The intended Report of ye Councell of Trade
to his Excie ye Lord Leiut{sic} + Councell of Ireland

In obedience to yor Lopps Act of Councell dated Ianuary 20th: 1627 wee have spent severall dayes in Considering how as well the welth {sic} of this kingdome in generall as ye money thereof in perticuler {sic} may bee encreased, and in Order thereunto have first sett downe to ye best of our knoledge {sic} ye State of this kingdome in Reference to trade. Secondly wee have noted such Inferences from ye Same, as doe shew ye sevrall {sic} Causes of ye Smalene{illeg}|s|se of of {sic} Trade want of money, and ye generall Poverty of this Nacon; And in the last place wee have offerred such generall Remedies, and expedients in ye inspective Causes as may be obtained and practized wthout any new law to bee made in Ireland. And wee are ready soe to enlarge upon ye Branches Wee \have/ offerred as to make such of our Proposalls practicable as yor Lopps shall pl{illeg}|eas|e to select and to approve of, for that Purpose.

March 25th. 1673

Consideracons relation to ye Improv{illeg}|m|ent of Ireland|.| The State of Ireland in {sic} Reference

|The state of Ireland| To trade |in reference to Trade.|

|1| The whole territory of Ireland consists of about 12 millions of Acres English measure of arrable meadow, and good Pasture land, wth about two millions of Rocky Boggy, and Scrubby pasture comonly {sic} called unprofitable, though not altogether such, the rest being {illeg}{illeg}|absol|ute Baggs, L{illeg}|o|ugh, Rocke Sands Strand Rivers and high wayes:– of all wch Sevrall {sic} Lands the yearly Rent is supposed to be about 900: thousand pounds and worth to be purchased nine Millions

|2| The val{illeg}|ue| of all ye houseing In Ireland wch: have one or more Chimneys in them (excluding all {illeg}|ca|bbins wch have none) is supposd to be to|w|o Millions and an halfe

|3| The Cattele and live Stocke 3 Millions

|{4}| {Corne} Furniture Merchandize, Shipping &: about one million

|{5}| The Coyned and currant money now running in Trade is between 300 and 250: thousand pounds or 150 of ye value of ye whole kingdome wch wee supposed to \about/ 16 Million{illeg}

|{6}| The number of people in Ireland is about 11: hundred thousand vizt. 300 thousand Protestants and 800 thousand Papiests, whereof 14 are Children unfitt for labour, {Half of the Remainder} {illeg} {illeg}|a|nd about 75 thousand of ye remainder are by reason of their{illeg} Quality, and estates, above the necessity of corporall Labor, Soe as their remaines 750 thousand laboring men and woemen 500 thousand whereof doe performe ye prsent work of ye na{illeg}|t|on.

|7| The Said 11|00| thousand wch have but one all people doe {illeg} above live in about 200 thousand Families or houses where of ther {sic} are but about {illeg}16{illeg} thousand wch have more then one Chimney in ech {sic} and about 24 thousand wch have but one all ye other \housing/ being 160 thousand are wrecht{illeg} {illeg}|n|asty Cabbins wthout Chimney window or dore shutt and worse then those of ye Savage Americans and wholy unfitt for ye making of merchantable Buttr. Cheese or ye manufacturies of wollen or leather.

|{8}| The houses wthin ye Cittyes and liberties of Doublin are under 4 thousand viz in ye Citty 1150 and ye ale houses wthin ye same about 12: hundred and it seems yt in other Corporations and Country tounes the proporcon of ale houses is yet greater in Doublin viz 13 of ye whole.

|{9}| The Countys hath been found Barronys and parishes of Irland {sic} <449v> Are now become marvelous unequall soe as some are twenty times as bigg as others The County of Corke seeming in respect of parishes and people to be 16 of ye whole kingdome and in other Counties not being above 120th part of ye County of Corke it hath been found very difficult to gett fitt persons for Sherriffs and Iurys and ye often houlding of assises and quarter sessions in ye said small Countyes hath been found an unneessary burthen {sic} upon them

|10| There are now in Irland {sic} 32 Counties 252 Barronyes and 2278 Parishes soe as ye number of Sheriffes and Sheriffe Bayleffes high and petty Constables are about 3: thousand persones whereof not a bove 110 are english or protestants soe as ye Remaindr (about a bout 2700) are Ire|i|sh papi{illeg}|s|ts, and are ye {illeg}|C|ivill Militia of this kingdome and have executeing of all decrees of Courts and In of Iustices of peaces warrant.

|11| This Civill Militia and ye rest of ye \Irish/ Papi{illeg}|s|ts being above 800 thousand are Influenced and guided by about 3 thousand preists {sic} and fryers and they governd by theire Bishopps + Superiours who are for ye most part of ye old Irish gentry, men of forreign Education + who depend upon forraigne {{illeg}|P|rinces} + Prelates for {Beneficies} and Prefer{illeg}ments.

|12| The Irish Papiests (besides Sundays and the 29: Holy dayes appoynted by ye law) doe o{illeg}|ne| place wth an other observe a bout 24 days more in ye yeare in which they doe noe Corporat{illeg}|t| labour Soe as t{illeg}|he|y have but a bout 2{illeg}|6|5 d|6|ays \266 working days/ whereas Protestants not Strictly observing all ye legall Holy days by a totall forbearing of labour have in effect 300 working dayes in ye yeare that is 34 days more then ye papists or at least 5 weekes of 6: of|D|ayes in each or 110 part of ye whole yeare.

|13| The expence of ye whole people of Ireland is {a} |a|bout 4 millions Annu{illeg}|m| ye 50th part whereof being 80 thousand pounds and ye quarter of annuall house Rent being a |a|bou{e}|t| 60 thousand pounds together wth. 450: thousand pounds more being the \value/ of halfe a y{illeg}|e|a{illeg}|r|s Rent {Tyth} and {quittrent} doe make 590 thousand pounds as yt sume of money wch will compleatly {illeg} + plentifully desire y{illeg}|e| trade of this kingdome

|{1}4| The value of ye Comodities {sic} exported out of Ireland & ye fr\a/ight of ye Shipping Imployd in ye trade of this nacon together with ye fishing of herrings is a|a|bout 500 thousand pounds annum.

|{1}5| The value of ye Castle (vizt Estates in Ireland of such persons as doe usualy {sic} live In England ye Intrest {sic} of d{illeg}b{illeg}e |debt| of Ireland due and payable to England, the pay of ye forces of Ie{illeg}|r|land {sic} now in england, ye Expence and pensions of agents and Sollicitors {illeg}|C|omonly residing In england a|a|bout Irish Affaires, The expence of english and Irish youth now upon ye Education beyond ye seas and lastly ye supposed Proffitt of ye two great Farmes now on F{illeg}oot doe altogether make up near 200 thousand pounds Annum as a debt \payable/ to England o{illeg}|O|ut of Ireland.

|{1}6| The value of ye Cattle (vizt: {hine} oxon and Sheep) carryd out of Ierland {sic} Into England was never more {illeg} \then 140/ thousand pounds Annum the Fr\a/ight, hides Tallow and wooll of ye Sayd {hine} cattle were worth aboue|t| 60 thousand pounds of ye Sayd 140 <450r> Thousand pounds and ye value \of the/ good Imported out of england into Irland (when ye Cattle Trade was free) was between treble + quadru{illeg}|b|le to ye neate {illeg}|v|alue of ye one and Sheepps {sic} Flesh or transported from hence into England

The Customs \of/ exported + Imported Goods between England + Ireland {illeg}|a|bstracted from ye excise thereof was in ye fir{illeg}st Trade a |a|bout 32 thousand Pounds Annum.

Inf{illeg}|er|ences from ye Premisses.

|1| By Compa{iri}|rei|ng ye extent of ye {t}|T|erritory, wth ye number of ye people it appeare{illeg}|s| yt Ireland is much under peopled for as much as there is|are| a |a|bove 10 Acres of good land {illeg}|to| e{illeg}|very| head in Ireland, whereas in England, and France these are but 4, and in Holland Scarce one.

|2| If there be {illeg}|250| thousand space hands capable of Labour who can earle 4: or 5li: Annum one with annother. It follow|s| yt ye people of Ireland we{illeg}|ll|{illeg} Imployd may earn one million per Annum more then they {illeg}|d|oe now wthin more then ye years Rent of ye whole Country

|3| If an house wth stone walls and a Chimney well covered and halfe an acer {sic} of land well d{illeg}|itch|ed a |a|bout, may be made for 4 or 5li or there a |a|boutes then 23 of ye Spare hands of Irland {sic} can in one years time, {illeg}|b|uild and fitt upp 160 thousand such houses and Gardens in {illeg}|S|tead of ye like number of ye wretcht Cabbins a |a|bove mentio\nd/ And that in a time when a forraigne Trade is most dead and obstructed + when money is most scarce in ye land.

|4| The other third part of ye Said Spare hands wthin ye same years (besides ye makeing of Bridges Harbours Rivers High ways &|c| more fitt for Trade) are a |a|ble to plant as many f{illeg}|rui|\{illeg}/{illeg}|t|e + timber Trees + {sic} also quick sett hedges as being grown up{on} would distinguish ye bounds of land|s| beautify ye Country shade and shelter Cattle furnish wood, Fuell Timber + Fruit in a bettr manner then ever was yet known in Ireland or England + all this in a {illeg}|tim|e when trade is dead + money most scarce.

|5| In ye Gardens belonging to ye cabbins before mentioned and planted wth hempe, and flax according to ye {illeg}|pr|esent s{illeg}|t|atute would grow 120: thousand {illeg}|p|o{illeg}|unds||-|worth of ye said Comodities, ye manufacture where of as a{illeg}|l|so {illeg}o{illeg}|f| ye well and Hydes non exported would {illeg}|b|y ye labour of ye spare hands a |a|bove mention\d/ {illeg}{illeg}|a|mou{illeg}|n|t too a |a|bout one million {illeg} {illeg}ly ye labour <450v> Annum more then att prsent.

|6| The multitude and proporcon of ale houses a|a|bove menciond is a Signe of want of Imployment in th{illeg}|o|se that bu{illeg}y {illeg}\buy no/ l{illeg}|e|s{illeg}|se| then those yt sell ye drinke

|7| There being a|a|bove 2: thousand Papists in Ireland and little a|a|bove 2: thousand parrishes of {it} |it| is manifest that 500: Pr{illeg}|e|ists {sic} may in a Competent |measure| officate for ye said number of People \&/ Parishes, And yt two papish Bishopp if any at all be nessesary {sic} may as well governe ye Said 500 Priest|s|, and 2 thousand parishes {illeg}|a|s the 26 Bishops of England doe govern ye near ten thousand Parishes.

|8| If ye Protestants according to ye prsent practice {illeg} |&| understanding of ye law doe worke one tenth ppart of ye year more then ye papists and ye|t| there be 750000 working people in Ireland where of a|a|bout 600 thousand papiests {sic}: it follows yt ye papish religio{illeg}|n| {illeg}|t|akes off 60 thousand workers wch att {illeg}|ab|out 4li Annum each is {about} \above/ {illeg}|250| thousand pounds per Anuum of it {illeg}|S|elfe besides the maint{illeg}|en|ance of {illeg}|25| hundred superfuous {sic} Churchmen wch att 20li Annum each, some to 50 thousand pds Annum more.

|9| If t{illeg} {illeg}|The sherri|ffs of Ireland att 100li anum ye Constables att 10li Anum {illeg}|each being all English| protestants (wch some incident Charges for ye admins{illeg}tration {sic} of Iustice may be s{illeg}|allaviated| + defrayd for thirty thousand pounds annum consist{illeg}|ent| wth his maties present Revenue, Force{illeg}|s|, &|c:| wch Sayd {illeg}S|S|a{illeg}|la|rys may also bee lessend by uniting some of ye Smaller Counties, Barronys and parishes according to ye proporions of people Inhabiting wthin them

|10| If there be not 350 thousand pounds Coyned \{illeg} mo{illeg}|ney|/ in Ireland, and if {illeg}|59|0: thousand pounds (or neare d{illeg}|ouble|{illeg} wt there now {illeg}|is|) be requisite to drive ye trade there|of| of then it follows yt there is not money enough in Ireland to drive ye Trade of ye nacion.

|11| If the lands of Ireland + housing in Corporacions be worth above 10 Millions to be now Sold and if lesse then one million of Stocke will d{illeg}|rive| {all} \all/ ye trade afore mentioned that Ireland is capeable {sic} of ({illeg}|re|ck|o|ning but to|w||o| returnes annum) it is certaine that the Clearest part of ye sd 10 millions worth of reall Estate being well contrived in a banke of Creditt will wi{illeg}|t|h ye Cash yet remaining {a }|a|bundantly answer all ye ends of <415r> of domesticke Improvements Improvements + forraigne trafique whatsoeve{illeg}|r|.

|12| If ye whole substance of Ireland be worth 16 Millions as a bove Said, if ye Customs between England + I{illeg}|r|eland were never worth a|a|bove 32: thousand pounds anum if ye titles of estates in Ireland be more haz{illeg}|a|rdous {illeg}|{illeg}| experience for yt England + Irland {sic} are not undr. one legis{s}|l|ati{illeg}|v|e Power; If Irland {sic} till now hath been a Continuall Charge to england, If yt Reduceing yt late Rebelion {sic} did Cost england 3 times more in men + money then ye Substance of ye whole Country when reduced in worth if it be Iust that men of English Birth & Estate Living {illeg}|in| in Ireland should be reprsented in ye Legislative Power, And yt ye Irish should not be Iudged by those who they pretend doe usurp their estates it then seems Iust + Convenient, that both King domes should be united + Govern by one Legislative Power, {illeg}|n|or is it hard to Shew how this may be made pract{illeg}|ic|\a/ble, nor to Satisfie repair{illeg}|e|, or silence those who are Intere{illeg}|std| or affected to ye Contrary

|13| In ye mean time it is wonder full yt men born i|I|n England, who have lands granted to them by yt king for service done in Ireland to yt crowne of England, when they have occ{illeg}|s|ion {sic} to reside, or negotiate in in {sic} england should by the|i|re Country men kindred + {sic} friends there bee debarred to bring wth them out of Ireland food {thence} \where/upon to live, nor sufferd to bring such commodities \as/ they fe|t|chd from {illeg}|Americ|a, directly home but roun{illeg}|d| a|a|bout by England wth extream hazard and losse + be forced to trade only wth strangers + bec{illeg}|o|me un a|c|quainted wth theire own Country Especially when England gaineth more then it looseth by a free co{illeg}|mm|erce as exporting hither three times as much as it receiveth fro{illeg}|m| hence in soe much {illeg}|as| {illeg}|95|li in England was worth {illeg}|a|bout 100 of yt like money in I{illeg}|r|eland in yt free {kin\d/} of Trade.

|14| It is conceived yt a|a|boue|t| {illeg}|13| of yt Imported manufat|c|tures might be made in Ir{illeg}|e|land and 23 of yt {illeg}|Re|mainder mght {sic} be more conveniently had from forraigne <451v> parts then out of England, and Consequently yt it is Scarce necessary att all for Ireland to receive any goods of England, And not Convenient to receive 14 from thence of ye whole, wch: \it/ needeth to Import \above/ ye value {t}|w|here of is under 100 thousand pounds anum.

The applica{illeg}|tion| of the prmisses in order to remedy the defects + Impediments of the Trade of Ireland.

|1| For as much as ye Consideracion of raysing money hath already + for lately been before yor Lopps: therefore wthout giveing this B{illeg}|o|ard any further trouble conc{illeg}|e|rning ye Sa{illeg}|m|e wee humbly offer in order to ye reguation of ye s{illeg}|evrall species| therof {sic} that where as weighty plate peeces {sic}, together with {illeg}|D|uccat|o|{illeg}|o|nes (wch wee est{illeg}|i|mate to be {three} \three/ qua{illeg}|rters| of ye money now currant in Ir|e|land) doe {illeg}|a|lready passe \at/ propor{illeg}|t|i{illeg}|o|nable rates and for that all other species of Silver money are neither raysed\rated/ proporrtionable to ye Said weighty Peeces {sic} nor{illeg} to {illeg}o{illeg}|n|e |an|other, That whole halfe and quart|er| Cobbs of sterling Silver if light may passe att {S}|f|i{x}{illeg}|v||e| {illeg}|shill|ings\{illeg} shillings &/ Silver as ye p{illeg}|{errues}| {illeg}|&||c:| may passe as a{illeg}|com|ody{illeg}|ity|{illeg} |or| att five shilling|s| per ounce until there shall be a conveniency for new Coyning thereof {illeg}\into/ smaller money.

|2| That forth-with application may be made in|to| England to restore trade for ye plantations + between ye two kingdoms (+ particulary {sic} yt of Ca{illeg}|tt|le) as here-to-fore, + in ye mean time to discover + hinder by llownace to discover + hinder by all me{illeg}|a|n{illeg}|es| possible yt carring {sic} of Bullion {illeg}|out| of Ireland Into England, to ye end yt those in england who use to receive mon|e|ys from hence may be ne{illeg}cessi{illeg}|ta|ted to be very |e|{illeg}|a|rnest in ye Sayd neg{illeg}|o|tiation

|3| That endevo{illeg}|ur|s be used in England {illeg}|f|or ye union of ye two kingdoms under one Legislative Power proportionably as was here|to|{illeg}fore + {illeg}|Su|cces{illeg}fully done in ye case of wales.


|4| For Reduceing Interest from ten to five or Six s|c|ent, for disposing m{illeg}|o|nyed men to be rather {illeg}|mer|chants then usurers, rather to trade then purchas{e} {illeg} and to prevent ye bad, and uncertaine paymts. wch Gentle men are forced to make unto Tradesmen whose Stocke + Creditt is thereby soon bur{i}|y|ed in de{illeg}|bt||s| not to be recovered wthout long & expensive suites that a banc{illeg}|k|{illeg} {illeg}|o|f Land bee forth wth. contrived + countenanc\ed/

|5| That ye act of s state\state/ wch mitigates + compound|s| for ye Customs of some forraigne Goods (purposily {sic} made high to hinder {thiere {sic}} Importations att least before it to be renewed. \& to to {sic} encourage the manufacture of them here) be{e} taken {illeg} again into consideration at least before it be renewed./

|6| That ye Lord Leiut{sic} and Counccell as also the nobility, Courts of Iustice and officers of |ye| {illeg}|ar|mey, and other Gentlemen in and about Doublin may by thei{illeg}|r| engagement, + example discountenances ye use of some certaine forrainge Coormodities to be pi{illeg}|tc|hed upon by yor Lopps: And yt ye Gentle men + free holders in ye Country at theire assizes and, other Country meetings and ye Inhabitan{illeg}|ts| of all Corporations, who live in houses of above 2|t||wo| Chimneys in each may {Afterward} \afterwards/ doe ye same.

|7| That there be a corporation for ye navigation of this kingdome, + yt other s{illeg}|oc|ietys of men, may be Institu|t|ed, wh shall undertake, + give security to carry on the sevrall {sic} trades + manufac{t}|t|ures of Ireland, and to see yt all goods exported to forraigne Marketts be faithfully wrought + pa{illeg}|ckt| wch Societys may direct themsel{illeg}|ve|s by yt many Sevrall {sic} proposalls and reports formerly + of late made by yt Councilll of Trade, and wch the are now {a} |a|gaine ready to enlarge + accomoda\te/ {sic} to yt said sevll: purposes respectively + more parti{illeg}|cul|a{illeg}|r|ly to yt manufactures of Linen wo\o/l{illeg}|le|n + Lether {sic}.

|8| That yt Corporations of Ireland may be obl{illeg}|i|edged to engage now manufactures according to thier {sic} primitve Instruc{c}|t||i|ons wch was to carry on such grerat \works/ by exceeding yt strength of s{illeg}|in|gle persons + particularly that they may ca|u|se some such like propor{cc}|ti|ons of <452v> Yarn Linen, and wollen as also of worsted to be spun as mr {illeg}|H|awkins hath propounded.

|9| That the patents wch hinder yt working of mines may bee Considered.

|10| That yt Iustices of peace may be admonished to protect yt Industrious and not suffer their labours to be Interrupted by vexations + frivelous Ind{illeg}|i|\c/{illeg}|t|ements.

|{1}1| That the Inhabitan{illeg}|ts| of yt wre|t|ched Cabbins in Ireland may be en{illeg}|coura|dged|ged| to reform them and also Compelld therunto, as an easy + Indulge{illeg}nt|ent| comitting for yt penalty of nine pence Sunday payable by the Estate \Statute/, and likewise, to make Gardens, at yt estate \Statute/ for hempe and flaxx reuqires, And yt other ye Laws agt: Id{illeg}lers, Vagabon{s}|d||s| &{illeg}|c|: may be applyed to ye prevention of Beggery {sic} and Theivery {sic} whereunto the orderly disposing of ye said Cabbins into town ships would also Conduce.

|{1}3| That ye exorbitant number of Popish Preists {sic} and Fryars may be Red{illeg}|uc|ed to a bare Competency, as also ye numbe{illeg}|r| of Ale houses.

|14| That ye Constables and Sherri{illeg}|ff|es \Bayliffs/ may also be English{illeg} protestants though upon Sallary.

From all wch. and from ye settlement of Estates it is to be hoped yt men seeing more advantage to live In Ireland then then {sic} else where may be Invited to to remove themselves thither, and soe {illeg}|Supply| ye want of people ye g{illeg}|r|eatest + most fundamentall Defect of that kingdom.


Certaine generall Rules collected concern{illeg}ing money and Bullion out of ye late consultation att Co{illeg}|u|rt in a speech made by Sr Thomas Roe att ye Councell Table 1640

Go{illeg} and Silve{illeg}|r| have a to|tw|o fold Estimac|ti|on, In\in/ ye extrinsique value, as they {are} moneys and princes measure given to their People {of trade} and this is a Prerogative of kings: or in the In{illeg}|trin|\si/que as they are Comodites {sic} valu{e}ing each other according to their Plenty or Scarcity, and soe all other Comodities by them and this is ye sole powr of Trade.

This|e| m|me|ade y|sure|e lord Trer \in a kingdom/ ought to be Constant. It is ye Iustice, and honor of the king, for if they be altered all men att yt time are de{illeg}|ceiv|ed in their prsent {fo}\precedent/ Contracts either for lands or moneys, and ye king m{illeg}|o|st of all. For noe man knoweth either wt he hath or wh{illeg}|a|t he oweth.

This made the Lord Trerer Burle|i|gh in in {sic} anno 1573 (when Some Projectors had sett on F{illeg}|o|\o/tt a matter of {illeg}|t|hat nature) to tell them ye they are \were/ worthy to Suffer death, for attempting to put soe great a dishonor upon ye Queen {illeg}|+| Detriment on|+| \discontent on/ ye people for to alter this publique measure is to leave all the marketts of the kingdome unfurnished + what will be ye mish|c|hiefe the proclamation\s/ of ye 5th. + 6th: of Queen {illeg}|M|ary and 4th and of Eliz: will manifest, when but a rancor <453v> produced that effect soe farr, yt besides ye faith of those Princes to ye {illeg}|Contrary| dlivered in theire Edicts they were i|I|nfor{illeg}|c|ed to ca{illeg}|u|se ye Magistrates in evey {sic} Shire respectively to Con strayne ye people to furnish the marketts to prevent a mut{illeg}|i|ny.

To thinke then this measure att this time {Short} |is| to {illeg}|R|aise all {illeg}|Pri|{illeg}{illeg}|zes| or to tune the measure or money now currant into disuse + Bullion, {S}|f|o{e}|r| who will t. wth any, when it is \by/ sven more in ye hundred in ye masse then the {illeg}|new| moneys + yet of no{illeg}|e| {illeg}|more| value in ye markett.

Hence ye necessity of it will follow yt there will not at|of| a long time be minted of ye new moneys {illeg}|S|ufficient to drive ye exchange of ye kingdome, and soe all trade att one Instant \instant/ will be att a Stand, + in ye mean time ye markes unfurnished, and thus f{arr}|arr| {as}|as| {money}|money| {in}|is| a measure.

Now as Comodity i{illeg}|t| {is}|is| respected + valued by the Intrinsique quality + first ye one mett{illeg}|a|ll to ye othe{illeg}|r|.

All comodities {sic} are prized by plenty or scarcity by dearnesse or cheapnesse ye one to ye other|.| if \If then/ wee desire our silver to by{illeg}|uy| g{illeg}old as it hath lately been we must lett it be ye cheaper + lesse valued in {illeg}|prop|ortion|;| and C{illeg}\so contrary/ For {illeg}|on|e equiv{illeg}|a|lent Proporcion in both will bring in neither|.| w|W|ee see ye proffitt thereof by ye unusuall {Pieces} \quantities/ of goold|gold| brought lately to ye mint by reason of ye price wee rate it {illeg}|a|bo{ut}|ve| all \other/ Countrys go|g|old maybe bought to {sic} de{illeg}|are||.| t|T|o furnish then this way ye mint with both is Impossi{illeg}|b|l{illeg}|e|.

And att this time it was apparently proved both by the best artists|Artists|, +|+| mer|Mer|chants most {illeg}|acqu|ainted wth ye exchange in both ye examples of ye mint masters {illeg}|in| ye {illeg}d|RixD|ollers + {illeg}|Royall|s of eight, {yt}|yt| {si}|si|lver here us if equall value + go|g|old {illeg}|a|bove wch. forraigne parts in ye Instrinsique value, but {illeg}ll{illeg}|SSallarys| pr|r|esented to ye L{ords}|ords| by|by| ye|ye| mi|Mi|nt master {illeg}|is| {o}|o|nly ye {illeg}|nomination| {illeg}|of it's|{illeg} ex{trinsiqu}|trinsi|e Qu|u|ality|ty|.

But if wee desire both i{illeg}|t| {is}|is| not ye rai|ai|sing ye value that doth it but ye ballancing ye Trade, for if we buy more then wee sell of all other Comodities be ye money ne{illeg}|ver| Soe high pris|z|ed wee {illeg}st|must| part wth it|it| to make the Disproportion e{illeg}|aven|, if {illeg} \{wee}|wee|/ sell more, then the Contrary will follow,|.| and|And| this is|is| plaine in ye Spanish necess{ytyes}|ities||,| for should that K|K|ing adva{nce}|nce|d to a double Royall of eight|,| yett needing by re\a/son of ye b{illeg}|arroness| of|of| t{illeg}|his| Cou\{illeg}/{illeg}|ountry| more of forreaign {illeg} \wares/ then he can countervaile by exchang{illeg}|e| with his\wth his own wares he must then t with his money + {illeg}gaine no more by exchang/ing\/ \with his own ares he must then part with his money & {illeg}|g|ain no more by exchanging his/ Coyne then before, but will pay a higher price for ye Comodites {sic} he he {sic} buyeth {illeg}|if| th{illeg}|is| wrke of raiseing be his owne.


But if wee Shall make Improvemt. of Gould + Silver being ye Staple Comoditys of this kingdome to ye {illeg}|f|ash|i|{illeg}|o|n of ye {illeg}|N|etherlands, were to {fr{illeg}|a|m} a Royall monarchy by a Society of m{illeg}|er|ch|ants|ants, {Their}|their| Country is|is| a conti{nua}|nua|ll Faire, + Soe ye price of mo|mo|neys must {ryse}|ryse|, + fall to fitt the{illeg}|ir| o{ccasions}|occasions||.| w|W|e see|ee| this by raiseing ye exchange all|at| {Frankford}|Frankford| and other places att ye usuall times|times| y|y|e marts|marts|.

{This}|This| frequ|u|ent|t| + dayly change in ye low Cuntryes {sic} of these moneys is {illeg}|n|oe Such Iustice\injustice/ to any three as it would be {illeg}|he|{illeg}re, Fo|o|r there they being all m{illeg}|e|rchants or mec{illeg}nickes|chanickes| the {can}|can| rate accordingly the|i|re labour, and ther|ir|e {were} {sic} whether it be Coyne or other m{illeg}|e|rchandise|dise||,| ye ye Condi{ci}|iti|on to ye prsent Condicion of thire {sic} own money in exchange.

And our English merchants to whose pro{illeg}ss|fess|ion it p{roperly}|roperly| {be}|be|longeth doe soe according to ye Iu|u|st intinsique \value/ of thire {sic} forraigne Coynes in all barter of of Comodities {sic} or exchange except {usance}|usance| wch|wch| we|we| yt|yt| and rated + tyed by ye ex{illeg}sique|trinsique| measure of moneys in all our co|co|nsta{illeg}|ant| Reckonings|gs|, and|and| {illeg}nu|anu|all Bargains att home cannot Doe.

And for us then to raise our coyn at this time to equall theagt.3|ire| Proporcions we{illeg}re but to render our se{illeg}s|selves| to|to| a|a| retuall in{illeg}er|cer|taintie|ty|s, For they will Rayse|aise| there upon {y|y|e} dayly {illeg}g|ag|aine wch we have of Co{illeg}rse|ours|e must follow, or {illeg}{illeg}l|el|se Rec|c|eiv|v|e noe Pro{illeg}i|fi|tt by {this}|this| prsnet Change and soe destroy ye po|po|llicy|icy|, Iustice|Iustice| {illeg}|Ho|nour and tranq|anq|uilit{y}|ility| of our state {for}|for| ever.


State of Ireland in 1673.

© 2019 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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