2 Kings 17.15, 16.

They followed vanity & became vain & went after ye heathen that were round about them, concerning whom ye Lord had said that they should not do like them. And they left all ye commandements of ye Lord their God, & made them molten images even two Calves, & made a grove & worshipped all ye host of Heaven & served Baal.

This whole Chapter is spent in describing ye captivity of the ten Tribes by ye Assyrians; the abominations of the Israelites for wch they were captivated; & ye religion of ye nations wch ye Assyrians placed in Samaria in the Seats of ye captivated Israelites; wch religion was that these nations joyned together yr worship of ye true God{s} in ye Calves of Ieroboam, & ye worship of ye fals Gods of Gentiles round about in their respective \several/ Idols, even as ye Israelites had joyned them before. But ye words I have chosen to discourse on are a part of ye description of ye abomination of ye Israelites wch these nations imitated. {illeg} complaining how they followed vainly & became vain by forsaking ye commandements of ye Lord to make molten images even two Calves, & worshipping all ye host of Heaven & serving Baal. & going after ye heathen that were round about them. Now this comprehending bothe ye worship of Ieroboams Calves dedicated (as I shall shew) to ye trew God, & also ye worship of other Idols dedicated to ye Gods of ye Nations round about: we have here an opportunity to consider Idolatry in its full latitude & to discourse of its nature in general : ffor wch end I shall in the first place propound ye six following particulars.

ffirst that ye Israelites acknowledged & worshipped the true God at ye same time that they worshipped the Gods of ye Gentiles. Secondly that they & the nations wch succeeded them in \the cities/ Samaria {sic} worshipped ye true God <2r> in the calves of Ieroboam. Thirdly that this worship was Idolatry notwithstanding that it was performed to ye true God: & by parity of reason, that ye worship of ye true God by any Image wch he has not commanded is Idolatry (as indeed he has commanded none) is Idolatry. ffourthly that generally ye Israelites & Gentiles worshipped not mere Images as Gods themselves but only as dedicated to their severall gods. ffiftly that those Idolaters who acknowledged ye true God, did not esteem any of their other Gods equal to him but accounted them only finite beings, & for ye most part ye soules of men departed this life \deceased/ who for the eminent passa passage of their life here, \they supposed/ were after death rewarded wth power \more or less/ over this world, to do good or hurt therein subordinatly {illeg} not only to ye supreme God{s} but \even/ to some others of their imagined Gods. Lastly that ye Glory of ye true God wch they \Idolaters/ gave unto their Idola|s|, was not any of his attributes as some \are ready to/ suppose, but only this: To love, fear, trust in, & seek unto those Gods for ye temporal blessings of this life, for wch ye true God has appointed us to love fear trust in & seek unto none but himself immediately. To celebrate God for his eternity infinity omnic immensity omnisciency & omnipotency is indeed a very \pious/ lofty & seraphick worship {but} \& the duty of every creature to do it according to his capacity, but yet this part of Gods glory, as it – – – – / these as they almost transcends ye comprehension of man so they |it| springs not from ye necessity of freedom of Gods \Gods/ will but from ye necessity of his nature. And as ye wisest of men delight not so much to be commended for their height of birth strength of body, bewty, strong memory, large fantasy, or other such gifts of nature as for their wise good & great actions the issues of their will so ye wisest of beings requires of us to be celebrated \not so much for his essence as/ chiefly to be celebrated for ye issues of his will which are \his actions,/ the creating preserving & governing all things \according to his good will & pleasure{sic}/. The wisdome power goodness & justice wch he always exerts in his actions are his glory wch he stands so much upon, & is so jea <3r> lous of. These are that glory {illeg} wch the Prophets & Apostles from one end of ye scriptures unto ye other \& especially the Psalmist/ so much celebrate, ye only glory by wch God manifests himself to his creatures, ye reason & wch his Creatures are able to behold in him, the reason why his creatures worship him, & ye life & soule of all ye worship we can give him: & therefore no wonder he is so extreamly jealous of his honour in this point even to ye least tittle. As for his attributes he knows those can scarce be given to any other, because so soon as men do assribe {sic} any thing of his attributes to any thing they worship, they doe thereby mean ye supreme God; though perhaps in other respects they may have a deformed notion of him, \as indeed the best notions any of us have of him are imperfect enough/: but for his works, many of those may & have been & still are too frequently ascribed to his creatures, the deified Heroes wth their Idols among ye Gentiles, & ye saints wth their reliques & images among too many Christians. And therefore they that think ye Idolatr{ies}|y| of ye Heathens to consist in giving any other part of God's honour & glory yn that of his works to their Idols are mistaken, & they that begin to give any of this his glory to angels or saints, or to their images or ye reliques of martyrs or ye like, begin to give God's glory to another \to whom it belongs not/ after ye same manner yt the Idolatrous Israelites & \those/ Gentiles did who wped ye true God & falsGods together.

\These are the six heads I intend to discourse of, &/ When I have run through these|m| six heads I intend for a conclusion to lay down out of scripture ye notion of a fals God, of an Idol, & of Idolatry: To do wch is my chief designe because men are so much wanting in this notion that they scarce know what to apply Idolatry to besides those particular cases of ye {illeg} Heathens to wch ye Prophets themselves applyed it. But before I do this I have thoug{ht} it not amiss to premise ye six preceding particulars: wch I do, not as if I intended them for necessary foundations of <4r> what I chiefly aim at but only as convenient to prepare ye way.

The first was that ye Israelites worshipped ye true God together wth ye Gods of ye g|G|entiles. Now this is very plain by the history of this chapter: for first so soon as ye Israelites were carried away captive, & ye other nations placed in their stead in ye cities of Samaria, it's said that at the beginning of their dwelling there they feared not ye Lord & therefore ye Lord sent Lyons among them wch slew some of them. Wherefore they spake to ye King of Assyria saying The nations wch thou hast removed & placed in the cities of Samaria, know not ye manner of ye God of ye Land: therefore he hath sent Lyons among them & behold they slay them because they know not ye manner of ye God of ye Land. Then ye king of Assyria commanded saying carry thither one of ye Priests whome ye brought from thence, & let them go & dwell there & let him teach them ye way \manner/ of ye God of ye Land. Then one of ye Priests whome they had carried away from Samaria came & dwelt in Bethel & tought {sic} them how they should feare ye Lord. Howbeit every nation made Gods of their own – – – – So they feared ye Lord & served their own Gods after ye manner of ye nations whome they carried away from thence. [Now the Lord which these nations were |here| taught to fear was most plainly ye true God: first because ye name by wch he is called in ye hebrew is Iehovah a name given to none but ye true God: ffor in vers 28 it is said that one of ye Priests whome they carried away from Bethel Samaria came & dwelt in Samaria & taught them how they should fear Iehovah, & in vers 32 So they feared Iehovah & made unto themselves of ye lowest of them priests, & in vers 33 they feared Iehovah & served their own Gods & lastly in vers 41 So these nations feared Iehovah & served their graven <5r> [Editorial Note 1] principal places of Idolatry, & yet when they came up to these to perform their Idolatrous worship, they used to swear The word liveth, that is ye true God of Israel liveth for ye Hebrew word wch we here translate Lord is Iehova, a word wch never signifies any other then the true God, & wch it seems was hitherto commonly used not only by the Prophets (as we find it in their writings) but |{now}| by ye people, though after ye Captivity \if the Rabbies say true/ it became so superstitiously reverenced, that it was made death for any to name it but ye high Priest, & he too did it only in the Temple once a year in a solemn benediction of ye people: wch supertition {sic} seems to me to have \might/ risen from the Prophets reprehending here their using it after a wicked manner {illeg} interdicting \here/ ye use of this name as it might seem absolutely, though I suppose he meant only that evil use of it wch Israel \then/ practised.    Seing But however, seing Israel used to swear by ye true God Iehovah when they came up to do their abominations at ye said cities Gilgal & Bethaven its plain that they acknowledged & respected the true God in the midst of their abominations in ye time of ye Prophet Hosea, that is \wch was/ a little before they were captivated by ye Assyrians, for Hosea wrote about 4|5|0 or 5|6|0 years before that captivity.

Now because God is so much offended at their swearing Iehova liveth as to mention it emphatically as a grand crime wch Israel committed when she went up to her cities of worship, & to forbid Iudah to do the like, & yet they were not interdicted under ye law to make solemn oaths or vows in his name, but only to break them once made: one may presume there was some further grand mystery in these oaths, & what that was will I conceive appear by comparing this place of Osea wth Isa|er| 44.25, 26, where a <6r> hand of Egyptians Iews[1] wch in the time of Nebuchadnezzars captivity fled into Egypt vowed in the name of ye Lord to worship the Queen of heaven. The words run thus. Hear ye word of ye Lord all Iudah that are in the Land of Egypt Thus saith the Lord of hosts ye God of Israel, saying, Ye & your wives have both spoken wth your mouth & fulfilled wth your hands, saying, We will surely perform or vows yt we have vowed to burn incense to ye Qeen {sic} of heaven & to pour out drink offrings unto her: ye will surely accomplish your vows & surely perform yor vows. Therefore hear |ye| ye word of ye Lord all Iudah that dwell in ye Land of Egypt, Behold I have sworn by my great name saith ye Lord that my name shall be no more named in ye mouth of any man of Iudah in all ye Land of Egypt, saying, ye Lord God liveth. Now concerning this place you may note first that these Iews when they were in ye Land of Egypt worshippers of ye Queen of heaven, they used the same manner to invoke & sweare by the true God as ye Israelites did before at Gilgal & Bethaven saying ye Lord God liveth: And therefore in the midst of their abominations in Egypt retained a memory of & respect unto ye true God. And so we have here an example of ye Iews falling into gross Idolatry wthout forsaking ye true God as we had before of ye Israelites. And such an example too as makes it probable that Iudah never forsook ye true God seing these men lived when Idolatry was grown to ye height, & quoted the practices of their forefathers for t\w/hat they did, & seeme to have been as degenerate as any, obstinately refusing to obey Ieremiah whom God sent unto them, & not desisting till God cut them off in Egypt as he had newly done their idolatrous brethren at Ierusalem of whom they were an escaped rem <7r> nant. Secondly it is to be noted that ye vowes here made were not extemporary oaths or protestations but solemn vows: for upon being reproved for their Idolatry they said, surely we will perform or vows wch we have vowed to burn incense to ye Queen of heaven. Thirdly by Gods threatning that his name should be no \more/ named by any man of Iudah in all Egypt is not meant a withdrawing of ye remembrance of his name from them but a cutting them off for their abominable prophaning his name, for in ye next vers he adds ye manner of it saying Behold I will watch over them for evil & not for good, & all ye men of Iudah that are in ye land of Egypt shall be consumed by ye sword & by the famin untill there be an end of them. Fourthly it is to be noted that ye reason why God {thus} threatned that his name should be no more thus named in Egypt by them was because they vowed to burn incense to ye Qeen {sic} of heaven. Because they while they sware by his name they made such exerable vows as these, therefore God threatens they should swear by his name no longer but be cut off. Their swearing by Gods name has here a special relation to their vows to commit wickednes: for God does not say in general: Because ye worship ye Queen of heaven therefore I will be no longer your god; but because ye have made such wicked vows as these are therefore ye shall be cut of that ye may use my name no longer to swear by. This therefore was their sin of swearing by his name that they sware solemnly by it to commit their abominations: when it is evident that they accounted him their \proper &/ principal God.[2]

To proceed now \on/ to some further considerations: the truth of the assertion that Israel worshipped the true God <8r> {&} fals Gods together may appear by considering ye designe of Ieroboams proceeding when he set up the calves to be worshipped. for ye worship wch he instituted conti{illeg}nued till ye time of ye Captivity, that short persecution of Iezebel perhaps only excepted, & therefore was the same wth that exercised next before ye persecution, only wth this difference that they were then become more abominable by adding forreign Gods to ye calves. For in ye history of their Captivity it is said that the Children of Israel walked in all ye sins of Ieroboam \wch he did/, they departed not from them till he removed Israel {illeg} out of his sight. Now I would have you consider that when Ieroboam made this change in religion he had no further design in it then to confirm ye kingdom to himself & for that end to keep ye people from going up to Ierusalem to worship there least their hearts should turn again toward their brethren there & so they should slay him & return \again/ to Rehoboam. This is ye reason set down in ye history, & therefore it is not likely that he should go about to make any further change in religion then was requisite to stay ye people from going up to Ierusalem it being against all rules of policy for a king to make any unnecessary changes in his kingdom. But the fundamental change of their God was no way requisite for this, & therefore it is not at all likely that he should go about to attempt that, especially, since that being ye greatest change that could be made in religion, it could not but have {sic} a very dangerous & scarce feasible attempt to do it \so/ on a suddein, as we may easily apprehend by the obstinacy wth wch all nations adhere to their perswasions. To have attempted it by force might have put all into confusion & rebellion, especially in a nation so unsetled, & to have attempted it by perswasive arguing against their God, would more probably have made them stone ye disputers for blasphemers of their God then con <9r> vinced them. It is not likely therefore that he went about to change any more than the place & so much of ye mode of their worship as might make them disaffected to ye way of wp at Ierusalem & so confirm their worship to other places. And this he might do by sophistry causing it to be put into their heads, that to worship at Ierusalem was but an innovation seeing their forefathers worshipped in other places, & Iacob in particular at Bethel where he put one of ye calves. That theire Temple also was a \but a new/ device of Solomon, & that the calves might be ye place of Gods special residence presence as well as ye Cherubins \over the Ark/ at Ierusalem whoselower parts had ye same figure & yt there was as much reason why God might be worshipped before ye one as before ye other. With some such sophistry as this I am the more apt to think that they maintained all along their worship against ye Iews because I find the woman of Samaria (one of ye posterity either of them & of ye nations wch succeeding them continued their worship) I find I say this woman arguing after ye \this/ manner wth our Saviour: Our fathers worshipped in this mountain & ye say that in Ierusalem is ye place where men ought to worship.

Further as it is improbable {illeg} on ye account of policy yt Ieroboam should change their God, so also by this circumstance of the history that \God reccons it among his crimes that/ to these Calves he made Priests of ye lowest of ye people wch were not of ye sons of Levi: for (as I have said of ye like Priests wch the heathen successors of ye Israelites made to ye true God in Samaria) had these Priests been dedicated to any other God then ye true one \in the calves/, the crime would have been to make Priests of ye highest of ye people & of ye tribe of Levi because the first would have been a giving ye greater honour to a fals God, ye last a sacrilegious prophanation \violation/ of Gods special institution & privilege to have that Tribe Priests to himself.


Much after the same manner one may argue from these Amos 4.4 where their worship is reprehended for deviating \in some things/ from ye ceremonies of ye law. Come to Bethel, & saith ye Lord & transgress, at Gilgal multiply trangession, & bring your sacrifices every morning, & your tiths after three years, & offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving wth leaven & proclaim & publish the free offerings: for this liketh you o ye children of Israel saith ye Lord God Here you may see that Israel retained ye worship of ye Law at Bethel & Gilgal, the chief places of their transgression, but not exactly: for they offered a sacrifice of thanksgiving wth leaven, wch was instituted to be wthout Leaven as you may see in Levit. 7.12. Now whereas God upbraids them for this, certainly he would never have upbraided them for not observing ye circumstances of his law towards any other God then himself.

But to make the buisines {sic} yet more plain, there is in the next chapter {illeg} an express declaration of their performing this their worship to the true God & his refusal to accept of it. Tis ye 5t Ch. of Amos ye 21th vers, wch I pray you mind. The words run thus. I hate, I despise your feast days & I will not smell in your solemn Assemblies. Though ye offer me burnt offerings & your meat offerings I will not accept them, neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fatt beasts. Take thou away from me ye noise of thy songs, for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. This respects ye national worship of the ten Tribes \during the standing of before the calves/: for the discourse begins wth a threatning lamentation against Israel for what they did at Bethel Gilgal & Beersheba, & ends wth |a| threatning them ye captivity by the Assyrians wch happened about three or four score years after

To all these things \{illeg} things/ I might yet add more were it necessary[3] As ye great number of the Lords Prophets that were in Is <11r> rael. For in Ahabs reign besides ye many Prophets wch Iezebel slew, there were 100|an| hundred saved in a cave: & it not {sic} at all likely that Prophets should abound so \very/ much in a kingdom in wch ye name of ye Lord by wch they prophesied was not acknowledged. The comparison of ye greatnes of ye sin of worshipping the calves wth that of worshipping ye Gods of ye Gentiles might be also considered. ffor ye sin of ye calves though great enough is yet worshipped represented less then that of worshipping Baal. ffor of Ahab, (the first king of Israel that added the Idolatries of ye Heathens to ye sin of Ieroboam) it is said that he did evil above all before him, & as if it had been a light thing to walk in ye sins of Ieroboam, he went & served Baal & worshipped him. And afterward of Iehoram ye son of Ieroboam Ahab, for abolishing Baal it is said that he wrought evil in ye sight of ye Lord but not like his ffather, for he put away ye Image of Baal that his ffather had made, nevertheless he cleaved to ye sin of Ieroboam. Tell me now on what account the sin of Ieroboam should be thus esteemed less then that of worshipping Baal, unless it be this that in ye former case ye Idols was dedicated to ye true God, |in| the latter to a fals one? ffor certainly the sins are equal, to worship any of ye Gentile Gods.

Again ye history of Iehu is very remarkable. for this king destroyed Baal out of Israel, & that in vindication of ye worship against Baal. ffor when he had gathered ye Priests of Baal together to slay them he caused a search to be made to see if any of ye Priests of ye Lord were among them, for fear they should perish wth the rest,& for this his zeale in God's cause, & for destroying also the house of Ahab for their worshipping Baal, God was so well pleased with him, that he said, Because thou hast done well in executing that wch is right in mine eyes, <12r> thy children of ye fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel: And yet for all this \while/ Iehu continued all this in the sins of Ieroboam like ye rest of ye Kings of Israel. as 'tis expresly testified of him.

Thus much may suffice to manifest ye first particular That Israel worshipped ye true God together wth their fals ones. The next particular was that they worshipped the true God was worshipped in the Calves of Ieroboam And of this I have \occasionally/ said something already in arguing from Ieroboam's policy in ye institution, from ye reprehension of his making Priests to these calves out of ye lowest of the people wch were not Levites, from their observing these legal ceremonies in their worship at Bethel where the{illeg} calf was, & being upbraided by God for not observing them fully, & from ye sin of ye Calves being less then that of worshipping ye Gods of ye Gentiles.

<13r> [Editorial Note 2]

I say rather pas on to say a word or on my second & 3d Proposition that I may {sic} leave my discourse altogether imperfect The second was that tr the true God was worshipped in ye calves. Now I And of this I have \occasionally/ said something already in discoursin arguing from Ieroboam's policy \in the institution/ from ye Priests reprehension of his making Priests to these calves out of ye lowest of ye people wch were not Levites, from their worshipp observing ye legal ceremonies in their worship at Bethel where ye calf was, & being reprehended by God upbraided by God for not observing |yn {sic}| fully; from ye sin of ye calves being less then that of wping ye Gods of ye Gentiles. {illeg} I may add that ye worship of the calves was their national religion & consequently ye same wth ye wp of ye true God wch was also their national religion. But the proclamation of Ieroboam Behold thy Gods o Israel wch brought the up out of ye land of Egypt makes it plain. For hereby it's certain that they worshipped none other for ye true God then him whom they worshipped in these calves. The expression indeed runs as if they meant ye very calves to be that God{sic} but this was but according to a mode of speaking familiar among them ffor as they used to call every all Images Baal wch were dedicated to Baal & all \other/ Images Chemosh wch were by ye names of ye Gods to wch they were dedicated, so they called these Calves by ye name \title/ of ye their own God because dedicated to him. Thus you may see in ye 17 chapter of Iudges {illeg} \though/ Micah's Mother (as tis expresly said) dedicated eleven hundred sheckels of silver to make a molten Image & a graven Image to Iehovah for her son \Micah/ & accordingly made two images thereof & placed them in the house of her son & Micah & Micah worshipped Iehovah in them getting a Levite to be his Priest & saying Now I know Iehovah will do me good seeing I have a Levite to be my Priest: yet these Images history calls these Images his Gods saying that he had a house of Gods: And Micah himself also calls them his Gods <13v> saying to the Danites who took them away, Ye have taken away my Gods wch I made. I conceive I the ground of their The case is much like one famili \familiar/ wth all ye world. {illeg} \When/ We say behold this or that man who did such any action, {illeg} nothing can be beheld but his body & yet we speak it wth reference to his soule the principle of ye action: And so when they {illeg} said Behold thy God wch brough {sic} thee out of ye Land of Egypt though nothing could be beheld but ye Calf, yet their calling it a god must refer to ye special \invisible/ presence of ye God wch they supposed in it by whose presence or influence ye on ye account of wch they esteemed it of more value then a mere {illeg} of God who \especially seeing all Israell knew that their God/ brought them out of ye Land of Egypt long before ye Calf was made.

The third Proposition was that the worship of those calves was Idolatry notwithstanding that it was per ye true God was worshipped in them, \though not so heighnous Idolatry. as the wping Baal & other Gods of the Gentiles./ Now for manife this will sufficiently appeare out of these two or these|ree| places. Hosea 8.4 Of their silver & their Gold they have made them Idols that they may be cut of. Thy calf o Samaria hath cast the off. \the workman made it therefore it is not God. But the Calf of Samaria shall be broken in pieces/ Here God first acuses \tells/ them first in general that they made Idols to cut them of & then instances in ye Calf \telling them it was not \a/ fals God/. So Hosea 13.2 They have made them molten images of their \molten images of their silver &/ Idols according to their |own| understanding, all of it ye work of ye craftsmen, they say of them let ye men that sacrifice kiss ye Calves; \they say of them/ of them that is of ye Idols {illeg} they made let ye sacrifices \kiss/ ye Calves. So that here you see calves wth other images altogether called Idolatry|s|. wch is all one as to call their wp Idolatry. Again in Hosea 4.15 Though thou Israel play ye Harlot yet let not Israel offend come not ye unto Gilgal neither go ye up to Bethaven. Here Israel is called a Harlot wch is as much much {sic} as to say a committer of Idolatry & the places where she did it are Gilgal & Bethaven whereof Bethaven I told \shewed/ you was Bethel ye city where {sic} \called Bethaven that is the house of the Idols because / Ieroboam {illeg} /had\ placed one of ye Calves. |there| < insertion from f 14v > |vers. pag.| ✝ there. And so in Hos. 10.8 when the Prophet had newly mentioned the calves of Bethaven or Bethel, he subjoynes The altars of the Idol the sin of Isr high places of Aven the sin of Israel shal be destroyed that is ye \high places or/ Altars of ye Idols. For Aven is one of ye usual names for for an Idol & so ye vulgar translation hath translates. < text from f 13v resumes > Lastly in 1 Kings 14.9 God tells Ieroboam that he had \Thou hast/ done evil above all that were before the{illeg}, for thou hast gone & made thee other Gods even molten Images to provoke me to anger & hast cast me behind <14r> thy back God tells them here that ye Gods they wor \here/ calls these calves here {sic} other Gods \wch is all one as to call their wp Idolatry/, & good reason. For though they \Israel/ supposed Gods special presence in them to heare their prayers & accept their wp th{illeg} yet they were deceived, God was not there, they were mere unprofitable vanities, to wch God was a stranger to {sic}; {illeg} they were not filled wth his presence \as Israel supposed/ out other Gods, {illeg} mere vanities, & their worship vain & idolatrous. Had God commanded it {then w} \such an Image/ & promised that he would place his \place his special/ be presence|t| in such an Image it & accept of their worship done before {sic} as done to him, such worship would have been pro \necessary/ profitable & pious, but since it was they made of it of their own heads & {illeg} twas another thing \an {illeg} \&/ a strange and an empty thing another God/ wch he had nothing to do with, & the worship of it disobedience vanity & idolatry the wp of another God disobedience f vanity & Idolatry.

Now seing if it be Idolatry to make an image to \wp/ ye true God by this you may see the great extent of ye second commandement \by {illeg} an Image/ you may hence learn these two things first that Idolatry according to old {sic} meaning of ye word comprehends not only ye worshipping given to ye an {illeg} Idol absolutely \ultimately/ but \also/ that given through an Idol to ye God to wch ye Idol is dedicated, yt is not only worship. by of an Idol but also wp by an Idol is Idolatry, Or that an image becomes an Idol so far as we worship either it or any thing by it. And secondly you may learn hence ye unive great extent of ye 2d Commandement ffor if it interdict ye making of an image to God him self, much more to {illeg} must it to any thing els. So that comparing \both/ these two things I see not how any image wp can be excused. Lastly they that think to excuse of some is hereby cut of ffor if pleading they are Christians & terminate their wp on God, is hereby cut of. ffor \if this would/ {illeg} ye Israelites if this would not excuse ye Israelites who were Gods people & directed their wp ultimately to him as well \much/ as they {illeg} \do/, how can it excuse them. Of the two they are ye more guilty for they go a step futher out of the{illeg} way, & double the crime by transmitting their worship first through images to ye soules of dead men & then through ye soules of dead men to God


By this history it is easy to collect yt ye Lord \God/ of ye Land wch ye new nations were tought {sic} to worship in ye cities of Samaria was ye true God, & that this same God had been worshipped before by ye kingdom of Israel, even amidst the worst of their idolatries, as ye God of ye|their| Land, till ye very time of ye captivity. But this though it be plain enough of it self yet I intend ye next time to point at ye particular marks by wch it is put beyond all cavil; & not only so but to shew out of sacred history by examples \in ages/ before Ieroboam's time that ye Israelites & their forefathers used not to forsake ye true God when they fell into Idolatry but only to joyne to his worship the adoration of ye Gods of ye Gentiles as these did since Ieroboam. And this I shall do that it may appear that Israel during all her abominations from first to last scarce ever forsook ye true God but only \any further then by forsaking his laws in/ /absolutely but only\ corrupted his wp by mingling their own inventions wth it as too many of or neighbouring christians dayly do. Which corruptions if they be at any time called a forsaking of God, no more need be understood by that but a forsaking of his laws.

T. g. o. o. L. I. C. & t. l. o. G. & t. f. o. t. H G.[Editorial Note 3] be wth us all evermore. Amen.

The first of ye six Propositions wch I laid down from hence was that ye \Idolatrous/ Israelites worshipped ye true God together wth ye Gods of ye Gentiles. And this I told you was plain by ye history of the chapter captivity registred in this chapter ffor – – –


There is a place \also/ in Ier (ch 44. v. 27) where certain of ye Idolatrous Iews being fled from ye taking of Ierusalem into Ægypt are reprehended for making {illeg} solemn vows to perform sacrifices to ye Queen of heaven, & threatned that since they did make such vows they should be suffered to swear no longer to swear by the name of ye Lord \God/ liveth, but be utterly destroyed out of Egypt by ye arms of Nebuchadnezzar. And by comparing this place wth ye former of Hosea one may easily learn that \ye reason why their swearing the Lord God liveth/ their vows by wch they ingaged to perform sacrifices or other duties to their \Idols &/ fals{illeg} Gods, used to be done in ye name of ye Lord |God| saying ye Lord liveth. And no wonder therefore ye Lord was so much offended at this oath as to reccon it among their greatst {sic} sins, though without doubt they thought they did it piously. honoured ye Lord thereby.

[Editorial Note 1] A page appears to be missing at this point. It is not to be found in the other surviving drafts of this text (Babson Ms. 437 and Harry Ransom Research Center Ms. 130).

[1] Comp {See} |wth| Ier 42.20 & 43.2

[2] See Micah 2|3|.9, 11     &

[3] See Hosea 8.13. Ezek 14.7. Ier 14.

[Editorial Note 2] A page appears to be missing at this point.

[Editorial Note 3] I.e. 'The grace of our Lord Iesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost'.

© 2017 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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