Browse texts by category: Clippers, Coiners and Embezzlers

1.

Note of three payments by the warden to detectors of counterfeiters in 1645-6.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/478, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00832

2.

Warrant of the Earl of Rochester to the warden's agents to take inventories of the possessions of people arrested for false coining and deliver these to the warden.

Author: Laurence Hyde 1st Earl of Rochester

Source: MINT 19/1/426-7, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00833

3.

'A List of the Names of sev[eral] Persons who Claimed by Vertue of their grant ye Goods &c. of Traytors [ie. counterfeiters]'.

Author: George Macey Warden's clerk

Source: MINT 19/1/431-2, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00834

4.

Copy of Privy Seal renewing warrants granting the personal property of coinage offenders to the Mint warden, and authorising the disposal of their real estate by the Treasury for rewards to informers.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/428-9, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00835

5.

Privy Seal renewing the warrants set out in MINT00835 (Mint 19/1/428-9).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/430, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00836

6.

'The Original & History of the Wardens prosecuting Clippers & Coyners'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/425, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00837

7.

'Reasons why the Bayliffes of Westminster [...] ought not to Claime the goods of Traytors and ffelons, nor the Tooles Clippings &c. seized upon Clippers and False Coiners'.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/433-4, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00838

8.

Holograph draft memorandum [clearly related to MINT00838 (Mint 19/1/433-4) but completely different in wording] asserting the Mint's right to coiners' forfeited goods over claims by the bailiffs and sheriffs of Westminster.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/435, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00839

9.

Holograph accounts of three successful trials of counterfeiters, adduced as precedents to show that such crimes could be prosecuted long after they were committed, and could be accounted high treason.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/482, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00840

10.

Holograph draft warrants to the keepers of the relevant prisons.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/480, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00841

11.

An account of the vicissitudes of pursuing coinage offenders.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/438-9, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00842

12.

Order of the Commons Committee on the Miscarriages of the Mint (forwarded to Newton by the Committee's chairman, Arnold) for [William] Chaloner [Challoner]to demonstrate before them his method of making guineas.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/506, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00843

13.

Petition of Francis Moore to the Treasury for a share of the estate of the convicted counterfeiter William Hawkins (executed on 26 July), as a reward for ascertaining the extent of this estate.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/485, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00844

14.

Documents relating to the Chaloner case.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/497-8, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00845

15.

Rougher holograph draft of MINT00845(b) (Mint 19/1/497v-498).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/499, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00846

16.

Holograph summary of the submissions put to a committee examining Chaloner's case.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/503, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00847

17.

Slightly shorter holograph draft of MINT00847 (Mint 19/1/503).

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/496, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00848

18.

'Chaloner's Case'. A history of Chaloner's crimes since 1690, largely summarising the confessions of other coiners.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/501-2, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00849

19.

Holograph draft lists of editorial amendments to be made to a report on Chaloner.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/505, MINT 19/2/265, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00850

20.

Petition for the return of a button-making machine of his own invention which has been impounded by the Mint on suspicion of being used for coining fake money.

Author: Gerard Bovey Button maker

Source: MINT 19/1/454-5, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00851

21.

Petition for the return of a press of his own invention for making hooks and watch chains, which has been impounded by the Mint on suspicion of being used for counterfeiting.

Author: Jacob Wallis

Source: MINT 19/1/456-7, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00852

22.

Response to the above petitions.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/458-9, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00853

23.

Holograph queries on such presses.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/460, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00854

24.

Detailed holograph note of money received by Newton from the Treasury towards the prosecution of coinage offenders 5 September 1696 - 12 June 1699, and of related expenses from 3 August 1696.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/1/475-7, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00855

25.

Draft warrant to the Sheriff of London for the temporary release of Anthony Redhead, former master of the Norwich Mint and now in gaol, to present his accounts.

Author: Isaac Newton

Source: MINT 19/2/487, National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK

Newton Catalogue ID: MINT00856

[1] Unknown

[2]

[Note on dating: refers to Thomas Wharton's appointment as warden [1680] as 'about 16 years ago'.]

[3]

Brief account of previous legislation in this respect, the clerks employed to effect such prosecutions, and the general inefficacy of all measures so far taken.

[4]

Twelve-point memorandum asserting that both by reason and precedent such forfeitures are rightly due to the Mint.

[5]

[See Craig, NATM, 21.]

[6]

[See Craig, NATM, 20-21.]

[7]

Printed in NC, 4: 211-13.

[8]

Charles Ecclestone is to be transferred from the Marshalsea to the New Prison and of Joseph Gregory from the Gatehouse to the New Prison, both being held as counterfeiters and required as Crown witnesses.

[9] Treasury

[10]

[NC places the document in the summer of 1696, immediately after the cessation of clipping (hammered coin ceased to be legal tender in May), but there seems no very strong ground for this. The document does, however, clearly date from Newton's time as warden (1696-9), and probably from the earlier part of it.]

[11]

Printed in NC, 4: 209-10.

[12]

Refers to the provisions for coinage offenders' estates to fall to the Mint warden or his deputies, and complains that they are counter-productive. Such forfeitures compromise Newton's perceived impartiality in prosecuting, though in fact they rarely cover the cost of collecting them. Clipping has ceased [thanks to the recoinage], and counterfeiters have for the most part been driven out of London, but only so as to become more numerous elsewhere. The reward of £40 recently offered to successful informers [by an act of 3 May 1695] has only served to make their testimony suspect. 'I do not find that the prosecuting of Coyners was imposed upon any of my Predecessors [as warden] (tho some of them have done it).' Newton receives neither reward nor competent assistance for work 'so vexatious & dangerous', and which exposes him 'to the calumnies of as many Coyners & Newgate Sollicitors as I examin or admit to talk with me'. Such prosecutions should be made the province of the King's attorney and the solicitor general.

[13]

[Chaloner had accused the Mint officers of incompetence and forgery, and offered to demonstrate his own methods to pre-empt counterfeiting. The Committee reported in favour of Chaloner's methods on 8 April 1697: report reprinted in Ruding, Annals of the Coinage, 2: 465. For accounts of the affair, see Craig, NATM, 17-19 and Westfall, 571-5.]

[14]

Printed in NC, 4: 231-2.

[15]

Printed in NC, 4: 247-8.

[16]

Treasury's referral to Newton, dated 12 August 1697.

[17]

(a) (Mint 19/1/497r) [Late 1697.] Holograph copy: 'To the Honble the Knights Citizens & Burgesses in Parliam. assembled the humble Petition of William Chaloner Gent.' Petition against his imprisonment by the Mint officers, which he claims was to prevent him writing a book exposing the corruption of the Mint.

Printed in NC, 4, 259-60.

(b) (Mint 19/1/497v-498) [Early 1698.] Holograph draft: 'An Answer to Mr. Chaloner's Petition'. Chaloner's accusations against the Mint were made as part of a conspiracy to get control of the Mint itself and use its equipment for false coining. Newton had never heard of his projected book against the Mint until he read the petition. Chaloner was arrested for counterfeiting and forgery.

Printed in NC, 4: 261-3.

[18]

[Note on dating: Chaloner was executed on 22 March 1699: see Westfall, 575.]

[19]

Having turned from japanning to false coining, Chaloner became very expert in his new trade; after being detected, he escaped execution by betraying an accomplice and returned to his old ways.

[20]

On reverse of Mint 19/2/265: similar list of amendments to an [unidentified] work evidently concerning trade and coinage.

[21] Treasury

[22]

[See also T. 1/60.35a, MINT00931, printed in NC, 4: 306-7 (early 1699, Mint Board to Treasury, in response to a different complaint about their handling of Bovey).]

[23]

On reverse, in a different hand: Treasury's referral of the petition to the Mint, dated 4 April 1699.

[24] Treasury

[25]

On reverse, in a different hand: Treasury's referral of the petition to the Mint, dated 4 April 1699.

[26] Treasury

[27]

Signed by the Mint Board.

[28]

Printed in NC, 7: 409 (no. X.610.1).

[29]

Such machines could be used for counterfeiting coin, and therefore ought not to be licensed: permitting exceptions to this principle will set a dangerous precedent.

[30]

Printed as a footnote in NC, 7: 118-19, n. 2.

[31]

Is trade use a defence? May they be demolished even if no prosecution is secured? Can bona fide trade presses be licensed without 'leaving every man at liberty to have coining Presses who can pretend that he uses them in his Trade'?

[32]

Concludes the Treasury owes him £56.5s.8¾d.

© 2020 The Newton Project

Professor Rob Iliffe
Director, AHRC Newton Papers Project

Scott Mandelbrote,
Fellow & Perne librarian, Peterhouse, Cambridge

Faculty of History, George Street, Oxford, OX1 2RL - newtonproject@history.ox.ac.uk

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