedon, & the fourth Beast answers to the conquering Romans. The three first Beasts had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season (Dan 7 & time (Dan. 7.12,) that is \un/till the stone cut out of the mountain without hands falls upon the feet of the Image of four metalls & brake in pieces the iron the brass the silver & gold & they beca|o|me like chaff & we|a|re carried away by the wind (Dan & the stone beca|o|me|s| a great mountain & fille|s|d the earth, (Dan. 2.35 \Dan. 2.35/) that is untill the saints takethe kingdom (Dan {illeg} 2.3544 & 7.18. And therefore {illeg} all the four Beasts are still alive, {illeg} the first being \still/ the nations of Babylonia & Susiana, the second all the rest of the Persia beyond Tigris Euphrates, the third the nations of the Greek Empire on this side T Euphrates, & the fourth the nations of the Latine Empire on this side Greece. And the \second &/ third is|are| \further/ represented also \in another vision/ by the Ram & He Goat, the four heads & four wings of the third Beast \or Leopard/ denoting the same thing with the four horns of the Goat. Vpon the conquest of Macedon by the Romans the dominion \of the third Beast Leopard/ began to be taken away; yet its life was prolonged & in the \then under the type of/ the little horn \of the Ram Goat it/ grew exceeding great, but not by its own power, & upon the building of Constantinople & division of the Roman Empire between the Greeks & Latines the \Leopard he Goat {illeg} it/ survived in the Greek Empire & still survives in \under/ that of the Turks.

In Daniels vision of the Ram & He Goat, these Beasts denote the same thing with the Bear & Leopard in the former vision. As the Bear raised himself up on one side so the higher horn of the Ram rose up last. And as the Leopard had four heads & four wings so the Goat had four horns wch signify the same thing with the heads & wings of ye Leopard. The great horn between the eyes of the Goat – into smaller kingdoms.       All Daniels Beasts are still alive & the Goat still reigns by in his last horn but not by his own power.

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– but Hercules intercepted his recruits & at length slew him. In these wars Hercules took the Libyan world from Atlas & made Atlas pay tribute out of his golden Orchard the kingdom of Libya Afric. Antæus & Atlas were both of them sons of Neptune, both of them reigned over \all/ Afric to the very Ocean between Mout {sic} Atlas & the Mediterranean to the very ocean, both of them invaded Egypt & contended with Hercules, & therefore they are but two names of one & the same man. [The Egyptians might call Antæus, Atal-Antæus, cursed Antæus, & by contraction Atlantes, Atlans, Atlas.] ② The invasion of Egypt by Atlas Antæus Ovid hath relation unto where he make {sic} Hercules say – sævoq alimenta parentis, Antæo eripui. In the war of the Gods I delivered |rescued my fathers country| Egypt from Antæus] For ① The {noun} \name/ Atlas in the oblique cases seems to have been compounded of the name Antæus & someother word put before it. Thu in

And in the six year of the war, Anno Nabonass. 147, Cyaxeres wi & Alyattes by the intercession of Nebuchadnezzar & Siennisis king of Cilicia made peace with {illeg} \Cyaxeres having conquered/ as far as the river Halys, made peace with A Hlyattes king of Lydia, &

As far as the Mediterranean & the river Halys, & then turned their arms against the Persians. In the fourth year of Iehojakim For the kingdom of the Medes {sic} & that of the Medes continued distinct to the 4th year of Iehojakim or first of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier. 25.25) & even unto the first year of Zedekiah or 8th of Nebuchadnezzar (Ier 49.34.)

– at the taking of Babylon & therefore his fath grandfather Astyages was the father of A Cyaxeres & his mother Mandanes was the sister of Cy{ana} & his father. – Between Cyan The Oriental Historians therefore between Cyaxeres & Darius Hystaspis omit Darius Medius & Cyrus & Cambysses & confound the actions of Darius Medus wth those of Artaxerxes Longimanus. And whilst they

Chap. IV
Of the Kingdom of Elam.

The three first kings of this Dynasty they call Kai Cobad, Kai Kaus & Kai Cosroes, & derive the name Kaianides from the word Kai wch in ye old Persian language they say signified a Gyant or great king. The three next they call Lohorasp, Kischtasp, \&/ Bahaman & tell us that Bahaman was Ardshir Diraz that is Artaxerxes Longimanus, so called from the great extent of his power. And yet they say that Bahaman went westward into Mesopotamia & {sic} Syria & conquered Balthasar the son of Nebuchadnezzar & gave the kingdom to Cyrus his Lieuctenant general over Media Assyria & Chaldea: & here they take Bahaman for Darius Medus. By Kischtasp they mean Darius Histaspis ffor they say that he was contemporay {sic} to Zardust or Zoroaster & set up his religion |the legislator of the Ghebers or fire worshippers & established his doctrines| throughout all Pe\r/sia. They say also that this king was the son & successor of Lohorasp: whereas the Greeks tell us that he was the son of Hystaspes a Persian |Cyaxeres was too old to be the father of Darius Hystaspis & this Darius was the son of Hystaspes who a Persian who did not reign| who did not reign {sic}, & Lohorasp was too old to be the father of \Darius/ Hystaspes.

For the oriental historians say that Lohorasp was the first kīg of ye 2d Dynasty that who reduced their armies to good order & disciple {sic}; & Herodotus – – –] And by Lohorasp they mean Dariu Cyaxeres: for they say that Lohorasp was the first of their kings who reduced – – – – – taking of Nineveh. The oriental historians therefore between Cyaxeres & Darius Hystaspis omit Darius the Mede, Cyrus, & Cambyses, & confound the actions of Darius Medus wth those of Artaxerxes Longimanus. B{illeg} They say that Kischtasp was the son of Lohorasp whereas Darius whom they call Kischtasp was the son of Hystaspes a Persian who reigned not. They \By/ tell|ing| us that Lohorasp was the fourth king of the second Dynasty, they place the beginning of this Dynasty about three reigns or sixty years before the fall of Nineveh – – – an end to ye first Dy

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During \Vpon/ the revolt of the lower Egypt under Osar{illeg} Council sent the flower of Greece in the ship Argo on an Embassy to {Darius &} many other Princes \on the coasts of the Euxine & Mediterranean Seas/ subject to the king of Ægypt, to signify the distraction of Egypt & perswade them \{take} {sic} that opportunity/ to revolt & set up for themselves. And thus ended the great Empire of Egypt.

By the manufacturing of brass & iron they & making \of armour & of/ edged tools for hewing & carving of wood they brought into Europe a new way of making war & gave Minos an opportunity of setting out a fleet & gaining the dominion of the seas & set up the trades of Smiths & Carpenters in Greece wch are the foundation of all other manual arts. ffor at time Dædalus & his Nephew Talus \in the reign of Minos/ invented the chip-ax, & saw, & wimble, & perpendicular & compass & turning lath & glew, & therefore the trade of Carpenters was not older in Greece then the days of Minos Dædalus who was contemporary to Minos. |The fleet of Minos was without sails & Dædalus fled from it by adding sails to his vessel, & therefore ships with sails were not in use before the days of Minos.| And The same Curetes were as active about religion & for their skill & knowledge & mystical practises were accounted wise men & conjurers by the vulgar. In Phrygia their mysteries were about Rhea called also \Mater Deorum &/ Magna mater \& ma/ Deorum, & |from the places where she was worshipped| Idæa Phygia {sic} & Cybele {illeg} & Berecynthia & Pessinuntia & from the places where she was worshipped \& Dindyxene & Mygonia/.

the Curetes who thus introduced Letters & Music & poetry & arts, being a sort of Priests were no less active about religion

& be High Priest before Ezra wrote the sons of Levi in the book of Chronicles (Nehem XII.3) & in his High-Priesthood slay his younger brother Iesus before the end of the reign of the same king (Ioseph. Antiqu. l. xi. c. 7.) & Iaddua might be High Priest \before the death of Sanballat (Ioseph. ib) &/ before the death of Nehemiah (Nehem. XII.22) & \also/ before the end of the reign of Darius Nothus, & thereby give occasion to the Iosephus & the later Iews who took Da this king for the Darius whom last Darius, to fall into an opinion that Sanballat Iaddua & Manasses the younger brother of of {sic} Imanan \Iaddua/ lived till \the end of the reign of the last Darius who/ the days of \conquest of Darius by/ Alexander the great (who conquered the |last| Darius {sic}. (Ioseph. Antiq l. XI c. 7, 8.) And the said Manasses might mary Nicaso the daughter of Sanballat & for that offence be chased from Nehemiah in or neare the end of the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus (Nehem. XIII.28) Ioseph Antiqu. l. XI. c. 7, 8.) & Sanballat might at that time be Satrapa of Samaria & soon after \in the reign of Darius Nothus or soon after/ build the Temple of the Samaritans in Mount Gerazim for his son-in-law Manasses the first High-priest of that Temple (Ioseph. Antiq. l. XI, c. 7, 8) & Simeon Iustus might be H. Prei\st/ when the Persian Empire was invaded by Alexander the great as the Iews represent \taking him for the same High Priest with Iaddua/ (Ioma fol. 69. 1. Liber Iuchasis. R. Gedaliah &c) & be dead sometime before the book of Eccleiasticus was writ in Hebrew \at Ierusalem/ by the gra\n/dfather of him who in ye 38th yeare of the Ægyptian Æra of Dionysius{illeg} that is in the 77th year after the death of Alexander the great met with & began to \a copy of it in Egypt & there/ translated it into Greek for the \use of the Iews in Egypt that country/ Ecclesiast. cap 4 in Prologo & cap. 4|5|0.) & Eliezer

[Editorial Note 26] <56v>

Hesiod reciting the fable of the four first ages of the world calls his own age the fift, & saith that the fourth ended it should end \& describes these ages to be so many generations each of wch ended when the/ when the men then living should grow grey grey with old age & \grew old &/ drop into the grave, & that the fourth age \was that of the Demi-Gods &/ ended with the warrs of Thebes & Troy The last {illeg}|m|an of the brazen age was Talus the son of Minos a \brazen man/ who was slain \in Crete/ by the Argonauts & therefore this age ended with the Argonautic expedition. Minos is called the son of Iupiter, but this phrase among the ancients signified nothing more then that he was the son of a king. Echemenes an ancient author cited by Athanæus \(lib. 13 p. 601)/ tells us that he was that Iupiter who committed the rape upon Ganimede. Chiron was born in the golden age being the son of Saturn & Philyra \He was also that Iupiter who was educated in mount Ida by the Idæi Dactyli & whose/ Sepulcher was shewn in Crete. Chiron was born in the golden age being the Son of Saturn & Philyra, He was born \& begotten/ (according to Apollodorus) while the Curetes Idæi educated Iupiter in the Cretan cave, & by consequence in the golden age & lived to the times of the Argonautick expedition. This Saturn was at length expelled Crete by his son & fled to Greece & thence to Italy where he was received by Ianus & from his lying hid in that country was called Saturn. So then this fable seem to have been a Cretan invention & signifies nothing more then the four first ages or {sic} \or generations/ of the Phœnician colonies wch came with Cadmus & Europa into Eup Europe, the first age comprehnding the reign of Asterius & Europa in Crete, the second that of Minos, the third the survivorship of his son Talus in Crete the children of Minos till the Argonautic expedition & death of Talus, & the fourth the age of his grandsons till the end of the Trojan war, A & Hesiod wrote in the fift. And these ages are nothing more then generations of an ordinary length, three of them making about an hundred years.

This is that Iupiter who \was famous \among the Greeks/ for justice & {illeg} \dominion &/ & who (according to Echemines/ committed the rape upon Ganimede (according to Echemenes an ancient author cited by Athenæus lib. XIII. p. 601,) & who that son so Iupiter the son of Saturn whose sepulchre (according to Cicero (de natura Deorum l. 3.) was shown in Crete. ffor the Scholiast upon Callimachus lets us know that this was the sepulchre of Minos.

This is that Iupiter who \expelled his father from his kingdom &/ was famous among the Greeks for justice & dominion, & who according Echemenes {sic} a[54] an ancient Author committed the rape upon Ganimede. Lucian b[55] tells us that the Cretans affirmed did not only relate that Iupiter was born and buried among them but also shewed his Sepulchre And Porphyrius c[56] that Pythagoras went down into the Idæan cave to see his Sepulchre. {illeg}

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may understand that he reigned in Crete after letters were brought into Europe by the Phœnicians & by consequence was Asterius the father of Minos & first king of Sicily \Crete/. ffor Saturn was a king. Apollonius Rhodius[57] lets us know tells us that while Iupiter was was {sic} educated by the \Idean/ Curetes in the Cretan cave, Saturn |then| |reigning| deceived Rhea & of Philyra begat Chiron. Here Saturn & |Rhea| |& their son| Rhea & Iupiter \& Rhea/ are Asterius & his wife Europa & their Son Midas, & \the two first kings of Crete {illeg} \to/ Rhea is/ his Queen Europa the mother of Minos \Europa & their son Minos/. Europa died|ying| first & therefore was deified first by the Curetes in Thra \Phrygia./ Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete {illeg} \them/ they deified her under the names of Rhea, Cybele & Magna mater: in imitation \& after the death of Minos the Curetes in Crete deified him under the name of Iupiter/ & the Latines deified Saturn Asterius under the name of Saturn, & the Cretans Minos under the name of Iupiter.

And as the Egyptians Phœnicians & Syrians in those {days} deified their own kings so upon their coming into Asia minor & Greece wth Cadmus & Sesostris they taught those nations to do the like. Herodotus tells us that the Phœnicians who came with Cadmus brought many doctrines into Greece. For amongst those Phœnicians were a sort of men called Curetes – – – – instituted their mysteries.

Now Minos King of Crete is that Iupiter who expe was educate in a Cave by the Curetes & expelled his father from his kingdom & was famous among the Greeks for justice & dominion being in those days the greatest king in all Greece, & who according to Echemenes, {sic} very ancient author cited by Athenæus,[58] committed the rape of Ganimede. Lucian tells us – – – – – – deified Asterius b under the name of Saturn. |In those days all kings were called Iupiters, & in that sense Minos was the son of called the son of Iupiter but Minos himself was the great Iupiter of the Cretans.|

And from these originals it came into fashion κτεριζειν parentare, to celebrate the funerals of their dead fathers – – – – & the Greeks did it all the eminent Grecians beginning with the Phœnician \them/ with sacrifices & invocations. The Curetes did it first to all the eminent Phœnicians & after their example the Greeks did it to all the eminent Greeks, & every man might do it to his ancestors. In this manner they worshipped honoured Europa the sister \of Cadmus as above/ & Minos & Rhadamanthus the|is| nephews & of Cadmus & Ino his daughter & Melicertes the son of Ina, & Bacchus the son of his daughter Semele & Aristæus the husband of his daughter Autonoe & Iasion the brother of his wife Harmonia. & In this manner they honoured \&/ Hercules the son of Alcmena {illeg} descended from Andromeda & Æsculapius the son of Apollo or Orus & Machaon the son of Æsculapius & Palemocrates the son of Machaon. In this manner they honoured Pandion & Theseus kings of Athens Hippolytus the son of Theseus, Pan the son of Penelope, Ceres, Proserpina Triptolemus, – – – – – – – – {Ialous} & {illeg} that they were of an Egyptian \so as to be called Dij magni majorum gentium./ Sesostris conquered Thrace & Deucalion Thrace \Amphictyon who was/ contemporary to Sesostris brought the \twelve Gods from/ thence into Greece. And b|B|y the names of the cities of Egypt dedicated to them you may kn many of these Gods & by their hieroglyphical symbols you may knw that they were of an Egyptian original.

For in those days the writing of the Thebans &c

Europa dying first was first deified. She was deified by her countrimen the Curetes in Phrygia the Curetes in Thrace n \Asterius not favouring/ the Curetes in Crete not being favoured by Asterius. Afterwards And \about the same time or soon after/ soon after {sic} Ceres was deified in Attica & Samothrace, & Asterius in Italy & Minos in Crete where they were buried & the|i|se were|as| the oldest & fals Gods in Thrace \original of Idolatry in Phrygia/ Greece & Italy.

About the same time the

Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete, {illeg} Europa was deified by the Curetes in Phry

About the same time that Europa was by her countrimen \& Asterius wer deified in Phrygia & Italy/ the Curetes in {illeg} deified in Attica & Samothrace. with And from these originals {illeg} the Baalim & As{illeg}teroth, the Gods & Goddesses of the nations {illeg} Gentiles sometime worshipped by the Iudg Israel in the {illeg}

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As the Egyptians \Priests/ had the ages of their Gods which lasted \& these ages lasted/ during the reign of Amosis, Amnon, Sesac & Orus, & recconed Menes \the first kings of all Egypt & Menes was recconed/ their first King who reigned after the Gods; ✝ < insertion from lower down f 55v > ✝ so the Curetes & Phœnician Colonies had the ages of who came into \Crete &/ Greece with Cadmus & Europa & Cadmus \imitating after the example of the Egyptians/ had the ages of their Gods wch lasted during the the {sic} reign of Asterius, Minos, Deucalion the son of Minos & Idomeneus \the grandson of Minos/ the four first kings of Crete the greatest kingdom then in Greece. For Hesiod < text from f 55v resumes > so the Greeks had the ages of their Gods \beginning with the Phenician Colonies & ending with the Trojan war/ & these they recconed by the reigns of Asterius, Minos, Deucalion \the son of Minos/ & Idomeneus \his grandson {successive}/ kings of Crete the greatest kingdom then in Greece. & called the golden silver brazen & iron ages For Hesiod recconing up the four ages of the Gods \& Demigods/ tells us that the fourth ended with the wars of Thebes & Troy describes them to be \{each}/ so many generations each of which ended when the men of that generatio then living grew old & dropt into the grave, & tells us that the fourth ended with the wars of Thebes & Troy. And Apollonius Rhodius saith that when the Argonauts came to Crete they slew Talus the son of Minos a brazen man & the last man of the brazen age. [He was one of the sons of Minos & therefore the sons of Minos flourished in the brazen age & that age ended with the Argonautic expedition. And others tellus us that Chiron who lived till that expedition was the son of Saturn {illeg} \begot of Philyra/ in the golden age while |[{sic} that Saturn while he reigned in Olymp &| Iupiter was educated by the Idean Curetes in the Cretan cave \begot Chiron of Philyra]/. Talus was one of M the son of Minos & therefore the sons of Minos flourished in the brazen age & Idomeneus the \son of Deucalion &/ grandson of Minos was forc \was expelled/ the kingdom of Crete {illeg} at the end of the Trojan war, & Chiron \the son of Saturn born in the golden age/ lived till \after/ the Argonautic expedition & therefore might be almost as old as Minos & scarce older born in the reign of Alterius & not before.

Now Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of Crete & therefore the Saturn & Iupiter of the Cretans, & Europa was their Rhe ffor Saturn was a king & reigned in the same kingdom with his son \& Minos was the greatest king of the Cretans & therefor their Iupiter/. And Europa being the Queen of Asterius & mother of Minos, must be their Rhea. Apollonius Rhodius tells us that She came into Europe at the same time with the Curetes & therefore the Iupiter who was educated by the Curetes in the Idæan cave could not be older then her son. A He is In those days all kings were called Iupiters & in that sense Minos is called the son of Iupiter: but he himself was the t|g|reast {sic} king of in all Greece in those days & by consequence their greatest Iupiter Apollonius Rhodius tells us that Saturn, while he reigned on \over/ the {Trion} Olympus & Iupiter was educated by the Idæan Curetes in the Cretan Cave, deceived Rhea & of Philyra begot Chiron. Now Chiron lived in the reign of Asterius \& Europa/ & not earlier. Lucian tells us – – – – – Europe by the Phenicians & by consequence was not earlier then Asterius Europa dying first was first deified \under the name of Rhea. She was deified/ by the Curetes in Phrygia, Asterius not favouring the Curetes in Crete. {illeg} a|A|fterwards Asterius was deified by the name of \became the/ Saturn by \of/ the Latines & Minos by the name of th \being buried in Crete became/ |the| \celebrated/ Iupiter of the Cretans.

Now Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of Crete & Minos was their greatest king, & Europa the was the Queen of Asterius & mother of Minos; \the Curetes were her country-men & attendants/ & therefore these three must be the Saturn & Rhea & Iupiter of the Cretans. Minos is usually called the Son of Iupiter but Asterius could not be \the Cretan/ Iupiter the Son of \the Cretan/ Saturn because he was the first king of Crete. In those days all kings {illeg}|were| called Iupiters, & in that sense Minos was called the son of Iupiter, but he himself was the great Iupiter of the Cretans, being the greatest king of the Cretans & even the greatest king in all Greece in those days. Europa came into Crete at the same time with the Curetes, if not before them & therefore – – – – – her son. Apollonius Rhodius – – –

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Such was the Moloch whose worship was forbidden by Moses Levit. 20.2, 5. the Baal Peor \of Moab/ whom the Israelites worshipped in Shittim Num 25 & the Baalin & Asteroth of {sic} the nations or kings Gods & Godesses.

Such were the Baalim & Asteroth, the Gods & Godesses of the Canaanites of the Gentiles in the days of the Iudges                      & the Dæmons or Ghosts whom the Israelites were not to worship       & the Moloch to whom they were not to sacrifice their children.

\& every city \& people/ all first worshipped only its one {sic} Kings & Queens./ Such were their Gods & Godesses caled Baalim & Asteroth, the Dæmons or Ghosts of dead men to whom they sacrificed, & the Moloch to whom they offered their Children, in the days of \Abraham/ Moses & the Iudges. Levit. \17.7 &/ 20.2, 5. Num. 25.2, 3. Iosh. 24.2. Iud. 2.13 The worship of such Gods spread by degrees partly by alliances & partly by conquest untill Sesostris at length by conquest

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doves in the ancient fables of the Greeks are put for Priestesses, as Bochart has shewed. And, saith Herodotus, the Oracle at Dodona is the oldest in Greece & is very like that at the Egyptian Thebes, & the way of divining in Temples came from Egypt. ‡ < insertion from lower down f 57r > ‡ The chief use of Oracles was to back the authority of Lawmakers \in matters both civill & religious with divine authority/. Minos was a great \king & a great/ lawmaker & went every eight years into the cave of the Cretan Iupiter pretending that his laws were then dic at those times dictated to him by that God. Sesach was the greast ye greate King & the greatest lawmaker of Egypt. And he had an Oracle \of Iupiter/ in his royal city Thebes. {illeg} [This Iupiter the Greeks called the Theban Iupiter meaning Iupiter Ammon. ffor the Egyptian name of Thebes was Ammon-no, wch the Greeks translated Διόσπολις. Dio <57v> dorus tells us that the Oracle \Temple/ of Iupiter Ammon in Libya, where Alexander the great consulted the Oracle of that God, was built by Danaus, & no doubt he built it \in the reign of his brother Sesak/ for governing the Libyans & bringing them under the laws of Egypt. The Pelasgians erected the temple of Iup & Oracle of Iupiter Dodonæus, & this Temple was common to the whole nation, that is, the Deputies of their cities met at set times of the year to sacrifice & \mak/ {illeg} consult about \consider of/ the common welfare of the cities & consult the Oracle about it, & the people also met to feast & buy & sell \or cause it to be consulted for backing \laws & {kings sentiments}/ their sentiments with some authority./ \for giving authority to their counsels resolutions/ Before this Oracle was erected, the peop Grecians had no particular names of several Gods but called them all by the general name of Gods. By the dictates of this Oracle of Dodona the Pelasgians received the names of the Gods of Egypt & propagated them into all Greece.

One of the most famous Oracles of Greece was the Delphic – – – – Rehoboams when Sesostris was invading had left his brother Danaus governour of Egypt & was invading the nations but had not yet begun to invade Greece. By the dictates of this Oracle & the prophesying of Pegasus, Melampus & Orpheus \the Greeks received/ the worship of Bacchus was spread < text from f 57r resumes > These being the Oracles of the Egyptian Iupiter were erected after the death of Ammon. For he was the Iupiter to whom the city Thebes (called Ammon-no by the Egyptians \& Διος-πολις by the seventy/) was dedicated; & Diodorus tells us that the Temple \of Iupiter Ammon/ in Libya, where Alexander the great consulted the Oracle, was built by Danaus. |And these examples were soon followed by erecting several other Oracles both in Egypt & Greece|

One of the most famous Oracles of Greece was the Delphic. Acrisius founding an Amphictyonic Council of about twelve neighbouring cities to meet every spring & autumn at Delphos, built the Temple \of Delphus for them to meet in & sacrifice in & make laws for the cities/ & set up this Oracle in it for {illeg} establishing their resolutions \& committed the temple to their care/. And the first Priestess was Phemonoe or Phanothea the wife of Icarius. She invented hexameter verses & gave her Oracles in them. Clemens saith that she began to give Oracles to Acrisius seven & twenty years before the days of Orpheus Musæus & Linus.[59] She \{illeg}/ predicted that the God Bacchus should come in the days of Icarius, & when came Icarius received from him a present of wine |he came he presented Icarius with wine & lay with his daughter Erigona|. From all which \circumstances/ I gather that this Oracle was erected neare the end of Solomons reign |or \in/ the beginning of Rehoboams wch|hen| Sesostris was invading the east nations.|

[60]In the beginning /Before Oracles were erected\ the Greeks had no particular names of Gods but called them only by the general names of Gods. The Delphic Oracle By the dictates of the Oracle of Dodona the Pelasgians received the names of the Gods of Egypt \before any other Oracle was erected/ & propa\ga/ted them into all Greece,[61] & \soon after/ by the dictates of the Delphic Oracle \& prophesying of M{eloipus}, Orpheus & Pegasus,/ the Greeks received the worship of Bacchus; but under these names \they/ worshipped their own dead men, it being usual to consecrate the dead by new names, as by giving the name of Bacchus to the son of Semele, the name of Hercules to the son of Alcmena, the name of Pan to the son of Penelope, the name of Iupiter to Minos, the name of Neptune to Erechtheus & Æolus, the name of Mars to the father of Alcippa, The name of Mercury to the son of Maia, The name of Thetis to ye mother of Achilles, the names of the Muses to the daughters of Pierus. And sometimes they gave them new Greek names, as the name of Leucothea to Ino the daughter of Cadmus{illeg} & that of Palæmon to {her} son Melicertes. And this confusion of names & persons has very much clouded the history of the {illeg} ages of the Gods.

The use of Oracles was to give laws to

[Editorial Note 27] <58v>

The use of Oracles was \were set up/ to give laws to the nations people. For this end they were originally set up by kings & great men & consulted \used/ by the ancient lawmakers. {Anacharses} \Zeleuchus/ pretended to receive his laws from the Goddes Vesta, Numa his from the Goddess Egeria, Minos his from the Cretan Iupiter, Lycurgus backt his laws by ye authority of the Delphic Oracle. When the Pelasgians built the Temple for all the city of of Iupiter Dodenaus for all the cities of Pelasgia, they set u & Acrisius built the temple of {illeg} \Apollo at/ Delphos for \all/ the Amphictyonic Council, they would me cities who met \there/ in the Amphyctionic Council & committed the care of the Temples to ye Councils who met in them \to consult of public affairs/: they would never have erected Oracles in those Temples \without knowing how to make use {of} them. For if the weomen of/ ffor {illeg} the Priestesses \weomen {sic}/ who delivered the Oracles \should have/ given other laws to Pelasgia & to the Cities of the under the Amphy|i|ctyonic council, then such as were agreeable to the mind of the Councils who governed the Temples & appointed the Priestesses which met & presided in those Temples, the Counsellours would have met to no purpose. The Councils had the government of the Temples in their hands & were able to inquire into every thing done therin & to put in & turn out any of the Priestesses & therefore could not be imposed upon by them, but knew how \by their means/ to impose upon the people by them who had it not in their power to inquire into what was done in the Temples. And the same is to be understood of the Oracles [erected {illeg} in the Temple of Iupiter in Thebes the Metropolis of Egypt & that erected in the Temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya] of Iupiter in Egypt & Libya from whence the Greeks had the use of them Ammon & Osiris b The Temple in Theb of Iupiter in \Thebes/ the royal city of Egypt was {illeg} built by the king of Egypt t The king of Egypt who built ye Temple of Iupiter in his royal city Thebes, & his viceroy Dan{illeg}|a|us who built ye Temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya, would never have permitted weomen to give laws to all Egypt & Libya by delivering Oracles in their Temples, had they not known how to give laws to ye weomen. Ammon & Sesostris \Osiris/ being great conquerors gave laws to their people & these Oracles shew by what method the & so did Isis after the death of her husband by the assistance of Mercury & these Oracles shew what method they \was/ used to establish their laws. //Osiris divided all Egypt into 36 Nomes or Provinces & built a Temple for every Nome & ordered the Temples in such manner that every No the people of every Nome met in their own Temple up at set times of the year to sacrifice \worship/ to their own God with sacrifices & feasting & to buy & sell & consult for ye welfare of the Nome & several {illeg} Nomes worshipped several Gods after several manners: & for Osiris to set up such a constitution \of many {illeg} religions/ in Egypt required the authority of an Oracle. Or, if you please, it required the authority of an Oracle in every Nome. And therefore he erected Oracles [in the Temples of the Nomes for the use of the Counsel wch m of the Nome wch met in he Temple. T Some of wch Oracles remained in vogue till the days of Herodotus, Th a] to ye several Gods of the Nomes some of wch contiued {sic} in use th \vogue/ till the days of Hercules Herodotus,[62] as the Oracles of Hercules, {illeg} that of Apollo, that of Minerva, that of Diana, that of Mars, that of Iupiter. But of all the{illeg} Oracles that at Buti of Latona in the city Buti remained most in credit. These Oracles were not all alike, but delivered themselves after different manners. {illeg} \Whence/ it seems to me that as every Nome had its own Tem God & its own Temple & its own Counci way of worship & its own Council wch met in the Temple of its God, so it had an Oracle of its \own/ God for ye use of the Council \by wch the King Council/ gave laws to the Nome till the religion of every \the/ Nome was established. And these were the means by wch Osiris set up the worship of his father Orus Ammon & Isis & Orus set & Mercury set up the worship of their dead friends in Egypt as fast as they died.

And after the example of the Ægyptians did the like the kings of Greece did the like in their kingdoms. Before Oracles began to be erected in Greece, the Greeks had not several names for several Gods but called them all by the general names of Gods.

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And for ye same reason the principal temples of Egypt & Greece wch were in the hands of lawmakers had Oracles in them, as the Temples of Delphos where the Amphictyonic Council met to make laws for Greece: the Temple at Dodona wch the Rh Pelasgians built by the Pelasgians for all their nation, the Tem

Oracles were set up by kings & great men for giving laws to the people Zeleucus pretended to receive his laws from ye nymph the Goddess Vesta, Numa his from the Goddess Egeria, \Minos his from the Cretan Iupiter/ Lycurgus backt his laws by authority of the Delphic Oracle. Minos his by the a \{illeg}/ When Acrisius erected the Amphictyonic council & built a Temple for their use to meet in & sa at Delphos for them to meet in, \to give credit to the Council/ he added set up an Oracle in the Temple \to give credit to the laws of yt Council/ [not for the woman who delivered the Oracles to give laws to ye Council, but for the Council by the woman \Oracles/ to give laws to all the Cities. ffor who sent Elders to the Council. ffor the Amphictyons or Elders of the Cities who met & composed the Council were had the management of the affairs of the Temple in their hands {illeg} wth authority to exam put in examin & turn out the Priestesses who delivered the Oracles.] And the same is to be understood of \all/ the Oracles of in all the Temples built by public authority such as were the Temple of Iupiter Dodonæus at Dodona built by the Pelasgians for all {illeg} their cities, \the temple of Iupiter Olympus in Olympia neare Elis,/ the Temple of Iupiter at Thebes the Metropolis of Egypt built by the king of Egypt, the temple of Iupiter Ammon in Libya built by Danaus in the reign of his brother Sesostris, & as many of the Temples of the Nomes or Provinces of Egypt as had Oracles in them. For \Sesostris divided Egypt into 36 Nomes & built a Temple for every Nome and/ all these Temples were gove \had thei/ had Councils ove had their Councils of Elders who met at set times of the year to consult of the \common/ affairs of the Cities \Nome &/ {sic} \its/ gover\n/ment of the Temple & to sacrifice & feast the people \of the Nome/ also comming together to sacrifice & feast & buy & sell. ffor ye severall Nomes had their several Gods & several ways of worshipping their Gods & these Gods had their Oracles, the Herodotus tells that there was one Oracle of some of which continued in vogue till the days of Herodotus as the Oracles of Hercules Apollo \in their cities, that of/ Minerva \in the City Sais/ Diana \in the city Bubaste, that of/ Mars \in the city {Pamuretonis} that of Iupiter – {illeg} that in the {illeg}/ Iupiter: but of all the Oracles that of Latona in ye City Buti remained most in repute. And indeed I see not how Sesostris coud set up 36 religions in Egypt And these Oracles were not all alike but delivered themselves after different \manners/. And in{deed} I do no {sic} see how Sesostris could have set up 36 so many religions in Egypt as there were Nomes & Temples if he had not furnished every |the| Temple of every Nome with an Oracle in the beginning.

\ tells us that/ Before the Greeks began to set up Oracles they had no variety of names for various Gods, but called them all \only/ by the common name of Gods. By the dictates of the Oracle of Dodona & – – – history of the ages of the Gods.

When Bacchus invaded Greece he was entertained by Amphictyon & Pegasus the sons of Deucalion, & in memory thereof there were made set up \at Athens/ in a cell consecrated to Bacchus many earthen statues & amongst them the statue of Deucalion enterteining Amphy|i|ctyon enterteining Bacchus & {illeg}the{illeg} Gods & in in a banquet. And amongst them was \that of/ Pegasus of Eleutheris who first introduced the worship of Bacchus amongst the Athenians, & did it by the authority of ye Delphic Oracle. This is that Amphictyon who by the advice of Acrisius erected the Amphictyonic Council, appointing it to meet every spring & autumn both at Delphos in the Temple of Apollo & at Thermopylæ in ye temple of Ceres \or at at {sic} one of those places in spring & at the other in autumn/. They tell us that when the rain fell wch overflowed Thessaly \& {Pellion}/ he fled where he reigned \& caused his flood/, he fled from the rain to Athens & in memory of his escape built there a Temple to Iupiter φιξιος φεύξιος \Phixius/. This cannot be understood litterally bu wthout a miracle, for Athens where the Temple of Iupiter Phyxius stood was lower then Thessaly & {Pellion} & no man wthout a divine admonition would fly from rain before the he was in danger by the rising of the water \& then the water would / so high <57v> as to hinder his flight. Iupiter Phyxius signifies the \ye/ Iupiter ye savior \saviour/ of them that fly, [that is of them that fly from an enemy \danger/] And this|e| enemy I take to be \flood from wch Deucalion fled I take to be the invasion of his kingdom by Bacchus/ Bacchus {sic}. When Bacchus wth his army invaded the kingdom of Deucalion, h|H|e fled wth his son Amphictyon to Athens |&| There {sic} they \they/ made their peace wth Bacchus. & \For there/ Amphictyon entertained Bacchus \Bacchus/ & his men great men at a feast \& erected an altar to him/ & \there/ Deucalion erected an altar to ye 12 Gods \of Egypt & in memory of his escape instituted an annual ffestival to/ [& a Temple to {sic} Iupiter Phyxius in memory of his escape] And by these & such like practises the worship of the Dij magni majorum gentium was set on foot in Greece. Deucalion is reputed a scythian & commin probably coming with an armed forc a body of Scythians invaded Thessaly \& erected a kingdom there/ a little before the expedition of Sesostris. Some tell us that Hellen the father of {illeg} Æolus Zathus & Dorus was the son (from \whom/ the Greeks were called Hellens) was the son of Deucalion others that he was the son of Iupiter. Certainly he was older then Bacchum the \not the son of/ Deucalion who the father of |yt| Amphictyon who enterteined Bacchus.

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Herodotus tells us[63] that the Phœnicians who came with Cadmus brought many doctrines into Greece. ffor amongst those Phenicians were a sort of men called Curetes[64] who \were skilled in arts & sciences above other men &/ setled some in Phygia {sic} where they were called \also/ Corybantes, some in Crete where they were called Idæi Dactyli from the mountain Ida & the use of their hands in manual arts they were called Idæi Dactyli, some setled in Samothrace where they were called Cabyri, some in Rhodes where they were called Telchines, some in Eubæa where \before the invention of iron/ they wrought first in Copper in a city call thence called Chalcis, & some in Lemnos, Imbrus & other places. And a considerable body of them setled in Ætolia wch was thence called the country of the Curetes untill Ætolus the son of Endymion invaded it & called it by his own name. Where they setled they wrought \first/ in copper & then in iron, & when they had made themselves armour they danced in it at the sacrifices appearing seized with a divine fury with tumult & clamour & bells & pipes & drumms & wepaons wth wch they struck upon one anothers armour in musical time, appearing seized with a divine fury. And this is recconed the original of music in Greece. Studium musicum inde cœptum cum Idæi Dactyli modulos crepitu & tinnitu æris deprehensos in versificum ordinem transtulissent: Solinus Polyhist. c. 11. Studium musicum ab Idæis Dactylis cœptum. Origen l. 14. c. 6 Clemens[65] calls the Idæi Dactyli barbarians & saith that they were reputed the first wise men to whom both the letters wch they call Ephesian & the invention of musical rhimes is re
ferred. It seems that when the Phenician letters ascribed to Cadmus were bought into Greece they were \at the same time/ brought also into Phrygia {illeg} & Crete by the Curetes who setled in those countries. {illeg} Ephesian letters from ye place where they were taught in Phrygia & called Ephesian from the city Ephesus where they were first taught. [66]For the Curetes & particularly the Idæi Dactyli who found out iron, invented man & taught many other things usefull to life & for their skill & knowledge \& mystical actions/ were accounted \wise men &/ conjurers. In Phrygia their mysteries were about Rhea called Cybele & Magna mater: in Crete they were about her son Iupiter. They represented that when Iupiter was born in Crete {illeg} his mother Rhea caused him to be educated in a cave in mout {sic} Ida under their care & tuition & that they danced about him in armour with a great noise that his father Saturn might not hear him cry & when he was grown up assisted him in conquering his father Saturn, & in memory of these things instituted their mysteries in Crete

And hence I conclude that the Iupiter of the Idæi Dactyli was Minos. For they came into Crete with Europa & her brother Atymaus just before Minos was born, attended on him all his life & went with him into Sicily just before \went with him into Sicily &/ were left by him in Sicily \there/ at his death. Asterius & Minos were the two first kings of all Crete mentioned in history & on that account the Saturn & Iupiter of the kingdom. Minos was the most potent & potent \famous/ of all the kings of Crete & on that account |so| deserves the name of \the Cretan/ Iupiter above them all. He was the Lawmaker of Crete & was so famous for justice as to be accounted the chief judge of Hell, & {illeg} hence justice became the distinguishing character of Iupiter. Minos \He/ was the greatest warrior & \having the dominion of the seas was the/ most potent king in of all the kings of Greece in his time \& the first who gained the dominion of ye seas having the dominion of the seas/ & therefore deserves above them all to be painted wth a scepter in one hand & a thunderbolt in the other. He was the Law maker of Crete & was so famous for justice as to be accounted the judge of hell & hence justice became the principal chracter of Iupiter. Europa being a Phenician would be apt to commit the care of her child to her countriemen the Curetes who came with her into the Island \& by their instructions he became so wise & just./ Mount Ida was excavated by art wth \many/ walks & <59v> intricate passages wch they called the Labyrinth & \there/ they might secure & educate the child. There they \might/ dig exca minerals & make armour first of iron & then of copper & then of iron & by the help of this armour after Minos was grown up \they might/ overcome the native Cretans expell Asterius & set Minos on the throne, & then celebrate these actions by by {sic} dancing in armour at the sacrifices. He was buried in the same {illeg} cave where he was educated: for d[67] Pythagoras went down into the Idæan cave to see his sepulchre. Whence Lucian e[68] tells us that the Cretans do not only relate that Iupiter was born & buried among them but also shew his sepulchre. And Cicero f[69] in numbring three Iupiters saith that the third was the Cretan Iupiter Saturn's son whose sepulchre was shown in Crete & the Scholiast upon Callimachus g[70] lets us know that this was the sepulchre of Minos. By Saturn Cicero who was a Latine understands the Saturn of the Latines: for when Saturn was expelled his kingdom he fled from Crete by sea into Italy. In those days the Greeks called all kings Iupiters & all their sons bastard sons the sons of Iupiter & in that sense Minos was called the son of Iupiter. But becaus the \father of Minos/ {sic} fled into Italy & there lay hid from th |Minos was \absolutely/ the greatest king of \Crete/ the Cretans & their lawgiver they worshipped him above all other kings & {their} & his worship under the name of remained after their other kings were forgotten. And because his father fled into Italy & there lay hid| the Latines called hs|m| \father/ Saturn & their country \Saturnia/ Latium & themselves Latines. //About the same time, some other Greeks carried colonies into Italy as Oenotrus the younger son of Lycaon & Ianus who received Saturn into part of his kingdom. And this was the first memory of things done in Italy. |For the reign of this Saturn was the golden age of ye Latines.|

The Saturn who according to the Latine Poets reigned in the golden age \& was expelled by his father/ was the Saturn of the Latines, & therefore the Iupiter who reigned in the silver age was Minos. For Deucalion's flood wch preceded the four ages, was, according to the Marble, about 10 years before the coming of Cadmus into Europe \that is, just before the reign of Asterius or in the beginning thereof/. And Apollonius tells us[71] that Chiron was begot of Phylira by Saturn in the golden age when Iupiter was educated among the Idæi Dactyli, [72]& that Talus \who was/ the son of Minos & guarded the Island Crete \in copper armour/ was the last man of the brazen age & died when the Argonauts in returning home arrived at that Island. These \three/ ages therefore had a particular respect to the kingdom of Crete in the days of Asterius, Minos & the sons of Minos, & Hesiod tells us expresly that ye fourth age ended with the destruction of Troy. therefore \& by consequence/ the fourth age was the age in wch the grandsons of Minos flourished: for Hesiod tells us expresly[73] that the fourth age ended with the wars at|of| Thebes & Troy.

Hesiod describes these four ages to be four generations of men every one of wch ended when ye men of the generation dropt into the earth & were deified \& a new generation arose/, & saith that he himself lived in the fift age wch should come to an end \be destroyed by Iupiter/ when the men of that age \should/ grow hoary headed; & describing every age to be worse then the former \he/ translates the name of the iron age from the fourth to his own as being the worst of the five. And since Chiron was born in the golden age & lived till the Argonautic expedition or a little longer, the silver age & copper age could not exceed the length of ordinary generations. {ffrom} the coming of Europa & \&/ Cadmus into Greece to & the Curetes into Crete & Greece to ye destruction of Troy was about 134 years which being divided into four equal parts \ages/ {illeg} makes a allows about 33 or 34 years to a generation an age or an hundred years to three ages & of this length were \the two first ages together extending to the death of Minos/ the third {illeg} ages extending fom the death of Minos to ye end of ye Argonautic expedition & the fourth extending from thence to the taking of Troy. |I begin these ages wth the coming of the Idæi Dactyli into Crete because by what has been said above there|at| \para {sic}/ seems to be a parable {feigned} by them in Crete in honour of their Iupiter.|

In the first of these four ages men lived on \spontaneus fruits of the earth such as were/ roots, hearbs, berries apples, peares, acorns & other spontane In the & other spontaneus fruits of the earth without \the labour of/ plowing & sowing. In the second Ceres & Triptolemus taught the Greeks \began/ to plow & sow & make bread & grow potent at <60r> sea & by the invention of iron to multiply arts. In the third they grew more warlike but used armour & weapons & utensils of copper, iron bei the use of iron, as Hesiod lets us know, being not yet spread abroad. In the end of the third & beginning of the fourth they \invented the constellations &/ built a long ship & began to make long voyages at sea. In the fourth they increased their riches in metalls, improved navigation & grew more injurious & violent then before. And these are the characters of the four ages given by \according to/ the Poets.

Before the first age men worshipped the supreme Iupiter Iove. In the end of the first age, {illeg} out of flattery, they began to call all kings by the name of Ioves Iupiters, & continued to do so till the beginning of the third: whence Iup Niop|b|e ye daughter of Alcmena \Phoroneus/ is called \accounted/ the first woman & Alcmena the last with whom Iupiter lay. In this interval therefore we are to look for the reign of Iupiter & \&/ the silver age.

The people of Elis in giving an account of their own originals say [74]that Saturn reigned first in the kingdom of heaven & that the men who reigned in \were called/ the golden age built a temple to him in Olympia, & that his wife Rhea when Iupiter was born committed the custody of the child to the Idæi Dactyla {sic} otherwise called Curetes & that five of these Idæi Dactyli (whose names were Hercules, Pæonius, Epimedes, Iasius & Idas{)} coming afterwards from \mount/ Idas in Crete Ida a mountain in Crete into Elis, there instituted the game of racing once in four years, wch was the original of the Olympic games. The Iupiter of the Idæi dactyli & the Parable of the reign of Saturn & Iupiter in ye golden & siver {sic} ages was certainly brought by them into Greece & being formed by them commenced with their first coming into Crete.

And because they brought the celebration of the Olympic games into Greece, it may be recconed \concluded/ that they came from Phœnicia. For those games were celebrated at Tyre \in honour of the Tyrian Hercules/ before the conquest of Tyre \Phœnici/ by Alexander the great Phœnicia by the Greeks

And since those games were celebrated at the end of every four years & Minos consulted Iupiter every eight years about his laws |the space of eight years was the a[75] Annus magnus of Cadmus & b[76] Minos & was used c[77] in many religions of Greece as in celebrating the Ludi Pythici at {Greece} Delphos| we may reccon that the Octaeteris & Tetraeteris was|ere| brought \from {Greece}|Phœnicia|/ into Greece b Crete & Greece \from Phœnicia/ by the Curetes. The Dieteris was soon after brought into Greece by the Egyptians in celebrating the Bacchinalia. ffor knowing upon what days the festivals were to be observed the ancients had \could not be without/ a Calendar, & this|eir| Calendar \year/ consisted of 12 months \&/ each \month/ of 30 days., Whence in all of 360 days whence came the division of a circle into 360 equal parts. But in applying this |So when the Athenians whose year was Lunisolar erected 360 statues to Demetrius Phalareus according to ye number of days in the year, they numbred the days in their Calendar year. But in applying this| Calendar to ye course of the Sun & Moon, the Priests dropt a day or two in the month as often as they found the Calends Calendar month too long for ye course of the Moon & added a month to ye year as often as they found a month the Calendar year too short for the course seasons of the year. |And| B|b|y adding a month every other year except once in eight years they formed the Dieteris, Tetraeteris & Octaeteris. For Herodotus[78] Dionysius Halicarnasseus \Plutarch/ & Censorinus let us know that the \ancient Greeks & Latines/ added a month every other year to ma & this intercalary month must be lunar, that the year may be Lunisolar, & be omitted once in eight years to make <60v> the year agree wth the heavens. \For the ancient Greeks & Latines intercaled but three months in eight years/ And this I take to be the {illeg} \ancient/ constitution of the Lunisolar year before the Greeks reformed it. |And| C|c|ertainly it was very ancient: for Moses reccons the duration of the flood by the Calendar months ffor during the time of the flood the|y| other months could be used \were to reccon by the Calendar months/ because the Moon did not appear \the weather being cloudy/, & these \those calendar/ months in \the history of the flood written by/ Moses were of 30 days.

ffor knowing upon what days of the moths of the year & da

The g|G|reeks kept {illeg} \their monthly festivals according to the course of the Moon &/ their festi annual r[79] festivals upon certain \at/ /according to the\ season of the year, the same festival \being always kept/ at ye same season. ffor several of their festivals related to the seasons of plowing \&/ sowing, first fruits & harvest, & vintages \gatherin \the/ gathering of/ ripe fruits & \the/ vintage, & for knowing upon what days of the years they were to keep their annual festivals, a calendar was necessary. [80]The And their \Now the ancient/ Calendar \year/ conteined twelve months. & every m Calendar month 30 days, so that there were 360 days in the Calendar year. For when they recconned 30 days to a Lunary month & 12 Lunary months to a year, wch \& this/ is to be understood \only/ of their Calendar Months & \Calendar/ years. And from this form of the year it came to pass |that the Athenians whose year was Lunisolar erected 30 days statues to Demetrius Phalereus according to the number of days in the|ir| Lunisol year, & that the Zodiac| that {sic} the Zodiac was divided into twelve signes \answering to the months/ & every signe into 30 equal parts \answering to the days/, so that this Calendar year is as old as the division of a circle into 360 degrees |But| In keeping an account of time they recconned the dropt a day or two in |they recconed by the Calendar months when the Moon did not appear as in the time of Noahs flood a[81] but \in fair weather/ dropt a day or two in| the Calendar month two {sic} long {illeg} for ye course of the Moon & added a month to the Calendar y