Chap II
The Original of Religions

The religion \religion/ most ancient and most generally received religion of the heathens \by the nations in the first ages/ was that of worshipping {illeg} the Pyrethæa \Prytanea/ or Vestal Temples. This was spread over all nations until the first memory of things. Cecrops began his reign over {illeg} Attica about 60 years before Israel ye Israelites came out of Egypt & before that time \his reign/ the Greeks had Pyrethæa \Prytanea/ in all their cities as you may understand out of Thucydi by ye passages newly cited out of Thucydides \Halicarnasseus & Plutarch/. There was one Pr|y|rethræum|æum| in y every city \placed/ in ye principal part of ye city in wch ye Co And this \And in the Prytaneum/ was ye Court in wch \where/ the Council or Senate of ye city met. For it was ye office of ye Chief Magistrate had the charge of |  performed ye holy rites. \as the Sanedrim did in the Temple of the Iews./ ffor the performance of holy rites belonged to ye chief Magistrates of ye City |& the King was Pontifex maximus as appears by the instances of Melchizedeck, \Abraham/, Ninus, the Kings of Egypt & Athens & ye Roman Emperors|

The like custome was in the cities of Italy before ye founding of Rome as you have heard above. Dionysius \Dionysius Halicarnasseus tells us that {illeg} at Alba there was an ancient Temple of Vesta & yt that {sic} ye ancestors of Romulus brought the fire vestal frō Troy wch was destroyed above 400 years before ye building of Rome, & then he adds ../ Publici foci ædem solent omnes in potissima urbis parte statuere – Romulus per singulas curias focum dicavit ubi curiales rem divinam facerent, eisq sacris præfecit curiones iuxta morem qui adhuc servatur in antiquissimis Græcorum urbibus. In his enim prytanæa sunt quæ vocantur sacrata sunt et ad summum magistratum cura eorum pertinet. Dionys. Halicarn. l. 2. The worshipping of Images came into Italy after the reign of Numa, that of Vesta was in use long before for \Dionysius Halicarnasseus tells us yt/ ye Latines had an old Vestal Temple at Alba long before ye founding of Rome & that above 400 years before: Nor was this the Ancestors of Romulus brought the sacred fire from Troy. And \even/ long before this the Vestal fire was used in ye cities of Italy. For Myrsilus Lesbius[1] tells how the Tyrrheni {illeg} contended that they had inhabited their country from the times of ye golden age & then adds. Producunt quoq suæ vetustatis vestigia multa ut Deus ritus mores, literas, leges. Quæ profecto omnia congruunt his quæ probatiores Græci historici scribunt tradunt. Scribunt <2r> enim solos Tyrrhenos in Italia vetustissimos esse qui neq ab alijs pendent origine, neq ut cæteri, convenæ et advenæ, sed propria regione esse oriundos quando quidem vetustissimis differunt Dijs & moribus, nedum ab alijs Italiæ populis sed {illeg} etiam a vicinis Crotoniensibus & Perusinis a fronte & a proximis Phaliscis a tergo, quos intermedij jacent. Nam cunctis Tuscis Dij Deæq sunt Iupiter & Iuno: soli Tyrrheni colunt Ianum et Vestam quos lingua sua vocant Ianum Vadymona et Labith Horchiam. Ipsi quoq Romani fatentur Hetruscos esse vetustissimos & aureo sæculo natos a quibus aras, ritus, divinationes, colonias & disciplinas habuit prisca Italia, ut initio sumpto a prima eorum tetrapoli Hetruria {illeg} qua illos Romani Hetruscos cognominant. So then the Hetrusci were the first who peopled Italy & from \in from/ the beginning \they/ propagated \wth their colonies/ the {religion of the} religion of ye Vestal fire. In like manner the Egyptians seem to have used this worship from ye beginning. Infinitum |And that the Latines \with all Italy/ received not this religion from Troy but had it originally from ye Hetr. I gather \also/ from hence that in all their sacrifices when the sacrifice was ready a[2] the Priest laying his hands upon the altar rehearsed certain prayers ‡| < insertion from f 1v > ‡ unto the God Ianus and the Goddess v|V|esta because the Romans were perswaded that wthout their intercession they might not have access to the other Gods. This distinction \conjunction/ of Ianus & Vesta & distinction of them from the adventitious Gods shews that these two were the native ones. In Ianus their fath common father its probable they worshipped \their common father as/ the supreme God (Ιαω-Noah, or Iah-No) in Vesta the frame of Nature. [ffor Ianus has all the characters of Noah & though Saturn be made contemporary to Ianus yet whilst ye first first \ancient/ inhabitants \of Italy/ did not worship Saturn with Ianus him, I conclude that he and Saturn were but two names of Noah split into two persons after yt his worship \by the name/ of Ianus was established. ffor had they been two men they would have been both worshipped {apart} {illeg} distinctly \distinctly severally/ & alike.] And Dionysius Halicarnasseus reports that ye ancient Italians sacrificed men to Saturn till Hercules (who was older than Æneas) came into Italy & abolished ye custome & instituted th ye consecration of \the/ pure \fruits of/ sacrifices in a pure fire. And that he might not seem to abolish their religion he instituted ordeined that they sacrificed ye statues of men after the very same manner that they sacrificed men before. The Priests therefore & Vestal Virgins who keep the sacred fire & the Pretors and citizens after when the {illeg} legal sacrifices are slain throw 30 Images of Men into Tyber as they did men before. Thus far Dionysius. So then these sacrifices with the Vestal fire were in use from the days of Hercules with images of men, & before with reall men.

< text from f 2r resumes >

In like manner the Egyptians seem to have used this worship from ye beginning. Infinitum plane videtur fluxisse tempus ex quo genus hominum longe sapientissimum, ut loquitur Theophrastus, & sanctissimam illam a Nilo conditam regionem incolens, ἐ{illeg}ἑστίας ad ignem vestalem sacra Dijs cœlestibus facere cœpit – Nam Dijs etiam ignem conservabant suis in templis immortalem quod ijsdem simillimus esse videretur. Hæc Theophrastus ad|p|ud Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 1. c. 9. Symbol (horizontal line with three shorter vertical lines through it) in text < insertion from f 1v > \Symbol (horizontal line with three shorter vertical lines through it) in text/ And to the same purpose a[3] Porphyrius. Aquam autem [Ægyptij] et ignem elementorum optima \[Ægyptij]/ divinis honoribus tanquam præcipuas salutis nostræ causas prosequuntur. Atque hæc in ipsis quoq templis ostendunt, cum in sacra Serapidis æde reseranda solemnis expiationis ritus igne simul et aqua in hodiernum usq diem peragi consueverint ipso nimirum Præcentore aquam libantes ignemq præferente dum ad Templi vestibulum patria Ægyptiorum lingua Deum exuscitat. < text from f 2r resumes > |The same custome ✝| < insertion from f 1v > ✝ The same custome obteined in Lybia. For Iarbas {son} king of the Getuli neare \when/ Carthage was newly built,

Templa Iovi centrum latis immania regnis et Iovi

Centum aras posuit, vigilemq sacraverat ignem

Excubias divûm æternas: {illeg} as Virgil sings.[4]

And Silius writes[5] that there was a perpetual fire kept in ye temple of Hercules at Gades.

< text from f 2r resumes >

So interpreters by ye Chamanim of yt c wch God threatened to destroy \out of Israel/ Levit. 26.30, understand the pyrethæa \prytanea/ of ye eastern \neighbouring/ nations wch the Israelites should {illeg} introduce into Iudæa their Land, & therefore the\e//se\ P|r|yrethæa|ytanea| were used in ye Cities of Canaan & Syria before d|t|he days of Moses. These Pyrethæa t|T|he Eastern nations used to place |them| on the tops of mountains & there|nce|fore they are in scripture frequently called high places. ✝ When Abraham – – – < insertion from f 1v > When Abraham came \staid & dwelt/ into any place its said he built an alte|a|r there unto the Lord \& when Isaac bui|dwe|lt an altar at Beersheba he built an altar there/. The meaning is that they made a Prytaneum for the worship of their family. For when Iacob {illeg} went & dwelt at Bethel he not only built an altar there but dedicated the tenth of all he had to ye service of God. And therefore that altar was to his family what a temple {illeg} \was afterwards/ to a City. So when we find several altars \at once/ in Israel as \ther {sic}/ in Samuels days when there was one at Mizpeh, another at Gilgal, another at Bethlehem, another at Ramah, |wch was| built by Samuel, another in Gibsah \wch was/ built by Saul \& continued till Solomon's reign & is called a great high place/: it is to be understood that these altars so long as a fire was kept burning on them \(wch seems to have been till the captivity of the ten tribes)/ were of ye same nature wth the Prytanea of other nations. |And of the same kind were the high places built by |wch| Solomon \built/ to Ashteroth & Milcom & Chemosh & Molech {illeg} & the rest of his fals Gods for all his wives wch burnt incense & sacrificed unto their Gods. I do not say that they kept the fire constantly upon the alter {sic}, but where they did not they kept it in some \new/ sacred place neare the altar whence they carried it to the altar as often as they would sacrifice.|

< text from f 2r resumes >

The Chaldeans & Assyrians & Chaldeans had a notion that these P|r|r|y|ethræa\tanea/ were used in their nations from ye beginning \being derived from Noah & Nimrod. For Hestiæus[6] makes them refer it to ye age of Noah./ {illeg} ffor they Aiunt Sacerdotes, cladis ejus [i.e {Dilmij} \qua Turris Babylonica eversa fuit et gentes dispersæ/] superstites, Enyelij Iovis sacra ferentes in Senaar Babyloniæ pervenisse. \x {illeg} And so And/ < insertion from f 1v > x And the Chronicon Alexandrinum {illeg} makes Nimrod ye author of it among ye {illeg} Assyrians. \derives it from to them from Nimrod./ Nemrodo cognomen Nini imposuerunt. Hic pro Deo ignem coli docuit. < text from f 2r resumes > Hestiæus scripta apud Iosephum Antiq {illeg} < insertion from f 1v > a[7] Claudian tells us telling us how a league was made after ye manner of the Babylonians, saith saith.

Thuris adoratæ cumulis et messe Sab{æ}a

Pacem conciliant aræ, Penitralibus Ignem

Sacratum rapuere adytis, rituq juvencos

Chaldæo stravere Magi. Rex ipse nutantem

Inclinat dextra pateram, secretaq Beli

Et vaga testatur volventem sidera Mithram

< text from f 2r resumes >

[8] Isidorus reports \writes/ that Nimrod tought {sic} ye Per after ye confusion of languages tought {sic} ye Persians to worship ye fire, & much more did he teach Colophonius the Phœnician {illeg} used this worship |{stirring} ye {illeg} {floods} {illeg} of ye Persians| |Colophonius the Phœnician Poet[9] reprehends Ninos because he did not according to the law at his initiation that stir this fire with rods to nourish & kindle it|

Ὀυ παρὰ Μάγοισι Πυρ ἱερὸν ἀνέστησε,

Ὥσπερ νόμος, ῾ράβδοισι του θεου ψαύων


Certainly Abraham when he went three days journey {with Isaac} his son {illeg} carried fire wth him for ye offering sacrifice & therefore kept ye sacred fire wth in his family for sacrificing & by consequence brought it wth him from Vr of the Chaldees. So then ye perpetual fire instituted by Moses in the Tabernacle I well might say that ye Iews are in ye right when they {illeg} understand this fire \{illeg} was no new thing./ |By Nergal the God of the {Cuthæ} or inhabitants of Susiana is usually understood the fire of their Prytanea. And where a[10] Pliny mentions the Orchæni as the third doctrine of the Chaldæans #| < insertion from the left margin > {illeg} ffrom ור comes fire comes Horchia the old Hetruscan name of Vesta & Orchoeni the Vestal Chaldæan name of ye Vestal Priests \oriental/ name of the Vestal Chaldæans. For the Hetruscan language (as e[11] Vossius notes) borrowed almost all the sacred names of sacred things from the Syrians. < text from f 2v resumes > |the name borrowed from ור fire shews that it consisted in the usage of ceremonies & management of the sacred fire.| The Iews {have} take Vr for \of ye Chaldees from whence Abraham fled to be/ this very fire, as if Abraham fled from \from the Chaldeans/ to avoyd ye Cha Chaldean \their/ worship .of this fire \of their Pyrethæa/ I will not say that they are in ye right but I their|is| tradition is true but it shews at least that the use of this fire among these nations was according to their tradition \of ye Iews/ very ancient. Certainly Abraham when he went three days journey to sacrifice his son, carried fire with him for ye sacrifice & therefore kept ye a sacred fire in his family for sacrificing & by consequence brought it wth him from Vr of the Chaldees \For whenever he built an staid in any place he built an altar there/. So then the cause perpetual sac fire \institu appointed by Moses/ in the Tabernacle & Temple instituted by Moses was no new thing \of the Iews/, & ye interdicting ye use of strange fire \there/ was no new thing.

That the Persians {illeg} worshipped ye kept worshipped in in Pyrethæa is so well known that I need say nothing of it. Persæ saith P Persæ, saith Strabo,[12] nec statuas nec aras erigunt, sacrificant in loco excelso. Cœlum Iovem putant. Colunt Solem quem Mithram putant. – In Cappadocia (etenim {illeg} maxima est ibi magorum multitudo qui Pyrethi vocantur & multa Persicorum Deorum templa) non cultro sed stipite quodam sacrificia mactant, tanquam malleo verberantes. Sunt {illeg} \autem/ Pyrethæa septa quædam ingentia in quorum medio aræ ara est. In ea Magi & cinerem multum & ignem perennem servant, & eò quotidie ingressi, imprecationes faciunt per horam ante ignem, virgarum fasciculum tenentes. Ista nos vidimus. [13] Thus far Strabo. Herodotus saith they had neither statues nor Temples, that is no other Temples then these open pyrethæa. By this simplicity of their worship & by their not receiving the worship of Images nor the Gods of the Assyrians & other neighbouring nations, I conclude that they received not their Pyrethæa from ye Assyrians but had them from the beginning in their several cities. And ye same thing is to be understood of ye Medes for Clemens Alexandrinus joyns them wth ye Persians in this worship.

The same wp was used anciently \also/ by the Medes the Macedonians & other {Sarmatic} nations more Northern nations. So Clemens.[14] Persarum autem ignem Magi ignem coluerunt et multi ex ijs qui Asiam incolunt. Quinetiam Macedones ut ait Diogenes in primo Persicorum. Ne Sauromatis recenseum, quos refert Nymphodorus in libro de legibus Barbaricis ignem colere, aut Persas aut <3r> {Medos} aut Magos. |Hos autem dicit Dinon sacrificare {illeg} sola Deorum {illeg} simulachræ {illeg} retentes| Amongst these Sarmatick nations ye Goths are to be recconed. For \Diodorus/ Apud Getas Zamolxis τὴν κοινὴν Ηστιαν communem Vestam legum auctorem suarum finxisse perhibetur a[15]. So Diodorus tells us. \In England/ |He calls her κοινὴν in opposition to the private Vestal temples in the several δημοι So b[16] Herodotus of the Scythians: Deos autem Solos hos {illeg}acant Vestam quidem præcipue, postea Iovem ac Tellurem Tellurem Iovis uxorem existimantes.|

In England neare Salisbury there is a piece of antiquity called Stonehenge, {illeg} of made of very great stones & called Sto |called Stonehenge, compassed wth two rows of very great stones)| \Tis an area compassed wth two rows of very great stones &/ seems to be an ancient Pyrethæum. Tis said there are two or three \some/ pieces of antiquity of ye same form & structure in Denmark. In Ireland one of these fires was conserved by ye Moncks of Kildare under the name of Brigets fire till of late years & ye {illeg} Cænobium was called the house of fire. Silius tells us that              tans. for they had ye \The/ same worship \was in use also among ye Tartars/ as William de Rubruquis & Iohn Plancarpinius inform us.[17] And the a[18] Indians still keep this sacred fire & call it Homan. And \b[19] Benjamin Tudensis found this fire worshipped in/ in Chenerag certain Islands of ye East Indies called wch Benjamin Tudensis \he/ calls Chenerag. The nations worshipped this fire ye same fire b as Benjamin relates And travellors relate the same thing of China.

In England neare Salisbury there is a piece of antiquity called Stonehenge {illeg} \wch seems to be an ancient Pyrethæa|rytanæum|. For {illeg} it is/ an area compassed wth two circular row circularly wth two rows of \very/ great stones & seems to be an ancient Pyræum \wth passages on all sides for people to go in and out at./ Tis said th that there are some pieces of antiquity of the same kind form & structure in Denmark. \For its to be conceived that the Vestal Temples of all nations as well as of the Medes & Persians were at first nothing more then open round areas wth a fire in ye middle, till {illeg} \towns & cities/ united under one city & {illeg} common councils & built them more sumptuously./ In Ireland one of these fires was conserved \till of late years/ by the Moncks of Kildare under ye name of Brigets fire & ye Cænobium was called the house of fire. The same worship was in use also till among the Tartars, as William de Rubruquis & Iohn Plancarpinius inform us.[20] And ye t[21] Indians still keep this sacred fire & call it Homan. v[22] Benjamin Tudensis found the s this|e| \same/ fire worshipped by in ye certain Il|s|lands of ye East Indies wch he calls Chener Chenerag. And travellours report the same thing of China ‡ < insertion from f 3v > ‡ And travellors report the same thing of China. And b[23] Bardasanes the a Syrian who lived in the reign of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus, writes that amongst the Seres (or inhabitants of China) the worship of Images was then prohibited by a law & that in all that very large region there was not a Temple to be seen. Whence I seem to gather that the Chineses till those days had only open Prytanea without houses such as were in use among the Medes or Persians. And the same seems to be true of the Bactri old & ancint {sic} Indians & Bactrians. For the same c[24] Bardasanes tells us that that though {illeg} some Indians worship{illeg}ped Idols & were vicious yet the Brachmans who were th very numerous in India & Bactria absteined from ye worship of Idols & lived virtuously προσέχοντες τω θεω. Some tell us that Zo\ro/aster from whome the Persians had their sacra, was king of Bactria & for this assertion there could have been no pretence had not the \old/ religion of ye Brachmans been ye same wth that of ye Persians.

And in general the \the worsh Vestal worship was of old so common and universal that/ a[25] it was part of the ancient Theology of the ancient inhabitant {sic} of the Island Crete that Vesta found out the building of houses & for this benefit almost all men placed her in their houses {illeg} & vouchsafed her honours & sacrifices. < text from f 3r resumes > \And indeed it seems to me that Temples in all nations had their original from ye Prytanea/anea\. For when several citi cities uniting under one common council let their proper fires go out: their Temples still continuing seem to have given a beginning to such Temples as were wthout a fire. And therefore the Medes & Persians who united wthout a common standing Council T{illeg} temples in other nations had their original fire {illeg} Prytanea. For {illeg} had no other Temples yn the Prytanea./ So then this religion of conserving a {illeg} sacred fire for ye use of Sacrifices seems to have been as well the most universal as ye most ancient of all religions & to have spread into all nations before other religions took place. There \are/ many {illeg} instances of other nations receiving this \other/ religions after this but none (that I know) of any nations receiving this after any other \Nor did any other religion wch sprang up later become so general as this./ < insertion from f 3v > |See ye backside.| And tho divers fals others sprang up after it yet this f kept the precedency as an argument \mark/ of its {illeg} primogeniture & birthright. ffor b[26] Strabo tells us that when ye Persians sacrificed to any God they first p\r/ayed to the fire. And Servius in illud 1 Æn. Cana Fides et Vesta: Vestam religionem dicit, quia nullum sacrificium sine igne est, ipsaq in omnibus invocantur, & a[27] Tully: Quod sacrificium tam vetustum quam hoc [Vestalium] quod a Regibus æquale huic urbi accepimus? And c[28] Aristocritus: that Of all things which were sacrificed the first fruits were offered to Vesta, & this by ye concession \he represents was granted her/ of|by| Iupiter in the silver age, so that it was ye law of Nations. Whence that of d[29] Aristophenes {illeg}

ἀλλ᾽ ἱνα

Ἀφ᾽ Ἑστίας ἁρχόμενος ἐπιτρίψω τινά

A Vesta incipiens ut contundam quempiam.

So b[30] Herodotus tells us of the Scythians that they worship first Vesta & then Iupiter & ye other Gods. < text from f 3r resumes > And hence And hence {sic} I gather these things.

ffirst that this \was the/ religion was \of Noah & from him/ spread into all nations at ye first peopling of the earth. For when \so soon as/ Noah used sacrifices by fire Gen. came out of ye Ark <4r> {he} built {illeg} \an/ altar & offered burt {sic} offerings of all the \every/ clean Beasts & fowls every clean ffowl unto ye Lord. Gen. 8 & therefore ye religion of sacrificing by fire was in use before ye flood. ffor it seems to have been ye religion of Cain & Abel when they offered the first fruits of their corn & heards, & {illeg} therefore to have been the religion instituted by God {illeg} in the beginning. And as they {illeg} distinguished beasts \& ffowls/ into clean & unclean that is into such as were consecrated or set apart for sacrifices & into others wch were rejected as an abomination: so 'tis reasonable to beleive that they sacrificed \also/ wth a consecrated fire & in a consecrated place, & accounted it as abomi irreligious to use \{illeg} sacrifice wth/ strange or prophane fire as to sacrifice an unclean Beast. And therefore as Noah when he went into ye Arck provided for sacrifices by taking in wth him a greater number of Clean Beasts & \clean/ ffowls than of unclean ones: so \no doubt/ for ye same end he took in wth him also ye sacred fire wth wch he was to offer them. And afterwards as a[31] Noah \& his sons/ carried wth their|m| ye sacred fire & from thence from ye Mountain Ararat \Tower of Babylon/ into ye land of Shinar \as was mentioned above/, & Abraham carried it wth him to offer Isaac \& Æneas carried it wth him from Troy/ & the \ancient/ Kings of Greece & Persia b[32] carried it \along/ wth them \into the field/ when they went to make war: so the sons of Noah when they went from him into their several countries took \this fire/ along wth them, the sacred fire & \each of their several families/ & the like was done by their sons & grandsons as oft as they went \wth their families/ to live at any considerable distance from one another in a distinct gover polity. & that \And by/ by this means |I conceive it came to pass yt| the sacred fire at ye first plantation of ye earth was to be found in every City, as an essential part of the government. ffor in ye first ages when ye whole world was distinguished into as many kingdoms as cities, I understand not how this religion could one and the same religion could \so soon/ spread into them all had it not been propagated wth mankind in ye beginning. The Mahometan religion was sp tho spread by conquest is not yet grown so universal, the Christian tho spread by ye divine assistance & \at length/ backt by ye Roman Empire is less general \universal/ then ye Mahometan. The scrificing {sic} by a sacred fire would be now more hard to propagate then these & yet \was/ spread wthout conquest {illeg} into all ye world {illeg} \wthout conquest/ so early yt there is no memory of its original in any kingdom \nation/, notwithstanding that ye world then consisted of as many kingdoms as cities, |wch must make a new religion very hard to be spread. By what name the first. |

Secondly I gather that {illeg} ye sacrificing clean birds & beasts by a consecrated fire \in a consecrated place/ was ye true religion till ye nations corrupted it. For it was ye religion of Noah, & tis not to be doubted but that ye religion wch Noah propagated \down/ to his posterity was the true religion. According to <5r> ye first constitution of things, every Pr \ye/ Father of every family did ye office of ye Priest. No doubt When Noah & his three sons came out of ye Ark, no doubt it was Noah yt sacrificed. Abraham was Priest as well as Prince. ffor he built an Alter {sic}, laid ye wood \went/ alone to sacrifice Isaac \& took ye knife to do it/ Gen. 22.5. Melchisedeck was both king of Salem & Priest of the high most high God, that is, according to ye received religion received from Noah & still \till then/ conserved \pure/ in some of ye cities \kingdoms/ of Canaan. And according to ye same religion the care of ye Pyræa \Prytanea in ye cities/ of Greece belonged in ye first an first ages to ye chief magistrate \of ye city/ as you heard above, & therefore the Court in which the Elders of ye City sat \in Council/ was in ye Pyræum |Prytanæum. And hence it was that ye Roman Emperors were Pontifices maxims {sic} & in Egypt where all the people were divided into three sorts, the Priests, the Soldiers & artificers, the Priests were the nobility & if one of the military order was made king he was presently instructed & initiated by the Priests in their sacra. So also when Christ is called a Priest after ye order of Melchisedeck ye sense is that he is a Priest of a higher order then was Aaron, that is a King as well as a Priest. By what name &c. See ye page above \{illeg}/ sheet above| < insertion from f 3v > |See ye next sheet.| By what name the first nations called ye God of nature is uncertain. No doubt they had names for him, {illeg} & as ye Platonists from his nature called him ὁ ὤν so they might call him by names of like signification in their language, ffor wch I rather think that ye names ἰαω, & such \such as were Iah & Iehova among the Iews/ ffor I rather think that {illeg} his name Iuba \or {illeg} ιουβα/ amongst amonst the ancient Carthaginians {illeg} Mauri \Moores/, Iovis or Ιου-piter among ye Latines & Phrygians, {illeg} ἰαὼ & ιαοὺ {illeg} among ye Greeks \ἰα Χους among the Arabians or Chaldeans/ & Ιευὼ among the Phœnicians \/ < insertion from higher up f 3v > ‡ & ἰα or ἰαὼ or ἰουὰ (if Ἰακχος & Bacchus may come from ἰαὼ Chus & ἰουὰ Chus) \as Dionysus does from D Διὸ-Nysus) ἰὰ, or ἰαὼ or ἰουὰ/ among the eastern {illeg} more eastern nations, And so also might some names taken from his might be brrowed {sic} &c < text from f 3v resumes > \& ἰα {illeg} or ἰαὼ (if Ιακχος come from ιαω-Χους) among the Arabians & Chaldeans/, might be borrowed as well from ye Noah & his sons as from Moses (at least by some of the nations) as from Moses: especially since Noah calls God by this name Gen. 9.26. And so also might some names taken from his \power &/ dominion, as those of Lord & King |Creator,| ffather, Lord & King be given him in ye firs before the flood.

< text from f 5r resumes >

Thirdly \I gather from hence yt/ the religion wch Moses propagated down to his posterity taught ye Iews was the true religion no other then ye religion of Noah purged from the superstitio corruptions of ye nations. ffor Dr Spencer has shewn yt Moses retained all ye religion of ye Egyptians concerning ye worship of ye true God; & rejected only what belonged to ye worship of their fals Gods Osyris, Isis \the Sun Planets & Elements, Isis Iupiter Hammon, Osyris, Isis, Orus & ye/ & ye {sic} rest, & that ye Iewish worship of Mosaical religion concerning ye true God conteins little else besides what was \then/ in use amongst the nations Egyptians. And if so, then its' certain that ye \old/ religion of the Egyptians was ye true religion & retained tho corrupted before the age of Moses by the mixture of the worship of fals Gods wth that of ye true one: & by consequence ye religion of ye Iews was no other then that of Noah propagated down in Egypt till ye age of Moses. And that this is so appears further by ye consent of ye religions ffor both consisted in of Noah and Moses. For in both there was kept a perpetual sacred fire \in a consecrated place/ for sacrifices. And as And as there was but one fire \Pyræum Prytaneum or Temple/ in The ye kingdom of ye Iews so in the first kingdoms of the Nations so there was but one fire in a kingdom. When the first heathens every city was a kingdom there was a fire \Pyræum Prytaneum/ in every City. When many cities \united under one common council & thereby/ grew into one kingdom, there was a Pyræum in ye chief City \where ye Council met a Prytaneum of a nobler structure/ common to all ye cities & ye private P|r|yræum|tanea| in time grew out of use. \Thus it happened in Greece, Italy, Egypt & perhaps in divers other countrys: but where the cities grew in one kingdome \under a king/ without a common council \& by consequence wthout a commō Pyræū/ there the Pyræa continued in their several cities, & this was the case of the kingdome of the Medes & Persians./ The distinction of birds & beasts into clean & unclean & appointing only ye first for sacrifices \& prohibiting the eating blood & things strangled/ was as old as Noah, & the offering the first-born of the flocks & the first fruits of ye ground \& prohibiting the eating blood & things strangled/ was as old as Cain & Abel. ‡ < insertion from f 4v > ‡ & continued in the Prytanea. ffor in all sacrifices the first fruits there was nothing eat or drunk \whether Beasts fruits or wines/ a[33] till the /Priests\ had offered the \primiæ or/ first fruits {illeg} & those were all offered to Vesta. Nothing was sacrificed to any God No b[34] feast was celebrated where they did not first offer wine to Vesta. No sacrifice was made to any God where Vesta \the primitiæ were/ not offered to her. And therefore they feign that this law was made \at her request/ by Iupiter in the silver age. When the Titans, saith c[35] Aristocritus, were ejected & Iupiter took ye kingdom, he granted Vesta her request of having what she would. She first requested \first/ virginity & then that men should offer to her ye first fruits of all things wch were sacrificed. And so it was thenceforth made a law in sacred things that of all things wch were offered \sacrificed/ they should \first/ offer the firs {sic} fruits to Vesta. The meaning is that Iupiter Belus then set apart ye first fruits to ye Vestal fire, {illeg} as d[36] Ovid thus sings

Ante tuos ortus aræ sine honore fuerunt

Liber, et in gelidis herba reperta focis #

< insertion from higher up f 4v >

# Te memorant, Gange totoq Oriente subacto,

Primitias magno reposuisse Iovi.

Cinnama tu primus, captivaq thura dedisti,

Deq triumphato viscera tosta bove.

Nomine ab autoris ducunt libamina nomen;

Libaq, quod sanctis pars datur inde focis. The use of salt

< text from f 4v resumes > < insertion from higher up f 4v >

The use of salt in all sacrifices as it was commanded by Moses (Levit. 2.13.) so it use was generally used by ye heathens. For Pythagoras in Symbolis tells us that salt enjoyn præscribes that salt be used in all sacrifices & oblations & Numa an hundred years before instituted this rite according to ye doctrine of ye Hetruscans. a|A|nd Pliny lib. 31 cap.7 testifies this practice. Maxime autem in sacris intelligitur salis authoritas quando nulla conficiuntur sine mola salsa. And Plato in Timæo that salt according to ye law of ye divine worship is a sacrum very grateful to ye Gods: whence he calls it θεοφιλὲς σωμα & thence \also/ Homer calls it {illeg}divine. < text from f 4v resumes > < text from f 5r resumes > The erecting altars of unhewn stones seems to be conserved by Moses in memory <6r> of ye first Altars, when ye use of iron was not yet known |to shape them.| Such Altars once consecrated no doubt continued in use long after the working of iron was known & thereby became a president. < insertion from f 5v > The \ancient/ nations built the a[37] front of their Temples toward ye East & therefore Moses in doing so followed their example retained ye religion of his ancestors. < text from f 6r resumes > The placing ye fire in the common center of the court Priests Court & of ye outward court or court of ye people I speak of Ezekiel \in the Tabernacle &/ in Solomons Temple [& the framing ye Tabernacle & Temple so as to make it a symbol of the world] is a part of also of ye religion wch ye nations received from Noach. ffor they placed ye fire in ye middle of |ye| Pyr Pyrethæa \Prytanea/. < insertion from f 5v > The paying of tenths to the Priests was the also ye religion of the nations before the days of Moses. ffor Abraham did it to Melchizedeck \& Iacob did it at Bethel/ & there are ✝[38] instances of its being done by ye Heathens to Iupiter, Apollo & Hercules. And lastly as the Tabernacle was contrived by Moses to be a symbol of ye heavens (as St Paul & Iosephus teach,) so were ye Prytanæa amongst ye nations. < text from f 6r resumes > And as the Tabernacle was a symbol of the heavens, so were the Prytanæa of ye {illeg} Nations amongst ye nations. The whole heavens they recconed to ye|be| ye true \& real/ Temple of God & therefore that a Prytanæum might deserve ye name of his Temple they formed it according to ye contrived it so framed it so as most fitly to \as that it might in the fittest manner to/ represent the whole systeme of the heavens. A point of religion then wch nothing can be more rational. Vniversus mundus Dei templum vocatur a Cicerone propter illos qui æstimant nihil aliud esse Deum nisi cœlum ipsum. Quicquid humano subjicitur aspectui templum ejus vocavit qui sola mente concipitur, ut qui hæc veneratur ut templa, cultum tamen maximum debeat conditori, sciatq quisquis in usum templi hujus inducitur ritu sibi vivendum sacerdotis. Macrob. l. 1 c. 14. From this comparison the center fire in the center of middle of ye Prytaneum was taken for a symbol of ye center of ye world, & thence ye generality of ye Latines took Vesta for ye earth So Dionysius Halicarnassa\arnasseus/ l 2 Antiq. {illeg} [39] Vestæ autem dicatum esse Ignem putant quod cum Dea hæc sit Terra mediumq teneat mundi locum, ignes illos in sublimi ex sese accendat. But Numa, who instituted ye Vestal Temple of Vesta those who placed ye Sun in ye center & particularly Numa \& the Persian magi/ made this fire a symbol of the Sun. So Florus:[40] Imprimis [Numa] focum Vestæ virginibus colendum dedit ut ad simulachrum cœlestium siderum custos imperij flamma vigilaret. And Plutarch:[41] Ferunt Numam ædem Vestæ sacro igni orbicularem circumjecisse ut ibi asservaretur, adumbrans non effigiem terræ sed quasi ea Vesta sit sed universi mundi cujus in medio ignis sedem locant Pythagorei eamq Vestam nominant & unitatem. Terram vero non putant immobilem neq mediam orbis regionem tenere sed esse in gyrum circa ignem suspensam. Plutarch mentions also this <7r> sanction of Numa. Circumagas te dum Deos adoras, sedeas cum adoraveris, & then subjoyns Conversio adorantium simulachrum orbis mundi dicitur. \so Pliny.[42] In adorando dextram ad osculum referrimus totumq corpus circumagimus, quod in lævum fuisse Galli religiosius credunt./ Which is as much as, He who ador worships, by turning about, becomes a symbol of ye earth. Whence ye Greeks called a man Microcosmus And this the Greeks intimated by also signified by calling a man Microcosmus Whence ye Greeks called a man microcosmus. So then twas one designe of the true sy |The same custome is mentioned also by b[43] Pliny. In adorando dextram ad osculum referimus totumq corpus circumagimus, quod in lævum fuisse Galli rectius credunt.|

So then twas one designe of ye true systeme of ye first institution of ye true religion to propose to mankind by ye frame of ye \ancient/ Temples, the study of the frame of the world as the true Temple of ye living \great/ God they worshipped. And therefore the Priests ought above all men to be w thence it was |yt| ye Priests anciently were above other men well skilled in ye knowledge of ye true frame of Nature & accounted it a great part of their Theology. Amongst ye Persians ye Priests were ye Magi or wise men: amongst ye Babylonians ye Priests were ye Chaldæans skilled in \Astronomy &/ all sorts of their learning {illeg} of that nation & {illeg} when ye Greeks travelled into Egypt to learn Astronomy & Philosophy they went to ye Priests. S The learning of ye Indians lay in ye Brachmans who were their Priests, that of ye Persians in ye Magi who were their Priests, that of ye Babylonians in ye Chaldeans who were their Priests. & \They/ studied nature & the stars {very} {illeg} studied much the Astronomy \& Nature/ very much And if when ye {illeg} Greeks {illeg} travelled into Egypt for to learn astronomy & philosophy they went to ye Priests. And what there was of |ye| true knowledge \of Nature/ amongst ye Greeks lay chiefly in ye brest of some of their Priests In mysterijs Græcis, saith Clemens,[44] primo loco sunt expiationes, ut et lavacrum apud exteros: post has sunt mysteria parva, quæ fundamentum habent aliquod habent doctrinæ et præparationis ad futura. Magna autem mysteria sunt versantur circa universum. Non amplius dicendū est sed inspicienda et animo comprehendenda rerum natura. And so Seneca: [45]Eleusinia initiamenta sunt per quæ non municipale sacrum sed ingens omnium Deorum templum, Mundus iste reseratur: Cujus vera simulachra verasq facies cernendas mentibus protulit. Nam ad spectacula tam magna habes est visus est. So then the first religion was the most rational of all others \till the nations corrupted it/. ffor there is no way \(wthout revelation)/ to come to ye knowledge of a Deity but by the frame of Nature.


Now the corruption of this religion I take to have been after this manner. ffirst ye frame of ye heavens consisting of Sun Moon & Stars being represented by |in| the {illeg} Prytanæa as ye real temple of the Deity men were led by degrees to pay a veneration to these sensible objects & began at length to worship them as the \visible/ seats of {illeg} divinity. ffor tis agreed that Idolatry began in ye worship of the heavenly bodies And because ye sacred fire was a type of ye Sun & all the elements are parts of that universe wch is ye temple of God they soon began to have these also in veneration. For tis agreed that Idolatry began in ye worship of ye heavenly bodies & elements. This a[46] Eusebius tells us out of the Phœnician \& other/ records |& Porphyry confirms it|, & the b[47] book of wisdom confirms it. Surely saith he vain are all men by nature & could not out of ye good things that are seen know him that is, neither by considering the works did they acknowledge the workmaster: but deemed either fire or wind or the swift air or ye circle of ye heavens stars or ye violent water or the lights of heaven to be the Gods wch Govern the world. And hence Moses interdicts ye b[48] worship of ye Sun moon & stars & Iob when he would purge himself from idolatry, saith. If I beheld ye Sun when it shined or ye Moon walking in brightness: {illeg}|&| my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand: this also were an iniquity to be punished by the Iudge for I should have denyed my|the| god that is above. Now this|e| kind of worship \of these bodies/ being more plausible then that of ye dea & dead men & statues, mankind was more prone to it & therefore it spread further. ffor ye Persians as Herodotus affirms worshipped the Sun & Moon & whole circle of ye heavens calling them Iove but were averse from ye worship of dead men & statues. & \For/ the Hetrusci received the worship|ped| of ye Goddess Vesta but received not ye rest of ye Heathen Gods except {illeg} Ianus their first father. Some think that from Chamanim the \eastern/ name of the Prytanæa as among ye c cam Chamanim was the {illeg} or Homa as ye or as ye Indians called them, Homam came the name of the Persian God Amanus or Omanus ffor tis written both ways. The Albani, saith Strabo, worshipped Iupiter the Sun & Moon & accounted it wickedness to regard dead men, & ye \the/ Germans, as Cæsar writes, worshipped Deorum numero eos solos ducunt quos vident Solem et Lunam Vulcanum et Lunam reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt. So Plato in Cratylo of ye {illeg} ancient Greeks <9r> Qui Græciam primi incoluere, ij videntur mihi, ut nunc metiam barbari multi alios nullos agnovisse Deos præter visibiles et sensibiles illos Solem Lunam Terram Stellas et Cœlum. Quos cum perpetuò in orbem currere {illeg} animadverterent appellarent Θεοὺς a θέω quod currere significat. Deinde cum Dij alij invisibiles introducerentur his etiam nomen receptum imponerent. Amongst ye many barbarous nations wch Plato saith \in his age had/ received no other Gods besides those visible ones of ye Sun, Moon, Earth, Stars & heavens are to be recconed ye Persians For as d as Herodotus tells us yt they worshipped ye Sun & Moon & circle of ye heavens calling them Iupiter, but regarded not dead men nor used statues. Their God Amanus or Omanus, as some think, had his name from ye Chamanim or Py|r|ytanæa called Chamanim by ye Phœnicians \Hebrews/ & |H|O|o|mam by ye Indians. And so from אש הא that {illeg} domus ignis came ye Goddess {illeg} or rather from |אש טא came {illeg} Es-ta came ἑστια domus ignis came probably came ἑστια & from| אפה אש הא \Ephe-es-ta/ Comus \Comus or Coqua/ domus ignis came the God Ηφαιστος or Vulcan, & ye Goddess v|V|esta \& from אפה אש {illeg} Ephe-es came Opas d[49] the Egyptian name of Vulcan /. < insertion from f 6v > For Euripides[50] gives the name of εστία Εστία to ye prytaneum or house & b[51] Pollux {illeg} tells us that ye altar on wch ye {illeg} vestal fire was kept was also called by the same name, & ye Prytaneum wch continued till of late in Ireland was by ye natives called the house of fire. c[52] Cænobium at Kildare where one of these fires was till of late conserved was called by ye natives called the house of fire. < text from f 9r resumes > The worshipping therefore of these fals Gods & Goddesses in ye Prytanea was ye first & most generall corruption of ye primitive religion: but ye grossest corruption was by introducing ye worship of dead men & statues, & ye original of this seems to be as follows.

|The first ages &c [53]| < insertion from f 9v > The f \The/ first ages studying to honour their ancestors, imposed ye |their| names of ye first men upon ye Stars & Elements & countries & Cities |\& rivers & Mountains/ & represented them by various hieglyphical {sic} figures wth wings like angels to denote ye {motions} of ye stars & allotted several figures to the their animals to be their symbols. an Ox to Osiris a Ram to Iupiter Hammon a dog to Mercury, &c| & by this means their names being preserved grew into more & more veneration. {illeg} At length they feigned their names souls or spirits or of ye men \wth their qualities/ to be translated into ye stars & yt ye stars by means of these thus animat that by them they shone & moved & |yt| by ye \these/ spirits or intelligences wth wch ye stars were animated & shone & moved in their courses & understood all things below [& were endued wth various qualities. Saturn {illeg} a planet unfor The Planet Saturn Mars influences|d| wars \& is a misfortune/ because ye man was a warrior \& mischievous/ the Planet Venus governed love love & {illeg} \& lust/ becaus ye woman was am beautiful & amorous, the Planet Mercury respected commerce & learning & pu is variable, putting on ye qualities of all ye Planets wth wch he is joyned, because ye man was an artist crafty & {illeg} knowing & {given} o flatt {illeg} & suited himself to all occasions, & so of ye rest. skilfull & crafty & changeable & so of ye rest. And hence when] the sun wth the soul of Orus the pleiades wth ye souls of ye |as| ye sun wth ye soul of Orus, the planet Saturn wth ye Soul of the man Saturn, {illeg} ye pleiades \& hyades/ wth ye souls of ye daughters of Atlas \the earth with the soul of Isis,/ & so of ye rest. And now the stars & now the Planets |And this soulle of the earth many accounted the greatest of {illeg} /Deities\ & called it the soul of the world.| And to to make the|i|se hypothese|i|s the more plausible they feigned that the Planets \Stars/ by vertue of these|ir| souls were endued wth ye qualities of ye men \& according to those qualities governed the world./ Saturn \The Planet of/ Mars influenced wars & misfortune because the Man was a malevolent warrier: & \that of/ Venus governed love & lust because ye woman was beautiful & amorous: |yt of| Mercury ruled commerse & learning & was {illeg} variable because the man was skilfull, & crafty crafty & versatil, & so of the rest. And {illeg} according then to these the ki the kidds & constellations of starrs of Orion presaged \created/ storms because the men to whom they were dedicated were great warriors, & so those of the hyades caused rain because the weep weomen {illeg} died weeping{sic} & so of ye rest. And by meanes of these fictions the souls of ye men \dead/ grew into veneration wth ye stars & by as many as received this kind of theology were taken for ye Gods wch governed the world.

And whats And now, as ye nature of Mankind is prone to supersition {sic} & they began to honour \pay respect to/ these Gods in their /Prytanea or\ temples together wth ye true God & at length to honour them wth {illeg} sacrifices & to {illeg} them apply \honour ym wth ye worship of ye true God by sacrifices & to colour over this worship by worship \applying// ye \worship & worship/ name of ye true God Iah ἰαω \Iehova,/ ἰαὼ \ἐυω/ ιούὰ, Iehova Ieho \Iuba/ ἰου-πατὴρ I that is Iehova \Iupiter/ to them. calling \For/ Ham, \they called/ Iupiter Hammon {illeg}. Chus \or Belus /they called\/ Iupiter Casius {illeg} \&/ ἰαὼ Χους, {illeg} or ἰακχος {illeg} \&/ ἰουὰ Χοὺς or Bacchus or Iupiter \& Belus they called Iupiter/ Belus, {illeg} & Baalsemen or dominus Cœlorum, & Iupiter Olympus {illeg} \& Iupiter {illeg} εωφάλιος/ & Noah \they called/ Iah-Noah or Ianus. & Mizraim Iah \ἰουα/ Siris or Osiris, for {illeg} He is that Iupiter who begat Mercury of Maia {illeg} (who in ye singular number is Masar, {illeg} \&/ Sor {illeg} \or/ Siris whence whence {illeg} he names Sirius to his star, Siris to ye river Nile wch was consecrated to him & to \they called/ ιαω Siris or Osiris: ffor he is that Iupiter who begat Mercury of Maia & the name in ye singular number is \& Misraim is a dual fr{illeg} or in/ Masor, |derived from {illeg}| Sar or Siris whence ye Egyptian names Cala-Siris, Peto-Siris <10v> Sar-Apis, stella the star Syrius & the name Siris of ye river Nile wch star & river were dedicated to him. |in composition & Ιαω Χους \Oracle calls him/ {illeg} Ιαω Chus & Ἰουὰ Chus whence {illeg} \& thence/ Ἰακχος & Bacchus| & Iupiter Serapis as he {is} called in old inscriptions & Iupiter \Aratrius & Iupiter/ Stygius & Iupiter Ægyp (for Serapis is Pluto) & Iupiter Ægyptius as he is worshipped in ye river Nile wch was the river Styx of ye Poets. This is that Iupiter who begat Mercury of Maia the daughter of Atlas.

These things were first done by the Egyptians who also instituted annual solemnities in honour of their first parents \King & Queen/ Osiris & Isis & thereby perpetuated their memory & soon brought it into great veneration. In like manner when Chus had wth his sons had conquered ye eastern countries, in memory of their victory they instituted an annual triumph wch was afterwards called the Bacchanalia of|r| feast of Bacchus & by this annual solemnity the memory of Chus soon \& Nimrod/ grew into so great honour wth their|is| posterity that they soon began to honour the|i|m in the{illeg}\ir/ Temples Prytanea \or Temples/ & joyn the|i|m with ye true God \Iehova or as the Greeks {illeg} \pronounced it/ ἰαὼ or Ἰου-piter that is Iehova,/ in their sacrifices: calling the|i|m Iupiter Belus, Iupiter \p[54] Milichius or/ Melech & ἰαὼ Χοὺς, or {illeg} Ιακχος Iupiter ἐκυάλιος, Iupiter Αρειος & ιαὼ Χους or Ιακχος, Iupiter Chus for Ιακχος is ιαω Χους. ffor Dionysus is Iupiter Nisus & Ιακχος is ιαω Χους. |& Dionysus that is Iupiter g[55] Nysus, Iupiter Chus or ἰάωa[56] as the Oracle calls Bacchus whence the names ιαω Χους & {ἰουα} Χους {illeg} whence ιαωχ & Ιἀκχος that is Ἰαω-Χους & Bacchus that is Ἰουὰ-Χοὺς, {illeg} Iehova Chus or Iu-piter Chus.| The same was done by the Egyptians to their Gods Osiris Ham & Osiris. whom \ffor him/ they called Iupiter Serapis Iup (as is to be seen in old inscriptions) & Iupiter \b[57] Heliopolitanus & Iupiter/ Aratrius & Iupiter Stygius (for Serapis is Pluto) & Iupiter Ægyptius as he is worshipped in ye river. \& perhaps Osiris (being a word formed of Siris by ye Greeks) comes from ιαὼ-Siris./ So also introducing the worship of Ham into their Prytanea they called him Iupiter Hammon. And after the example of these

This worship being once thus set up in Egypt \& in the East/ was soon spread into Greece & other countries by the{ir} colonies {illeg} of the Egyptians \d[58] which were very many –/ & the commerce wch ye nations had wth one another \being first brought {illeg} into Greece by Cecrops an Egyptian & into Italy by f[59] Evander a Grecian./. And whilst it created in ye Egyptians & eastern people an honour yt for their kings as being descended from ye Gods & tended to ye establishment & enlargment of the Regal authority & dominion it was \not only promoted by those Kings but also/ greedy|i|ly received by other|s| kings. Hence the Phœnicians worshipped their father by the name of Iupiter Thalassisius & Diamichius or Iupiter machinator & \so Arcas becam {sic} the Iupiter of/ the Arcadians \worshiped/ {Iupi} made Arcus their Iupiter & \Amphitrus the Iupiter of the/ the {sic} Thebans Amphitrus their & the Pelasgi Lycaon {illeg} theirs calling him Iupiter Lycæus |& Lycaon the Iupiter Licæus of the Pelasgi. Nor was And divers other nations made Iupiter their ancestor so that e[60] Pausanias saith Longum esset & difficile populos enumerare qui Iovem apud se natum affirmant. Nor was there any ancient kingdom| there any ancient Kingdom {sic} who derived not their \its/ Kings from some of the Gods or other. Yea so far did the superstition of ye people prevail, that gave \they honoured/ their living kings \& Princes/ with Divine titles calling them Θεοείδους, Ἰσόθεους, Αντίθεους, θείους & Δίους as you may see in Homer & others. \/ Nor {illeg} did they refuse them the title of Iupiters \himself/. For Isacius tells us: Δίας ὀι παλαιοι πάντας ἐκάλουν τοὺς βασιλεις, Ioves reges omnes vocarunt antiqui The ancients called all kings Iupiters. & a[61] Zezes: τοὺς βασιλεις δὲ ἀνέλαθε Δίας ἐκάλουν πάντες, {illeg} anciently they called all kings Iupiters. {illeg} \① And/ so in ye East the names of Kings & great men were had usually the names of their Gods \c[62] Adad/ Bel, Bal \or/ Pul, Nebo, Asser \or Ezer/, Adoni, |{Melech}| {illeg} annexed to them, \{wch testimon as the gries for}/ as in the names of \Hadad-ezer/ Nebα-chadon-Asser, Nebo-pol-asser \Tislath-pul-assar,/ Assar-haddon, Assar-adoni-pol (or \that is/ |or| Sardana-palus) \Naba Nabon-asser,/ Haddad-assar (or Hadadazer,) Nebu-asser-addon (|or| Nebuzaradon,) \Shar-ezer, Adra-melech, Abi-bal, Itho-bal & so in Carthage/ {illeg} Asdrubal, Hanna-bal. And after death to augment & perpetuate their honour, it grew in fashion to consecrate them (as was usually done to ye Roman Emperors) & from that time they were accounted {illeg} Divi. Thus was ye world soon \{illeg} soon/ filled with {Gods.}

< text from f 9r resumes >

The men had most in honour in all nations were ye first fathers of those nations, that is, \& those were/ ye men who lived in ye four first ages., therefore accounted ye ages of ye Gods ffor the kingdoms of those who lived afterwards were too small to make them \{illeg}/ considerable. & the In ye first These are therefore ye ages of ye Gods ffor ye |The| Gods were all of ym akin to one another {illeg} & there lived at ye same {time} In ye third age. The Go We are therefore to These were therefore ye men whom ye nations Deified. For the Gods lived all at ye same time & were akin to one another \being fathers & sons, brothers & sisters, husbands & wives./. Saturn was the first lived in ye first age Iupiter in ye second & their sons & grandsons in the third & fourth & these were all ye Gods. Now for these Gods we are to look into Egypt. ffor ye {illeg} Herod tells us that Lucian tells Herodotus \a Greek/ & Lucian {illeg} \an Assyrian/ {illeg} tell us[63] that ye Egyptians were ye first who worshipped these Gods \& set up their images/ & propagated their names & worship \& starres/ to ye Chaldæans, Assyrians & Greeks. And {illeg} this {is} most evident by the names of their cities ffor saith Diodorus ex omnibus orbis Provincijs in sola Ægypto multæ sunt urbes ab antiquis Dijs ut Iove, Sole, Herme, Apolline, Pane, Eilithyia, alijsq pluribus conditæ. The Gods were therefore ye founders of their Cities & by consequence ye first inhabitants of Egypt. ffor {the} Cities use to beare ye names of their founders, And |&| <10r> 'tis not likely that the Egyptians would call their cities by the names of forreigners. This is also confirmed by ye war of ye Gods. ffor ye Gods were all together in Egypt when the Giants made war upon them. So then we are to look for ye Gods in the family of Ham. He is the Egyptiā Iupiter & therefore his father Noah is their Satturn & his as was said above & his sons & grandsons are ye rest of the Gods. {illeg}

For the reign of Saturn in ye golden age began wth mankind.

Ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι Θεὸι &c

Vt simul nati sunt Dij, mortalesq homines

Aureum quidem primum genus. Hesiod.

Whence Saturn is called by Orpheus πα{illeg}γγενέτωρ & γενάρχης, & his wife μητὴρ μέντε θεων ἠδὲ θνητων ἀνθρώπων. And as Noah was ye first husbandman & became drunken so in memory thereof Saturn was painted wth a sith & his feaste \the Saturnalia/ celebrated wth drunkenness revelling & feasting \revelling/ & drunkenness.

When ye family of Noah grew too great to live quietly together it's to be conceived that he sent his two younger sons from him & stayed yt ham {sic} went wth his family into Egypt. So a[64] Plato speaking of Thoth saith Erat tunc totius Ægypti rex [65] Thamus in magna superioris regionis urbe quam Græci vocant Thebas Ægyptias: ipsum appellant Deum Hammonem. Hence Whence Ægypts {illeg} in scripture called ye land of Ham was anciently called Chemia as Plutarch writes, & in scripture ye land of Ham.

After Ham had governed his {pe} family during till they became too numerous to live together, tis to be presumed that he sent his three younger sons from him, Misrai seating Misraim above Thebes to spread southward, Phut on ye east \western/ side of Nile to spread into Afric & Canaan o|i|n ye {illeg} lower Egypt to spread into Canaan Phœnicia Ph Syria, & retaining his eldest son Chus in his own seat \on ye east of Nile Arabian side of Nile/ to spread thence into Arabia. For this I seem to gather out of Diodorus Osyris, saith he, rebus Ægypti constitutis & totitus {sic} regni administrationem Isidi uxori in manus tradita consiliarium ei Mercurium adjunxit quod prudentia cæteros antestaret omnes. Imperatorem vero ditioni quam reliquit Herculem genere propinquum cunctisq ob fortitudinem & corporis robur suspiciendum at tractibus qui ad Phœniciam inclinant & locis maritimis Busirin Æthiopiæ [occidentali] et Libyæ Antæum curatores dedit. Tum ipse iter suscepit fratre [vel potius filio] comitatus quem Græci Apollinem vocant.


Chap. 3
The history of the first ages & of the kingdom of Egypt

The Gods of the ancient heathens were their most famous men. The ages may be distinguished into three kinds

[66]The Gods of ye ancient heathens were [their most famous men, & these were either the founders usually] the Ancestors of their kings. ffor w|W|hen the world had been divided into innumerable small polities & these began to grow together again into kingdoms, the new kings to promote \establish & encrease/ their authority \& veneration/ among the people promoted the veneration of their ancestors among ye people {illeg} \calling the stars & elements by their names/ & caused them to be worshiped as Gods, that they might seem desce this worship of their ancestors creating in ye people a veneration |honoured first with \such solemnities &/ pompous ceremonies as {illeg} soon created in the people a supersition {sic} towards them as Gods & a veneration by consequence a veneration| of ye whole race of kings wch as descended from those Deities. Thus ye Kings the For they that consult antiquity will find that ye ancient kings \of Egypt Assyria & other nations/ generally derived their race from one \some or other/ of ye Gods. Nor were they content wth this but affected a degree of divinity to their whole race so yt it became in fashion to {illeg} give ye titles of ἀντίθεοι ἰσόθεοι θεοειδες, \θειο{illeg}ι/ διοι, & ye like to kings \& Princes/ even before death \(as you may see in Homer & others)/ & \frequently/ to consecrate or deify them after death, of wch we have instances in ye Roman Emperors a specimen of as \as was \commonly/ done to ye Roman Emperors./ And by this means the world \soon/ was \soon/ filled with Gods. amongst all wch ye most ancient were had in ye greatest veneration. And |Hinc multas et varias fuisse nationes quæ apud se natum Iovem gloriarentur, testatur Pausanias in {illeg} Messinacis ubi longe {illeg} et difficile fore inquit populos enumerare qui Iovem apud se natum et educatum affirmarunt Verum cum Ioves plures extiterint tum omnes Reges Ioves applellabantur {sic} antiquitus ut ait Isacius his verbis Δίας δε παλαιοὶ πάντας ἐκάλουν τους βασιλεις, Ioves reges omnes vocarunt ‡| |Now| because antiquity adds to veneration, ye Gods in greatest veneration were \must have been/ ye oldest, & those were the Dij duodecem called \also/ Dij \semper/ cœlestes, {illeg} Dij consentes & Dij sempiterni |called Dij majorum gentium, Dij consentes & Dij semper cœlestes|. In ye history of these |12| Gods therefore we may \therefore/ expect to find ye history of the first men of wch the ancient heathens had any knowledge.

[67] And because Egypt was ye oldest first kin oldest of kingdoms, its reasonable to beleive that ye Egyptians were ye first who {venerated} \worshipped/ such Gods, & \by consequence/ that ye 12 Gods were their \{illeg}/ ancestors. ffor \a[68] Diodorus tells us, Deos in Ægypto natos fabulantur eisqueq prin a siderum observatio tribuitur/ |&| Herodotus tells us[69] that Omnia Deo fere deorum nomina ex ex {sic} Ægypto in Græciam pervenerunt. Idq ego ex barbaris sciscitatus ita rem habere comperio ac reor ex Ægypto venisse. And a little before: Dicunt AEgyptios duodecim Deorum cognomina primos in usu habuisse & Græcos ab ijs fuisse mutuatos: illos etiam aras et simulachra & delubra Dijs primos statuisse. And Lucian \very peremptorily/:[70] Scribo Assyrius ipse existens et eorum quæ narro alia quidem ipse coram vidi, alia vero a sacerdotibus e doctus sum. Primi igitur hominum quos nos scimus Ægyptij, dicuntur et deorum notitiam percepisse et templa constituisse lucosq et conventus solennes edidisse. Primi autem et nomina sacra intellexerunt & sermones sacros docuerunt. Deinde vero non multo tempore post ab Ægyptijs Assyrij doctrinam de Dijs acce <12r> perunt et sacra templaq erexerunt in quibus et simulachra posuerunt & statuas dedicarunt antiquitus autem etiam apud Ægyptios absq simulachris et statuis templa erant. Et sunt in Syria quoq templa non multo Ægyptijs ætate posteriora quorum ego plurima ipse vidi. So also Diodorus[71] represents ye religion of ye Chaldeans fetched out of Egypt by Belus, tho I scarce think the worship of their \heathen/ {illeg} \& 12/ Gods so ancient. {illeg} But \however/ that these Gods were ye ancestors of ye Egyptians & founders of is manifest by \& founders of their nation/ is otherwise sufficiently confirmed by Diodorus where he saith[72] Ex omnibus orbis provincijs in sola Ægypto multæ sunt urbes ab antiquis Dijs ut Iove, Sole, Herme, Apollina, Pane, Eilithyia alijsq pluribus conditæ .

[73] These Gods were therefore ye first inhabitants of Egypt after the flood. ffor they were worshipped in Egypt before their like |For tis not to be doubted but that the names of the first men were given to ye most remarkable parts of the world. They were worshipped in Egypt before their| worship began past thence into Mesopotamia & \{Assyria}/ that worship began in Mesopotamia before Abraham departed from Vr of the Chaldees, that is within{illeg} less than 357 years after the flood \& by consequence/ while ye Noah & his sons & grandsons were fresh in memory ffor it is not likely that while they were {illeg} in memory men would omitt them & worship \only/ others who were neither so ancient nor had so large territories nor \founded so many cities nor/ were ye \common/ fathers of so great many peoples nations & tribes. The 12 Gods were all of akin to of a kindred, fath parents & children, brothers & sisters \husbands & wives/ to one another \& many \divers/ had one common mother Cybele/. They lived all a at ye same time, \wch is called ye age of ye Gods,/ being |all| together in Egypt when ye Giants (as Phut & his family were called) made war upon them. theref \{illeg}/ And in their age they lived as the brothers & sisters for wand|t| of further choice became husbands & wif wives. All wch characters agree best to ye ages \times/ next ye flood. The times in wch they lived are by the Poets according to ye ancient Theology of the heathens, distinguished into 4 ages of Gold, silver, brass & iron & the first of these ages they placed in the very beginning.

Ὡς ὁμόθεν γεγάασι θεὸι &c &

Vt simul nati sunt Dij mortalesq homines

Aureum quidem primum genus. Hesiod. ἔργ. {illeg}

And accordingly they tell us that in ye Golden age men lived of the spontaneous fruits of the earth wthout plowing or sowing in the silver one they began to plow & sow & build houses, in yt of brass they begant to hunt beasts & catch birds & fishes & {sic} to saile by the help of the stars & to make war upon one one {sic} another but wthout the use of iron & contend wth one another ffor in this age happened the war between the Gods & ye Giants. In that of iron they began to use \fight wth/ swords & other \iron/ instruments. {illeg} & became prone to violence & rapine & fraud wth/out\ regard to justice. |Saturn reigned in ye {illeg}first age \& his son/ Iupiter in the second & therefore his Grandsons & great-grand-sons in the third & fourth, so yt ye 4 ages are nothing else then {illeg} ye ages of the four generations next after the flood. ffor these were the ages of the Gods.|

[74]The Saturn therefore who reigned in the Golden age & his son Iupiter who reigned in ye silver one is certain can be no <13r> other then Noah & his son Ham. [{illeg} ffor the Egyptian Iupiter called Iupiter Hammon was is agreed to be Ham. And since the first & second {illeg} ages are those in wch Saturn & Iupiter \his son/ reign, the third & fourth must be those in wch his grandsons & great-grandsons reign. ffor so far downward do ye 12 Gods descend & no farther, \Thoth/ Orus & Bubaste the great grandchildren of Noah being the last of them.] |For| Saturn because of his great age is made ye God of time. He is called by the (in {illeg} by in Orpheus by (in Orphicis) παγγενέτωρ & γενάρχης & his wife Rea Μητὴρ μεντε θεων ἠδε θνητων ἀνθρώπων, he was painted wth eyes before & behind \& \was/ reputed ye justest of men & the father of truth./ he was accounted ye author of husbandry \& the God of drunkenness/ & in token thereof carries a sith. {illeg} & had \Drunkenness was attributed to him & in memory thereof/ ye Saturnalia |were instituted.| dedicated to him He was painted by ye Egyptians wth eyes before & behind & reputed the justest of men & ye father of truth. And in all these respects he agrees accurately wth Noah. And as for ye Egyptian Iupiter th And \as for/ the Egyptian Iupiter called \tis certain by his being called/ Iupiter Hammon {showing} he is agreed yt he is Ham. Herodotus in Euterpe Αμμουν Ægyptij Iovem vocant. Plutarchus in Iside: Pleriq sentiunt proprium apud Ægyptios Iovis nomen est Αμουν quod Hammonem dicimus. Hesychius Ἁμμουσ ὁ Ζεὺς Ἀριστοτέλει \Hammus is Iupiter according to Aristotle. Vnde Iulianus Imperator Iovem ab Whence Lucian in the Council of the Gods describes Iupiter wth Ramms horns, wch is ye Character of Hammon./. Vnde {illeg} urbem \Ægyptiam/ quam Prophetæ vocant No-Amon vel Hamon-No[75] id est populum Hamonis, septuaginta vertunt Diospolin id est urbem Iovis vertunt. Nimirum vox ipsa Hamon {illeg} Ægyptiace fervidum significat perinde ut Ζεὺς Græce in ζάω ferveo adeoq a Græcis optime vertitur Ζεὺς \id est fervidus/ a ζάω ferveo. Porro Deum hunc per omnes Chamo concessas terras celebratum fuisse docent tum a[76] varia per Africam et Arabiam a Chamo denominata loca tum Africæ totius nomen antiquum b[77] Ammonia, tum etiam gentium illarum Deus communis Hammon. Lucian lib. 9

Quamvis Æthiopum populis Arabumq beatis

Gentibus atq Indis unus sit Iupiter {illeg} Ammon.

Indi illi sunt populus Asiæ inter mare rubrum et fluviū Nilum e regione Arabiæ fælicis. Formatur autem Hammon ex Ham eadem ratione qua ex Babel Babylon, ex Cana Canaan, ex Chus Chusan vel Susan, ex Zaid Zidon, ex Phut Python, {illeg} ex Seth (nomine Typhonis Ægyptio) Sathan.

[78]Every nation deifying their own kings applied \as we said/ ye name of Iupiter to him whom they had most in honour {illeg} as ye \Chaldæans/ Chaldæans \Arabians/ to ye their common father Chus, the Assyrians to their common father Nimrod, & the Pelasgi to \Thebans to {Amphitras} the father of their Hercules, the/ [posterity of Lycaon to Lycaon f whom they called Iupiter Lycæus & so of others,] & the father of their Iupiter they \every nation/ called Saturn & \one of/ his sons Mars or Hercules \or Mars./ This I gather out of Xenophon who write For thus Xenophon in Æquivocis |informs us:| Saturni ait dicuntur familiarum nobilium regum qui urbes condiderunt serenissimi. Primogeniti eorum Ioves et Iunones. Hercules vero nepotes eorum fortissimi. Patres Satur <14r> norum Cœli, Vxores Rheæ & Cœlorum Vestæ. Quot ergo Saturni tot cœli, Vestæ Rheæ, Iunones, Hercules. Idem quoq quis unis populis est Hercules alteris est Iupiter. et Nam Ninus qui Chaldæis extitit Hercules fuit Assyrijs Iupiter. < insertion from f 13v > Eusebius[79] {illeg} out of tells us that ye Chaldeans first of all men proclaimed themselves kings & out of their records gives according to their tradition gives a list of their seven first kings the first of \all/ wch was \Ἐυήχους/ Evechous a Bishop This King Eusebius takes to be Nebrod ye or Nimrod. \But he was/ ye first king of Assyria. {illeg} The first king of ye Chaldees was Belus {illeg} & Chus \{illeg} Chus/ the father of Nimrod & th or Chus, & therefore he is Evechous. ffrom {illeg} In ye {illeg} festival of Bacchus they used to b[80] exclaim Ἐυὰ & ἐυὰ \Bacchus & {Io} Bacchus/ & from this exclamation joyned wth Chus came {illeg} Ευα-Χους, Evechous, {illeg} Bacchus. Bacchus was called c[81] Deus Euoius & by con Ευὰ Χους & Ἰοbacchus & so from ye exclamation Ευὰ Χους & Ιο Chus|Χους| came Ευακχος \Bacchus/ & Ἴακχος.[82] And because these exclamations were used only {illeg} in the feasts of Chus wch {illeg} were celebrated wth great revellings therefore Bacchus became his name as he is ye God of wine. < text from f 14r resumes > The Chaldæans therefore placing ye Gods one age lower then them Egyptians gave ye names of Saturn Iupiter & Hercules to Ham, Chus & Nimrod[83] & least they should omit Noah they called him Cœlus or Vranus & the Assyrians placing ye Gods still one age lower gave the names of Cœlus, Saturn, Iupiter & Hercules to Ham Chus Nimrod & ye son of Nimrod & least they should omit Noah called him Hypsuranius \& Eliun that is the most High/. ffor they made Hypsuranius to be ye father \assigned to/ Vranus to have a father Hypsuranius & in ye genealogy of their Gods \no nation/ ascended no higher. I here take Ninus & Nimrod to be ye same person because ye a[84] Greeks \& Latines/ make Ninus & ye Scriptures Nimrod ye first Warrior in Assyria \& the founder of Nineve/ |in Assyria & the founder of the first kingdom there |&| of the city Ninus or Nineve. And if Nimrod be נו רודה Nim-rod, that is Ninus dominus, the names agree.| I take ye Chaldæans also to be Arabians of ye posterity of Chavilah because \sometimes called Chaulotæi by the Greeks. ffor/ Strabo places Chaldæa in ye between Babylonia & ye Persian gulph where Moses places Chavi{illeg}|lah|: ffrom \& from/ Chavilah, in ye plural Chaviloth, comes C\h/aulotæi, Chaldæi. |The Chaldæans therefore had in greatest honour not Nimrod ye father of ye Assyrians but their own father Chus & gave to him the name of Iupiter Belius & \by consequence/ to his son Nimrod or Ninus the name of Hercules {illeg} as Xeno Symbol (cross followed by 2 vertical lines linked by 3 horizontal lines) in text| < insertion from f 14v > Symbol (cross followed by 2 vertical lines linked by 3 horizontal lines) in text |pag. præced.| Xenophon teaches. Now as accord this difference between ye theologies of the three nations is notably confirmed by ye light it gives to many difficulties & seeming contrarieties in history. So when we are told that Saturn cut of ye genitals of his father Cœlus & cast ym into ye sea & thereof came Venus, we are to understand it according to ye Assyrian theology & again that Iupiter cut of ye genitals of his father Saturn & cast them into ye sea & thereof came V So when we are told \in {illeg} one author/ that Venus was born of the genitals of Cœlus cut off & cast into ye sea by his son Saturn, in another that she was born of ye genitals of Saturn cut off & cast into the sea by his his son Iupiter, in a third that she was ye daughter of Iupiter & Iuno: we are to understand the first according to ye Egyptian \Assyrian/ Theology, the second according to the Chaldæan & the third according to the Egyptian. And w|W|hen we meet wth are told in an ancient Egyptian monument that Isis was ye daughter of ye younger Saturn \the youngest God/, we are to understand the older Saturn to be Noah & ye younger to be Ham ye Saturn of the Arabians who sometimes reigned in {illeg} the lower Egypt. |When we are told by the d[85] Emperor Iulian that Iupiter was the brother of Siris we are to understand it of ye Chaldean Iupiter.| When And when we are \told/ by Sanchoniatho of two Saturns & \by Eupolemus of/ two Iupiter Beluses \the one the son of the other/ we are to understand it according to the Theology of several nations. e[86] Eupolemus tells us that ye Babylonians used to say that there was first Belus who is commonly |  vulgarly called \named/ Saturn & of him were born Belus & Chanaan, that he begat that Chanaan who was ye father of the Phœnicians & |yt| his son was also Chum [read Chus] the father of the Ethiopians & brother of Mestraim the father of the Egyptians. Here the first Belus being the father of Chanaan Chus & Misraim is certainly Ham \or Iupiter Hammon/, & Eupolemus tells us yt ye Babylonians commonly called him Saturn. & th|H|is son is \here/ called Belus absolutely, wch is as much as to say that the Iupiter Belus of the Chald Babylonians properly so called \& the/ was the son of Ham. As therefore according to ye three sorts of Theology there were three Iupiters, the father, son & grandson, so every Iupiter was called Iup Belus for Belus in the language of ye eastern nations signified Iupiter. The first Iupiter Belus was the Egyptian Ham the second ye Babylonian Chus & the third the Assyrian Ninus. But Belus is most commonly taken in history for the father of Ninus & therefore the great Iupiter Belus of the ancients was Chus.

[87]By what has been said it|s| appears \plain/ that Saturn Iupiter & Hercules were father son & grandson in the line wch decends \directly/ from Noah to Ninus, |& yt| In {sic} ye Assyrian theology they are Chus Ninus & ye son of Ninus: in the Chaldean Ham, Chus & Ninus & in ye Egyptian Noach, Ham & Chus: the latter theology placing them all one age higher then the former. So The{illeg} Egyptian Hercules is therefore \therefore/ Chus the great Iupiter Belus of the ancients.

< text from f 14r resumes >

[88] So then Hercules is in the line of ye Assyrian Kings was one of ye {illeg} ancestors of ye kings of Assyria. In ye Assyriā philosophy he was ye son of \Ninus or/ Nimrod, in ye Chaldæan Nimrod himself, & by consequence in ye Egyptian, wch places ye Gods still one age higher, he must be \Iupiter Belus/ ye father of Nimrod. He is therefore |yt is| Chus ye son of ye Egyptian Iupiter ffor Chus was \ye greatest warrior of his age &/ ye father of ye most warlike nation of all those wch descended from Ham. & ffirst he warred wth a club in Egypt \for the Gods/ against ye Giants, in memory whereof he is still painted wth a club in his hand. then he w afterwards he warred & warred wth iron weapons against ye \{illeg} iron weapons/ \made war upon the Egyptians & Canaanites & conquered them/ in ye regions about Chaldea & expelling ye inhabitants placed his sons round about the Persian gulf, their seats extending as far as Carmania in ye borders of India whence he is called also Hercules Indicus & Mars, & is painted wth a sp|w|ord & spere. Afterwards he assisted his son Nimrod in ye Conquest of Assyria: for in that expedition a[89] Diodorus tells us that Nimrod was assisted by one Ariæus (that is A Ἀριαιος (that is Αρὴς or Mars) a {illeg} \the/ king of ye Arabians \wch, a[90] saith he, at that time abounded with stout men. For that nation is always desirous of liberty nor could ever admits a forreign {illeg} Prince. Therefore neither the Kings of ye Persians nor afterwards of the Macedonians tho most potent could \were able to/ subdue this nation./ [In ye intervals of his wars he rested in Susiana thence called {illeg} Kissia, terra Chus & Chusestan, where \celebrating annual triumphs wth great revelling &/ indulging his pleasures he became ye God of wine called Liber pater because {illeg} free from all subjection, & {illeg} {illeg} \Dionysus Διό{illeg}-νυσος, that is wch is the same name with/ ιαω Χοὺς, {illeg} Ιακχος by ye Greeks as ye Greeks pronounced it or Ιουὰ Χοὺς, Bacchus as ye[91] {illeg} Prygians {sic}, that is Iupiter Chus. < insertion from f 13v > Bacchus was the proper god of the Arabians & therefore their common father. ffor Herodotus tel (lib 3 initio) tells us that ye Arabes Dionysium quem Vrotalt & {sic} Vraniam quam Alilat appellant \[id est Bacchum et Venerem]/ solos Deorum esse arbitrantur: \Idem affirmat Celsus apud Originem l. 5/ Vnde Arrianus \l. 7/ scribit quod Alexander Magnus ubi audisset quod Arabes duos tantum deos colere Vranum scilicet [vel potius Vraniam] et Dionysumeosq Dionysum quidem colere ob famam ducti in Indos exercitus: non indignum censebat se qui pro tertio Deo apud Arabes haberetur, quippe qui rebus gestis Dionyso nequaquam inferior esset. By this conjunction of {illeg} Dionysus wth Venus you may know that he was Mars.

& being very lustful

Bacchus was ye proper God of the Arabians & therefore their common father for [92] Strabo tells us that they worshipped only two Gods Iupiter & Bacchus. wch wn Alexander ye great understood he designed to conquer them that he might be hoped to become the third if he could conquer them. Their two Gods Iupiter & Bacchus that is \Iupiter &/ Iupiter Chus were only two names of one & ye same God. < text from f 14r resumes > This is that Bachus who led his army into India accompanied wth {Silenus} Satyrs. This \His {illeg} Indian expedition is that \of {illeg} of Chus/ mentioned above & ye/ Satyrs are the Arabians which led wild lives in the feilds. & {orchards} \deserts like Goats/ wandring up & down in tents after their flocks \& living by hunting & rapine & being Goats in lust]/ hunting wild beast & {illeg} \also lustfullnes / & ye Indi <15r> an expedition is that mentioned above. ffrom his dominion he had also ye names given him of \Ilus, Baal,/ Belus, Moloch, {illeg} \&/ Melechartes \or Adra-melech/, that is the Lord, the King, the strong king. By reason of ye greatness \height/ of his dominion he is called \Baalsemen/ ye God of heaven & {illeg} to denote him the God of war he is pain called \also/ ye God of heaven \thunder/ & painted wth a thunderbolt in his hand. For \thunder being the type of war/ ye thunderbolts made him by ye Cyclopes \must/ ar|b|e weapons of war. Hence also the Iupiter Belus of the Chaldeans is called {illeg} by a[93] Hestiæus (a very ancient writer) Ζεὺς ενυάλιος Iupiter Martialis. {illeg} And {illeg} b[94] Suidas in voce Θυρας tells us that Baal in Assyriorum lingua Martem bellorum Deu præsidem significat. And c[95] Hyginus: Afri, inquit, et Ægyptij primum fustibus dimicaruntverunt, dein postea Belus Neptuni filius gladio belligeratus est, unde bellum dictum. And d Cicero proves et Herculem Indicum cognominatum fuisse Belum d[96] Cicero probat |The ancients to denote a stout & fierce man called him the son of Neptune & thats ye reason why Belus is here so called.| Et hinc spolia bellica Iovi fferretrio dicata fuere et {illeg} apud Pausaniam et Plutarchum in vita Pyrrhi Ἄρειος Ζεὺς memoratur, et apud d[97] Cyrillum pater Nini vocatur Arbelus id est Mars-Belus. Nam Ari ארי {illeg} Ari Martem significat, ut cum Ar Moabitarum a Græcis vocatur Ἀρειόπολις id est Vrbs Martis. Quinetiam Hercules|m| Indicum cognominatum fuisse Belum Cicero probat lib 3 de Natura Deorum; {illeg} Et Belum e[98] Pausanias hominem Ægyptium vocat.

[99]So then Hercules, & Mars, & Belus, Moloch, Bacchus are one & ye same God are {sic} but several names of one & ye same God Man. Nam Herculem eundem esse cum Marte a Macrobius lib 1, |Hercules et Mars ab omnibus pro filijs Iovis habentur ideoq vel fratres erunt vel idem Deus. Eundem verò esse a[100] Macrobius| sic docet: Salios, inquit, Herculi ubertate doctrinæ altioris adsignat Virgilius, quia is Deus et a{b}pud Pontifices idem qui Mars habetur. Et sane ita Menippea Varronis affirmat quæ inscribitur Ἀλλὸς ὁυτος Η῾ρακλης: in qua cum de Hercule multa loqueretur eundem esse et Martem probavit. Chaldæi quoq stellam Herculis vocant quam reliqui omnes Marti{o}|s| appellant Hæc ille. Sic et b[101] Aristoteles, c[102] Hyginus et d[103] Plinius stellam Martis a multis stellam Herculis vocari tradunt, & e[104] Achilles Tatius quòd stella Martis Ægyptijs sit Herculis stella. In catalogo Deorum duodecim pro Hercule quem f[105] Ægyptij adnumerant, g[106] Græci et Latini Martem habent. In bello Deorum g[107] Athenagoras Martem Iovi contra Titanas auxiliarem perhibet & \r[108] Homerus,/ Apollodorus alijq Martem ab a Gigantibus Oto et Epialte tunc vinctum & a Mercurio liberatum scribunt \fuisse scribunt/ quæ eadem de Hercule. {illeg} alij {illeg} tradunt. Hercules utiq {illeg} Græcis Ηρα-κλης, Ægyptijs Heron, unde Heros, Herus, ארי, Αρὴς {illeg} \Sic et/ h[109] Witichindus scribit quod Germani secundum errorem paternum sacra sua propria veneratione venerantur nimirum Martem effigie columnarum imitantes Herculem. Hercules utiq Græcis Ἡρα-κλης, Ægyptijs Heron, unde Heros, Herus, ארי, Ares Ἀρὴς. That Iupiter Belus is \{sic} also/ this same God of war we have already shewed by his thunder, {illeg} |genealogy thunder conquests, dominion,| |&| epithites of ἐνυάλιος \Arbebus, ferretrius Αρειος, ferretrius/ & other {illeg} & ye testimony of some ancients. Moloch was also ye same God. ffor the k[110] Egyptians gave <16r> name of Moloch to ye Planet Mars, & ye {illeg} Gentiles appeased him as a bloody\-thirsty/ God wth humane sacrifices, & Ædificarunt, & sometimes called him Malach-belus as being the same God wth Belus. {illeg} So also ye Scriptures make them \make Molech & Belus or Baal/ one & ye same blood-thirsty God. Ædificarunt excelse Bal|a|li quæ sunt in valle Hinnoni ad traducendum filios et filias suas Molecho (Ier. 32.35) id est ad comburendum filios suos igne holocausta Bal|a|li Ier 19.5. The Phœnicians called their Hercules Melechartes the that is ye strong Melech & d[111] instituted games to him every fourth year as the g|G|reeks did to theirs. 2 Macchab 4 And |by| his conjunction wth & {illeg} Venus he is known to be Mars: for from Moloch or Melech came Melitta the name of Venus. ‡ < insertion from f 15v > a[112] Μάλικα τὸν Ηρακλέα Αμαθούσιοι Amathusij Herculem vocant Malic: < text from f 16r resumes > Now Bacchus is also ye same God of war triumphing \& feasting/ after his victories, {illeg} that is & the Bacchinalia {sic} or annual feast of Bacchus were nothing |or annual \annual \insulting// revellings \processions & exclamations/ in the annual \his/ feast of Bacchus \ye consecration of {illeg} /with crowns on\/ after the manner of with \great joy/ after the manner of men extravagantly rejoycing were nothing| else then a yearly commemoration of his triumph. For this e[113] Macrobius has \sufficiently/ discovered in few words saying ✝ < insertion from f 15v > & the Bacchanalia, or insulting revellings processions & acclamations wth crowns on their heads & spheres in their hands \covered with ivy/ after ye manner of victors extravagantly rejoycing \& dancing in their processions/, were nothing else then a yearly commemoration of his triumph. For this Macrobius has sufficiently discovered, where he saith || Pleriq Liberum cum Marte conjungunt unum Deum esse monstrantes. Vnde Bacchus ἐνυάλιος cognominatur quod est inter propria Martis nomina. Colitur etiam apud Lacedemonios simulachrum Liberi patris hasta in{illeg}signe non thyrso. Sed et cum thyrsum tenet quid aliud quam latens telum gerit cujus mucro hedera lambente protegitur? Et paulo post Quod ostendit vinculo quodam patientiæ obligandos impetus belli. Et paulo post. Liber pater bellorum potens probatur – – < text from f 16r resumes > Liber pater bellorum potens probatur quod eum primum ediderunt authorem triumphi. |And x[114] Pliny: Emere et vendere instituit Liber Pater: idem Diadema regum insigne et triumphum invenit | < insertion from f 15v > And f[115] Phurnutus that he was a warrior & the first that triumphed \celebrated θρίαμβον a triumph/ over his conquered enemies. He was called f[116] Dithyrambus, perhaps wth respect to his double victory, that in Babylonia & that in Assyria. Bacchus Thryambi etiam nomen gerit quod primum ex omnibus triumphum egesit ab Indiana in patriam expeditione multis cum spolijs reversus Diodor. l. 4. p. 213.

< text from f 16r resumes >

f[117] Cheræas vinum Babylone dicit esse quod Nectar vocant: Et ibi forte Chus \cum filijs suis/ de victis Seme\{illeg}/ et {illeg} ejus posteris triumphavit, cum Nectar sit vinum Deorum. Dictus est etiam Bacchus ζαγρεὺς venator, ac {illeg} talis etiamq \utiq/ fuit Hercules qui \utiq/ terram a bestijs purgavit. Bellatorem fuisse \demonstrat etiam/ expeditio ejus {sic} in Indiam \in Indiam/ cum exercitu {illeg}. Bellatorem fuisse Bacchum demonstrat \etiam/ ejus in Indiam expeditio cum exercitu. Et quemadmodum Hercules terram a bestijs purgavit sic etiam dictus est Bacchus ζαγρεὺς \fuit ζαγρεὺς/ venator. ✝ < insertion from f 15v > ff[118] Iovem \{illeg} Hammonem/ etiam patrem uterq habuit et {illeg} t[119] Ægyptius fuit ego origine \& x[120] Thebanus/ & \v[121] juxta figmentum Græcorū/ in bello deorū uterq contra Gigantes militavit & exercitum victricem in Indiam postea \pariter/ duxit. Sed et columnas uterq posuit ambo \et z[122] conires habuere tam Hercules quam Bacchus Satyros Bacchas Panes ac Dæmonum exercitus/ posuere – – – – –

Congruunt etiam quoad \arma et/ alias qualitates

Sed et ijsdem armis et habitu usi sunt & pariter combusti sunt ut Sidonius Antipates his declaravit carminibus:

Αμφοιν δε στηλαι συντέρμονες, ἔικελα δὲ ὅπλα &c.

Amborumq columnæ; atq arma simillima utiq

Cymbala clamori; pellem et uterq tulit.

Νεβρὸς λειοντη κυμβαλα δὲ πλατάγη

Η῾ρή δὲ ἀμφοτέροις χαλεπὴ θεός ὁι δὲ ἀπὸ γαίης

Ἠλθον εις ἐς αθανα

Sed et \ambo Thebani fuere &/ columnas {illeg} \ambo/ posuit|ere| & armis similibus usi sunt & pellem {illeg}{illeg} \similiter/ amicti sunt, & Iuno utroq \ambobus/ gravis Dea fuit, et uterq pariter combusti sunt & ex igne ad superos ascenderunt immortalit divinitatem consecuti, ut {illeg} \testantur/ Sidonius Antipater. Iovem etiam patrem uterq habuit, Baccho quem {illeg} oriundi sunt, mater {illeg} a plerisq Semele dicitur, juxta Orpheum fuit Isis vel Proserpina – {illeg} tùm Bacchus sit {illeg} Deus Arabicus, necesse est ut sit Chus. et exercitum victricem uterq in Indiam duxit, & \{illeg}/ in bello deorum uterq \uterq/ contra gigantes militavit & exercitum victricem uterq in Indiam duxit. This God the Egyptians sometimes confound wth Osyris. |& alij apud Natal. Com. l. 5. c. 13. Vide et Iulianū Imp. in Orat {illeg} Ægypto p. 410. Ambo etiam {illeg} amore Veneris irretiti sunt. Anonymus de Incredibilibus {illeg} in Baccho pag. 108 edit Cantab.| Ex \tanto/ consensu Deus idem agnoscitur. Ioves Arabes uti dicimus Dionsyium Dionysium Bacchum \Dionysium seu Bacchum/ et Venerem solos Deos coluere, et ex \hunc/ conjunctione Dionysij seu Bacchi cum Venere hunc Martem seu Herculem esse qui cum Veneris conjungetur \socies/ Mars est. Dionysius igitur et Mars id est Bacchus et Hercules idem sunt Deus. Ægyptij tamen Bacchum cum Osyride quandoq confundunt.

Mars is sometimes called Mars Silvanus & thence Silvanus or Silenus is ye same God \with Mars or Bacchus for both were drunkards, &/ Pausanias tells us the oldest Satyrs were called Sileni, & Diodorus that Silenus was the first king of Nysa where Bacchus was born & makes him that they were contemporary. \& others make {illeg} Bacchus/ {illeg} Whence it follows that they were originally the same person though afterwards the two persons /names\ became split into two names persons, & the one made the Tutor & companion of the other. < text from f 16r resumes > Another name of this God was Pan or (as the Latines called him) Faunus. For Pan was a sheepherd & painted like a Satyr & by consequence \he was/ an Arabian. < insertion from f 15v > The p[123] Goat was sacred to Bacchus \& satyrs were his perpetual companions/ & the ancients often \used to/ painted the Gods in the form of such animals as were sacred to them. Dionysus saith p[124] Phurnutus, was {illeg} delighted wth ye sacrifice of Goates διὰ τὸ ἔαυτὸν ἐιναι τὸν τράγον because he himselfe was {illeg} a Goat. < text from f 16r resumes > He was h[125] one of the {illeg} 8 \first Egyptian \Gods {sic}// Gods, | lived i[126] with them in Ægypt in the days of Osyris| & in their war with ye Giants was among them & struck was then so terrible to their enemies that \he is ever since accounted the author of terror &/ Panicus terror ever since became \is still/ a Proverb. |Polyenus informs us Symbol (4-barred obelus) in text| < insertion from f 15v > Symbol (4-barred obelus) in text d[127] Polienus commemorates that Pan first found out military order & constituted the right wing & the left (whence he|is| effigies was formed wth horns, & that he was the first that by wisdome & art cast terror < text from f 16r resumes > |He was k[128] the son of Iupiter & l[129] addicted to hunting, & carried in his hand a siccle wch he used in pruning vines.| All wch characters can agree to none but Chus \the God of wine & war/. He was worshipped in Egypt by none but the Mendesij, a {province} \people/ of the lower Egypt where the Arabian Sheepherds sometimes reigned. Another name of the same God seems to be Silenus ffor or Silvanus. ffor ye x[130] oldest Satyrs were called Sileni \& Silenus was m[131] an old man in ye Council of ye Gods/. He was born n[132] in Nysa & o[133] assisted ye Gods against ye Giants, He is accounted |& according to the Assyrian Theology was| the tutor of Bacchus, but this Bacchus \that is not of Chus/ was not Chus but Nimrod a young man according to ye theology of the Assyrians. & was the tutor of that Bacchus who was a youth, that is, of Nimrod according to ye Assyrian theology. And thus much of Chus.

[134] Osiridem et Isidem Ægyptios fuisse \& primis ætatibus floruisse/ in confesso est cum sepulchra eorum illic religiose asservarentur & rerum ab ipsis gestarum ostenderentur loca, urbesq omnium antiquissimæ ab ipsis et eorum {æqualibus} consanguineus \et eorum posteris conditæ {illeg} essent a[135]/, ut Thebæ \Ægypti metropolis/ ab Osiride, et g[136] Bubaste ab Iside {illeg} et b[137] leges Ægyptiacæ primùm ab Iside {positæ dicere} ponerentur \unde Isis Thesmophora dici solet/. Hi b[138] fruges et arateum invenerunt ideoq in ænea vixerunt ætate. Nam et Herculi Ægyptio coævos et Ægypti totius domines fuisse Diodorus tradit. <17r> Vnde ab Ægyptijs universis tanquam communes gentis totius parentes colebantur. Sic enim a[139] Herodotus: Ægyptij non colunt similiter Deos eosdem præter Isim et Osirim. b[140] Diodorus dicit Saturnum genuisse ut fabulantur quidam Osirem et Isidem ut verò plurimi asserunt Iovem et Iunonem et ex his natos esse Osirim Isidem et Typhona \et {illeg}/. Scilicet Chaldæis quibus Saturnus est (Ham Osiris est Isi filius Saturni, cæteris est filius Iovis adeoq omnium consensu est filius Chami. Rursus \Nam duos/ /Rursus\ b[141] Diodorus \Saturnus agnoscit ubi/ scribit quod in columnis Isidi et Osiridi sacris in Ægypto erectis Saturnus natu minimus \[id est Chaldaicus quem Ægyptij a pastoribus didicerant]/ dicitur pater Isidis et Osiridis et Isis mater Ori. {illeg} Hæc omnia b[142] Diodorus iterum confirmat scribendo quod Osiris sit filius Iovis regis Ægypti quem Ammonen vocant. Similiter et c[143] Sanchoniatho tradendo quod Isiris (trium literarum inventor) sit frater illius Χνα Chna qui primus postea Phœnix vocatus est. Chananæ qui in bellis Ioshuæ ex omni terra Chanaan in Africam migraverant nominabantur Pœni seu \id est/ Phœnices et septuaginta iter pro Canaan substituunt Phœniciam et propterea Phœnice eadem est cum terra Canaan, et Phœnix ille primus seu pater Phœnicum hic dictus Chna est Chana Chanaan. Nam et terra Chanaan per similem vocis decurtationem contractionem olim dicebatur Chna & populus Chnaus. Stephanus Byzantius in libro de urbibus: Χνὰ, οὑτως ἡ Φοινίκη ἐκαλειτο et paulo post το ἐθνικὸν τάύτης Χνάος[144]. Isiris Vt ex Babel Babylon sic ex Chna vel Chana vel Chana Canaan. Isiris igitur frater Cum igitur Isiris vel Osiris frater fuerit \esset/ ipsius Chanaan, |ut| & filius Iovis Ammonis seu Chami et pater Egyptiorum, necesse est ut hic fuerit Misraim. Nam et nomina congruunt. Misraim duale est \in singuli Masor/ a primitivo צור Sor. Vnde {illeg} Apo \Vnde {sic} Masor \vel Maser/ nomen antiquum Ægypti, et Mesore mensis Ægyptius, et Misor nomen {illeg} \Misraimi/ apud apud Sanchoniathoni/ \Inde etiam/ Siris c[145] nomen antiquum Nili Osid|r|idi dicati, et Sirius \d[146] antiquum ipsius Osiridis nomen ut et/ nomen Stellæ |ab| Osiride \ni fallor desumptum, & f[147] Solis qui in Osiride cultus {finis}/ et \per compositionem/ Ser-apis nomen aliud Osiridis. Ex eodem fonte derivantur |etiam| Bu-siris, Cala-siris, Peto-siris, O-siris. {illeg} Ægyptijs utiq O {illeg} Sir vel O Siris plangentibus, Græci pro Siris dixerunt Osiris: \nisi mavis ex ἰαὼ Sitis deducere./ Nam a[148] Plutarchus conqueritur quod nomen Osiris non sit Ægyptium sed a Græcis formatum, at {illeg} nomen Ser-apis pro Ægyptio agnoscit.

[149]a[150] Tauri sacri tum qui Apis tum qui Mnevis vocatur ut Osiridi dicati sint et pro dijs colantur apud universos promiscue Ægyptios sancitum est. Vnde nomina Apis {illeg} \quem p[151] Græci Epaphum vocant/ & Serapis, et Mnevis vel Menes Osiridi tribuuntur. {illeg} Bos Mnevis ab b[152] Æliano Menis vocatur et Rex Menes Diodoro c[153] alicubi M\n/evis est: \adeo/ ut hæc idem sint nomen. Menes autem d[154] ab omnibus rex primus Ægypti constituitur. Hoc Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Erotosthenes & ex Manethone Africanus, hoc Iosephus, Eusebius & Syncellus uno ore prædicant. Menes verò e[155] Syncello est Misraim \et f[156] Diodoro primus Ægyptiorum legislator, {illeg}/ et g[157] Eratostheni et g Manethone pater Athothis. statuitur Athothes vero {illeg} h[158] est Theuth seu Taautus, cujus patrem San\c/honiatho tradit esse Misor filium Amyni id est Misraim filium Chus {illeg} Menes {illeg} \Iovis Amonis/ Menes vero k[159] ab Hippopotamo raptus interijt id est ut ex Manethone notat Africanus id est a Typhone fratre <18r> interemptus fuit. Nam Typhonem a[160] Hippopotami specie formabant ac b[161] tale fuit in Hermopoli Typhonis simulachrum. De Apide c[162] Plutarchus \{illeg}/: Pleriq site Pleriq sacerdotum in idem aiunt recidere Osirim et Apin, enarrantq et docent nos, Apin esse intelligendum formosam \animæ/ Osiridis animam imaginem. Et d[163] Eusebius: Apis in Ægypto primus deus putatur quem quidam serapion vocant. Sic etiam e[164] Plutarchus et f[165] Diodorus \& g[166] Minutius Felix/ eundem esse cum Osiride Serapin \& Plutonem/ scribunt, ut et Plutonem. Plutarchus vero idem {illeg} \{illeg}/ confirmat \idem/ antiquorum testimonijs \sic idem etiam {illeg} confirmat/: Isis inquit \ait/ et Osiris θεων καὶ δαιμόνων Deorum et Manium permixtis honoribus coluntur, ubiq magna maxima autem in rebus supra et infra terram potentia præditi: Neq vero Serapis alius est quam Pluto aut Isis a Proserpina differt: ut et Archimachus Euboensis docuit et Heraclides Ponticus qui oraculum Canopicum Plutonis esse judicat. Sic etiam h[167] Porphyrius: Serapis idem prorsus qui Pluto Deus est eoq maxime Dæmonibus imperat. < insertion from f 17v > Et k[168] Oraculum Apollinis: Ὲἱς Ζεὺς, ἑις Ἀιδης ἑις Ἤλιος ἐστι Σάραπις, Vnus Iupiter, unus Pluto unus Sol est Sarapis {sic}. Et l[169] Iulianus Imperator: Hinc non absurde Plato prudentem Deum dixit esse Plutonem: quem quidem nos alio nomine Serapidem vocamus. < text from f 18r resumes > b[170] Macrobius vero conjungendo cultum Serapidis et Isidis docet Cerberum canem infernalem ad Serapidis pedes pingi solere. Alexandria, inquit, Serapin atq Isin cultu pene attonitæ venerationis observat. Et paulo post Serapidis simulacro signum tricipitis animalis adjungunt, quod exprimit medio eodemq maxim{i}|o| capide leonis effigiem, dextra parte caput canis exoritur mansueta specie blandientis, pars verò læva cervicis rapacis lupi capite finitur: easq formas animalium Drago Draco connectit volumine sua, capite redeunte ad Dei dextram qua compescitur monstrum. Plutonem vero cum Cerbero hic pingi \& ab Ægyptijs Serapidem dici/ Plutarchus |sic| docet. Statuam Plutonis cum Cerbero et Dracone exculptā non alterius esse quam Serapidis Ægyptij Sacerdotes docuerunt, quòd Ægyptij Serapidis nomine Plutonem afficiunt. Sic etiam Tertullianus: [171]Suggestus illius quo capud|t| Serapidis ornatum est, modialis figura frumentationes memoriam obsignat; et curam frugum super caput ejus fuisse, ipsis spicis quibus per ambitum notatur, apparet. Propterea et canem quem apud inferos deputant sub dextera ejus dicaverunt, quod sub manu ejus compressatur. Ægyptiorum et Fariam adjungunt quam filiam regis Farao derivatio nominis esse demonstrat. < insertion from f 17v > Imò Tertullianus ipse Phariom g[172] alibi pro Cerere {sic} habet. < text from f 18r resumes > Hæc ille. Sed Fariam esse Isin a[173] Minutius Felix et b[174]Eusebius expresse docent \ut et c[175] nummi Helenæ \Iuliani/ Imperatoris uxoris, quorum inscriptio est. ISIS FARIA./. Porro sacra \ut et nummi Helenæ Iuliani Imperatoris uxoris, quorum inscriptio est, ISIS FARIA./ Osiridis funebria sunt et ad infernos \inferos/ omnino spectant, dum plangentes populus mortuum quotannis lugent membra sparsa quærunt et humant & Apim bovem anno quoquo tertio in fluvio Nilo demersum suffocant eiq ritus funebres tanquam Osyridi demortuo peragunt, fingentes animam Osiridis in Api resedisse. Hic omnium primus in Ægypto mortuus est ideoq mortuuorum {sic} Deus constituitur. Illud vero, inquit e[176] Plutarchus, quod hodie sacerdotes veluti abominantes et occultantes trepide significant, O <19r> siridem mortuis imperare, neq a Dite seu Plutone alium esse, ignoratum quomodo verum sit plerosq turbat, suspicantes in terra et infra terram sacrosanctum istum Osirim habitare, ubi corpora latent eorum qui jam desijsse putantur. |Hinc bos tam a[177] Plutoni quam Iside sacer.|

[178] Typhon ab omnibus dicitur \ab omnibus dicitur/ frater \erat/ Osiridis \et vir fortissimus agnoscitur/ ideoq is tertius erat Chami filius Phut. \Nam quartus filius Canaan erat {illeg}./ A Phut fit Python et literes more veteribus usitato inversis Typhon. \Nam Python et Typhon promiscue usurpantur a Græcis./ Hic est Python serpens quem Apollo \|id est| {seu} Orus, Osiridis filius/ interfecit scilicet in bello deorum. Vnde dictus est Apollo Pythius, Ægyptiace Phut-Orus, {verbunt} interpretibus septuaginta {illeg} Παθώρης & Παθούρης, contractè Pathros. Is in sacris litteris Misraimi filius agnoscitur. Scribit Hyginus quod Afri et Ægyptij primum fustibus dimicaverunt, dein Belus gladio belligeratus \est/ unde bellum dictum. Ægyptij et Afri in bello primo \{hic}/ sunt Dij et Gigantes, ideoq Gigantum dux Typhon Afrorum fuit pater {illeg} \Nam et {illeg} Misraimo coævus regina Æthiopum, inquit d[179] Plutarchus Typhonem adjuvit./ Antonius Liberalis ex Nicandro docet Typhonem monstrum fuisse capitum multorum et manuum \& sub monte Ætna sepultum jacere. Hunc alij Typhæum vocant. /cum serpentinus voluminibus in corpore\/. e[180] Pindarus f[181] Hyginus et g[182] Apollodorus centicipitem describunt. \Hunc m[183] alij Typhæumo{illeg}n/ Alij {sic} Briareum vocant cui centum erant manus et capita quinquaginta. Nam Briarreum {sic} eundem esse cum Typhone colligas ex hymno Callimachi in h[184] Delum ubi pro Typhone Briareus sub monte Ætna jacere et cum latus mutat flammas excitare dicitur. Ad quem Callimachi locum Scholiastes: Alij quidem latus movente Briareo alij Typhone alij Encelado. Nempe promiscue hic sumuntur Briareus Typho et Enceladus. Multitudine autem capitum Typho hic significat Phut et Afros omnes corpus politicum ipsius Phut ex Afris omnibus compositum. Agatha Porro p[185] Agatharcides apud Photium bellum hocce Deorum cum g|G|igantibus describens, pro Typhone Neptunum habet. Et similiter q[186] Lucianus ubi dicit quod Corinthus plena fabulis pugnam narrat Solis et Neptuni. Nam hæc est pugna Apollinis {illeg} seu Ori Ægyptij cum serpente qui Python et Typhon promiscue dicitur. |Et hunc Otus et Epialtes \gigantes/ qui in hoc bello contra Deos pugnarunt i[187] dicuntur Neptuni filij, a filij Alœi Hos Aloeus {illeg} \{Terræ filius} id est {Isidis}/ ipsius uxore {constupra} genitos pro suis educavit ideoq b[188] Virgilius a Aloidas vocat et a[189] Homerus filios Aloei. Aloeus vero Terræ filius erat id est Isidis. c[190] A Phurnuto dicitur Neptuni filius. Verisimilius est quod sit ipse Neptunus| Hyginus & Apollodorus Typhonem filium vocant tartari (id est maris) ac terræ. Alij scribunt quod {victis} abdidit se in mari, alij quod in Tartarum projectus fuit. < insertion from f 18v > Geniti traduntur ex Hiphimede Aloei conjuge & \constuprata/ & educat ab Aloeo \qui/ Neptuni filia Neptunum utiq genuisse Aloeum et Hiphimedem et ex Hiphimede Aloei uxore Otum et Ephialtum, eosq ab Aloeo educatos fuisse. Vnde pro Aloei filijs ab {illeg} d[191] aliquibus habentur. Suspicor vero quod Neptunus et Aloeus non nisi duo sint nomina ejusdem hominis.

Hos i[192] Neptunus ex nepte vel filia sua Iphimede {illeg} filij sui Alasi unam genuit{illeg}, {illeg} Aloeus Iphimedis matrites & Neptuni filius educavit. Vnde Aloides et Aloei filij quandoq dicuntur: nisi mavis Aloeum eundem esse cum Neptuno. Ob fortitudinem et immanitatem Neptuni mos \olim/ obtinuit ut fortes et feroces omnes dicerentur filij neptuni filij. ffuit autem Neptunus adeo fortis et immanis ut e[193] fortes et feroces omnes dicerentur ejus filij. < text from f 19r resumes > k[194] Plutarchus vero quod Ægyptij Typhonem mare esse dicunt ideoq Sacerdotes mare abominantur & salem Typhonis spumam vocant: Navium rectores ab ijs non compellantur utpote mari utentes, indeq victum suum petentes, eademq potissimum de causa piscem aversantur, & odium pingendo p[195] piscem notant, et extremas terræ partes quæ mare attingunt Typhonis uxorem Nep{illeg}|ht|hin dicunt. Ex quibus omnibus manifestum est quod Typho sit Deus maris Neptunus Neptunum verò esse Deum Lybicum et eo nomine Afrorum patrem Herodotus patefecit. Neptuni nomen, ait, ab initio nulli usurparunt præter Libyas qui semper hunc Deum in honore habent. Eum Ægyptij igitur putant esse sed nullo honore prosequuntur. Ipsis enim Typho maxime invisus est. Hinc uxor Neptuni q[196] Libya statuitur. Ab inventione \vero/ equorum et curruum is Hippius \id est equestris/ nominatur. Et <20r> Herodotus scribit quod Quadrijugos equos jungere a Libybus Græci didicere. Et Maximus Tyrius: [198] Instituta Cyrenaica sunt aurigationes. Et Scholiastes in Pindari Pythia: Cyrenem equestrem appellat non ex præsenti occasione sed quia Neptunus Ly|i|byes docuit equos currui jungere. ✝ < insertion from f 19v > a[199] Ælian vero \insuper/ reges quosdam Atlantios (id est prope montem Atlantem in Africa regnantes) ex Neptuni stirpe fuisse scribit derivat. < text from f 20r resumes > Afer \est/ igitur Neptunus & propterea idem cum Phut. ffuit enim Neptunus frater \Plutonis &/ Iovis illius {illeg} \qui fulminator{illeg} erat et/ cœlorum dominus, et id est Osiridis et Belus Iovis Ch Beli Chaldæorum, et eo nomine filius \{illeg}/ Chami. Sed et nomina Typhon vel Python & Neptun facile permutantur. A {illeg} \Phut vel/ פוצ fit נפוצ, & {illeg} נפצ vel נפט Naphat naphat, dispersus est, et נפטו naphtu, dispersi sunt, scilicet \Afri/ in bello deorum. Vnde Nephtys Typhonis uxor, et Neptunus Latinorum.

[200]Ex lucta Herculis Ægyptij cum Antæo et \conversatione ejus cum/ Atlante constat illos Herculi coævos fuisse, {illeg} et proptera eundem cum \coincidere/ cum ejus fratre Phut. Afri enim erant cum uterq ab \{prope}/ montem Atlantem regneret. Nam Afer erat uterq. Et |Et| Antæus primus \quidem ‡/ < insertion from f 19v > ‡ erat Terræ filius id est Tetææ vel Isidis < text from f 20r resumes > \omnium primus a[201]/ regnabat in Mauritania & ibi a[202] condebat urbem Tingin. Solinus: Tingi excipit Mauritaniæ nunc colonia cujus primus author Antæus est. Atlas vero quoq \b[203] quem et Astræum et Athamantem nominaverunt,/ Mauritaniæ rex fuit & nomen debit tum populis Atlantijs qui ibi sunt, tum monti vicino Atlanti, tum etiam Africæ toti \Æthiopiæ toti/ qua \Hæc omni ubiq/ olim ab eo \tanquam Afrorum omnium patri communi/ Atlantia dicta fuit. Sed et Phut easdem \Mauritaniæ/ regiones incoluit ut ex nomine locis imposito colligo. Nam regio hæcce Hebræis dicebatur Phut teste d[204] Aria Montano; et Hieronymo \Sic et p[205] Hieronymus/: Phut Ly|i|byæ: (inquit Hieronymus) a quo et Mauritaniæ fluvius usq ad præsens Phut dicitur {illeg} omnisq circa eum regio Phutensis multi scriptores tam Græci quàm Latini hujus rei testes sunt. Idem tradunt e[206] Iosephus f[207] Eusebius et g[208] Isidorus \o[209] et Plinius/. Coincidunt igitur \inter se/ Antæus, Atlas et Phut tam tam loco quàm tempore regnandi, adeoq idem sunt. Nam et omnes origene Ægyptij fuere tam h[210] {illeg} Antæus et i[211] Atlas quam Phut. {illeg} Et quemadmodum Typhon in Iovis regnum Ægypti invasit et subinde cum Hercule in bello deorū infeciliter {sic} < insertion from f 19v > a[212] Diodorus juxta theologiam \according to ye theolo/ Syrorum et Atlantiorum dicit quod Vrano nati{illeg} sint filij Saturnus Hyperion, Atlas, quodq Hyperion & \{illeg}/ ex sorore et conjuge Basilea \(quam Diodorus etiam Deani Phrygiarum appellat)/ duos suscepit{illeg} liberos Helium et Selenem seu Apollinem et Dianam, \deinde a/ fratris|b||us| obtruncantur & Helius \ab ab ijdem/ in Eridano {illeg} (seu \id est b[213]/ Nilo fluvio) demersus) suffocantur. dein Basilia, quam {illeg} Deam Phygiam vocat, Qua calamitate patefacta Selene de tecto se dat præcipitem, {illeg} Basilea vero æstro furoris icta arreptis filiæ crepundijs susq deq sparsis crinibus divagabatur et cum tympanorum cymbalorumq strepitu lymphantis more discursitabat, et mox {evanuit} |cum subito imbrium fulme|i|n{illeg}umq procella oreretur postremum in in {sic} terris visa fuit. Subinde vero| cum tympanorum ictu et cymbalorum {illeg}|tin|nitu pro Dea colitur. Ex quibus \omnibus/ liquet Hyperionem et Basileam esse Osiridem et Isidem, et Atlantem esse Osirides \et Saturni Assyriaci/ fratrem, {illeg} et propterea eundē |{illeg}| cum Chus. Nam et Basilea a Diodoro Dea Phrygia vocatur Nam et Basilea a Diodoro Dea Phrygia vocatur, Porro Diodorus author est quod et hæc Dea ab omnibus pro Iside habetur. Porrò k[214] Diodorus author est quod Atlas verò, ut {illeg} commemorat. p[215] Hyginus, erat dux. \cœlum humeris sustinet quod dux erat/. Gigantum in bello deorum, et propterea is idem \est/ cum Typhone \& Neptuno/. Porro k[216] Diodorus author est – – – < text from f 20r resumes > k[217] author est quod pugna Hori cum Typhone (id est scilicet in bello Deorum) commissa fuit ad fluvium [sc Nilum] prope vicum qui Antææ \nunc/ nomen nunc habet ab Antæo quem Hercules Osiridis ætate supplicio affecit: et Hercules apud l[218] Ovidium, ait

– sævoq alimenta parentis

Antæo eripui.

Invasit igitur Antæus in regnum Iovis in Ægypto idq \ætate Osiridis/ et ibi cum Hercule decertavit idq in eodem loco ubi \tunc/ victus est Typhon. Diversos autem hostes fuisse qui cum eodem Hercule in eodem loco eodem tempore eademq de causa pugnaverunt et ibidem victi sunt non est verisimile: præsertim cum Antæus n[219] gigas fuerit {nimanis} æque ac Typho. \p[220] Atlas vero dux fuit Gigantum in bello deorum propterea idem {illeg}/ ex Antæo vero fit Hatal Antæ |{illeg} Quin etiam \Antæus vero et Atlas idem \sunt/ nomen/ Antæus et Atlas idem sunt nomen. Ex Antæo enim| et התל, Atal, falso, compunitur Atal-antases, et contractè Atlas falsus Antæus. Vnde Atlantes, {juxta} casus obliquos et contracte Atlas. {illeg} \Vtrumq vero Neptunum esse sic \insuper/ colligo./ Terram omnem habitabilem veteres pro insula rotunda habebant fretis quibusdam distincta et Oceano orbiculari circundata. {Vbi} <21r> a[221] Strabo: In ora clypei Achillis rotundi Oceanus circumponitur. Et b[222] alibi: Addit Eratosthenes terræ habitatæ eam esse naturam, ut ab oriente in occidentem longitus sit intervallum cum Mathematici dicant eam circulum referre et in seipsum redire. Chaldæus interpres Eccles. 1.7. Oceanus qui circundat orbem ut annulus. Isa. 40.22: Qui sedet super gy{illeg}\ro/ terræ. Prov. 8.27: Cum constitueret gyrum super faciem abyssi. Gyrus hic est חוג og. Inde Ὠγὴν priscum Oceani nomen. \{illeg}/ Hesychius Ὠγὴν, Ὠκεανὸς. Hinc ortæ sunt disputationes de Orbis loco medio quem aliqui Delphis alij Hierosolymis, Ægyptij autem in Ægypto locabant. d[223] Horus: Ægyptiorum regio totius orbis velut umbilicus est ac media{illeg} non secus atq in oculo pupilla. Gentes autem qui Extremas \autem/ orbis partes mari \oceano/ conterminas cum insulis \et/ habitabant {et} una cum insulis oceani Neptuno dicabant ut is esset eorum dominus. Sic Diodorus: Ægyptij Nephthin appellant terræ extrema et promontoria quæ mare attingunt, et Typhonis uxorem dicunt. Similiter Lactantius: Neptuno maritima omnia cum insulis obvexerunt. Quomodo id probari potest? Nimirum veteres historiæ docent. Antiquus author E{illeg} Euhemerus qui fuit ex civitate Messana res gestas Iovis et cæterorum qui Dij putantur collegit historiamq contexuit ex titulis et inscriptionibus sacris, quæ in antiquissimis templis habebantur, &c. Hanc historiam interpretatus est Ennius et secutus cujus hæc verba sunt ibi: Iupiter imperium Neptuno dat maris, ut insulis omnibus & quæ secundum mare loca sunt omnibus regnaret. Igitur cum gentes omnes sub initio Babyloniæ Æg \in/ loca|is| mediterranea|is| habitarent, et solus Phut cum suis ab in ultimas terras ab Hercule post bellum gigantum deportarentur \et subinde Tingin urbem in ora maris a se conditam habitaret:/{sic} factum est ut hic pro Deo maris haberetur, utq mare \Oceanus/ totus{illeg} ab ejus nomine Atlante Atlanticus diceretur. Nam Oceanus non solum occidentalis sed f \etiam australis et orientalis/ universus a veteribus Atlanticus nominabatur.‡[224] Homerus de Calypso Atlantis filia

– θεὰ δὀ ἐν δώμασι νάιει

Ἄτλαντος θυγάτηρ ὁλοόφρονος, ὁστε θαλάσσης

Πάσης βένθεα ὀιδεν.

colit atria Diva

Filia prudentis Atlantis qui alta profundi

Omnia cognovit pelagi.

Deus igitur maris fuit Atlas sed ob improbitatem hujus \nominis/ colitur potius \sub/ alijs nominibus, ut a Græcis nomine Ποσείδονος, a Latinis nomine Neptuni. Et hinc est quod Homerus Æthiopas vocat extremos hominum, et Neptunum illic collocant. \& convivia Deorum in Æthiopia ad oceanum collocat, ut et Neptunū Odyss. c. 282/ {illeg} Æthiopum rediens Neptunus ab oris. qu Hinc etiam \Homerus/ convivia deorum in Æthiopia ad Oceanum collocat et p[225] Atlantij Deos ab ipsis oriundos esse gloriabantur. Nam deos \omnes/ ab Oceano derivabant veteres antiqui.

[226]Vulcanus pro Tubal-cain accipi solet cum tamen ætate deorum reliquum vixerit \et una cum Dijs reliquis Pandoram perfecerit/ et a[227] Iovis ac Iunonis, filius fuerit et Vene <22r> ris quam Mars adamavit, et frater et conjux [Iovi autem cœlorum domino id est Marti fulmine fabricavit, et \et/ Minervam sororem suam Iovisq filium cupivit. Hic igitur ffilius erat Chani et fratro et propterea idem cum Canaan. Oritur utiq Canaan ex {illeg} Nam Cana Ex Chanaan {illeg} fit Chana \ut supra/ et præponendo nomen Dei Baal \oritur/ Baalchana \Balcana, {illeg} latinè/ Vulcanus. Solebant enim veteres ex Baal nomina \orientales/ nomina Regum suorum et magnatum ex Baal componere, ut in his Baatl Bel-estia Balzebub, Belsemin, Baal Peor, Baal Berith, Ithobal, Merbal, Asdrubal &c.] Venus autem {illeg} et Minervam sororem suam Iovisq filiam adamavit concupiv\er/it & regnavit Veneri \sorori nupserit/ quam \Iovis filius/ Mars adamavit, quæq Dea Syria existens secundum Syrorum Philoso theologiam, ex Cœli genitalibus \{illeg}/, secundum Chaldaicam ex \ijs/ Saturni {illeg} secundum Ægyptiam vero ex p[228] Iove \Hamone/ et Iu\n/one nata fuit \p[229] Osiridis & Isidis {illeg} et {furor} existens/. Hic igitur secun Chani fuit filius & propterea idem cum Chanaan. Nam et in Ægypto regnavit sub initio Nilo genitus \natus/ dicitur a a[230] Cicerone \et Diogene La\e/rtio/ et in Ægypto regnavit b[231] ipso rerum initio in Ægypto regnavit: annos octo et mense et ibi et |primus Ægypti non totius sed inferioris rex existens: unde Ægyptus olim Ηφαιστια dicta fuit. Et {illeg} lucus extitit Vulcani in Memphi. Ibi| modestiæ et castimoniæ legem tulit Ægyptijs ut eorum uxores uno viro contentæ essent, & c[232] Dijs domos extruxit et {illeg} homines quoq in antris prius habitantes domorum ædificandarum et incolendarum rationem docuit. De cœlo autem dominij sui a Iove {illeg} cœlorum domino \seu Belo/ in insulam Lemnon dejectus est|se| et ex casu {illeg} illo claudicasse fertur.[233] Nam e[234] \bellicosus erat et/ bellum gerens [cum \Iove/ Belos] in pede percussus est et ita factus est claudus. f[235] Subinde vero e[236] arma bellica \Belos/ Marti et instrumenta rustica ex ferro fabricavit. Nam ante ipsum fustibus & saxis bellum gerebant. Vnde fulmina Iovi fabricasse dicitur is et ipso cum filijs Cyclopibus. Regnavit igitur in {illeg} Ægypto ætate ænea et sub finem ætatis illius debellatus est a Marte a fratre \Iove Belo/ expulsus est {illeg} subinde \vero ex consilio/ Martem {illeg}trans Phœniciam, \dabi Mercuris et Minervæ/ occupavit et arma ferrea fabricavit quibus Mars quo bello et Iupiter Saturnus Chaldaicus id est Chamus {illeg} regnum amisit et Orus Osiridis filius in Nilo demersus est et victi sunt Ægyptij omnes debellatus arma ferrea fabricavit a fratre Iovi Belo expulsus est quo bello et Saturnus Chaldaicus regno privatus est et Orus Osiridis filius interijt et Ægyptij omnes devicti sunt. Tum vero Vulcanus ex concilio Mercurij et Minervæ arma ferrea fabricavit & \quibus/ Belus relicta Ægypto in {illeg} orientem proficisceretur. Et Sic Mercurius \exeunte ætate ferrea a Belo/ recepit regnum Ægypti et Vulcanus Phœniciam libere occupavit, Belus vero orientem devictam inter filios suos distribuit. devicit et ibi cum suis consedit. < insertion from f 21v > Hinc Vulcani uxor Venus, quam Syri \Asteroth Atharam/ Attergatem & Dercetem nominabant, pro Dea Syria habetur, Et ejus a[237] filia Semiramis pro Syra quam Ninus adamavit, b[238] Syra agnoscitur ancilla famuli regij. Dicitur autem Attergatis fuisse c[239] regina Syria atq rem habuisse d[240] cum adolescentulo Syro atq inde peperisse Semiramidem, ubi vero ejus puduit concubitus, in lacum se abjecisse piscorum prope Ascalonem, a piscibus vero servatam. < text from f 22r resumes > Hinc Vulcani uxor {illeg} Venus pro dea Syria habentur, /celebratur\ |et pro antiqua c Syrorum regina \juxta Damascum reginas habetur/ et ejus a[241] fili et quod Semiramis quam Ninus adamavit, b[242] Syra {fuit} |agnoscitur| ancilla famuli regi, a patre etiam d Syro \juxta etiam \urbem/ Ascelon/ patre genita, divisit \{Hinc etiam}/ & Phœnicia| {apparentur} \appellatur/ Veneris terra. Æschylus in Supplicibus

τὰς Ἀφ{ρ}οδίτας πολύπυρον ἀιαν,

Vbi habet Scholiastes, Φοινίκην, ἣν ἱερὰν Αφροδίτης φησι Διὰ βύβλον καὶ Λίβανον, id est, Phœniciam, quam sacram Veneri tribuit ob Byblum et Libanum. \/ < insertion from f 21v > ✝ ffor she was the proper Goddess of the Zidonians g[243] In \from/ the days of Ioshua & by consequence from the beginning of Idolatry in Phœnicia. when the memory \when ye memory/ of the Phœnician ancestors was not yet worn out & in Canaan in ye Kingdom of Og there was a regal city called Astaroth the old name of the Dea Syria. < text from f 22r resumes > Hinc etiam Sanchoniatho Venus e mari orta traditur, et id est locis maritimis orta \esse/ traditur, et juxta Phœnicum theologicam in insula Tyro sancta insula aliquando vixisse \memoretur/ {illeg} Sanchoniatho k[244] ubi maturum stellam {illeg} consecrasse fertur \de ipsius utiq nomen {illeg} Aster dictam ἄστερα/. Propter Nam et propter artem navigandi et pisces captandi Venus in mari pingitur super <23r> concha et piscis ipse consecratur # < insertion from f 24v > # Et a pisce ubi \urbs Zidon a {illeg}sius \Veneris/ primogenito condita et in qua \Venus/ primitus/ primitus {sic} colebatur, urbs Zidon nomen habuit|s|se dicitur. Et quemadmodum a spuma maris Aphrodite dicta est \fuit est/ a Græcis, sic apud \v[245] apud/ Babylonios Salambo dicta est quod in Salo circumvehatur & versetur. Hanc Syri præ Symbol (2 concentric circles with a cross to the right) in text < insertion from higher up f 24v > Symbol (2 concentric circles with a cross to the right) in text Hanc Syri præ cæteris gentibus coluere ut et ab ipsis orti Carthaginensis. Sic enim a[246] Tertullianus: Vnicuiq etiam provinciæ et civitati suus Deus est ut Syriæ Astartes, ut Arabiæ Dusares, ut Noriei Belenus, ut Africæ Cœlestis \ut Mauritaniæ reguli sui/ Astartes & Cœlestis sunt notissima Veneris nomina et Dusares Martis nomina notissima. Sed et b[247] Pisces Veneri sacras colunt \pro/ Syri \pro dijs habent/ et c[248] ab eorum {usu} abstinent d[249] Artemidorus: Pisces \Cicero/ omnes comedunt præter Syrorum partem Astartem venerantium. e[250] Clemens Alexandrinus: p[251] Non minori cultu pisces venerantur quam Elei Iovem. q[252] Pro Dijs habent eosq violare æquæ ac columbas nefas putant. r[253] Pisces vero omnes comedunt præter Syrorum partem Astartem venerantium. Sed et a Syris in forma piscis pingebatur Venus \inferne/ et nominabatur \Atter-dag et corrupte Atter-gater/ id est Venus piscis. Nam Atter \{illeg} Aster/, Asteroth Astarte {credo} erat Veneris nomen proprium apud Syres et inde nomina ἄστερος \astri/ et festi Esther, et urbis Tsyr \צור/ seu Tyri, et regionū Attyriæ, vel Assyriæ, sub qua no \{illeg}/ Syriæ. olim comprehendebatur A pisce {illeg} urbs Sidon nomen habuit. Vulcanus utiq (a quo Venus edocta fuit) hamū atq escam, piscatorum lineam ac tumultuarias rates invenit primusq mortalium omnium navigant. Quamobrem eum quoq post obitum inter Dei coluerunt ipsumq Diamichij nomine appellarunt. {pisce} Ex navigationis arte is et Venus cognoscuntur esse Phœnices cum hæc gens omnium prima navigaret. Hinc Iupiter Thalassius \Inde forte/ t[254] Θαλάσσιος Ζεὺς Iupiter Thalassius \{illeg} \vel/ Belus Marinus/ in Zidone cultus fuit. Per Diamichium intellige Δία Μιχί{illeg}ον, Iovem Machinatorem, vel \Mechanium ut a y[255] Pausania vocatur vel Belus/ Baal{illeg} Machinatorem. Nam Siri pro \{illeg}/ Iove dixerunt Baal, Bal et Bel. Simili compositione ex εστία Vesta |quæ t[256] aliquibus Venus fuit {illeg} b formarunt| b Veneris nomen b Βελεστίακ Et sic ex Chanaan seu Χνα Chana fit Bal-chana, Volk|c|anus, Vulcans Nam Orientalium litera Β per latinorū V pronunci enunciari notissimum est. < text from f 24v resumes > < text from f 23r resumes > Sed et \a Syris/ in forma piscis inferne pingebatur a Syris et nominabatur Atter-dag id est Attar piscis Venus pisces. \Ab Atter \Venus/ Syris \et/ a q[257] pisce Zidon denominata sunt nomina habuere./ Nam Atter, Aster, Asterte, Astaroth sunt nomina Veneris apud Syros Vulcanus utiq a[258] hamum atq lineam et escam, piscatorum, lineam ac tumultuarias rates invenit, primusq mortalium omnium navigavit. Quamobrem eum quoq post obitum instar Dei coluerunt, ipsumq Diamichij nomine appellarunt. Ex navigationis arte \is et Venus/ cognosce\n/tur est|s|e Phœnices {illeg} \cum hæc gens/ omnium prima navigarent. {illeg} Diamichium. \Deus hinc {Phœnicius} Δία Μίχιον/ et Iupiter machinator {illeg} \& Iovem {illeg} Belum vel Baal Machinator {illeg} vertere \licet//. Pro Iove vero Syri et Assyrij Baal dixerunt Baal, Bal et Bel dixerunt. {illeg}q et Canaan, {illeg} \seu Χνα, Chana, Chna/ fit Bal-{illeg}Chana, Volk|c|anus Simili compositione ex εστια Vesta \t[259] quoq ab quibus Venus fuit/ b[260] formarunt Diana Βελεστίαν Veneris nomen Βελεστί{illeg} et \sic/ ex Chanaa seu Χνα Chana, fit Bal-Chana, Volcanus.

Vulcanus et Prometheus per omnem

[261] Græci pro Chamo substituentes patrem suum Iaphet scribunt quod ex Iapeto nati sint Atlas magnanimus & gloria præsignis Menætius atq Prometheus varius versipellis stultusq Epimetheus, {illeg} qui noxa statim ab initio fuit hominibus inventoribus rerum. Primus enim Iovis fictam suscepit mulierem virginem. Injurias verò inferentem Menætium {illeg} Iupiter in Erebum detrusit. |Atlas vero cœlum {latha} sustinet.| Hæc Hesiodus. \d[262] Iapetus κριος id est Atlas aries nominatur: e[263] carnibus et Atlas {illeg} autem arietinijs pingita Hammon. ejus filius/ Menætius |qui| in Erebum detrusit, |est| est Menes seu Pluto, {illeg} {et Osiride seu} Typhone \Neptunus quibus/ cui \utiq/ Iupiter \cœlestis/ dedit regnum {tantum} in ferorum {illeg} Atlantem \ubi/ Neptunum seu Atlantem præfecit mari. Horum igitur fratres Prometheus & Epimethesis sunt reliqui \duo/ Chami filij Chanaan et Chus Vulcanus et Mars. Nam est Hic enim bellis {illeg} ad Pandoræ quærulus illatis noxa fuit hominibus statim ab initio fuit hominibus inventoribus rerum \ut de Epimetheo dicitur/ ille \vero/ artifex esse insignis artifex insignis Prometheo per omnia similis. Prometheus enim ignem invenit \et artes plurimas,/ ut a[264] ferrum argentem aurum & \et æs/ aliaq metalla et medicinam, aliasq artes \et naves/ et rationes siderum et domos effingere et dolare ligna. {illeg} in \et alias artes/ Vulcaus {sic} {illeg}|i|t{illeg}|i|dem invenit usum ignis \Deus ignis est s[265] ignemq \primus/ invenit/ et metalla in metallis operatus est et lignis et domos et naves \fabricavit ut supra/ et vir t[266] eloquens fuit et astutus |subtilis ingenij et v[267] initium philosophiæ fecit quam qui profiteret|n|tur ij sacerdotes et prophetæ erant. y[268] Oceanus Prometheum adamavit, et {illeg} Phœnices omnium primi navigando claruere.| Prometheus pendet fixus de Caucasi rupibus quod ignem reperit et b[269] fæminas, \o Dij boni,/ genus nefandum. Vulcanus {illeg}item Pandoram p[270] fæminarum omnium primam \quæ {noxta} statim ab initio fuit hominibus et {illeg} insignem authorem/ ex luto effinit. & Vterq |et| Epimetheo \et c[271] Herculi/ contemporanens fuit ideoq sim \et propterea/ simul floruere \{illeg} nam et homines simul formabant, & Prometheus Here/ d[272] Vterq Iovis cerebrum \caput/ securi percussit ut Minervæ nascent |exiret. Vterq \simul/ regnabat in inferiori Ægypto nam e[273] Prometheus in quadam Ægypti parte regnabat quam Nilus inundabat et erat Herculi coætaneus. |See the end of this section||. Vterq simul cultus fuit ad eandem aream \et pro eodem Deo binomini {illeg}/ tanquam idem Deus sub duobus nominibus, ut ex Sophoclis scholiaste discimus, Nam \qui/ ad hunc Sophoclis t[274] locum {illeg} ὁ πυρ\ο/φόρος Θεος Τιτὰν Προμηθεύς, Deus ignifer Titan Prometheus: Vulcanum esse, ait, hunc πυροφόρον θεόν: Tum ex Apollodoro et Lysimachida addit, in Academia communem utriq aream spectari. Prometheus et Epimetheus nihil aliud sunt quam Dij Ægy nomina Græca Dijs Ægyptijs \Ægyptijs barbari alios/ imposita. Dij illi erant Titanes ut ex Sophocle hic patet, ideoq ex stirpe Chami. Vulcano vel antiquiores erant ut aliqui volunt vel saltem coætanei. {illeg} Mulieribus primis etiam coetanei erant \fuerant ut/ et fratres|ib|us \|suis| etiam suis/ Atlanti et Mety Menætij seu Meni{illeg}: \{illeg}/ adeoq et propterea ut a reliquis duobus Chami filijs {illeg} Vulcano et Marte diversi esse {illeg} non possunt. Deniq a[275] quo tempore Osiris in Æthiopiam iter suscepit et Busran \fratrem/ in partibus Aegypto ad Phœniciam inclinant et locis {illeg} hoc est /interiori Ægypto reliquit, fluvius Nilus inferiorem illam\ <23v> Ægyptum inundavit regnante ibi Busiride Prometheo dein Hercules fluviū aggeribus coercuit.\Hæc omnia a[276]Diodorus./ Erat igitur Hercules Prometheus et Ægyptius origine et fr Chami filijs coætaneus Osiridi Herculi et Busiridi coætaneus, et eandem terrarum cum Busiride sortem obtinebat, ideoq a Busiride qui Chanaan est diversus esse non potest.


‡ Suidas e[277] enim Oceanum occidentalem et orientalem et reliquia omnia maria innavigabilia a veteribus Atlantica vocari tradit. Vnde Et f[278] Strabo, Indiam desid|n|ere ad mare orientale et ad austrinum, Atlantici partem; et g[279] alibi, ejus australe et orientale latus in mare Atlanticum procurrere: & h[280] alio in loco Atlanticum mare in se coire. In somnio Scipionis dicitur omnem terram quæ a nobis colitur Atlantico mari quem oceanum appellamus circumfundi. Iulius Firmicus et Author libri de mundo qui Aristoteli ascribitur dicunt universam terram in morem insulæ ab Atlantica mari ambiri. Herodotus duo tantum maria novit: dicit enim Atlanticum et Rubrum et totum illud quod g|G|ræci navigant (nempe mediterraneum) unum esse, Caspium alterum. Homerus vero Atlantem Oceani Deum constituit.

Æthiopas a Phut originem duxere notissimum est. Docet autem k[281] Strabo quod veteres per Æthiopas intellexerunt populos qui accolunt per totam oram Oceani a Solis ortu usq ad ejus occasum. et quod omnes quotquod navigarunt finem suæ navigationis loca Æthiopica nominaverunt itaq renunciaverunt. Et hinc Homerus Æthiopas vocat extremos hominum & convivia Deorum in Æthiopia ad occasum celebrat, & inter Æthiopas collocat Neptunum – Odyss. o. 282

– Æthiopum rediens Neptunus ab oris.


Certe Deus marinsis fuit Atlas cùm ejus {illeg} uxor a[282] esset Pleione Oceani et Tethyos filia et in divisione mundi inter tres Saturni filios Iovem Neptunum et Plutonem, in Atlantiorum theologia ubi pro Saturno ponitur Cœlus, pro tribus fratribus \ejus filijs/ ponuntur Saturnus Hyperion et Atlas his verbis: [283]Iam vero Cœli filios Hyperione sublato regnum inter se divis{illeg}|essent| quorum clarissimi Atlas et Saturnus et Saturnus evaserint: atq Atlan|s|ntem quidem vicina Oceano loca tenuit{illeg}.


[284]Sanchoniatho juxta Phe theologiam Assyriorum scribit quod: Eliun nomine quidam nomine Altissimus (id est Hypsuranius) et fæmina Beruth. Cœlum et Terram genuere, et \et/ Cœlus ex Terra liberos quatuor suscepit Ilum qui Saturnus dicitur dictus est, Betylum Dagonem et qui Sito nominatur & Atlantem. – {illeg} Commilitores Ili qui Saturnus \idem/ erat, Eloim appellati sunt. – Dagon quod frumentum et Aratrum invenisset, Aratrius Iupiter nuncupatus est. {illeg} Chus et Cœlus aperte \hicce/ Assyrius et ejus quatuor liberi aperte sunt Cham cum filijs. Ilus dicitur Saturnus \et Saturnus/ Assyrius {illeg} est Chus, et \Eloim sunt/ ejus commilitores seu filij dicuntur Eloim. Atlas est Phut ut supra. Dagon {illeg} fuit Deus a[285] Philistæorum. et Is a Dag pisce דג pisce derivari solent et inferne formam piscis habuisse creditur et inq Deam Dercetem {alioque} tandem migrasse {illeg} at falsò creditur; at falso. Nam Philistæi b[286] ex Misraim prognati sunt \erant/ & communem patrem pro more reliquorum Ægyptiorum proculdubio coluebant. Ideoq Dagon \hic/ a Philone Byblio rectius Sito exponitur id est frumenti præses \(a Dagan {illeg} frumento)/ exponitur; et \et {sic} hic Deus/ a Sanchoniathone Dagon \rectius/ dicitur frumentum et aratrum invenisse & propterea Iupiter aratrius nuncupari quod dicitur Iovis aratrij nomen habuisse \Nam et c[287] Mercurius effigiem Dagonis sub initio formavit inter Deos Ægyptios sub initio formavit./. Dagon igitur Osiris est, et pro fratrem quarto Canaan relinquitur solus Betylus. Desumptum \utiq/ videtur \hoc/ nomen a lapidibus unctis Phœnicum Bætylis seu lapidibus unctis, de quibus Photius \ait/ in Damascio: Iuxta Heliopolim Syriæ Asclepiadem in Libani montem ascendisse et vidisse multa Bætylia vel Bætylos quos vocant, de quibus multa miracula narrant. < insertion from f 23v > The invention of these Betyls Sanchoniatho ascribes to Vranus the father of Betylus that is to Cham, & they were at first onely rude stones, but Vulcan it seems being an Artificer {illeg} shaped \gave/ them {illeg} \a regular/ sphericall figure & thence had ye name of Bætylus. ffor the Betyls in mount Libanus were all shaped spherical & in diameter something more then a palm tho \but/ not all of a bigness. < text from f 24r resumes > Tale|im| \{illeg}/ {illeg}|fuisse| lapidē quem Iacobus unxit et nominavit Bethel id est Bætylum pleriq vel recepta est opinio. Cœli uxorem quæ hic Terra nominatur Syri \et a Phœnicibus edocti Atlantij/ t[288] vocabant Titiam vel Titæam a {טיט} lute voce טיט quæ lutum significat. Vnde ejus filij in The dicti sunt Titanes id est Terræ filij. Titanes vero in Theologia Syrorum Assyrorum Syrorum solummodo nominantur. Diximus Arabems (in quibus \sunt/ Saraceni) Bacchum et Vraniam, solos colere quam Græci Venerem interpretantur, {solismonodo} col{illeg}|uisse|. Eod Eosdem \Deos/ Saraceni coleban c[289] sic invocabant Alla, Alla {illeg} ua Cubar, id est Deus, Deus \Ilus, Ilus/ et Cubar Magna {illeg} \sc/ Dea. Nam Cabar mag Nam cabir hebraice \& Arabice/ magnus|m| \& potentem/ est significat. Vnde Zigabem a[290] Euthymius Zigabemus et b[291] Cedrenus scribunt quod Saraceni Venerem sua lingua Chabar vel Cubar vocant quæ {illeg} magnam significat. Cæterum hæc Venus non erat Dea Syria sed Arabum mater communis ex qua c[292] Sydic id est \id est/ \quem Sanchoniatho fecit fratrem {illeg} ipsius Misor Tenuti patris qui {illeg}/ \seu/ \seu Arabum/ Iupiter, \{illeg}/ {illeg} \id est/ seu {Cab} Caberus se \Arabum pater Chus/ septem filios genuit qui a patre Dioscuri a matre Dij Cabiri nominabantur \describuntur/ /nominabantur.\ \g[293] Tot enim filios Saturnus Assyrius \Daconis &/ et {sic} Atlantis frater ex Rhea uxore genuit/ Horum sex nominantur \ponuntur/ a Mose nempe Sheba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtecha & Nimrod {illeg}. Septimum Sadid a patre occisum Sanchoniatho scribit memorat. \‡ Hæc erat Arabum Theologia. Nam omnia ex mente Arabū: nam/ < insertion from f 23v > a[294] Damascius octavum addit nomine Esmunum qu{illeg}|e|{illeg}\{illeg}m/ Æsculapium exponitur \dicit/ sed ab Æsculapio Ægyptio diversum esse Hæc {illeg} Arabum Theologia {illeg} Hæc omnia ex mente Arabum. nam in Aegyptiorum et |Eorum patrem Syduc Sanchoniatho facit Filij fuit fratrem istius Misor seu Misraim qui {Taaurum} genuit et filius erat Amyni. {illeg} Similiter b[295] Euhemerus| ex monumento \in insula/ maris rubri reperto dicit Iovem illum qui Saturni Neptuni erat frater id est Belum Iovem Belum ex Iunone genuisse Curetas, id est \Iovem Belum genuisse/ Dioscuros. Hæc omnia ex mente Arabum. Nam in Ægyptorum et – – – {illeg} c[296] alij \(nempe Syri)/ docebant Vulcanum ex Cabeira Protei filia Cabiros tres et tres nymphas Cabiridas genuisse, & istis sua sacra fuisse. In Ægyptiorum autem et Samothracum – – – – < text from f 24r resumes > In Ægyptiorum et Samothracum Theologia Sidic et Dioscuri sunt |erat| Iupiter Hammon & ejus {illeg} liberi Dij Cabiri erant \erant/ Osiris, Isis, d[297] Pluto, Ceres, Proserpina, Casmibus, id est Osiris, Isis, et eorum lib Bubaste, Thoth. Generaliùs autem dici potest quod Dij Cabiri sunt Dij magni majorum gentium, id est Dij omnes duodecim \quorum octo primum consecrati sunt dein alij quatuor adiecti/. Ægyptijse Dioscuri \erant/ ignoti Ignoti \tamen/ e[298] erant Ægyptijs Dioscuri.


For to these enemies the \new/ king of Egypt \who rose up after the death of Ioseph & his brethren/ seems to have /had\ respect when he said b|B|ehold the people of Israel are become more & mightier then we. Come on let us deal wisely with them least they multiply & it come to pass that when there falleth out any war they joyn also unto or enemies & fight against us & get them \up/ out of the land. This looks like \I take to be/ a caution least upon any new invasion \upon any new invasion like those wch had been before/ Israel should get them up out of Iudea Egypt wth ye Arabians joyn wth a forreign enemy against ye Egyptians & wth them \such {illeg} \an/ enemy/ return up out of Egypt \towar into ye East whence they were came originally/, especially since ye Hebrews were more nearly related to some of the Arabians \the eastern people/ then to ye Egyptians, both being shepherds & speaking almost ye same language & many \some/ of ye eastern people \(those especially next Egypt)/ being descended from Abraham & Lot. Nor was this caution without reason. ffor ye she shepherds not long after invaded the lower E parts of Egypt & reigned there for a long time together.

Egypt was is a long \& narrow/ tract of land running north & south on both sides ye river Nile between two mountains. It The south end of this region is call inhabited by \called Ethiopia being & the people/ Æthiopians. & accordingly called Ethiopia. The middlemost tract is \called/ the land of Pathros or Thebais called in scripture ye land of Pathros & the lowermost {illeg} or southern northern part is properly was the ancient Egypt. The Theban Ethiopians & Thebans agreed well were much like the Thebans in their Laws & manners & Theology & recconed the Th is the {illeg} an was the ancient Egypt, tho after \the {illeg} kingdoms of/ This & Thebais became united the name of Egypt |{illeg}| was given to both. Thebais was anciently Sr Iohn Marsham has shewn that Thebais was anciently divided into two kingdoms & Egypt into two oth the seated at Thebes on ye, the one on ye east \side/ of Nile seated at Thebes the other on ye west side at This & that ye these grew into united under Thebes wch became subject to \& that both became one under/ Thebes about ye time that Ioseph was born. He has shewed also that Egypt was th at ye same time \first/ divided into two kingdoms, the lower Egypt upon ye seven mouths of Nile & ye upper Egypt between that & Thebais. When {all} these became united they were \whole was/ called Egypt in the Misraim in ye dual number, that is Ægyptus utraq. & And For ye name argues that they were united & by the story of Ioseph (who gathered corn in all ye land of Egypt & supplied therewith \acted in all Egypt)/ {illeg} the union seems to have been made before his days. Artaphanus tells us that But some time after\wards/ the sheepherds invaded|ing| Egypt {illeg} did not only overrun the \{illeg}/ lower Egypt but took also Memphis ye royal seat of the upper Egypt & so reigned over both regions till the King of Thebais about 300 years after ye death of Moses expelled them & became lord of both Thebais & all Egypt.

Artaphanus tells us \seems to say/ /tells us\ that Palmanothes king of Egypt was ye <25v> first that built /a\ Temples in ye lower Egypt & that he built one at Heliopolis the Metropolis of that kingdom. Also that his daughter Merrhis was married to one Chenephres king of a region above Memphis. ffor then, saith he, Egypt had many kings. He adds that this daughter was shee that educated Moses & that Moses found out their arts & philosophy \of the Egyptians/ & divided the kingdom into 36 {illeg} Nomi or Prefecture provinces Counties & assigned to each their rites of worshipping the deity & the sacred letters. Which he did to that end that he might establish render ye Monarchy firm to Chenephres: ffor because before that time the multitude being without order not reduced into distinct order did sometimes eject & sometimes create new kings, & often the same honou but sometimes others. By all wch he got ye love of the people & was honoured by ye Priests wth ye name of {illeg} Hermes or Mercury. Here Artaphanus being a Christian Here Moses lets Though Here Artaphanus being a Christian ascribes that \some things/ to Moses wch does not well agree to him, but yet he lets us understand that the people in Egypt like those in Greece kingdoms of Egypt were at first like that of Athens \those in Grece, many in number & free from tyranny/, the people placing & displacing their kings at pleasure till the government was new modelled by distinguishing & reduced into 36 Nomi. \{sic}/ each wth its own Metropolis But this regulation \seems to seems to have been ancienter then Moses &/ I had rather referr |it| to Ioseph then to Moses |the time of Ioseph, or before.| ffor in the seven years of plenty Ioseph laid up {corn} in every city the corn of ye field wch was round about the city. And therefore their{illeg} cities being ye places in wch ye Egyptians inned their harvests, they must have been about the \{illeg}/ almost as close together as or villages & by consequence as numerous as ye ancient cities of Syria {illeg} \&/ δημοι of Grece. {illeg} And in ye first ages while they placed & {illeg} displaced their kings at pleasure \& were not yet reduced into Nomi/ it is to be conceived that every one of these cites was \at first/ free & absolute in its government like the citties of Attica before the reign of Theseus & that before like ye cities of Attica between the reigns of before ye reign of Theseus & that in ye beginning before they chose a common king they were each of them kingdoms like ye cities of {illeg} Phœnicia in the days of Abraham. But after they had lived for some \a/ time \for/ under such kings as they could place & displace, & even enjoyed liberty & property they under \their/ kings, Ioseph in ye seven years of famin bought all their lands & persons for Pharaoh & removed them \people/ to cities from one end of ye borders of Egypt to ye other end thereof. Gen 47.21 That is he new modelled the government for establishing the dominion of Pharaoh & for that end distributed ye land into gove subordinate governments & removed \many of/ the people from ye lower \inferior/ cities to ye head city of every government.


Cap. II.
De origine religionum.

Religio omnium antiquissima et primis ætatibus a gentibus latissime recepta erat cultus \erat/ Dei in Pyrethræis seu templis & Prytan{illeg}eis. Hic in gentes universus \populos omnes/ ante omnem rerum memoriam manavit. & a primis hominibus \cum humano genere/ propagatus videtur. Vrbs unaquæq Concilium habebat Magistratuum, \ab initio/ Magi {illeg} Concilium habuit locum publicum ubi deum colerent oblatis sacrificijs et locus ille \ibi erat/ habuit ignes perennis quibus \quo/ ad sacrificia fierant Magistratus \tunc/ erant sacerdotes et locum publicum habebant \in Concilij vicinia/ ubi Deus a Concilio \cœlu toto/ coleretur et ibi \in loco illa alebatur/ erat ignis sacer perennis igne quo sacrificia fierent facerent. Quot {illeg} Concilia tot Prytanea; & quoties novum Concilium constituebatur ibi etiam novum Prytaneum adnexa adjunctum fuit. Sic in Attica \concilia erant cum/ Prytaneas erant {illeg} in urbibus singulis ante Cecropis tempora, ut ex Thucydide et Plutarcho ostendimus, et tamen hoc est antequam Moses nasceretur, et Prytaneis adjuncta erant seniorum \urbium/ Concilia, et \postea/ ubi Theseus effecit ut urbes omnes convenerent \Athenis/ in concilio communi, \additum est concilio/ Prytaneum commune Consilio adjunc|xi|tum est in quo {omnes} coeuntes sacrificarent: quo factum est ut urbium singularum {omnes} prytanea \paulatim/ exolescerent. Sic et in alijs Græcorum urbibus regijs prytanea. a[299] Prytaneum habebant Elei intra Altin urbem et Manti b[300] Arcades aliud habebant in Mantinensium urbe ad usq tempora Imperij Romani tempora.

Gods. And < insertion from the right margin of f 26r > Gods \also/, but ye wors worship of statues is of a later date. ffor Lucia ye Romans received not Statues in their Temples till after ye days reign of Numa and a[301] Lucian tells us that anciently the Temples not only amonst {sic} the Assyrians but also amongst ye Egyptians were {illeg} wthout Statues. Yet at length < text from f 26r resumes > \Yet at length/ as ye nations honoured their \{illeg}/ kings wth statues so after death they placed their s they did their Gods, placing their statues in their temples & there honouring them \wth/ incense & sacrifices as the representatives & habitations of their Gods. And whilst they supposed the starrs & And whilst they {illeg}{illeg}ed \feigned/ the stars & elements & statues & such other certain animals & some oth some other things to be ani inhabitated & animated by the souls of their Gods & by them to govern ye world they recconed that {illeg} these mot things by their motions & other accidents were significative of things to come & thence invented ye d \divers/ divinatory arts (|as| of Astrology, {illeg} necromancy, Augury, {illeg} southsaying) by wch means & the crafty artifice of oracles \& such like tricks/ they recconed that ye whole the superstition of the people \towards these Gods/ was extreamly increased & the whole world deceived. And these were the \heathen/ superstitions from wch Moses made a reformation.

Chap. III
The history of the first Ages. {illeg}

[302]Now because antiquity adds very much to veneration, the Gods in greates {sic} veneration must have been the oldest, & those were the twelve Gods called Dij magni majorum gentium, Dij semper cœlestes & Dij consentes. Whence in the history of the 12 Gods we may expect to find the history of the first men of wch the \ancient/ heathens <27r> had any knowledge.

[303]And because Ægypt was the oldest of kingdoms – – – – – – – alijsq pluribus conditæ.

[304]These Gods were the men by whose names the seven Planets the Earth & four elements were called, & the twelve signes of ye Zodiack & twelve months of the year. For Horus Apollo tells us that a star is painted by the Egyptians to signify a God \And g[305] Alcmæon Crotoniata recconed ye starrs to be gods because animated/ depicta Ægyptijs stella Deum significat. And Symbol (cross surmounted by 3 circles arranged in a triangle) in text < insertion from f 26v > Symbol (cross surmounted by 3 circles arranged in a triangle) in text[306] And Philo Byblius \{illeg}/ out of Sanchoniatho: |yt| The most ancient Barbarians & chiefly the Phœnicians & Egyptians, from whom the rest of ye nations afterwards received that custome, had all those \men/ for the greatest Gods who had found out things requisite for humane life & conferred any benefit upon mankind. \/ < insertion from the right margin of f 27r > ✝ Eos nimirum quod sibi plurimorū auctores bonorum esse persuaderent divinis honoribus coluere: ac templorum, quæ jam ante constructa fuerant hoc ad munus officiumq traducto columnas insuper statuasq ligneas ipsorum nomine consecrarunt. – In doing wch it was remarkable < text from f 26v resumes > In doing \doing/ wch {illeg} it was very remarkable that they imposed the names of their Kings upon ye Elements of this universe & on some of those |things| whom they accounted Gods. For among all the Gods they accounted only the Sun Moon & other wandring stars wth ye Elements & other things of that kind to be natural Gods, that they might have some mortal Gods & others immortal. The same thing Eusebius confirms also out of Cheremon \Porphyry/ & others.[307] < text from f 27r resumes > a[308] Eusebius saith In Phœnicum Theologia reperias qui principes apud illos naturalis sese Philosophiæ studio dediderunt, eos pariter atq Ægyptij, solem ac lunam cæterasq stellas errantes, elementa præterea, quæq cum ijs conjuncta sunt, deorum in loco tantum habuisse – Atq hæc Phœnicum etiam libris continentur. This Eusebius confirms also afterwards out of b[309] Cheremon & others concerning the Egyptians. So also ye Author of ye book of wisdom: They deemed either fire or wind or the swift air or the circle of ye stars or ye violent water or the lights of heaven to be the Gods wch govern the world. And ye Scholiast to ye 4th Argonauticon of Apollonius Rhodius: Ægyptijs priscis Dodetemoria signiferi Θεὸι βουλαιοι Dij Consentes, Planetæ vero Ραβδοφόροι, Lictores, qui accensi Solis consistorio adstent, censebantur. teste vetere ad Apollonij Rhodij And Diodorus: Chaldæi Deos p|P|rincipes numerabant duodecim & singulis mensem et de duodecim Zodiaci signis unum attribuebant. Hæc These Gods the Greeks as they were And accordingly some mont the Planets, Elements & some months (as \the latine/ Martius, Aprilis, Majus, Iunius, among ye Latines \the the E/ Thoth, Mesori, Athyr among the Greek the Greek Posideon Artemisius, Dius, \Damatrius,/ the Egyptian Thoth, Mesori, Athyr) still bear ye names of ye Gods. The tw The twelve Gods \were known by their Star/ of ye Latines Ennius comprehends in this distich

Iuno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars,

Mercurius, Iovis Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.

c[310] Plato juxta Græcorum theologiam ponit Iovem Dijs alijs undecim ubiq Vesta comitatum \incedere/ absq Vestam quam inquit in domo Deorum {illeg} solam. Herodotus de {numero} Iupiter Deorum Ægyptiorum excludit. Vnde verisimile est Saturnum Græcis {annumeratum} fuisse in Herodotus de numero Deorum \erat/ Ægyptiorum excludit Vestam et Iunonem. [311] Sc horum loco ponantur Saturnus et Osiris habebuntur in hisce {illeg} Planeta septem Saturnus, Iovis Mars, Ceres seu Isis quæ {Terra} est Venus Mare {illeg} Apollo, Diana et Terra quæ Ceres vel Isis est, et elementa quatuor Vulcanus, Minerva, Neptunus, Osiris. |according to the theology of the Greeks puts Iupiter going accompanied wth the \eleven/ other Gods, without Vesta, who {illeg} saith he, remains alone in the house of the Gods. Whence its probable that \either/ Saturn \or Pluto/ was recconed among the 12 by the Greeks \instead of Vesta The Germans reccon d[312] Pluto instead of Iupiter/. Herodotus excludes {illeg} from the number of the Egyptian Gods both Vesta & Iuno.[313] If in their stead be recconed Saturn & Osiris, we shall have in this catalogue of the twelve Gods, the seven Planets, Saturn, Iupiter, Mars, Venus, {illeg} Venus, Mercury, Apollo, & Diana & the Earth wch is Ceres or Isis, & the four Elements Vulcan, Minerva Neptune & Osiris. For \Osiris is recconed by ye {illeg} among the Egyptian celestial & eternal Gods as the 5th of them & \/ < insertion from higher up the right margin of f 27r > ✝ & had the Egyptian month Mecori dedicated to him \& was guilded (Tertul. de Idololatria p. {illeg})/ & Saturn is one of ye seven Gods to wch ye Egyptians dedicated a day of ye week & one of the 12 to wch Astrologers dedicated \at least/ one of the 12 signes & one \at least/ of ye 12 months. < text from f 27r resumes > by Minerva the Egyptians – – – –/ by Minerva the Egyptians| \/ < insertion from f 26v > ✝ By q[314] Minerva ye Egyptians understood the Air, \& r[315] from its colour \& nature the Greeks/ called her Glaucopis because \& g[316] Ætheronia// & by r[317] Ceres or Isis \they \Egyptians & Greeks/ understood/ the globe of the Earth. She had many names as v[318] Magna mater, Idæa mater, Mater Deorum, Cybele, Rhea, \Opis or Ops, Erinnus Dindymene/ Dea Phrygia Dea Pessinuntia, Diana Ephesia{}, Diana {multimatria} \Diana multimammia, Isis {multimatria}, Isis Clea Pharia {Athyrea} Asherea Basilea, Themis Thea {Methyre} Athyrea {illeg} Isis μυριώνυμος {illeg} nominabatur/ \She/ was r painted wth many paps about her body & a tower upon her & a drum head & an drum in her hand & \little/ animals standing upon her to signify that she is the the earth wch nourishes all things & beares \animals &/ the buildings of cities & is round as a drum. For so the ancients interpreted it \these symbols/ as d[319] Lucretius, e[320] Macrobius f[321] Varro & g[322] Cicero inform us \n[323] Virgil & h[324] Servius & others therefore/ teach: & \she was called b[325] Cthonia tiorestris & y[326] Orpheus & Diodorus &/ k[327] Plato {illeg} \inform us/ yt Δημέτηρ Ceres from /was anciently created\ Τηρ Terra mater # < insertion from higher up f 26v > # And a[328] Tacitus tells us: Pars Suevorum et Isidi sacrificat. In commune Terram matrem colunt, Hertham dictam. And Servius l 8. Æn. \v. 696/ Isis autem Ægyptiorum lingua Terra est, quam Isin volunt esse \Hanc Isin et alios dios ideo Ægyptij colunt quid deos reges habuisse dicuntur Symbol (2 circles separated by 5 spokes) in text/ < insertion from higher up f 26v > Symbol (2 circles separated by 5 spokes) in text & again l. 7 Æn v 136 where Vilgil {sic} saith primamq deorum Tellurem. Servius adds Quia ipsa est mater deorum. < text from lower down f 26v resumes > And Pausanias \in Atticis post medium:/ Tellur|s|em quam magnam Deam appellant. |& b[329] Diodorus that Basilea the mother of Helius & Selena is the Magna Mater. {illeg}| < text from f 26v resumes > Whence \She being therefore the globe of the earth/ it remains that ye Element of ye earth be understood by{sic} Osiris. ffor he is m[330] Pluto. # < insertion from higher up f 26v > # & Pluto is called Θεὸς Χθονιος: \Deus terrestris/ by a[331] Euripides. that is Deus terrestris. & is by b[332] authors taken for the element of the earth out of wch all things arose \grow/ & into wch they resolve & for riches found therein \& for riches found/ So c[333] Cicero. Terrena autem vis omnis atq natura [id est, vis usu globi terrestris sed elementi terra] Diti patri dedicata est, qui Dis, ut apud Græcos Πλούτων, dicitur, quia et recidant omnia in terras & et {sic} oriantur e terris. Pluto therefore signifies the earth not as tis a globe or Planet but wth respect to its \dry parts wch Cicero calls terras & to its/ Elemental operations of generating & corrupting \all things/ as well minerals as animals & vegetables, & therefore he is painted wth a key & subterraneal riches are referred to him, & in the \Chaldean/ Story of dividing the world between Iupiter Neptune & Pluto, by Neptune & Pluto d[334] they \Gentiles/ understood ye Elements of the ear Sea & Earth. Symbol (2 concentric circles, a cross and a dot in a square) in text < text from f 26v resumes > < insertion from higher up f 26v > Symbol (2 concentric circles and a cross) in text\/ < insertion from higher up f 26v > ⊡ And to fill up the quaternary number interpreted Iupiter & Iuno of ye fire & air. So t[335] Empedocles

Τέσσαρα των πάντων ριζώματα πρωτον ἄκουε

Ζεὺς ἀιθὴρ; Η῾ρα τε φερεσβιος; ἠδ᾽ Αιδωνεύς

Νηστίς θ᾽ ἡ δακρύοις τέγγει κρούνωμα βρότοιον.

Wch v[336] Plutarch thus expounds: Iupiter he calls fiery heat & ether Iuno vital air, Orus \Aidoneus/ or Pluto the e earth & Nestis the fountains of seed & water in humane bodies. Isis being therefore the whole globe of ye four elements & Osiris only the element of ye earth it thence came to pass that the magna Deûm mater was worshipped much more gerally {sic} then Pluto, all nations having her in great honour. ffor by her they often understand not only this elementary globe but the whole system of all the Planets calling her soul the soul of the world. And accordingly Orpheus takes Rhea for the Symbol (vertical line through 5 uprights) in text < insertion from f 27v > Symbol (vertical line through 5 uprights) in text for the whole Chaos.

[337] Μητερ μέν τε θεων ἠ δὲ θνητων ἁνθρώπων.

(Εκ σου γαρ καὶ γαια, καὶ οὐρανὸς ἐυρὺς ὕπερθεν,

Καὶ ρόντος, πνοιταί {illeg} τε) φιλόδρομε, ἀερόμορφε.

O mother of the Gods & of mortal men (for out of thee came the earth & \broad/ heaven above & ye sea & winds) \thou/ most swiftly moved & air-like Goddess. And in like manner Apollonius[338] takes the magna mater for ye mother of all the natural Gods as well the \fiery/ stars & Elements as the & winds & earth & seas \the aery winds the watry seas &/ dry earth. She was called therefore ye mother of ye Gods to signify that she is ye Chaos of ye 4 Elements out of wch all the natural Gods \the stars & 4 Elements/ were formed < text from higher up f 26v resumes > < text from lower down f 26v resumes > The significations of Osiris & Isis being thus determined there is no difficulty in the rest of the Gods. There were f[339] at first but 8 Gods constituted by Mercury. These I take to be ye seven Planets & earth. because Pan & Hercules & Latona The four elements being afterwards added made up 12. And the number of the first 8 Herodotus reccons {illeg} Pan Hercules & Latona: wch are \as we shal shew are the planets/ Mars & Venus: & no doubt Iupiter Hammon & Isis & Orus & Bubaste that is \{illeg} Pan/ Iupiter & ye Earth & Sun & Moon were of the same number. Symbol (2 back slashes crossed by a forward slash) in text fol. seq. < insertion from f 27v > Symbol (two back slashes crossed by a forward slash) in text Xenocrates,[340] septem quidem saith Clemens, {illeg} said \Alexandrinus, intimated that/ the seven Gods were Planets & the eighth \he th the world/ wch consisted|th| of all these. {illeg} And b[341] Diodorus recconing up \discoursing of/ the principal Gods of the Egyptians, those wch \he saith/ they account celestial & sempiternal he names first Osiris & Isis & Iupiter in the first place as the greatest of all, & then adds \Iupiter &/ them four elements by the names of Vulcan, Minerva, Oceanus & Ceres telling us that by Minerva they understand the air & by Oceanus ye river Nile, for it seems out of hatred to Typhon they would not worship the sea. ffor ye element of ye Earth he puts Ceres \that is Isis/ instead instead of Osiris wch was an easy mistake seeing ye Eg < text from higher up f 26v resumes > < text from f 26v resumes > Yet because Osiris was drowned in the river Nile the Egyptians understand also by him that river, not water all ye watery \element/ but that river only.[342] < insertion from f 27v > Whence it remains that ye element of Earth be understood by Osiris for he is Pluto. {illeg} Yet because he was drowned in ye river Nile ye Egyptians understand also by him that river. < text from f 26v resumes > < text from f 27r resumes > \Nam/ Ceres vel Isis, quam et Magnam matrem \Phrygia nominabant & Idæam matrem/ et Pessinunticam Deum matrem, et Deam |et| matrem Deorum et Cybelem \et Rheam/ et Deam \Phrygiam &/ Pessinuticam & Dianam Ephesiam {nominabant} \& Dianam multimammiā et Opim/) pingebatur cum mammis multis \in circuitu corporis/ et turri in capite \& tympano {illeg} rotundo/, ut tellus significaretur quæ {illeg} rerum omnium nutrix est et terras ubiq \urbium/ ædificia sustinet {illeg} \& rotunda est./ For so ye ancients understood \interpreted/ it as Macrobius d[343] Lucretius e[344] Macrobius, & others inform us Augustinus de Civit. Dei l. 7 \f[345] Varro & g[346] Cicero/ Cicero {sic} \teach/ |&| Plato interprets |derives| Δὴμέτηρ \Ceres/ {illeg} Γη {illeg} \from/ Γη Μητὴρ Terra mater.


The cities of Egypt were at first as small & numerous as those of other countries. For

In ye seven years of plenty Ioseph laid up in every city the cor{n} of |in| the cities of Egypt, the corn of every |ye| feild wch was round abou{t} every city laid he up in the same. And therefore the cities of Egypt being in those days the places in wch the Egyptians inned their harvest{s} they must have been almost as close together as or villages & by consequence as numerous & small as the ancient cities of Syria & δήμοι of Greece. These cities were at first free & absolute \& independent/ like the first cities of other nations & then untill they \but in time of common danger/ united in common Councils for their commō safety {illeg} like ye cities of Greece & set up captains over their armies wch in time became absolute kings ffor the commo Greeks in their councils & f the \common/ councils of the Greek \cities/ were set up in imitations of those \set up before/ in Ægypt & the remains of such councils continued in \several parts of/ Ægypt till the days of Herodotus. The Oracle, saith he, at Dodona – – – – – – Iews. They seem to have laid the foundation of the Nomi or Provinces into wch Ægypt was divided & by consequence to have equalled them in number. |At least to have equalled the number of ancient & magnificent Temples, & cities.|

The multitude of greate cities in Egypt & the diversity of their religions was is another argument of the multitude of their kingdoms in the beginning, {illeg} it being a general rule that those cities grew greatest wch pre{sided} over ye largest territories. And another argument thereof is ye diversity of {ye} religions of Egypt. ffor in their several Councils they worshipped several Gods ffor Herodotus tells us they worshipped not ye same Gods except Osiris & Isis. In the rest of their Gods they were divided. ✝ < insertion from lower down f 28r > ✝ Every The E Temple had its territory of worshippers & its \proper/ God & \every religion./ proper {illeg} rites & ceremon solemnities Of this diversity Plutarch gives this reason < text from f 28r resumes > One Council The Mendesij worsh{ipped} a Goat & ye God Pan, & sacrificed Rams, the Thebans & Ammonians worshippe{d} Rams & sacrificed Goats |One Nomus worshipped one God, another worshipped another & {illeg} their several Gods had several modes of worship.| Neare Thebes & ye Lake Mœris {illeg} the Crocodile was accounted sacred, in other places not it was persecuted as hostile & prophane. In ye temple of ye|The| Mendesians \in their Temple worshipped/ a Goat & ye God Pan were worshipped, & \& sacrificed/ Rams were sacrificed, & on ye contrary the Thebans & Ammonians \in theirs/ worshipped Rams & sacrificed Goats. Every In Pampreni they |the {sic} people of ye Nomus serving subordinate cities| celebrated ye festival of Mars with a formal fight wth clubs. In Busiris the \people of that at the feast of that/ Nomus after they |had| sacrificed beat themselves & some cut their foreheads with swords. In Sais they celebrated ye feast with illuminations all ye night. In Bubastis they went to ye feast wth piping & singing & clapping of hands & reviling the cities through wch they passed. \In Heliopolis & Buti they only sacrifices {sic}/

Now Of this diversity \of religions/ Plutarch gives us this reason.

From this diversity \{illeg} multiplicity/ of councils & Temples arose a great variety of religions in Egypt. ffor Herodotus tells us that the Egypt{ians} worshipped not ye same Gods except Osiris & Isis. In ye rest of their Gods they were divided. Every Temple was dedicated to its own God & had its territory of worshippers & proper way of worship. – – – – – – – In Heliopolis & Buti they only sacrifices {sic}

Plutarch gives \tells/ us this account of several conjectures about ye occasion of this variety. Some say saith he that Osiris divided his army into certain {tr}oops & companies – – – till the Romans to quiet them fell upon them both. Thus he

All All this confirms that there was such a diversity of religions as we speak of. But the occasion of it was doubtless ye same as in ye neighbouring countries. {illeg} In ye Assyrian Monarchy the several nations had their several Gods. 2 King. 17. But this diversity arose from the diversity of Kingdoms before the Assyrians conquered <29r> ffor every kingdom had its own god & trus{ted} in th{is} God for its defence against ye Gods of ye neighbouring nations \kingdoms/ round about as we shewed above And ye like untill they {illeg} /{illeg}\ as untill \first/ some of them conquered ye rest & these|n| ye Assyrians conquered them at all conquerors. So then Egypt was in the first ages \at first/ divided into as many kingdoms as there remained religions in later ages.

De Motu Fluid

Artaphanus tells us that Palmanothes – – – – – & displacing their kings at pleasure untill ye land became divided into ye Nomi & Temples were first erected in ye head cities, that is untill ye lesser polities b combined into ye greater by common councils & erected Temples of ye Nomi by submitting to erecting common councils & {illeg} & building Temples in ye head cities of the Nomi for their use \wth Temples & Festivals/ as ye Greeks \after their example/ did in Attica in ye reign of Theseus. So yt ye Nomi of Egypt were as ancient as their first Temples He seems to tell us also yt ye Egyptians ascribed this regulation of ye government to Hermes him whom they accounted the author of their arts & sacred rites & letter {sic} & whom their Priests honoured by the name of {illeg} Mercury, that is to Thoth who reigned soon after Osiris & Isis in Egypt soon after ye days of Osiris & Isis. And indeed \this/ Mercury seems to have laid ye foundation of these things by inventing the figures of ye Gods, & teaching ye Egyptians how to mark out ye ways between their cities wth heaps of stones & to {enter} trade wth one another. wch {illeg} faciliated their union Bu{t} |ye| its probable that \yet/ the sacrificing to Mercuries Gods & erecting Temples to them seems to be of a later date

[1] Lesbius lib. de Orig. Italiæ & Tyrrhenorum.

[2] a Serv. Æn lib 1 \v.292/ Ovid Marob. Saturn. l 1. c. 9. Ovid. Fast lib 1. v. 140 & l. 6 v. 308.

[3] a Apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 3. c. 4.

[4] Ænid. l 4. vers. 200.

[5] Sil. lib. 3.

[6] Hest. apud Iosephum Antiq. l. 1. c. 5.

[7] a lib. 1. de Claud. Stilic.

[8] ✝ Isid. l. 14 Origi{n.} c. 3.

[9] Colophonius apud Athenæum l. 12

[10] a lib. 1. c 26.

[11] e Vossius de \Orig./ Idolo. l. 2. c. 57. p. 622.

[12] Strabo. l 15. p 732, 733


And Theodoret. l. 5. Hist. eccl. c. 39. The temples consecrated to fire are by the Persians called Pyræa. ffor they account fire to be God. And Lucian (in Iove Tragado) that yePersians sacrifice to fire.

And Suidas, that Heraclitus ruined the cities & overthrew the Prytanea\yræa/ of the Persians.

[14] Clemens in Protreptice p 43

[15] a Diod. l. 1. p. 84. Edit Hanoviæ 1604.

[16] b in Melpom{illeg}

[17] Rubruq. cap. 3. Plancarp. cap. 3.

[18] a Vide Rog. Ian. reserat. p. 69, 72. & in nuptijs p. 95 & 474

[19] b Vide Vossium Orig. Idol. l. 2. c. 64.

[20] Rubruq. cap. 3 Plancarp. cap. 3

[21] t Vide Rog. Ian. reserat. p. 69, 72. & in nuptijs p 85, 474.

[22] v Vide Vossium Orig. Idol. l. 2. c 64.

[23] b apud Euseb. Prep. Evang. l. 6. c. 10 p 274d & 275a.

[24] {illeg} c ib.

[25] a Diodor. l. 4. p. 336.

[26] b lib. 17

[27] a Oratione de Haruspicum responsis {illeg}

[28] c lib. 2

[29] d in Vespis

[30] b in Melpomene

[31] a See above

[32] b Quintus Curtius l. 3. p.     Alexander ab Alexandro l. 1. c. 37. Ammian. Marcelin lib. 23, p. {illeg}

[33] a Plin. l. 18. c. 2

[34] b Homerus in Hymno

[35] c apud Natalem Comit. l. 8. c. 19

[36] d Fast. l. 3. prope finem.

[37] a See Schedius de Dijs Germanis cap 30. & Natalis Comes

[38] ✝ Vide Droughteium in Analectis sacris ad Gen XIV.20, [a Clerico citatis p. 9.] et Goodwini Arch. Attic. l. 2. c. 9. p. 59, 60. Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 4. c. 16. p. 159. Macrob. Saturn. l. 3. c. 1 Clemens Alexand. Strom. l. 1. p. 349a Dionys Halicarn. l. 1 p 8, 18. Diodor l. 4 p 228.

[39] Dionys. Halyc. l. 2. Antiq

[40] Florus cap. 2

[41] Plutarch in Numa.

[42] b. l. 28. c. 1

[43] b. Nat. Hist. l. 28 c. 1.

[44] Clemens Strom l. 5. p 582

[45] Seneca Ep. 90

[46] a Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 1. c. 6. & c 9. & l. 3. c. 4

[47] b Wisdom c. 13. v. 1, 2

[48] b Iob. 31.26.

[49] d Cicero de Nat. Deor. lib. 3.

[50] a in Medea

[51] b apud Natal. Com. l. 8. c. 19

[52] c supra.

[53] See ye back side

[54] p Pausan. in Corinth.

[55] g Nysæus erat nomen Bacchus ab monte \urbe/ Nysa ubi educatū ferunt. Diodorus l. 1. p. 23.d.

[56] a Apud Macrobium Saturn. l. 1. c. 13

[57] b Macrob. Saturn. l. 1 c. 23

[58] d Diodor. l. 1. p. 26.a

[59] f Ovid. Fast l 5. u 91 et sequ.

[60] e in Messenacis prope finem.

[61] a in varia historia

[62] Adad Assyrijs erat Deus {illeg}. Macrob Saturn. l 1. c 2

[63] Herod l     Lucian in Dea Syria.

[64] a Plato in Phædra

[65] ✝ read Chamus

[66] 1
The history of the first ages couched in that of ye 12 Gods.

[67] 2
The 12 Gods the ancestors of ye Egyptians first worshipped in Egypt.

[68] a lib. 1. p. 9.d.

[69] Herod. l. 2

[70] Lucian. {illeg} in Dea Syria.

[71] Diodor lib. 1

[72] Diodorus l. 1

[73] 4
The 12 Gods Noah & sons lived in the times next after the flood, represented by the 4 ages of gold silver brass & iron.

[74] 5
Saturn & Iupiter who reined in ye golden & silver <13r> ages are Noah & Cham, & that ye wars in the brazen age were between ye sons of Ham.

[75] Nahum 3.8 Ezek. 10.15. Ier 46.35.

[76] a Vide Bochart Geogr. l. 1. c. 1

[77] b Steph

[78] 6
The difference between ye theology of ye Egyptians Chaldeans & Assyrians.

[79] in Chron. Can. p. 14.

[80] b Clement. Alexand admonit ad Gent. p. 9. {illeg} \Dionysius in Cosmographia apud Nattal. Com. l. 5. c. 13./

[81] c Strom l 1 p 348. {illeg}

[82] d. Horat. carm. l. 2. Ode 19.

[83] a

[84] a Supra Ninum a quo Semiramis secundum quosdam creditur procreata nihil præclarum in libris relatum est. Macrob. Somn. Scip. l 2. c. 10. Ninus primus intulit bella finitimis, et rudes adhuc resistendum populos terminos usq Libyæ perdomuit. Principio rerum gentium nationumq imperium penes reges erat, quos {illeg} Ita – Fines imperij tueri magis quam proferre mox erat. Intra suam cuiq patriam regna finiebantur. Primus omnium Ninus – Ninus per Primus omnium Ninus – intulit bella finitimis et rudes adhuc ad resistendum populos terminos, usq Libyæ perdomuit. Iustin. l. 1. Omnes propemodum tam apud Græcos quam apud Latinos studiosi ad scribendum viri qui res gestas regnorum populorumq ob diuturnam memoriam verbis propagaverunt, initium scribendi a Nino fecerunt Beli filio rege Assyriorum fecere: qui cum opinione cæca mundi originem, creaturamq hominum sine initio credi velint, cœpisse tamen ab hoc regna bellaq definiunt. Oros. l. 1. c. 1. Et postea: Omnes historiæ antiquæ a Nino incipiunt omnes Romanæ a Proca exordiuntur. Oros. l 2. 2. Primus Assyriorum rex \Ninus/ Beli filius condidit civitatem Ninum. Eseb. Chron. Vrbem Ninum Ninus in Aturia condidit. {illeg} Strabo lib. 16. initio. Primus inter eos quorum historiæ memoriam propagarunt Ninus Assyriorum rex res magnas peregit. Diodor. l. 2. p. 90 et {illeg} urbem Ninum condidit. ib p 92. – jam inde a Nino Beli progenie si tamen Ninus regnare primus, ut autumat superiorum profanitas. Ferme apud vos ultra stilus non solet. Tertul. de Pallio p. 133.a

[85] d in Cæsaribus p. 11.

[86] e apud Euseb. Prep. Evang. l. 9. c. 17.

[87] 7
That Chus is Hercules.

[88] 6 7
That Chus is Hercules

[89] a lib. 2

[90] a lib. 2

[91] ✝ For so ye Phrygians pronounced it in {Iu}\Ιου-/piter, Iovis.

[92] ✝ lib. 16 p 741

[93] Apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 9

[94] b in voce Θουρας

[95] c Fab. 274

[96] d de Nat. Deor. l. 3.

[97] d l 3 cont. Iul.

[98] e Messeniæ p. 261.

[99] 8
That Hercules Mars, Belus, Moloch, Bacchus, Pan are but several names of one & ye same God Chus.

[100] a lib. 1 Saturn c. 12.

[101] b. lib. de mundo.

[102] c. Poet. Astron.

[103] d. Nat. Hist. l. 2. c 8

[104] e in Isagoge

[105] f Herodot. l. 3

[106] g {illeg}

[107] g Legat. pro Christ

[108] r Iliad. e.

[109] h Chronici Saxonici lib. 1. c 37.

[110] k Kircher Prod. Copt. c. 5. p. 147 & alibi. Bochart Geog. p. 67

[111] d 2 Maccab. 4.18, 19.

[112] a Hesychius.

[113] Macrob Satur e Saturn. lib. 1. c 19

[114] x l. 7. c. 56.

[115] f Phurn de nat. deor. {illeg} in Baccho.

[116] f Phurn de nat. deor. {illeg} in Baccho.

[117] f Apud Athenæum.

[118] Iovem et Semelem \fæminam Græcam/ juxta Poetas, {illeg} \Orphei/ commentū secutos: Ammonem et Amaltheam juxta Thymætem Orphei contemporaneum {illeg} Diodorum Vnde Diodor l. 1 p. 20c et lib. 3. p. 202, 203 & 204.

[119] t. Orpheus in hymnis. Natales Com. Cic. de Nat deor. l. 3.

[120] x. Lucianus in concil. Deor. et Sidonius Antipater: Αμφότεροι Θηβηθε, metuendiq hostibus ambo καὶ αμφότεροι πολεμιστὰι, Ambo Thebani, metu{illeg}endiq hostibus ambo.

[121] v Natalis Comes l. 4 c. 5. Cicero de Nat. Deor. lib {illeg} Diodorus l. 3. p 203.a

[122] z Iulian. Imp. Orat. 7. p 411

[123] p Phurnutus de nat. Deor. {illeg} in Baccho

[124] p Phurnutus de nat. Deor. {illeg} in Baccho

[125] h Herod. l. 2

[126] i Diodor. l. 1. p. 16.a.

[127] d Apud Anonymum de incredibilibus Fab. 11.

[128] k Epimenides Aristippus & alij apud Natalem Comitem l. 5. c. 6.

[129] l \Phurnutus de nat. Deor. in Paus/ Theocritus in Thyrside

[130] x Pausanias in Atticis

[131] m Lucian.

[132] n Catullus in Argonaut.

[133] o Natalis Comes l 5. c 8.

[134] 8 9
That Misraim is Osyris. & Pl both are Pluto

[135] a Diodor l. 1. p. 14.a

[136] g ib. p. 24a

[137] b Diodor. l. 1. p. 13c. d. & p. 22.a. & p 24a

[138] b Diodor. l. 1. p. 13c. d. & p. 22.a. & p 24a

[139] a lib 2.

[140] b lib. 1. p. 13.b

[141] b lib ib.

[142] b ib.

[143] c apud Euseb. Pr. Ev. l. 1. c 10

[144] p. 2 Reg. 19.24. Ioh. 19.6. Mich. 7.12 Suidas in Χὰμ.

[145] c Plin. l. 5. c. 9

[146] d Diodorus l. 1 p. 11.a.

[147] f. Hesych. et Suidas in {Συρ.}

[148] a in Iside

[149] 9 10
Osiris, Apis, \Epephus/ Serapis, Pluto Menes, Menætius \Hyperion/ the same man.

[150] a Diodor lib. 1 pag {illeg}

[151] p Herod. l. 2.

[152] b Ælian. Hist. animal. c 10

[153] c Diodor. l. 1. pag. 84

[154] d Vide Marsham Chron. sec. 1.

[155] e Syncel. p. 91

[156] f Diodor. l. 1

[157] g

[158] h Euseb. Prep Ev l. 1. p. 32

[159] k Syncel. p. 59

[160] a Euseb. Pr. Ev. l. 3. c. 12. p. 116.

[161] b Plutarch. Isid p. 371.

[162] c

[163] d Chron lib. 1

[164] e

[165] f

[166] g p 61

[167] h apud Euseb Præp. Evang. l. 4 {illeg} c. 23.

[168] k \Apud/ Iulianum Imp. Orat. 4. pag. 254 edit. Paris. 1630.$

[169] l. Ib.

[170] b Saturn. l. 1 c. 20.

[171] Tertul. ad Nationes l. 2. p. 71

[172] g Apolog. p. 17.b.

[173] a Min. Fel. p 59

[174] b Eu. Chron. l. 1. qv.

[175] c Apud Menetreium in symbolica Dianæ Ephesiæ statua

[176] e in Iside

[177] a Natal. Com. lib 2. c. 9. a Horat. lib 2 Carm. Ode 14

[178] |1|10
That Phut is Typhon, Python {illeg} Atlas Neptunus \Typhoeus/ Briareus Enceladus, Neptunus, & yt Orus Pathros is Orus.

[179] d in Iside

[180] e in Pythia prima

[181] f cap. 152

[182] g lib. 1.

[183] m Ovid. Metam. l. 1

[184] h vers 141

[185] p apud Photium

[186] q de Satatione

[187] i Apollodor l 1 c. 7.

[188] b Æn. 6.

[189] a Homer. Ιλ. ε

[190] c in Neptuno

[191] d Hyginus. Fab. 28. Homer. Ιλ. ε

[192] i Apollodor l 1 c. 7.

[193] e Agellius l. 15 noct. Att. c. 21. & Tzetzes Chil. 2. Hist. 51. Et Phurnutus de nat. deor. in Neptuno.

[194] k Plut. in Isid

[195] p Vide etiam Herod. l. 2. et Clem. Alexandr. strom. 5.

[196] q Diodor. l 1. p    

[197] r in Mepomene

[198] Ode 4

[199] a De Animal. l. xv.

[200] 112
Quod Phut sit etiam Anteus et Atlas \et Astræus et Athames/

[201] a Plinus l. 5. c. 1 & Plutarch. in Sertorio.

[202] a Plinus l. 5. c. 1 & Plutarch. in Sertorio.

[203] b Phurnutus de nat Deor. in Atlante.

[204] d in apparatu suo biblico.

[205] p {illeg}

[206] e Antiq. l. 1 c. 7

[207] f De locis

[208] g Originum lib. 9. cap. 2.

[209] o lib: 5. c. 1

[210] h Diodorus infra

[211] i Zezes histor. l quintæ Chil. & Natalis comes l. 4 c. 7.

[212] a lib. 3.

[213] b Eratost \Cyren./ in Catasterismis.

[214] k Diodorus

[215] {illeg} p

[216] k Diodorus

[217] k Diodorus

[218] l Metam. l. 9. Fab. 3

[219] n Plutarch. in Sertorio et Strabo lib. 17.

[220] p Hygin fab. 149, {150}

[221] a lib. 1. p. 4

[222] b ib. p. 64.

[223] d lib. 1. Hierogliph. 21.

[224] in 1 Odyss.

[225] p Diodor. l. 3. p. 183

[226] 113
Quod Canaan sit Vulcanus

[227] a Hesiod. Homer. ιλ. ε.

[228] p Diodor. lib 1. pag. 13.a

[229] p Diodor. lib 1. pag. 13.a

[230] a De nat. Deor lib. 3. Diog. Proæmio

[231] b Suidas in Ηφαιστος. Manetho apud Syncellum. Diodor l. 4. p. 13.a. Palæph. {4}

[232] c Huet. p. 71

[233] d Diodor l. 1. p 19.b & p. 23.c

[234] e Suidas in Ἥφαιστος. Euseb. Chron. l. 1 græce. Palæphatus supra.

[235] f Albricus de Deorum imaginibus in Vulcano.

[236] e Suidas in Ἥφαιστος. Euseb. Chron. l. 1 græce. Palæphatus supra.

[237] a Diodorus l.     Hyginus fab. 233. Lucian de Dea Syria. Athenas. in Legat.

[238] b Plutarch in Amatorio prope initium. {illeg} Græcus Arati interpres ubi agit de signo Piscium. Diodorus ni fallor.

[239] c Antipater Tarcensis Stoicus περὶ δεισι δαιμονίας. lib. 4. apud Vossius in Idololat. l. 1. c. 23. Athenæus lib. 8. Iumanus. Iustinus in compendio

[240] d Græcus Arati interpres ub {sic} agit de signo piscium. Diodor alicubi

[241] a Diodorus l.     Hyginus fab. 233. Lucian de Dea Syria. Athenas. in Legat.

[242] b Plutarch in Amatorio prope initium. {illeg} Græcus Arati interpres ubi agit de signo Piscium. Diodorus ni fallor.

[243] g Iud. 2.13 compared wth Iud. 10.6 & 1 King. 11.2.

[244] k Sanchiatho {sic}

[245] v Hesych. et Etymolog. magn.

[246] a in Apolloget. p. 26

[247] b Diodor. l. 2 Cic. l. 3. de N. D. Xenophon Anab. {illeg} l. 1.

[248] c Menander apud Porphyriū lib. 4 Ovid. l. 2. Fast.

[249] d Oneiocr. l. 1.

[250] e in Protreptico. b, c. Diodorus, Menander et alij apud Sch{illeg}|e|diū de Dijs Germ. Syngr. 1 c 9.

[251] p Clem. Alexandr. in Protrepto.

[252] q Xenophon Anab.

[253] r Artemidorus l. 1 Oneiocr. Vide ali etiam Diodorum et alios apud Schedium de Dijs Germ. Syngr. 1. c 9.

[254] t Hesych.

[255] y in Corinthiacis.

[256] t Hesych.

[257] q Iustinus l. 18. c. 3.

[258] a. Sanchoniatho.

[259] t \Gentiles apud/ Augustinum de {illeg} De Civit. Dei l. 4. c. 10.

[260] b Plutarch: in Amatorio prope initium.

[261] {15} 16
Quod Canaan sit etiam Busiris et Prometheus, et Batylus |Prometheus et Epimetheus sint Chanaan et Chus.|

[262] d Phornutus de natur. Deor.

[263] e

[264] a Æschylus.

[265] s Diodorus l. 1. p. 13a

[266] t Sanchoniatho

[267] v Diog. Laert. proæmio.

[268] y Æschylus in Prometheo, p. 22. edit. H. Steph.

[269] b Menander apud Natalem Com. l 4. c. 6

[270] p Pausanias Hesiod. Theogon. v. {illeg}

[271] c Diodor. l. 1

[272] d Apollod l. 1. c. 2.

[273] e Diodor.

[274] t in Oedipo Coloneo

[275] a lib 1. pag. 16.

[276] a lib 1. pag. 16.

[277] e in ἀτλαντικὰ

[278] f

[279] g l. 15. p. 689.

[280] h l. 1. p. 32.d.

[281] k. Geogr, l. 1. p. 3, b & p 32, 33, 34, et 35.

[282] a Ovid. Fast. l. 5.

[283] Atlantij apud Diodor l. 3 . p     et Euseb Præp. l. 2. c. 2. p. 58.

[284] 14|5|
Quod \Ilus/ Dagon et Betylus sint \Chus/ Misraim et Chanaan quodq Eloim sunt filij Chus et Titan uxor Chami ejusq filij Titanes |quodq hi & Phut sint Titanes ex mare Titan et quod Elohim {illeg} Diossum et| Dij Labiri sint filij Chus.

[285] a Iud 16.23.

[286] b Gen. 10.14

[287] c Sanchoniath

[288] t Diodorus l. 3 p 190. 133B.

[289] c. Constantinus Porphyrogennetus de administr. Rom Imp. Cedrenus in & Cedrenus in Chron. & alij

[290] a in Panoplia & Chatechesi Saracenorum

[291] in Chronicis

[292] c Euseb. Præp. Evangel. l. 1. p 36 & 39? Sanchon apud Eus. ib l. 1. c. 10

[293] g Sanchoniatho apud Euseb. ib.

[294] a Apud Photium

[295] b apud Euseb. Præp. Ev. l. 2 c. 2. p. 60.c.

[296] c Pherecides & Acusi{illeg}laus apud Strabonem l. 10. p. 472.D

[297] d Scholiastes Apollonij Rodij.

[298] e Herod. l. 3.

[299] a Pausan. Eliac.

[300] b et Arcad

[301] a in Dea Syria.

[302] 1
The history of the first ages couched in that of the 12 Gods

[303] 2
The 12 Gods were ye ancestors of ye Egyptians.

[304] {illeg} 3
The 12 Gods seated in the seven Planets \{illeg}/ the earth & four Elements

[305] g Apud Clement. Alex. adm. de Gent p 44.a.

[306] Apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. l. 1. c. 9.

[307] Præp. Evang. l. 3. c. 4

[308] a Præp. Evang. l. 1. c. 9.

[309] b Præp. Evang. l. 3 {illeg} c. 4

[310] c In Timæo, & apud Macrob. Satur. l. 1. c. 23.

[311] v Diodor. l 1. p. 11d & p 18.

[312] d Vide Schediū de Dijs Germanis syngr. 4. c. 3.

[313] Herod. l. 2

[314] q Euseb. l. 3. Præp. Evang. cap. 2. Diodorus lib. 1. p. 12.c. Augustinus de Civit. Dei l. 7. c. 16.

[315] r Diodor ib. {illeg}

[316] g Phurnutus de Nat. deor. in Minerva.

[317] r Vide \Sybolicam/ Dianæ Ephesiæ statuam a Menetreio editam.

[318] v Apuleij Metam. l 11. p. 378. Lucret. lib. 2 circa mediū. Natal. Com l 5. c 14. Marsham. secul. 9, {illeg} /Titus\ de Matre Deum.

[319] d lib. 2. circa medium.

[320] e Saturn. l. 1 c 20 \21/

[321] f \Apud Augustinum/ de Civit Dei l. 7. c 24

[322] g in primo de Nat. Deor.

[323] n {illeg} Æn. 10 vers. 253.

[324] h Servius in 3 Æn. vers 113 & 10 Æn vers 253.

[325] b. Pausanias in Corinth. prope finem. Ælian. de Hist. Animal. l. 11. c. 12.

[326] y Orpheus apud Diodorum l. 1 p. 12.a

[327] k {illeg} in Cratylo & apud Ciceroni l 2 de Nat. Deor

[328] a lib. de mor. Germ.

[329] b l. 3. p 190

[330] m. Vide postea sect. 10 capitis hujus.

[331] a in Phœnissis

[332] b Natalis Comes lib. 2. c. 9. D. Augustin de Civit. Dei l. 4 c. 10. ex mente Gentilium.

[333] c lib 2 de Nat. Deor.

[334] d Augustin. {illeg} supra.

[335] t Apud Plutarchū lib. 1 de placit. Philos. c. 3 & Laertium lib. 8

[336] v Plutarch. ib.

[337] Orph. in hymnis.

[338] lib. 1. Vide de his Natal. Com. l. 9. c. 5

[339] f Herod. l. 2

[340] a Admonitio ad Gent. p. 44.a

[341] b lib. 1 p. |1|10 et 12.

[342] k Vide Natal Com. p. 961

[343] d lib. 2. circa medium.

[344] e Saturn. l. 1 c 20 \21/

[345] f \Apud Augustinum/ de Civit Dei l. 7. c 24

[346] g in primo de Nat. Deor.

© 2017 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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